WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological weapons convention

  1. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abdul Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  2. Bugs and gas: Agreements banning chemical and biological weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulak, Robert P.

    2017-11-01

    The use of chemical or biological weapons, whether by a State or terrorists, continues to be a serious security concern. Both types of weapons are prohibited by multilateral treaties that have very broad membership, but both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention are facing major challenges. In particular, the continued use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war by government forces risks eroding the norm against the use of such weapons. This paper briefly explore the recent history of efforts to constrain chemical and biological weapons and outlines challenges for the future.

  3. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  4. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  5. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  6. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  7. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-01-01

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  8. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  9. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  10. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  11. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC). Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting t...

  12. Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

  13. War and Medicine in a Culture of Peace. 2. Synopsis of Biological Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Pierard, Gérald

    2001-01-01

    Biological warfare has a long history. Despite the 1972 international convention and several attempts at biological weapon eradication, some countries and non governmental groups still retain some of these agents. According to their potential use, they belong to bioterrorism or to massive destruction weapons. Any biological warfare put the civilian medical and paramedical assets at the frontline and at high risk for being rapidly contaminated. The prompt recognition of a bioterrorist attack a...

  14. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). 742.18 Section 742.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION...

  15. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  16. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  17. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  18. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E

    1999-12-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.

  19. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  20. Indonesian perceptions on the implementation of the chemical weapons convention in relation with biosecurity and biosafety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isroil, S.

    2009-01-01

    April 29, 2007 was marked the 10 year anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entry into force and the creation of the OPCW. Many nations throughout the last year were celebrated its commemoration. Compared to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) which is now entering the 33rd year of its entry into force, the progress of CWC is running far beyond that convention because CWC is considered the most complete convention which is equipped with a comprehensive verification system. In contrast, up till now there is no formal verification regime to monitor compliance of the BWC. So the national legislation as well as biosafety and biosecurity procedures will be the best regime to prohibit the misuse of biological agents. To some extent, the strategy and method on implementing the provision of CWC are coincident with biosecurity and biosafety procedure due to their dual use characteristics. Concerning CWC, Indonesia which was ratified it in 30 September 1998 has always active in any multilateral meeting and as well as national activities on prohibiting the misuse of chemical weapons. Several courses have also been done in cooperation with OPCW such as Development of Response System Against Chemical Weapons, Basic Training Course for Response Team, National Industry Awareness Workshop, Advance Training for Response Team, National Emergency Response Workshop, as well as setting up 20 sets of individual protective equipment. There have already 7 inspections done by OPCW in Indonesia during 2004-2007 which proved that there were no indications of misuse of chemical processes and its facilities for hostile purposes. However, it does not mean that there is no threat from the possible misuse of chemical and biological agents due to its dual use characteristics. Learnt from Indonesian experiences, there are several constraints on implementing the CWC as well as biosafety and biosecurity. First is the different perception on the biological and chemical threats. For

  1. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Texas National Guard Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterner, Jeanette

    2000-01-01

    .... The era of conventional weapons and conventional tactics is over. The arsenal of the world is now comprised of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons collectively known as weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  2. The Chemical Weapons Convention and the Role of Engineers and Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical weapons, like all military technology, are associated with activities of scientists and engineers. However, chemical weapons differ from any other military technology because they were invented, and their first mass use directly developed by famous chemists. The active contribution of engineers and scientists and their organisations in the negotiations on chemical disarmament, including drafting the Chemical Weapons Convention, is described. Their present and future role in implementing the Convention is analysed, taking into consideration the threats and benefits of advances in science and technology, and stressing the independent expertise of the OPCW Scientific Advisory Board.

  3. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  4. The Illogic of the Biological Weapons Taboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of biological pathogens—bacteria, viruses, fungi and toxins—to kill or incapacitate one’s enemies has a long pedigree that includes not only Scythian...state sponsors.”98 The United Kingdom , Italy, and Australia willingly joined Washington in its attack on Iraq and used much the same rationale for

  5. The Chemical Weapons Convention: Strategic Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogel, Frederick

    1997-01-01

    ... the U.S. national security interest. The author explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the convention, including operational, policy, Constitutional, and industry impact...

  6. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Mark; Martin, Greg

    2009-02-16

    In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  7. Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention transfer provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention's (CWC's) export and import provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. As a result, the author and his colleagues prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Here the author discusses progress among several States in actually developing implementing measures for the Convention's transfer requirements. CWC legislation from australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available at this writing in English through the Provisional Technical Secretariat. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing background of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation

  8. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  9. The chemical and biological weapon terrorism by the Aum Shnirikyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Aum Shinrikyo, an obscure cult religious group, attacked the Tokyo subways employing sarin gas in March 1995, which was viewed as a mark of a new era in terrorism. The Aum Shinrikyo remains the one empirical example of a religiously motivated cult with an affluent amount of financial and human resources and motivations to use unconventional weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo's leaders included the scientific elite of a young generation as well as former Yakuza members who had close ties with organized crime networks. Aum succeeded in establishing an extensive network to procure weapons, material, and drug, primarily in Russia but also other countries including the United States and even North Korea. Despite the fact that the law enforcement authority had already obtained various pieces of information that reasonably indicated that Aum was producing sarin by late 1994, the law enforcement authority became too cautious to advance its investigation to arrest Aum members until it was too late. Japan's experience with the Aum Shinrikyo's threats provides valuable insights for democratic governments seeking to thwart the deadly plans of religiously motivated non-state actors. It reveals the tremendous difficulties for a democratic society to confront the terrorists who were willing to pursue their deadly 'divine' objectives, especially when the society had no experience to encounter such a threat. This presentation will explain the chemical and biological weapon programs of the Aum Shinrikyo, especially focusing on the following elements: Intention and capability of the Aum Shinrikyo; Weapon systems and mode of attacks, including their target selections; The lessons learned from this case for the prevention and crisis/consequence management n the event of CBW terrorism. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent those of the Research Institute for Science and Technology for Society or its research sponsors.(author)

  10. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  11. Synthesis of reference compounds related to Chemical Weapons Convention for verification and drug development purposes – a Brazilian endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, S. F. A.; de Paula, R. L.; Kitagawa, D. A. S.; Barcellos, M. C.; Simas, A. B. C.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with challenges that Brazilian Army Organic Synthesis Laboratory has been going through to access reference compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention in order to support verification analysis and for research of novel antidotes. Some synthetic procedures to produce the chemicals, as well as Quality Assurance issues and a brief introduction of international agreements banning chemical weapons are also presented.

  12. Prevention and Treatment Approaches to Deal with Plague as a Biological Weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shiravand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological attacks are a phenomenon that started on a serious note in the twentieth century and such weapons are being developed every day.The agent of plague is one of those listed as biological weapons by the Weapons Convention. So, the danger of its biological or bioterrorist applications by the enemy is possible and poses a serious threat. The purpose of compiling this article is to update information of health personnel about plague and the bioterrorist aspect of this disease. Methods: This article is a review study which had been undertaken based on articles searched from the library and the internet (1990–2016. Results: More than 2000 species of bacteria have been identified in three main groups of bacillus (rod-shaped, cocci (round and oval and spiral (helical but only approximately 100 species have been identified as pathogenic and less than 10 species are used as suitable biological agents for military application and the plague agent is one of them. Yersinia pestis is a type of gram-negative anaerobic coccobacillus from the Enterobacteriaceae family and if it is stained with Wright, Giemsa or Wayson it can be seen as bipolar under a microscope. Conclusion: Nowadays, despite development of science and technology, humans are not able to predict time and location of this type of attack. So, we should be prepared for this unavoidable eventuality. Considering the importance and necessity of preparing to deal with attacks, authors of such studies and professionals should consciously plan and try to prepare against these dangers.

  13. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  14. Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.

    1999-01-01

    Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution

  15. Good Bugs, Bad Bugs: A Modern Approach for Detecting Offensive Biological Weapons Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moodie, Michael; Loeb, Cheryl; Armstrong, Robert; Purkitt, Helen

    2008-01-01

    ... crude and sophisticated biological weapons around the world. Unlike nuclear programs, a well-defined and limited set of equipment and material that can be controlled through various import/export controls does not exist...

  16. A Look into Anthrax as a Biological Weapon, from the Past to Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shiravand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological attack a phenomenon which has seriously started in the 20th- century and is expanding every day. Plague agent is one of factors listed as a biological weapon by the disarmament convention. Therefore, the risk of biological or bioterrorism applications is probable and serious. The purpose of this study was to update health professionals' information on plague and bioterrorism aspect of this disease. Methods: This article is a literature review written based on search on articles from library and internet resources (1990- 2016. Results: More than 2,000 species of bacteria have been identified in three main groups of bacillus (rod-shaped, cocci (round and oval, and spiral. But only about 100 of them are known as pathogens and Less than 10 species are used as biological agents for military application and one of them is plague agent. Yersinia pestis is a Gram negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, member of the enterobacteriaceae family, and if be painted by Colors Wright, Giemsa or Leeson will be seen bipolar under a microscope. Conclusion: Nowadays, in spite of the progresses made in science and technology, human knowledge is relatively incapable to anticipate the time and place of biological attacks. Therefore, being prepared and ready for its unavoidable occurrence is necessary. So, regarding the importance and necessity of readiness, officials and experts have to make an effort and plan against these hazards.

  17. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  18. Effect of type and transfer of conventional weapons on civilian injuries: retrospective analysis of prospective data from Red Cross hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Robin M; Samnegaard, Hans O

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the link between different weapons used in modern wars and their potential to injury civilians. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data about hospital admissions. Setting Hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Subjects 18 877 people wounded by bullets, fragmentation munitions, or mines. Of these, 2012 had been admitted to the hospital in Kabul within six hours of injury. Main outcome measures Age and sex of wounded people according to cause of injury and whether they were civilians (women and girls, boys under 16 years old, or men of 50 or more). Results 18.7% of those injured by bullets, 34.1% of those injured by fragments, and 30.8% of those injured by mines were civilians. Of those admitted to the Red Cross hospital in Kabul within six hours of injury, 39.1% of those injured by bullets, 60.6% of those injured by fragments, and 55.0% of those injured by mines were civilians. Conclusions The proportion of civilians injured differs between weapon systems. The higher proportion injured by fragments and mines is explicable in terms of the military efficiency of weapons, the distance between user and victim, and the effect that the kind of weapon has on the psychology of the user. Key messagesDuring war, mines and fragmenting munitions (mortars, bombs, and shells) are more likely than bullets to injure civiliansCivilians in a city under siege are particularly at risk of being injured by weapons whose users are not able to see the victimThe inherent nature of weapons may be a factor in determining whether civilians are killed or injuredThere is a need for greater respect for the Fourth Geneva Convention and for greater controls on weapons being transferred to untrained and undisciplined forces PMID:10445921

  19. Synergies across verification regimes: Nuclear safeguards and chemical weapons convention compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadner, Steven P.; Turpen, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    In the implementation of all arms control agreements, accurate verification is essential. In setting a course for verifying compliance with a given treaty - whether the NPT or the CWC, one must make a technical comparison of existing information-gathering capabilities against the constraints in an agreement. Then it must be decided whether this level of verifiability is good enough. Generally, the policy standard of 'effective verification' includes the ability to detect significant violations, with high confidence, in sufficient time to respond effectively with policy adjustments or other responses, as needed. It is at this juncture where verification approaches have traditionally diverged. Nuclear safeguards requirements have taken one path while chemical verification methods have pursued another. However, recent technological advances have brought a number of changes affecting verification, and lately their pace has been accelerating. First, all verification regimes have more and better information as a result of new kinds of sensors, imagery, and other technologies. Second, the verification provisions in agreements have also advanced, to include on-site inspections, portal monitoring, data exchanges, and a variety of transparency, confidence-building, and other cooperative measures, Together these developments translate into a technological overlap of certain institutional verification measures such as the NPT's safeguards requirements and the IAEA and the CWC's verification visions and the OPCW. Hence, a priority of international treaty-implementing organizations is exploring the development of a synergistic and coordinated approach to WMD policy making that takes into account existing inter-linkages between nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons issues. Specific areas of coordination include harmonizing information systems and information exchanges and the shared application of scientific mechanisms, as well as collaboration on technological developments

  20. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  1. Good Bugs, Bad Bugs: A Modern Approach for Detecting Offensive Biological Weapons Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    table 2).32 BSL 4 labs, the highest classification in regard to risk, contain pathogens such as hemorrhagic fever viruses Ebola and Marburg, lassa...establishment and the number of positions available/required for a defensive only program is the Soviet biological weapons program. From 1972 to 1992

  2. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT...

  3. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8545] Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the... determination was made that the Government of Syria used chemical weapons in violation of international law or... sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

  4. Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-05-01

    The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

  5. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; Gregg, H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of

  6. Assessing the impact of Melendez-Diaz on the investigation and prosecution of biological weapons incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Elizabeth L; Katz, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    In June 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court asserted in Melendez-Diaz v Massachusetts that the admission of a laboratory analyst's certificate to validate forensic evidence against a defendant violated the defendant's Sixth Amendment Confrontation Clause rights. The Court stated that if a prosecution wished to use forensic science evidence against a defendant, the plaintiff must ensure that an actual lab analyst could testify live before the court as to the nature of the laboratory certificate being presented against the defendant, in order to uphold a defendant's constitutional right to confront the adverse witnesses against him or her. The opinion itself, as well as dicta in both the majority and the dissenting opinions, has potential implications for the success of any future prosecutions of alleged biological weapons use involving microbial forensics. Not only does the Melendez-Diaz opinion create an added burden on laboratory investigators, but the case called into question the reliability of the use of forensic science in the courtroom. Analysts and policymakers should be aware of this ruling and any potential impact the Court may have on the ability to successfully prosecute a biological weapons use event.

  7. 76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... production of a ``Schedule 1'' chemical as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals. In this...., nitrogen mustards) are produced as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. DATES: Comments must... pharmaceutical firms in the United States are not being significantly harmed by the limitations of the Convention...

  8. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administers the CWC. Person. Means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate... formation of a chemical through chemical reaction, including biochemical or biologically mediated reaction (see Supplement No. 2 to this part). (1) Production of Schedule 1 chemicals means formation through...

  9. Managing proliferation risks from civilian and weapon-grade plutonium and enriched uranium: A comprehensive cut-off convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of weapon-grade fissile materials is closely related to the aim of achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world. Huge amounts of highly enriched uranium have been produced for nuclear weapons. More than 1000 tonnes of plutonium emerged as a by-product of civilian nuclear industry. Separated from spent fuel it is readily usable for nuclear weapons. The worldwide civilian tritium inventory may reach the same size as military stocks about the year 2010. This poses an increasing danger of horizontal nuclear proliferation. Production, stockpiling, trade, processing and uses of weapon-grade materials like Highly enriched uranium, plutonium and tritium promote its geographical spread, enlarge the group of people with the relate know-how and create the danger of diversion of material and the proliferation of knowledge for the purpose of weapons production. Therefore, a fundamental turn away from using weapon-grade materials in scientific and economic applications of nuclear energy is desirable in all countries. Priority should be given to using nuclear fuel cycles which are as proliferation resistant as possible. Without this, the continuation of civil nuclear programs seems to be irresponsible and unjustifiable. The role of the IAEA in export control safeguards related to the above problems is indispensable

  10. Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop C. van Lenteren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the "Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing". This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article, we summarize our concern about the effects of access and benefit sharing systems on the future of biological control.

  11. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria... Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used...: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of international...

  12. Seascape with monkeys and guinea-pigs: Britain's biological weapons research programme, 1948-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth A

    2003-01-01

    The British biological weapons (BW) research programme based at Porton Down continued after the Second World War. Five series of BW experiments with animals at sea were undertaken to supplement laboratory work. The causative organisms for plague, brucellosis, tularemia and later Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and Vaccinia viruses were tested in the Caribbean near Antigua in the late 1940s, in Hebridean waters (north-west Scotland) in the early 1950s and off Nassau in the Bahamas in 1953-54. In September 1952, at the end of Operation 'Cauldron' off the Isle of Lewis, a trawler, the Carella, passed through the danger area when a toxic cloud had been released and was covertly watched until the incubation period had passed in case those on board had come into contact with the plague bacillus. Publicity about the trials was avoided, but a press statement was issued in March 1954. The last series provoked sustained agitation in Cuba. More recently an outline of the sequence has emerged in the UK parliamentary record and in Porton's official history, and a fuller account of the Scottish trials has awakened some interest locally.

  13. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  14. Preparing for and implementing the UN secretary-general's mechanism on alleged use investigation for biological weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraatz-Wadsack, G.

    2009-01-01

    The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy was adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2006. Preventing and responding to attacks using WMD were identified amongst the key areas of activities covered by the strategy. The Secretary-General's mechanism to carry out prompt investigations in response to allegations brought to his attention concerning the possible use of chemical and bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons was developed in the late 1980s. Triggered by a request from any member State, the Secretary-General is authorized to launch an investigation including dispatching a fact-finding team to the site of the alleged incident(s) and to report to all UN Member States. This is to ascertain in an objective and scientific manner facts of alleged violations of the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which bans the use of chemical and biological weapons. Member States encouraged the Secretary-General in September 2006 to update the roster of experts and laboratories, as well as the technical guidelines and procedures, available to him for the timely and efficient investigation of alleged use. The roster of experts and laboratories and the guidelines and procedures constitute the key elements of the special mechanism available to the Secretary-General for investigation of reports by Member States of alleged use of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. The Office for Disarmament Affairs has been working with Member States since March 2007 to update the roster of experts and laboratories and the technical appendices of the guidelines and procedures so that they fully correspond with the rapid and substantial developments that have occurred in the biological area since the 1980s and also to take into account the fact that an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has since been established. Currently, the roster of experts and laboratories has been updated and includes experts from more than 50 countries. The information available in

  15. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata H. Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  16. Operationalising UN security council resolution 1540: an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The UN member states are continuing to take measures to inter alia establish and effectively implement controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). The resolution also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts, including by working through the 1540 Committee. Most analyses on the implementation of the resolution have focused on nuclear issues. This presentation provides an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas, including chemical product classification and identification, biosafety and biosecurity practices and criminal prosecutions for unauthorised chemical transfers.(author)

  17. Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Principle of Unnecessary Suffering : The Use of Nuclear Weapons in an Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Krasny, Jaroslav; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research is concerned with the use of nuclear weapons against combatants in an armed conflict and whether such a use violates or would violate the principle of unnecessary suffering as codified in St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and the Hague Conventions. In order to analyze what constitutes unnecessary suffering the method chosen for this research is comparison of the effects of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons on the human body. The reason for choosing this method is the abh...

  18. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  19. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  20. Reframing the debate against nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, Rhianna

    2005-01-01

    'Some 35,000 nuclear weapons remain in the arsenals of the nuclear powers, with thousands still deployed on hair-trigger alert. Whatever rationale these weapons may once have had has long since dwindled. Political, moral, and legal constraints on actually using them further undermine their strategic utility without, however, reducing the risks of inadvertent war or proliferation. The objective of nuclear non-proliferation is not helped by the fact that the nuclear weapon States continue to insist that those weapons in their hands enhance security, while in the hands of others they are a threat to world peace. If we were making steady progress towards disarmament, this situation would be less alarming. Unfortunately, the reverse is true.' - United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan. 'Something is wrong with the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. Although seemingly well-equipped with an arsenal of legal and political mechanisms, such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), decades' worth of General Assembly (GA) resolutions and even a recent slew of ad-hoc, plurilateral initiatives such as the Proliferation Security Initiative, the regime created to prevent the catastrophe of nuclear war remains inadequate. This insufficiency is even starker when viewed in relation to the regimes controlling other weapons of mass destruction. Despite its own challenges, the Organization for the Prohibition on Chemical Weapons remains relatively well-funded and well-situated to facilitate the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Even the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), while still lacking the necessary verification mechanisms, has managed to effectively criminalize not just the use and threat of use of biological weapons, but also their production, development and stockpiling. Meanwhile, the anti-nuclear regime seems to be faltering. Progress made in

  1. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  2. Neglect of genetic diversity in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Laikre; Fred W. Allendorf; Laurel C. Aroner; C. Scott Baker; David P. Gregovich; Michael M. Hansen; Jennifer A. Jackson; Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin Mckelvey; Maile C. Neel; Isabelle Olivieri; Nils Ryman; Michael K. Schwartz; Ruth Short Bull; Jeffrey B. Stetz; David A. Tallmon; Barbara L. Taylor; Christina D. Vojta; Donald M. Waller; Robin S. Waples

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the foundation for all biological diversity; the persistence and evolutionary potential of species depend on it. World leaders have agreed on the conservation of genetic diversity as an explicit goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Nevertheless, actions to protect genetic diversity are largely lacking. With only months left to the...

  3. Application of integrative genomics and systems biology to conventional and in vitro reproductive traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne S.; de Oliveira Junior, Gerson A.

    2017-01-01

    by both conventional and ARTs such as OPU-IVP. The integration of systems biology information across different biological layers generates a complete view of the different molecular networks that control complex traits and can provide a strong contribution to the understanding of traits related to ARTs....

  4. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  5. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

    2009-07-03

    This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient.

  6. Biological Treatments: New Weapons in the Management of Monogenic Autoinflammatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vitale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, an expanding group of hereditary diseases characterized by apparently unprovoked recurrent episodes of inflammation, without high-titre autoantibodies or antigen-specific T cells, has been revolutionized by the discovery that several of these conditions are caused by mutations in proteins involved in the mechanisms of innate immune response, including components of the inflammasome, cytokine receptors, receptor antagonists, and oversecretion of a network of proinflammatory molecules. Aim of this review is to synthesize the current experience and the most recent evidences about the therapeutic approach with biologic drugs in pediatric and adult patients with monogenic autoinflammatory disorders.

  7. NMR-based metabolomics of water-buffalo milk after conventional or biological feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Mazzei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological farming in dairy production is often advocated as one of the most virtuous solutions to the environmental problems of conventional farming while improving the sustainability of production and cattle welfare. However, it is still under debate whether the conversion from conventional to biological farming has an influence on milk composition. In addition, the possible frauds related to biological dairy products call for analytical tools enabling the authentication of products quality and consumers protection. The aim of this work was to determine the composition of milk produced by water-buffaloes and to identify the specific metabolic profiles discriminating a biological from a conventional feeding diet. Methods Liquid-state 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies were used to study milk samples which were supplied during a 2-year-long experimentation by a single dairy farm and sampled from conventionally and biologically fed buffaloes (CFM and BFM, respectively. For each milk sample, we obtained NMR spectra of both raw milk and milk cream fractions comprising neutral lipids and phospholipids. Results The elaboration of multinuclear spectroscopic NMR results by the principal component analysis (PCA enabled the identification of diagnostic differences in the milk composition between CFM and BFM samples. In particular, BFM were characterized by larger content of unsaturated lipids and phosphatidylcholine. Our findings confirmed that the conversion from a conventional to biological feeding regime influenced the buffalo milk composition, with possible implications for sensorial and nutritional properties of dairy products. Finally, the analytical methodology of NMR spectroscopy shown here may be considered as a useful tool to assess the quality and the authenticity of biological milk.

  8. Pakistan's national legislation entitled: 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, dated 4 November 2004, concerning Pakistan's national legislation entitled 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, the letter and the Export Control Act of 2004, are reproduced herein for the information of the Member States

  9. Preventing biological weapon development through the governance of life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Gerald L

    2012-03-01

    The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed.

  10. Audio-Tutorial Versus Conventional Lecture-Laboratory Instruction in a University Animal Biology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsey, Robert E.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze two methods of instruction used in an animal biology course. One group of students, the experimental group, was taught using an audio-tutorial program, and another group, the control group, was taught using the conventional lecture-laboratory method. Pretest and posttest data were collected from achievement…

  11. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  12. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  13. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  14. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  15. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  16. [The experiments conducted by Japanese on human guinea pigs, and the use of biological weapons during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, and during the first four decades of the past century, Japan showed considerable military expansion, on the back of a pan-Asiatic and imperialistic ideology, comparable only to those expressed by Wilhelmian and Nazi Germany. This growth led to Japan playing an extremely important role in the Asia-Pacific continent, which unavoidably brought the country onto a collision course with the British Empire and the United States of America. The Japanese general Shiro Ishii, who had undoubted organisational abilities but also a propensity for crimes against mankind, starting from the end of the 1920s and during the subsequent decade, under the suggestion of a military physician, developed a research programme to obtain biological weapons, since he was aware of the lack of raw materials, technology and scientific background in nuclear weapons. This project was taken forward despite Japan's ratification of the Geneva protocol, undersigned by 70 nations, which posed strict limits to the use of both biological and chemical weapons. In actual fact, the protocol allowed these weapons for defensive purposes, and permitted their experimental development. The research programme, developed with the support of the high command of the Japanese army and certainly known by the Emperor (Tenno) Hirohito, had its operative basis from the year 1932 in the satellite state of Manchukuo, but later and paralleling the increased, aggressive behaviour towards China and the English and American colonies during World War II, spread towards other Asian provinces occupied by the Japanese armies, with other operative units. In these dedicated bases, which were true concentration camps, numerous experiments were carried out on human guinea pigs, frequently concluding with vivisection. Among others, experiments of freezing, thirst, hunger, loss of blood, wounding with firearms, and bone fractures, were performed, as well as the inoculation of

  17. Direct-energy weapons : invisible and invincible?

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, Bayram Mert

    2007-01-01

    A military weapon is any tool used to increase the reach or power of a nation. Simply, it can be said that each era witnesses the deployment of new and powerful mass destruction weaponry. What will this century's most powerful weapon be? Directed-energy weapons, which offer advantages over conventional weapons by providing attack at the speed of light, precise targeting, rapid engagement of multiple targets, adjustable damage capacity, low operational cost, reduced logistic support, a nea...

  18. A comparison of student reactions to biology instruction by interactive videodisc or conventional laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.

    This study was designed to learn if students perceived an interactive computer/videodisc learning system to represent a viable alternative to (or extension of) the conventional laboratory for learning biology skills and concepts normally taught under classroom laboratory conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire for introductory biology classes at a large midwestern university where students were randomly assigned to two interactive videodisc/computer lessons titled Respiration and Climate and Life or traditional laboratory investigation with the same titles and concepts. The interactive videodisc system consisted of a TRS-80 Model III microcomputer interfaced to a Pioneer laser-disc player and a color TV monitor. Students indicated an overall level satisfaction with this strategy very similar to that of conventional laboratory instruction. Students frequently remarked that videodisc instruction gave them more experimental and procedural options and more efficient use of instructional time than did the conventional laboratory mode. These two results are consistent with past CAI research. Students also had a strong perception that the images on the videodisc were not real and this factor was perceived as having both advantages and disadvantages. Students found the two approaches to be equivalent to conventional laboratory instruction in the areas of general interest, understanding of basic principles, help on examinations, and attitude toward science. The student-opinion data in this study do not suggest that interactive videodisc technology serve as a substitute to the wet laboratory experience, but that this medium may enrich the spectrum of educational experiences usually not possible in typical classroom settings.

  19. Nuclear weapons in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this introduction to ''Nuclear Weapons in Europe'', the author summarized the views of two Americans and two Europeans, whose articles make up the volume. The introduction explains the different assumptions of the four authors before discussing their views on the military and political rationales for a nuclear force in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the debate over battlefield nuclear weapons, conventional defense, and arms control proposals and talks. The four contributors whose views are analyzed are William G. Hyland, Lawrence D. Freeman, Paul C. Warnke, and Karstan D. Voight. The introduction notes that the agreements and differences do not fall strictly on American versus European dividing lines

  20. The Impact of Conventional and Biological Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Bone Biology. Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Sofia Carvalho; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-08-01

    The bone and the immune system have a very tight interaction. Systemic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), induce bone loss, leading to a twofold increase in osteoporosis and an increase of fragility fracture risk of 1.35-2.13 times. This review focuses on the effects of conventional and biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on bone biology, in the context of systemic inflammation, with a focus on RA. Published evidence supports a decrease in osteoclastic activity induced by DMARDs, which leads to positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown if this effect could be translated into fracture risk reduction. The combination with antiosteoclastic drugs can have an additional benefit.

  1. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  2. Wounds and weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Dootz, B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports

  3. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  4. Students Mental Representation of Biology Diagrams/Pictures Conventions Based on Formation of Causal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampurno, A. W.; Rahmat, A.; Diana, S.

    2017-09-01

    Diagrams/pictures conventions is one form of visual media that often used to assist students in understanding the biological concepts. The effectiveness of use diagrams/pictures in biology learning at school level has also been mostly reported. This study examines the ability of high school students in reading diagrams/pictures biological convention which is described by Mental Representation based on formation of causal networks. The study involved 30 students 11th grade MIA senior high school Banten Indonesia who are studying the excretory system. MR data obtained by Instrument worksheet, developed based on CNET-protocol, in which there are diagrams/drawings of nephron structure and urinary mechanism. Three patterns formed MR, namely Markov chain, feedback control with a single measurement, and repeated feedback control with multiple measurement. The third pattern is the most dominating pattern, differences in the pattern of MR reveal the difference in how and from which point the students begin to uncover important information contained in the diagram to establish a causal networks. Further analysis shows that a difference in the pattern of MR relate to how complex the students process the information contained in the diagrams/pictures.

  5. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.

    1998-01-01

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  7. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  8. Medical and biological progress and the European Convention on Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1992-01-01

    The advances made in life sciences are one of the most significant features of the 20th century scientific revolution and human rights obviously enjoy prominence among the legal issues affected by the development of medicine. The case law of the organs of the European Convention on Human Rights arising from developments in the biomedical sciences is reviewed. The approach of especially the European Commission on Human Rights to the consequences of advances in the life sciences on the protection of the individual's physical integrity and the protection of freedom of thought and private and family life is analysed. 'Contrary to what we are led to believe, it is not from the starting-point of biology that a particular idea of man can be formed; on the contrary, it is from the starting-point of a particular idea of man that biology can be used to serve him': F Gros, F Jacob & P Royer Life Sciences and Society (1979) 288.

  9. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Teaching Style and Mental Representation of Teachers in Biology Learning Using Convention Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ramadhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of teacher’s working memory in representing a picture are important in the teaching and learning process. This study aimed to reveal the tendency of teacher’s mental representation and teacher’s teaching styles in biology class using convention pictures. This research used descriptive method. The research was conducted by involving four high school biology volunteer teachers of grade XI from four schools in Lebak, Banten, Indonesia. Teacher’s teaching styles were measured by questionnaires and rubrics adapted from Grasha and teacher’s mental representations were measured using worksheets and rubrics developed based on the Causal Network Elicitation Technique (CNET model. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed two dominant teacher teaching styles; there were expert style and facilitator style. The mental representation of teachers when reading convention picture was in the category of good (2 teachers, adequate (1 teacher and inadequate (1 teacher. A teacher with expert teaching style tends to have a good mental representation compared to a teacher with facilitator teaching style.

  11. Issues of weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is devoted to issues of weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation in Tajikistan. Over a period of 20 century, starting from First World War, the weapons of mass destruction arouse serious concern of world community. Geneva protocol of 1925 prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons. Once nuclear weapon was created, the weapons of mass destruction distributions become the subject of high concern. Besides, during the end of 'cold war', regional conflicts, collapse of Soviet Union, as well as access to sensitive technologies considerably increase the danger of weapons of mass destruction distribution. More than 10 countries have active programs, relating to weapons of mass destruction and, possibly, more than ten countries have potential to start implementing such kinds of programs. Nowadays, trans national organized criminal groups and international terrorist networks are appeared in the world scene, which show interest in obtaining an access to sensitive materials, technologies, weapons and their distribution. After 11 September events, the risk of such weapons of mass destruction components use by such forces for Governments blackmail become real scene, which, despite of low possibility of this threat implementation, could have very serious and disastrous consequences. International community responded to these problems and challenges, basically through the following actions, which is detailed regime development of multilateral international treaties, directed to weapons of mass destruction distribution prevention. Non-proliferation treaty of nuclear weapons, Convention on prohibition of chemical weapons and Convention on prohibition of biological and toxin weapons are some of them. As it is known, Tajikistan signed all these treaties. For different reasons these treaties were subject of serious tests. Nuclear weapons tests in India and Pakistan in 1998 year, actual Israel status as state having nuclear weapon and North Korean

  12. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  13. An assessment of the Canadian Forces' capability to manage the consequences of the domestic use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    In view of the threat to Canadian domestic targets presented by the asymmetric use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) weapons of mass destruction (WMD), this thesis examines whether the Canadian Forces (CF) has capability deficiencies in managing the consequences of such an attack. Research included an examination of the post Cold War strategic environment, the state of the art in CBRN technology, current concepts and experience in managing the consequences of major disasters and responsibilities at the municipal, provincial and federal levels of government. The methodology used included scenario based planning to develop circumstances where WMD might be used domestically, and decomposition to break down the scenarios into events and potential CF roles and tasks. The current CF structure was used to determine the probable CF response, which included the ability of CF units to perform the required tasks, the CF response time and the ability of the CF to sustain the operation. (author)

  14. Biologics combined with conventional systemic agents or phototherapy for the treatment of psoriasis: real-life data from PSONET registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busard, C. I.; Cohen, A. D.; Wolf, P.; Gkalpakiotis, S.; Cazzaniga, S.; Stern, R. S.; Hutten, B. A.; Feldhamer, I.; Quehenberger, F.; Lichem, R.; Kojanova, M.; Adenubiova, E.; Addis, A.; Naldi, L.; Spuls, P. I.

    2018-01-01

    Biologics have greatly improved psoriasis management. However, primary and secondary non-response to treatment requires innovative strategies to optimize outcomes. To describe the use of combined treatment of biologics with conventional systemic agents or phototherapy in daily clinical practice. We

  15. Spinal cordd biological safety comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xilinbaoleri; Xu Wanlong; Chen Gang; Liu Hao; Wang Ruozheng; Bai Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the spine intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the conventional radiation therapy on the beagle spinal cord neurons, in order to prove the biological safety of IMRT of the spinal cord. Methods: Twelve selected purebred beagles were randomly divided into 2 groups. A beagle clinical model of tumor was mimiced in the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebrae. Then the beagles were irradiated by 2 different models of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy, with the total irradiation doses of 50 and 70 Gy. The samples of spinal cord were taken out from the same position of the nine and tenth thoracic vertebrae at the third month after radiation.All the samples were observed by the electron microscope, and the Fas and HSP70 expression in spinal cord neurons were evaluated by immunohistochemistry method. Terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique was used to examine the apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. Results: The neurons in the spinal cord of IMRT group were mainly reversible injury, and those in the conventional radiation therapy were mainly apoptosis. Compared with the conventional radiation therapy group [50 Gy group, (7.3 ± 1.1)%; 70 Gy group, (11.3 ± 1.4)%], the apoptosis rate of the spinal cord neurons of the intensity modulated radiotherapy group [50 Gy group, (1.2 ± 0.7)%; 70 Gy group (2.5 ± 0.8)%] was much lower[(50 Gy group, t=0.022, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.017, P<0.05)]. The expression levels of Fas in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 4.6 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.4 ± 1.1) were also much lowerthan those in the other group (50 Gy group, 15.1 ± 6.4; 70 Gy group, 19.3 ± 7.6. 50 Gy group, t=0.231, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.457, P<0.05), while the expression levels of HSP70 in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 9.1 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.3 ± 1.4)were much higher than those in the conventional radiation therapy group (50 Gy group, 2.1 ± 0.9; 70 Gy group, 1.7 ± 0

  16. A comparison of aerobic granular sludge with conventional and compact biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Simon; de Blois, Mark; Wilén, Britt-Marie; Gustavsson, David

    2018-03-20

    The aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology is growing towards becoming a mature option for new municipal wastewater treatment plants and capacity extensions. A process based on AGS was compared to conventional activated sludge processes (with and without enhanced biological phosphorus removal), an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) by estimating the land area demand (footprint), electricity demand and chemicals' consumption. The process alternatives compared included pre-settling, sludge digestion and necessary post-treatment to achieve effluent concentrations of 8 mg/L nitrogen and 0.2 mg/L phosphorus at 7°C. The alternative based on AGS was estimated to have a 40-50% smaller footprint and 23% less electricity requirement than conventional activated sludge. In relation to the other compact treatment options IFAS and MBR, the AGS process had an estimated electricity usage that was 35-70% lower. This suggests a favourable potential for processes based on AGS although more available experience of AGS operation and performance at full scale is desired.

  17. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavan, Aravind [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum (India); Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran, E-mail: sindhurgcb@gmail.com; Sukumaran, Rajeev K. [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Center for Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab (India); Castro, Galliano Eulogio [Dpt. Ingeniería Química, Ambiental y de los Materiales Edificio, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén (Spain)

    2017-04-25

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  18. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Sindhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  19. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Aravind; Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Galliano Eulogio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  20. Verification of Chemical Weapons Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  1. MRT letter: Human bloodstains on antique aboriginal weapons: a guiding low-vacuum SEM study of erythrocytes in experimental samples on ethnographically documented biological raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortolà, Policarp

    2012-08-01

    The aboriginal use of reed and bone as raw materials for knives and daggers, respectively, has been well-documented ethnographically in some geographical areas of Melanesia. Because of the significant role that these weapons played in inter- and intra-ethnic aggression, they can potentially have retained smears from the contact with human blood. To carry out a guiding low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of specific interest to ethnography, the outsides of a fragment of stalk of giant cane (Arundo donax) and tibial diaphysis of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) were smeared with peripheral human blood. No biological specimen preparation was applied to the samples. After just over 1 month, bloodstain boundaries and their neighboring inner areas were examined via secondary electrons by a variable-pressure SEM (VP-SEM) working in low-vacuum mode. On both substrates, bloodstains exhibited micro-scales. No janocyte (erythrocyte negative replica) was observed in the examined areas. However, erythrocytes were seen crowded together as grain-shaped corpuscles in the smear on reed, and several hecatocytes (moon-like shaped erythrocytes) were evidenced in the smear on bone. The results of this study suggest that a VP-SEM working in low-vacuum mode can be used fruitfully to detect blood remains in medium-sized reed and bone antique aboriginal artifacts. This procedure can prospectively help to ethnographic museum curators and aboriginal-art surveyors as an easy guiding test in the valuation of antique traditional weapons prior to acquisition, when the real use of a piece has been claimed by the supplier. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling INSTITUTE FOR...S E S IDA Paper P-5220 Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling This page is intentionally blank. iii Executive... nuclear devices (IND), as well as conventional nuclear weapons .”1 This analysis describes exemplar nuclear and radiological weapon threats; the

  3. The Sandys White Paper of 1957 and the move to the British new look. An analysis of nuclear weapons, conventional forces and strategic planning 1955-57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navias, Martin Stephen

    1989-01-01

    This study seeks to analyse the significance of the 1957 Defence White Paper in the context of British strategic planning during the mid-1950s. Claims that the White Paper represented a culmination of trends already prevalent in British defence planning are assessed while continuities and discontinuities in strategic policies are identified. This is done by highlighting the main features of the document and then tracing their development in the 1955-57 period. A major theme throughout is the relationship between the growing declaratory emphasis on nuclear deterrence and the determination of the shape and size of conventional forces and capabilities. It is contended that the defence decision making process that was in place prior to January 1957 was incapable of generating a British New Look - that is a consistent set of declaratory and action policies which reflected a cutback in conventional forces accompanied by a greater reliance on the threat of nuclear retaliation. Prior to Duncan Sandys becoming Minister of Defence, the inability of that ministry to readily impose itself on the service departments meant that the latter's attachment to preparations for global war and the national service programme could not be overruled. It is also unclear whether during the 1955-56 period the basis for a truly independent deterrent was being established. An analysis of the negotiations surrounding the 1957 White Paper indicates that Sandys was able to overrule traditional service preferences. The result was a policy which rejected the imposition of a conventional strategy on a nuclear one in favour of a British New Look. Consequently, conventional forces were reduced, greater relative importance was placed on the nuclear deterrent, but once more the requirements of a unilateral independent deterrent did not receive priority. (author)

  4. Soil Biological Activity Contributing to Phosphorus Availability in Vertisols under Long-Term Organic and Conventional Agricultural Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar A. Bhat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of unavailable phosphorus (P to plant available P is a prerequisite to sustain crop productivity. Although most of the agricultural soils have sufficient amounts of phosphorus, low availability of native soil P remains a key limiting factor to increasing crop productivity. Solubilization and mineralization of applied and native P to plant available form is mediated through a number of biological and biochemical processes that are strongly influenced by soil carbon/organic matter, besides other biotic and abiotic factors. Soils rich in organic matter are expected to have higher P availability potentially due to higher biological activity. In conventional agricultural systems mineral fertilizers are used to supply P for plant growth, whereas organic systems largely rely on inputs of organic origin. The soils under organic management are supposed to be biologically more active and thus possess a higher capability to mobilize native or applied P. In this study we compared biological activity in soil of a long-term farming systems comparison field trial in vertisols under a subtropical (semi-arid environment. Soil samples were collected from plots under 7 years of organic and conventional management at five different time points in soybean (Glycine max -wheat (Triticum aestivum crop sequence including the crop growth stages of reproductive significance. Upon analysis of various soil biological properties such as dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, microbial respiration, substrate induced respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon, organically managed soils were found to be biologically more active particularly at R2 stage in soybean and panicle initiation stage in wheat. We also determined the synergies between these biological parameters by using the methodology of principle component analysis. At all sampling points, P availability in organic and conventional systems was comparable. Our findings

  5. Defense against Space Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    which can be used at present are space defense missiles, killer satellites, high energy laser weapons and particle beam weapons. In 1962, the U.S... laser weapons and particle beam weapons have the ad- 4vantages of high power, concentrated energy, hit accuracy, and conven- ience of use. They have... weapons development amounts to 5 US$200,000,000. At present, irradiation by a laser weapon operating on the earth’s surface can cause optical and infrared

  6. Communication, Education and Public Awareness in Support of Living in Harmony with Nature: The Convention on Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which came into force in 1993, encourages actions that will guide the way to a sustainable future. It pursues three main goals: (1) conservation of biodiversity; (2) sustainable use of biodiversity; and (3) fair and equitable sharing arising from the use of genetic resources. Article 13…

  7. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  8. A Comparison of the Personalized System of Instruction and a Conventional Biology Course on the Achievement of Junior College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Vernon D.; Vicks, Joann

    1982-01-01

    Compared conventional biology instruction to personalized system of instruction (PSI) and investigated relationship between achievement and selected variables (age, sex, family income/size, grade point average, motivational factors, treatment group, and California Achievement Test scores) of college students (N=80). Results, among others, indicate…

  9. N deposition as a threat to the World's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Hicks, W.K.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the world's protected areas (PAs) under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), common classification systems of ecosystem conservation status, and current knowledge on ecosystem responses to nitrogen (N) deposition to determine areas most at risk. The results show that 40% (approx. 11% of total area) of PAs currently receive >10 kg N/ha/yr with projections for 2030 indicating that this situation is not expected to change. Furthermore, 950 PAs are projected to receive >30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030 (approx. twice the 2000 number), of which 62 (approx. 11,300 km 2 ) are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions; with forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia particularly at risk. Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide. Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Highlights: → Significant areas of the Protected Areas Programme under the CBD will likely be under threat of high N deposition levels by the year 2030.→ Approx. 950 PAs are projected to receive N deposition levels of more than 30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030.→ 62 of these sites are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions, where forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia will be particularly at risk.→ Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide → Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Significant areas of the UNEP Protected Areas Programme under the CBD receive high N deposition rates that are likely to increase in the future, especially in Asia, and may pose a significant threat to biodiversity.

  10. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  11. A multipurpose hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope for applications in materials science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, G; Girasole, M; Pompeo, G; Generosi, R; Luce, M; Cricenti, A

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope is presented. The instrument is obtained coupling an Olympus IX-70 inverted optical microscope with a SNOM head, to combine the versatility and ease of use of the conventional microscope with the high-resolution and three-dimensional reconstruction achieved by the SNOM. The head can be run in shear or tapping mode and is optimized to characterize soft, biological samples including living cells in physiological environment by including the SNOM in a cylindrical chamber that insulates it from external noise, while maintaining a controlled temperature and atmosphere

  12. Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N,N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Prabhat; Purohit, Ajay; Tak, Vijay K; Dubey, D K

    2009-11-06

    N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC-FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC-MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC-FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting the analytes to their fluorinated derivatives. Owing to high absorptivity in IR region, these derivatives facilitated their detection by GC-FTIR analysis. Derivatizing reagents having trimethylsilyl, trifluoroacyl and heptafluorobutyryl groups on imidazole moiety were screened. Derivatives formed there were analyzed by GC-FTIR quantitatively. Of these reagents studied, heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) produced the greatest increase in sensitivity by GC-FTIR detection. 60-125 folds of sensitivity enhancement were observed for the analytes by HFBI derivatization. Absorbance due to various functional groups responsible for enhanced sensitivity were compared by determining their corresponding relative molar extinction coefficients ( [Formula: see text] ) considering uniform optical path length. The RSDs for intraday repeatability and interday reproducibility for various derivatives were 0.2-1.1% and 0.3-1.8%. Limit of detection (LOD) was achieved up to 10-15ng and applicability of the method was tested with unknown samples obtained in international proficiency tests.

  13. Biological nitrogen fixation in three long-term organic and conventional arable crop rotation experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Arjun; Li, Fucui; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) by legumes in organic cropping systems has been perceived as a strategy to substitute N import from conventional sources. However, the N contribution by legumes varies considerably depending on legumes species, as well as local soil and climatic conditions...... of legumes. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate BNF in long-term experiments with a range of organic and conventional arable crop rotations at three sites in Denmark varying in climate and soils (coarse sand, loamy sand and sandy loam) and to identify possible causes of differences in the amount of BNF....... The experiment included 4-year crop rotations with three treatment factors in a factorial design: (i) rotations, i.e. organic with a year of grass-clover (OGC), organic with a year of grain legumes (OGL), and conventional with a year of grain legumes (CGL), (ii) with (+CC) and without (−CC) cover crops, and (iii...

  14. The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomato II on European patents in conventional breeding, GMO’s and Synthetic Biology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    biological processes are – unlike individual plant varieties – principally patentable under the European Patent Convention (EPC). This decision leaves considerable leeway for patenting novel and inventive plants and products thereof, which have been produced by “conventional” methods including breeding steps...... of the EPC and the Biotech Directive, and the need for legal certainty and harmonization, led the EPO to stay ex officio all the proceedings in which the decision depended entirely on the patentability of a plant or animal obtained by an essentially biological process. Then, on June 29, 2017......, the Administrative Council of the EPO decided to amend Rules 27 and 28 of the Implementing Regulation. According to these amendments products (animals or plants) obtained exclusively from essentially biological process are now effectively excluded from patentability. Notwithstanding that this contradicts the earlier...

  15. Biological Weapons Attribution: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Disease Rankings.35 SEVERITY INFECTIVITY PATHOGENICITY VIRULENCE HIGH Smallpox, measles, chicken pox , anthrax Smallpox, rabies, measles, anthrax... chicken pox , common cold Rabies, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, anthrax INTERMEDIATE Rubella, mumps, common cold Rubella, mumps...Poliomyelitis, measles LOW Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, Poliomyelitis Measles, chicken pox VERY LOW Leprosy Leprosy Rubella, common cold

  16. Rays as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H

    2007-08-01

    Ionizing radiation is being regarded as life threatening. Therefore, accidents in nuclear power plants are considered equal threatening as nuclear bomb explosions, and attacks with dirty bombs are thought as dangerous as nuclear weapon explosions. However, there are differences between a nuclear bomb explosion, the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and an attack with a dirty bomb. It is intended to point them out. The processes are described, which damage in a nuclear bomb explosion, in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and in an attack with a dirty bomb. Their effects are compared with each other, i.e. explosion, heat, shock wave (blast), ionizing radiation, and fallout. In the center of the explosion of a nuclear bomb, the temperature rises to 100Mio degrees C, this induces damaging heat radiation and shock wave. In the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant and in the conventional explosion of a dirty bomb, the temperature may rise up to 3000 degrees C, heat radiation and blast are limited to a short distance. In nuclear power plants, explosions due to oxyhydrogen gas or steam may occur. In nuclear explosions the dispersed radioactive material (fall out) consists mainly of isotopes with short half-life, in nuclear power plants and in dirty bomb attacks with longer half-life. The amount of fall out is comparable in nuclear bomb explosions with that in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, it is smaller in attacks with dirty bombs. An explosion in a nuclear power plant even in the largest imaginable accident is not a nuclear explosion. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were 200,000 victims nearly all by heat and blast, some 300 died by ionizing radiation. In Chernobyl, there have been less than 100 victims due to ionizing radiation up till now. A dirty bomb kills possibly with the explosion of conventional explosive, the dispersed radioactive material may damage individuals. The

  17. Rays as weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is being regarded as life threatening. Therefore, accidents in nuclear power plants are considered equal threatening as nuclear bomb explosions, and attacks with dirty bombs are thought as dangerous as nuclear weapon explosions. However, there are differences between a nuclear bomb explosion, the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and an attack with a dirty bomb. It is intended to point them out. Method: The processes are described, which damage in a nuclear bomb explosion, in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and in an attack with a dirty bomb. Their effects are compared with each other, i.e. explosion, heat, shock wave (blast), ionizing radiation, and fallout. Results: In the center of the explosion of a nuclear bomb, the temperature rises to 100 Mio deg.C, this induces damaging heat radiation and shock wave. In the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant and in the conventional explosion of a dirty bomb, the temperature may rise up to 3000 deg. C, heat radiation and blast are limited to a short distance. In nuclear power plants, explosions due to oxyhydrogen gas or steam may occur. In nuclear explosions the dispersed radioactive material (fall out) consists mainly of isotopes with short half-life, in nuclear power plants and in dirty bomb attacks with longer half-life. The amount of fall out is comparable in nuclear bomb explosions with that in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, it is smaller in attacks with dirty bombs. An explosion in a nuclear power plant even in the largest imaginable accident is not a nuclear explosion. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were 200,000 victims nearly all by heat and blast, some 300 died by ionizing radiation. In Chernobyl, there have been less than 100 victims due to ionizing radiation up till now. A dirty bomb kills possibly with the explosion of conventional explosive, the dispersed radioactive material may damage

  18. The weapons effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin James; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons effect occurs. This model postulates that exposure to weapons increases aggressive thoughts and hostile appraisals, thus explaining why weapons facilitate aggressive behavior. Data from meta-analytic reviews are consistent with the General Aggression Model. These findings have important practical as well as theoretical implications. They suggest that the link between weapons and aggression is very strong in semantic memory, and that merely seeing a weapon can make people more aggressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recapitalizing Nuclear Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughan, Edgar M

    2007-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons stockpile is aging and undergoing an extensive and expensive life-extension program to ensure the continuing safety, security, and reliability of the legacy weapons well into the future...

  20. Physical effects of thermonuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1984-01-01

    The detonation of nuclear weapons gives rise to the following: blast wave; thermal wave; initial radiation (neutrons and gamma-rays); local radioactive fallout; global radioactive fallout; electromagnetic pulse; atmospheric disturbances. Some of these phenomena became known only as a result of the use or testing of bombs and are not as yet fully understood. They produce physical or biological effects or both, almost all of which are directly detrimental to human health. Some are likely to damage the environment

  1. No first use of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that at present, nuclear weapons are considered legitimate, if terrible, weapons, usable as other weapons are for national purposes. In the West and in the East, strategy, military forces, readiness posture, all are based fundamentally on the threat and, ultimately, the use of nuclear weapons. In the West this threat is directed not only against a nuclear attack against the US or its allies, but also against conventional, non-nuclear operations beyond our ability to hold. The term for such nuclear deterrence of non-nuclear hostilities is extended deterrence. It has been at the heart of US and NATO policy for a generation. In the East, the Soviet Union has declared a policy of No First Use of nuclear weapons, a declaration, that is to say, that they would not be the first to use nuclear weapons in any future hostilities, that they would fire them only in retaliation against nuclear attack. To make that declaration a sure control over Soviet and Warsaw Pact decisions and actions in crisis, however, and to make it so convincing to others that they can, cautiously, rely on it, the governmental announcement of the No First Use must be supplemented by a host of implementing and indoctrinating measures that are yet to be taken. Nuclear preemption, first use, has not yet by any means been eliminated from Soviet doctrine, force structures and weapons programmes

  2. Biologic response of inguinal hernia prosthetics: a comparative study of conventional static meshes versus 3D dynamic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Giuseppe; Romano, Giorgio; Agrusa, Antonino; Marasa, Salvatore; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Gulotta, Gaspare; Goetze, Thorsten; Puleio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in prosthetics and surgical techniques, the rate of complications following inguinal hernia repair remains high. Among these, discomfort and chronic pain have become a source of increasing concern among surgeons. Poor quality of tissue ingrowth, such as thin scar plates or shrinking scars-typical results with conventional static implants and plugs-may contribute to these adverse events. Recently, a new type of 3D dynamically responsive implant was introduced to the market. This device, designed to be placed fixation-free, seems to induce ingrowth of viable and structured tissue instead of regressive fibrotic scarring. To elucidate the differences in biologic response between the conventional static meshes and this 3D dynamically responsive implant, a histological comparison was planned. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of tissue incorporation in both types of implants excised after short, medium, and long periods post-implantation. The results showed large differences in the biologic responses between the two implant types. Histologically, the 3D dynamic implant showed development of tissue elements more similar to natural abdominal wall structures, such as the ingrowth of loose and well-hydrated connective tissue, well-formed vascular structures, elastic fibers, and mature nerves, with negligible or absent inflammatory response. All these characteristics were completely absent in the conventional static implants, where a persistent inflammatory reaction was associated with thin, hardened, and shrunken fibrotic scar formation. Consequently, as herniation is a degenerative process, the 3D dynamic implants, which induce regeneration of the typical groin components, seem to address its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russett, B.

    1989-01-01

    To the degree that people's fears of nuclear war are deep and pervasive, they become subject to manipulation by cynical or politically utopian promises, whether those promises be to abolish nuclear weapons from the earth or to create a leakproof peace shield (SDI). But the basic yearning for protection could also be mobilized to support serious arms reduction and arms control agreements. Nuclear weapons provide the basis for a vivid form of symbolic politics, perhaps equivalent in foreign policy considerations to the Korean and Vietnam wars during their durations, and in similar ways (although not necessarily as severe) as unemployment does among domestic policy issues. This paper presents survey research directed specifically at the role of public opinion on nuclear imagery (difference between expectation of nuclear war versus any kind of weapon war; willingness to spend on nuclear weapons versus conventional ones or general defense spending) can help in understanding these phenomena

  4. Morphology and evolutionary biology of the dolphin (Delphinus sp.) brain--MR imaging and conventional histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H H A; Haas-Rioth, M; Fung, C; Ridgway, S H; Knauth, M

    2008-01-01

    Whole brains of the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) were studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in parallel with conventional histology. One formalin-fixed brain was documented with a Siemens Trio Magnetic Resonance scanner and compared to three other brains which were embedded in celloidin, sectioned in the three main planes and stained for cells and fibers. The brain of the common dolphin is large, with the telencephalic hemispheres dominating the brain stem. The neocortex is voluminous and the cortical grey matter thin but extremely extended and densely convoluted. There is no olfactory ventricular recess due to the lack of an anterior olfactory system (olfactory bulb and peduncle). No occipital lobe of the telencephalic hemisphere and no posterior horn of the lateral ventricle are present. A pineal organ could not be detected. The brain stem is thick and underlies a very large cerebellum. The hippocampus and mammillary body are small and the fornix is thin; in contrast, the amygdaloid complex is large and the cortex of the limbic lobe is extended. The visual system is well developed but exceeded by the robust auditory system; for example, the inferior colliculus is several times larger than the superior colliculus. Other impressive structures in the brainstem are the peculiar elliptic nucleus, inferior olive, and in the cerebellum the huge paraflocculus and the very large posterior interpositus nucleus. There is good correspondence between MR scans and histological sections. Most of the brain characteristics can be interpreted as morphological correlates to the successful expansion of this species in the marine environment, which was characterized by the development of a powerful sonar system for localization, communication, and acousticomotor navigation. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Assessment of Biological Kinetics in a Conventional Municipal WWTP by Means of the Oxygen Uptake Rate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution control of surface water bodies requires stringent checks on wastewater treatment plants performances. The satisfactory operation of biological treatment, commonly performed by means of activated sludge processes, requires a number of controlling and monitoring procedures. Suitable respirometric techniques for the determination of the kinetic parameters that regulate biological processes have been implemented in order to achieve this aim. This paper describes the results of an experimental research carried out in a conventional Italian municipal wastewater treatment plant. Particularly, the research has been finalized to both evaluate the biological process for the removal of biodegradable pollutants, such as carbonaceous substrates and ammonia nitrogen, and to collect data in order to evaluate a possible plant upgrade. Heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass kinetic parameters have been examined using respirometric techniques based on oxygen uptake measurements. The research performed makes a valuable contribution toward verifying the reliability of the values proposed in the literature for some kinetic parameters, which have been commonly used for a long time.

  6. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  7. Identification of nuclear weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

    1987-04-10

    A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

  8. Security with nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental questions about their purpose. Why have some states chosen to acquire nuclear weapons? How and why have these decisions been maintained over time? Why have some states elected to approach, but not cross, the nuclear threshold? This book examines the commonalities and differences in political approaches to nuclear weapons both within and between three groups of states: nuclear, non-nuclear and threshold. The chapters explore the evolution of thinking about nuclear weapons and the role these weapons play in national security planning, and question the official security rationales offered by the nuclear weapon states for the maintenance of nuclear capabilities. For the non-nuclear weapon states, the book presents an analysis of alternative ways of assuring security and foreign policy effectiveness. For the threshold states, it examines the regional contexts within which these states maintain their threshold status. This book transcends traditional East-West approaches to analysis of nuclear issues by giving equal prominence to the issues of nuclear proliferation and non-nuclearism. The book also provides a comprehensive analysis of how current approaches to nuclear weapons have evolved both within and among the groups of countries under study

  9. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  10. Pride, Prejudice, and Pejoratives at Peenemunde: Interservice Rivalry and Terror Weapons in the Third Reich

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Arms 9 but many chemical and biological weapons only require a home...16 Thomas C. Schelling, Arms and Influence (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966), 3. 17 Radu Florescu and Raymond T. McNally...However, seeing a weapon and feeling its effects are very different. During the middle ages, the Trebuchet and Ballista were popular siege weapons

  11. The bane of "inhumane" weapons and overkill: an overview of increasingly lethal arms and the inadequacy of regulatory controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jacques G

    2004-10-01

    Weapons of both defense and offense have grown steadily in their effectiveness--especially since the industrial revolution. The mass destruction of humanity, by parts or in whole, became reality with the advent of toxic agents founded on chemistry and biology or nuclear weapons derived from physics. The military's new non-combat roles, combined with a quest for non-lethal weapons, may change the picture in regard to conventional defense establishments but are unlikely to deter bellicose tyrants or the new terrorists from using the unlimited potential of today's and tomorrow's arsenals. The author addresses the issues that are raised by this developing situation with the intent of seeking those ethics that will enable us to survive in a future and uncertain world.

  12. Syria's chemical weapons and United States-Russian intervention: diplomacy in action?

    OpenAIRE

    Dzvarai, Tatenda Jane

    2016-01-01

    On August 21, 2013, a relatively large-scale chemical weapons attack was executed    in the Ghouta area of Damascus, Syria. This incident was the culmination of a series of chemical attacks perpetrated by the Assad regime. Syria's use of chemical weapons violated its treaty commitments and customary international law, especially the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention that explicitly bans the use of chemical weapons. The attacks caused tensions within the United Nations Sec...

  13. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  14. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    nuclear energy, or 400 MWe and electricity consumption in Pakistan is increasing. Islamabad plans to increase nuclear energy production to 8,800 MWe by...Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Paul K. Kerr Analyst in Nonproliferation Mary Beth Nikitin Specialist in Nonproliferation February 12, 2016...Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL34248 Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Congressional Research Service Summary Pakistan’s nuclear

  15. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    vulnerability, and its view that the threats to its security were increasing, also stemmed from the debates over NATO enlargement . Russia has feared the...weapons because Russia sees NATO as a threat to its security. Russian analysts and officials have argued that NATO enlargement —with the possible...the role that these weapons play in NATO policy and whether there is a continuing need for the United States to deploy them at bases overseas

  16. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  17. Making weapons, talking peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle

  18. Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

    2013-05-01

    Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

  19. Living with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnesale, A.; Doty, P.; Hoffmann, S.; Huntington, S.P.; Nye, J.S. Jr.; Sagan, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    At Harvard President Derek Bok's request, six Harvard professors explain nuclear arms issues to help citizens understand all sides of the national security debates. The goal is to encourage public participation in policy formulation. The book emphasizes that escapism will not improve security; that idealistic plans to eliminate nuclear weapons are a form of escapism. Learning to live with nuclear weapons, they suggest, requires an understanding of the current nuclear predicament and the implications of alternative weapons and policy choices. After reviewing these matters, they emphasize that informed persons will continue to disagree, but that knowledge will improve understanding and appreciation of their differences and improve the quality of policy debates. 54 references, 5 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  20. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  1. Beyond the nuclear weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, many people called for the elimination of nuclear weapons. That this decision seems difficult to realize because of the world political environment. Meanwhile the reduction of the nuclear weapons costs and risks believes more than ever a challenge of the international relations and more particularly in the proliferation domain. In this perspective the proliferation fight strategies need to be studied with a special interest in the domain of the alternatives and the possibilities of synergy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Multiple beam directors for naval free electron laser weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Ethan D.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The Free Electron Laser has the potential to become a revolutionary weapon system. Deep magazines, low cost-per-shot, pinpoint accuracy, and speed of light delivery give this developing weapon system significant advantages over conventional systems. One limiting factor in high energy laser implementation is thermal blooming, a lensing effect which is caused by the quick heating of the atmosphere, so that the laser beam does not focus o...

  3. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection

  4. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  6. Is the nuclear weapon taboo? The nuclear weapon is useless and expensive. Let us not leave the nuclear weapon as an inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchet, Nathalie; Norlain, Bernard; Beach, Hugh; Beckett, Margaret; Quiles, Paul; Rocard, Michel; Ramsbotham, David

    2012-03-01

    Starting with the definition of the word taboo as stated in a dictionary (a topic it would be unbecoming to evoke, under social and moral proprieties), the author of the first article discusses the status of the nuclear weapon, outlining that it is expensive, useless and monstrous. She notices that conventions on chemical weapons seem to be more efficient than the NPT, that, even if the reasons for abolition are known as well as ways to reach it, it seems difficult to actually address this issue. She evokes different voices coming from different countries or international bodies calling for this abolition. She also states that the nuclear weapon is not a deterrent weapon but a weapon of domination, and calls for the mobilisation of the civil society throughout the world. A second article states that the nuclear weapon is useless and expensive, and that we have to get rid of this hazard for the sake of the planet. Former ministers, Prime ministers, and generals consider that we can and must give up nuclear weapons, notably because the strategic context has completely changed since the fall of the Berlin wall, and support the action of Global Zero

  7. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  8. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  9. SEM examination of human erythrocytes in uncoated bloodstains on stone: use of conventional as environmental-like SEM in a soft biological tissue (and hard inorganic material).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortolà, P

    2005-05-01

    Although nowadays the so-called environmental scanning electron microscopes (ESEMs) allow the observation of the samples without metal or carbon coating, many conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are still in use. On the other hand, the presence of erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) in a smear is considered a blood confirmation. Such a presence has been previously reported even in Lower Stone Age implements. In previous works, I have reported several studies dealing with cytomorphology of RBCs in bloodstains using scanning electron microscopy with standard specimen preparation procedures, i.e. via coating the samples before SEM analysis. In order to explore the potential of conventional SEM as environmental-like SEM in haemotaphonomical studies, two alkaline (limestone) and two acid (flint) rock fragments were smeared with human blood from a male and a female. The bloodstains obtained in this way were then air dried indoors and stored into a non-hermetic plastic box. Afterwards, the smears and their rock substrates were examined directly without coating, via secondary electrons, using a JEOL JSM-6400 scanning electron microscope. Satisfactory results reveal the capability of a conventional SEM to work in secondary-electron mode as an environmental-like SEM on these kinds of biological and inorganic materials, and probably in many other biological and non-biological samples.

  10. Comparison Of INAA Methods (Long Conventional, Cyclic And Pseudo-Cyclic) For The Determination Of Se In Biological Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium content in serum blood, sample were received from international comparison programme (SABC) has been determined by Cyclic irradiation, pseudo-cyclic irradiation and long irradiation conventional Instrumental neutron activation analysis through the 162 keV gamma ray of the 77m Se nuclide for both cyclic and pseudo-cyclic and 264 keV gamma ray of 75 Se nuclide for conventional (long irradiation). The CINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 15 s and counting for 20 s, samples recycling four times to improve the precision. The PCINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 20 s and counting for 30s, samples recycling four times day by day. The Conventional (long irradiation) involve irradiation of samples for 20 hr (1 week), decay for 4 weeks and counting for 20 hr. The accuracy has been evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials. (Author)

  11. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  12. US develops electromagnetic weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The principles of electromagnetic weapons (EMWs) which accumulate and switch energy have been known for over 50 years, but the US has made significant progress in recent years in the development of single-pole generators. A design which eliminates the breaker and pulse generator and increases reliability of the EMWs is undergoing tests in the US. There will be significant advantages for the EMW used for air and antimissile defense. In addition to weapons of varying purpose and basing, the EMW can be effective as launchers, as an alternative to rocket engines. The EMW is an area in which the US is trying to achieve superiority, and is a violation of the 1972 Antimissile Defense Treaty. 4 figures.

  13. Modular weapon control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  14. Establishing a national biological laboratory safety and security monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, James W

    2012-12-01

    The growing concern over the potential use of biological agents as weapons and the continuing work of the Biological Weapons Convention has promoted an interest in establishing national biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring programs. The challenges and issues that should be considered by governments, or organizations, embarking on the creation of a biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring program are discussed in this article. The discussion focuses on the following questions: Is there critical infrastructure support available? What should be the program focus? Who should be monitored? Who should do the monitoring? How extensive should the monitoring be? What standards and requirements should be used? What are the consequences if a laboratory does not meet the requirements or is not willing to comply? Would the program achieve the results intended? What are the program costs? The success of a monitoring program can depend on how the government, or organization, responds to these questions.

  15. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  16. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    41 2. Results of CCIP Program ..................................................................42 D. UNGUIDED BOC ...42 1. BOC Module in MATLAB...44 2. Results of BOC Program ...................................................................46 E. LASER GUIDED WEAPONS

  17. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  18. Nuclear weapons industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, K.A.; Shaw, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    This unique study was written specifically as a reference source for institutional investors concerned about the threat posed to their stock portfolios by the debate over nuclear arms production. The authors focus their analysis on the 26 leading companies in the field. The perspective is neutral and refreshing. Background information on strategic policy, arms control and disarmament, and the influence of the industry on defense policy and the economy is presented rationally. The study also discusses the economic significance of both the conversion from military to civilian production and nuclear freeze initiatives. An appendix contains a fact-filled guide to nuclear weapon systems

  19. The opportunity to limit and reduce inventories of fissionable weapon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    As the United States and the Soviet government agree on major reductions in nuclear weapon delivery systems, they need to address the disposal of the nuclear warheads and bombs for those systems. Such measures could be strongly reinforced if the two nations also institute restraints and reductions in the total amount of fissionable materials available for weapons. Many metric tonnes of such materials would be made surplus by the reductions in strategic nuclear weapons due to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I). Equally large reductions in short-range (theater) nuclear weapons are expected in the wake of the recent Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)

  20. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  1. Assessing the Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    strong suspicions that person-to-person transmission had taken place in two foci, one in Vietnam and one in Thailand,” and possibly a third in...coffee grinder, “. . . with a brown residue” (probably of coffee), a mortar and pestle , and a hand-written recipe taken off the internet at an...the incidence of H5N1 infection in Vietnam and Thailand were being underreported deliberately as well as due to asymptomatic fl u infections. For

  2. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    including Staphylococcus, a-hemolytic Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Candida species. , 12% 0.1 % ° F R 3 R2 R3 .0 E R5:2 % R5: 32...pulsed electric field. Pore formation in these simulations of homogeneous lipid bilayers is a molecular process , an extension of water defects into...and Bianco, A. (2006). Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells. Nano Letters 6, 1522-8

  3. Working group 6: Health. 3. Biological effects of nonradioactive pollutants associated with nuclear and conventional power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauwerys, R.

    1976-01-01

    The major air pollutants released from conventional power plants have been found to be sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and suspended particulates beside these three major pollutants other substances (CO, O 3 , hydrocarbons, vanadium...) occur in air or in water. Origin and extent of these pollutants as well as their main health hazards, especially for the respiratory system, have been evaluated. Other risks connected with the whole fuel cycle (coal extraction, petrol refining...) have been considered to be significant for human health. A mathematical model has been set up by the C.E.N. of Mol (Belgium) in order to predict the content of pollutants at the soil level, especially for SO 2 . A relationship between SO 2 content and the concentration of the other pollutants has been found by assuming certain hypothesis. Epidemiological and toxicological data connected with the SO 2 release have been given. As for nonradioactive pollutants released from nuclear power plants their amount has been considered to be negligible. (G.C.)

  4. Review and prospects of the United States directed-energy weapons technology development in 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaping, Z.

    1996-06-01

    Directed-energy weapons are new-generation weapons developed on the basis of the new concept of replacing conventional bullets with high-energy-density beams. Technically, directed-energy weapons can be divided into three branches, namely: (1) laser weapons, which can destroy or destabilize targets by using electromagnetic radiation energy beams with a wavelength of less than 1 millimeter; (2) radio-frequency weapons, which can destroy or destabilize targets with radiated electromagnetic energy within the radio spectrum range (the wavelength is more than 1 millimeter and radio frequency less than 300 gigahertz); (3) particle beam weapons, which are capable of destroying or destabilizing targets with neutral high-energy atomic particle beams (usually hydrogen, deuterium and tritium) or charged high-energy atomic or subatomic particle beams.

  5. Re-examining the 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion: Concerning the Legality of Nuclear Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasjit Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objections raised against total elimination of nuclear weapons are built around a few arguments mostly of non-technical nature.Nuclear weapons and the strategies for their use have resulted in the establishment of a vicious circle within which the international community is trapped.The argument that the world will be unsafe without nuclear weapons is only meant to further the narrow self-interest of the nuclear weapon states and their allies.The World Court’s far-reaching 1996 advisory opinion concluded that almost any use or threat of use of nuclear weapons would violate international humanitarian law and law applicable in armed conflict, undermining most claims of nuclear weapon states regarding the legitimacy of possession, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The next logical step would be an initiative for a nuclear convention banning the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons in Asia and the adjoining oceans. But as long as the dominant elites in society and the nation-state believe in the utility of nuclear weapons for national security or as the currency of power, abolition of nuclear weapons will remain a mirage.

  6. Cost minimization in a full-scale conventional wastewater treatment plant: associated costs of biological energy consumption versus sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S; Volant, A; Lesage, G; Heran, M

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption and sludge production minimization represent rising challenges for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The goal of this study is to investigate how energy is consumed throughout the whole plant and how operating conditions affect this energy demand. A WWTP based on the activated sludge process was selected as a case study. Simulations were performed using a pre-compiled model implemented in GPS-X simulation software. Model validation was carried out by comparing experimental and modeling data of the dynamic behavior of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and nitrogen compounds concentration, energy consumption for aeration, mixing and sludge treatment and annual sludge production over a three year exercise. In this plant, the energy required for bioreactor aeration was calculated at approximately 44% of the total energy demand. A cost optimization strategy was applied by varying the MLSS concentrations (from 1 to 8 gTSS/L) while recording energy consumption, sludge production and effluent quality. An increase of MLSS led to an increase of the oxygen requirement for biomass aeration, but it also reduced total sludge production. Results permit identification of a key MLSS concentration allowing identification of the best compromise between levels of treatment required, biological energy demand and sludge production while minimizing the overall costs.

  7. Conventional and planar chip sensors for potentiometric assay of uric acid in biological fluids using flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ayman H

    2007-10-18

    The potentiometric response properties of several PVC-based membrane sensors using phthalocyanine complexes of cobalt(II) (CoPC) and Fe(II) (FePC) as anion carriers, towards uric acid were constructed and characterized. The sensors demonstrated fast near-Nernstian response for uric acid over the concentration ranges 9.1 x 10(-6) to 9.1 x 10(-2) and 3.1 x 10(-5) to 3.1 x 10(-2)M with detection limits 0.67 and 2.85 microg mL(-1) over pH 6.5-8 for CoPC and FePC based membrane sensors plasticized with o-NPOE and 1% TDMAC, respectively. A novel solid-state planar chip urate sensor was developed, characterized according to IUPAC recommendations, easily used in a single channel wall-jet flow injection system and compared with a tubular detector. The intrinsic characteristics of the detectors in a low dispersion manifold were determined and compared with data obtained under hydrodynamic mode of operation. Validation of the assay methods with the proposed sensors by measuring the lower limit, range, accuracy, precision, repeatability and between-day-variability revealed good performance characteristics confirming applicability for continuous determination of uric acid. The sensors were used for determining urate in biological fluids at an input rate of 50 samples per hour. The results compare favorably with data obtained by the standard spectrophotometry.

  8. New approach for detecting and classifying concealed weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle G.; Rice, Philip M.; Manhardt, Joseph M.

    1997-02-01

    The possession of a weapon in the courtroom of our American justice system is a Federal offense. A weapon in the courtroom is a particularly serious problem for judges, plaintiffs, defendants, and bystanders because of the emotional nature and environment of the courtroom. Potential violators include organized criminals and gangsters, individuals with personal vendettas, and otherwise sane and reasonable people who, because of the emotion of the moment, lose sight of right and wrong in our justice system. Most Federal courthouses incorporate some sort of metal detection apparatus used to screen and prevent individuals from carrying personal weapons into courtrooms. These devices are considered conventional in the sense that they employ an active electromagnetic induction technique that is sensitive to the presence of metal. This technique provides no information concerning the massiveness and location of the offending metal object and is prone to false alarms. This work introduces an alternative method for weapons discrimination that is based on passive magnetics technology in concert with simple comparative algorithms such that massiveness and location of suspected weapons may be determined. Since this system provides information not available from conventional metal detectors, false alarms will be greatly reduced, allowing remote monitoring of all entrances into a courtroom from a single vantage point, thereby saving considerable resources used on personnel costs.

  9. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  10. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  11. Nuclear Weapons in Russia's approach to conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dave

    2016-11-01

    President Putin has moved nuclear weapons to the foreground of the European security landscape. New risks and dangers arise from the apparent coupling of nuclear weapons capabilities with Moscow's revanchist and irredentist foreign and defence policies toward its neighbours. Nuclear weapons are the central feature and capstone capability in Russia's evolving concept of strategic deterrence and are important tools for achieving Russia's geopolitical aims. Russian thinking on the role and place of nuclear weapons in upholding national security and in achieving strategic aims is reflected in military policy, force structure and posture, and exercises and operations. Russia's political and military leaders are not only re-conceptualising the role of nuclear weapons. They are also building the military capabilities that can credibly threaten the calibrated employment of nuclear weapons for deterrence, de-escalation and war-fighting from the regional to large-scale and global levels of conflict. New and still developing concepts for the employment of conventional long-range precision weapons in tandem with nuclear weapons for regional deterrence and containment of local and regional conflicts add volatility to the regional tensions and uncertainties created by recent Russian aggression. Russia's reliance upon integrated conventional and nuclear capabilities in reasserting its influence in its perceived sphere of special interest, intended to contain conflicts at a manageable level, could actually increase the risk of the potential employment of nuclear weapons. NATO nations collectively, and the three NATO nuclear powers (Great Britain, France, and the United States) individually, have recognized this new reality and have begun to adapt to it. In that context, the aim of this paper is to elaborate a clearer understanding of the place and role of nuclear weapons in Russia's approach to conflict, based on nuclear-related policy statements and

  12. The impact of dental caries and its treatment by conventional or biological approaches on the oral health-related quality of life of children and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BaniHani, Alaa; Deery, Chris; Toumba, Jack; Munyombwe, Theresa; Duggal, Monty

    2018-03-01

    The effect of untreated dental caries and the approaches taken to its treatment have not been extensively elucidated in children. To investigate the impact of untreated dental caries on children aged 4-9 years and whether its treatment with either a conventional or a biological approach influenced the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the children and their carers. Children (n = 110) and their carers attending two specialist centres for treatment of carious primary teeth completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and the Self-reported Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old Children at baseline prior to dental treatment and at 3-6 months following completion of dental care. Dental treatment was provided using either a conventional or a biological approach. Dental caries showed a negative impact on the child and family's OHRQoL (P = 0.001). Children reported difficulty eating (55.5%), sleeping (40%), and avoiding smiling because of how the teeth looked (27.3%). More than half of the parents reported their child had toothache. Parents perceived difficulty eating (40.9%), being irritable (38.2%), and difficulty drinking (30.9%) as being impacts of caries on their child's OHRQoL. In addition, approximately half the parents reported feeling a sense of guilt because of their child's dental disease. Following dental treatment, participants reported significant improvement in their overall health status (P = 0.001). Children's age, gender, or the treatment approach were not statistically significantly associated with changes in OHRQoL of the child or carer. Children and parents who initially reported greater impacts of untreated dental caries demonstrated greater improvements in their overall oral health status (P caries was associated with negative impacts on children and parents' quality of life. Treatment of caries improved the quality of life of children and families significantly, irrespective of whether the treatment was provided by a

  13. What do weapons secure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, G.

    1982-04-01

    The iron triangle of the Defense Department, Congressional hawks, and the defense industry will fight any efforts to reduce President Reagan's plan to rearm America and will dominate any debate over national security and weapons procurement as they have done since 1945. American attitudes are changing, however, and pressing for a re-evaluation of this closed policy apparatus. The first step to be taken is a re-examination of global and national realities to see if current policy is appropriate. Reagan has reversed the trend toward arms control to more strategic arms competition which, by creating waste and distrust, will reduce security. It also narrows policy considerations to East-West rivalry and ignores the North-South changes that are taking place. US failures in Vietnam and Watergate and a negative response to US involvement in Central America are signs that the public is increasingly skeptical of the iron triangle. (DCK)

  14. Non-State actors’ pursuit of CBRN weapons: From motivation to potential humanitarian consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, S.E.; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses non-State actors’ motivation and capacity to develop and use chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) improvised weapons in attacks, as well as the possible consequences of such use. Six types of groups have been identified as potential CBRN weapons users that may

  15. City mayors on the march. Hiroshima leading citizen campaign to ban nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, T.

    2003-01-01

    to terminate their programs and join the NPT as nonnuclear States; Dismantlement and destruction of all nuclear weapons. with the radioactive material disposed of as quickly and as safely as possible, with concomitant dismantling of all dedicated delivery systems, production facilities, test sites, and research laboratories; Demand to all nations to open their doors unconditionally to Un inspectors mandated to ensure that all nuclear weapons and all programs are accounted for and dismantled. These demands are essential steps for negotiations on a universal Nuclear Weapons Convention establishing a verifiable and irreversible regime for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons

  16. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  17. Communication of 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the IAEA concerning the establishment of the oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's export control on goods, technologies, materials and equipment related to nuclear and biological weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan enclosing a copy of the Gazette of Pakistan S.R.O. No.693(I)/2007, dated 11 July 2007, regarding the establishment of the Oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Materials and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004, including the formation and functioning of Strategic Export Control Division. As requested in the Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the enclosure thereto are circulated for the information of Member States

  18. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  19. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  20. U.S. Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    given their opposing political views, the two senators had good personal chemistry and managed to reach agreement on an additional half-dozen...senators explaining various aspects of the CWC and clarifying misconceptions . Augmenting the official public relations campaign, a group of

  1. Rapid Estimation of Building Damage by Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    impulse applied to reflect surface 17 iso = impulse of incident wave t0 = wave duration Lw = wavelength of incident wave ta = arrival time...floor area = 3 x 100 x 90 = 27000 ft2 Tributary area support per column = 27000 /30 = 900 ft2 Therefore, the tributary area supported by a column is

  2. Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote an understanding of and research into a new category of weapons, designated nonlethal by military services, and less than lethal or less lethal by law enforcement agencies...

  3. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weilacher, Lester A

    2003-01-01

    Little more than a month after terrorists took control of four passenger aircraft in the United States and unleashed the horror of 9/11, 50 Chechen terrorists armed with automatic weapons and carrying...

  4. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  5. 2007-2008 Weapon Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The weapon systems and equipment described in this reference book represent an essential aspect of our commitment to the security of the nation, the preparedness of the Soldier, and the readiness of the Army...

  6. Is this the time for a high-energy laser weapon program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, David H.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has made large investments weaponizing laser technology for air defense. Despite billions of dollars spent, there has not been a successful transition of a high-energy laser (HEL) weapon from the lab to the field. Is the dream of a low-cost-per-shot, deep-magazine, speed-of-light HEL weapon an impossible dream or a set of technologies that are ready to emerge on the modern battlefield? Because of the rapid revolution taking place in modern warfare that is making conventional defensive weapons very expensive relative to the offensive weapons systems, the pull for less expensive air defense may necessitate a HEL weapon system. Also, due to the recent technological developments in solid-state lasers (SSL), especially fiber lasers, used throughout manufacturing for cutting and welding, a HEL weapon finally may be able to meet all the requirements of ease of use, sustainability, and reliability. Due to changes in warfare and SSL technology advances, the era of HEL weapons isn't over; it may be just starting if DoD takes an evolutionary approach to fielding a HEL weapon. The U.S. Navy, with its large ships and their available electric power, should lead the way.

  7. Responding to chemical weapons violations in Syria: legal, health, and humanitarian recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M

    2018-01-01

    The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms. Based on health, humanitarian, and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to: 1) reduce the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts; 2) review and support the preparedness equipment and antidote supplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations, and military forces operating in Syria; 3) support international mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons, including through criminal accountability; 4) support civilian victims of chemical weapons attacks, including refugees; and 5) re-commit to the complete elimination of chemical weapons in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of conflict, including victims of chemical weapons attacks in Syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.

  8. Islamic State and Chemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rafay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topic of Islamic State and chemical weapons. The issue is analysed in three dimensions: origin of used chemical weapons and possibility of independent production; known chemical attacks and tactical regularities in their execution; and traits of future chemical terrorist attacks. By providing a thorough examination of the problem, the article aims at predicting the future development of the group’s chemical program as well as describing any prospective chemical terrorist attacks in Europe

  9. How electroshock weapons kill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  10. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  11. Nuclear obligations: Nuremberg law, nuclear weapons, and protest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear weapons use and deployment and nonviolent anti-nuclear protests are evaluated. Use of nuclear weapons would constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity as defined in both the Nuremberg Charter and Allied Control Council Law No. 10 and applied by the International Military Tribunal and other Nuremberg courts. Strategic and atomic bombing during World War 2 did not set a precedent for use of nuclear weapons. The consequentialist argument for World War 2 bombing fails and the bombing has also been repudiated by codification of the law of war in Protocol 1 to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The legality of deploying nuclear weapons as instruments of geopolitical policy is questionable when measured against the Nuremberg proscription of planning and preparation of aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity and the United Nations Charter's proscription of aggressive threat of force. While states' practice of deploying the weapons and the arms-control treaties that regulate but do not prohibit mere possession provide some support for legality, those treaties recognize the imperative of preventing nuclear war, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear-armed states to good-faith negotiation of nuclear disarmament

  12. Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1998-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    .... Some general data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world...

  13. Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeHardy, F.A.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

  14. Access and Benefit Sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity and Its Protocol: What Can Some Numbers Tell Us about the Effectiveness of the Regulatory Regime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pauchard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, adopted in 1992 and entered into force at the end of 1993, established a global regime on access to genetic resources (GR and sharing of benefits arising from their utilization (Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS regime. Its protocol—the Nagoya Protocol (NP—which entered into force 21 years later in 2014, clears up some terminological ambiguities of the Convention, clarifies and develops several procedural and instrumental elements of the regime, and obliges States Parties to implement some of its provisions, including the core instrument of the regime: the bilateral ABS agreement between users and providers of GR, that became a condition for obtaining access to the resource. However, scholars who analyzed the ABS regime as well as its official bodies find, and sometimes deplore, the small number of ABS agreements concluded so far, under the CBD as under the NP. This paper has two objectives: First, to assess the effectiveness of the ABS regime implemented by the CBD and the NP on the basis of its central instrument: the ABS agreements concluded between users and providers of GR. The aim is to accurately document the number of ABS agreements concluded since the entry into force of the regime. To our knowledge, such a counting that is neither piecemeal nor has an estimate yet been produced. To do so, I combine several sources, including first hand data collected from the official information agencies—the National Focal Points (NFP—of each of the States Parties to the NP. Second, I provide a critical summary of the existing explanations of the low number of ABS agreements concluded and I evaluate the corresponding causal mechanisms, relying on the results I obtained regarding the number of permits and agreements.

  15. Distribution of Podoplanin in Synovial Tissues in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Biologic or Conventional Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakubo, Yuya; Oki, Hiroharu; Naganuma, Yasushi; Saski, Kan; Sasaki, Akiko; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Suran, Yang; Konta, Tsuneo; Takagi, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN) mediates tumor cell migration and invasion, which phenomena might also play a role in severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the precise cellular distribution of PDPN and it's relationships with inflammation was studied in RA treated with biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) or conventional DMARDs (cDMARD). PDPN+ cells were immunostained by NZ-1 mAb, and scored (3+; >50%/ area, 2+; 20%- 50%, 1+; 5%-20%, 0: <5%) in synovial tissues from RA treated with biologic DMARDs (BIO, n=20) or cDMARD (n=20) for comparison with osteoarthritis (OA, n=5), followed by cell grading of inflammation and cell-typing. Inflammatory synovitis score was 1.4 in both BIO and cDMARD, compared to only 0.2 in OA. PDPN+ cells were found in the lining layer (BIO 1.6, cDMARD 1.3, OA 0.2) and lymphoid aggregates (BIO 0.6, cDMRD 0.7, OA 0.2), and correlated with RA-inflammation in BIO- and cDMARD-groups in both area (r=0.7/0.9, r=0.6/0.7, respectively p<0.05). PDPN was expressed in CD68+ type A macrophage-like and 5B5+ type B fibroblast-like cells in the lining layer, and in IL- 17+ cells in lymphoid aggregates in RA. PDPN was markedly increased in the immunologically inflamed RA synovitis, which was surgically treated due to BIO- and cDMARD-resistant RA. PDPN may have potential of a new marker of residual arthritis in local joints for inflammation-associated severe RA. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Levels of mineral nutrients in fresh- and frozen bulk hydrated biological specimens: a comparison of EDS data collected in the environmental SEM and a conventional cryo-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, L M; Griffin, B J

    1994-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) was compared in fresh- and frozen bulk hydrated tissues using the Environmental SEM (ESEM) and conventional cryo-SEM, respectively. Analysis of globoid inclusions of Eucalyptus calophylla seed from two soil types demonstrated that higher levels of cations (K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) occurred in seeds from soils containing higher levels of Al, while EDS-detectable levels of S and P were dependent upon the techniques utilised. Cumulative changes in ESEM-EDS-detectable levels of S and P were characterized by collecting cumulative spectra from nutrient standards and compared with those for K. Progressive increases in K occurred and were consistent with an enriching effect. Levels of S and P increased during early analysis (40-60 sec live time) and decreased thereafter. The semi-conductive nature of biological samples, the loss of anions and gain of cations from the net negatively-charged electron interaction volume contributed to an electrochemical bias. These local modifications in fluid chemistry were reversible. Dehydration effects also occurred in stable, 'wet' samples. These differences indicated that EDS in ESEM may be limited to cations rather than anions, and that changes in fluid electrochemistry and dehydration may affect the level and distribution of elements.

  17. Space weapon technology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    The military use of space, including in support of nuclear weapons infrastructure, has greatly increased over the past 30 years. In the current era, rising geopolitical tensions between the United States and Russia and China have led to assumptions in all three major space powers that warfighting in space now is inevitable, and possible because of rapid technological advancements. New capabilities for disrupting and destroying satellites include radio-frequency jamming, the use of lasers, maneuverable space objects and more capable direct-ascent anti-satellite weapons. This situation, however, threatens international security and stability among nuclear powers. There is a continuing and necessary role for diplomacy, especially the establishment of normative rules of behavior, to reduce risks of misperceptions and crisis escalation, including up to the use of nuclear weapons. U.S. policy and strategy should seek a balance between traditional military approaches to protecting its space assets and diplomatic tools to create a more secure space environment.

  18. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  19. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  20. Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ciullo, Dan; deLongpre, Jeff; Mcarthur, Sim; Nowakowski, Jake; Shene, Rich; Taylor, Earvin; White, Roosevelt; Cheng, Po-Yu; Heng, Yinghui; Wong, Chia Sern; Wong, Wai Keat; Phua, Yee Ling; Zlatsin, Philip; Choon, Junwei; Neo, Yong Shern

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change the means by which warfare is conducted to improve operational efficiencies and overall effectiveness. The Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering and Analysis (SEA-19B) Capstone project team examined how existing directed energy technologies can ...

  1. The immediate need for US universities to promote research related to a nuclear-weapon-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionno, S.

    1999-01-01

    If disarmament is a goal, then the requisite skills must be fostered in academic research. Too many students today view nuclear weapons as a non-issue. It is crucial that those people in positions of influence encourage more young people to explore in-depth the political, scientific, and social changes that a nuclear-weapon-free world will require. The data presented are based on a search of nuclear-weapons-related keywords in the UMI Dissertation Abstracts Database which includes work from over 1000 North American graduate schools and European Universities. The search was focused on US Phd dissertations between 1987 and 1996. There was no PhDs focused on issues such as: zero-level nuclear-weapons-free world; nuclear-weapons-free zones; decreasing nuclear alert status; a nuclear weapons convention; no-first-use or-no use against non-nuclear-weapons-states; START; French nuclear weapons; a possible 'Eurobomb'; peace groups outside the USA, UK, and Germany; nuclear-weapons secrecy; funding disarmament; the role od UN in a nuclear-weapons-free world; an so on

  2. Laser Weapons in Space: A Critical Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Possel, William

    1998-01-01

    ...? Recent advances in lasers, optics, and spacecraft technologies may bring high-energy laser weapons to a sufficient level of maturity for serious consideration as space weapons against the theater...

  3. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates and assesses current developments...

  4. Detense Logistics Agency's Weapons Systems Support Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    The Defense Logistics Agency's (DLA) Weapons Systems Support Program was established to enhance the Military Departments weapons systems readiness and sustainability by providing enhanced supply support levels for DLA managed items...

  5. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  6. [Molecular biological sepsis diagnostic using multiplex PCR in surgical intensive care as suitable alternative to conventional microbial culture - a representative overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodes, U; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2011-04-01

    Sepsis causes a substantial rate of morbidity and mortality in intensive care patients, which is, in particular, triggered by an inadequate antimicrobial treatment from the beginning. Conventional microbiological standard procedures cannot provide valuable information on bacterial or fungal species of sepsis-relevant microbes within the first hours of a developing sepsis. However, multiplex PCR (PCR-M) focussing on the spectrum of the most relevant sepsis-associated microbes can considerably shorten the time period; the analytical tests have been standardised and, subsequently, inaugurated into clinical practice; they also have thus been available since 2005. Interestingly, in the surgical field an appropriate summary and concluding recommendation have been lacking so far. AIM, MATERIAL AND METHODS: A compact short overview based on a characteristic selection of relevant references from the literature is given on the commercially available sepsis-associated multiplex-PCR methods, reflecting critically the time point of inauguration, clinical value and future perspectives including our own experiences from clinical practice and medical studies. Multiplex PCR in adult sepsis patients yielded in a range from 13.7 to 39.9 % of positive findings, whereas conventional blood cultures only range from 8 to 29.9 %. From 8 to 16.9 % of all investigations performed prompted us to a change of the antimicrobial treatment by using a positive PCR-M finding. A prospective study (end-point, reduction of sepsis-associated mortality) has not yet been initiated. Positive PCR-M findings correlate with an increased morbidity and mortality as well as clinical and laboratory sepsis parameters. Recent studies have aimed for a comparison of PCR-M on sepsis-associated microbes with regard to specificity and sensitivity with the current "gold standard", conventional blood culture. A few studies wrongly claimed to compare the methods because of the difference in the procedures; in addition

  7. Environmental contamination by cyclophosphamide preparation: Comparison of conventional manual production in biological safety cabinet and robot-assisted production by APOTECAchemo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierl, Rudolf; Masini, Carla; Groeneveld, Svenja; Fischer, Elke; Böhlandt, Antje; Rosini, Valeria; Paolucci, Demis

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare environmental contamination of cyclophosphamide (CP) during 1 week of drug compounding by conventional manual procedure in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) with laminar airflow and a new robotic drug preparation system (APOTECAchemo). During four consecutive days, similar numbers of infusion bags with cyclophosphamide were prepared with both techniques in a cross-over design. Wipe samples (49 for BSC, 50 for APOTECAchemo) were taken at several locations (gloves, infusion bags, trays, BSC-benches, floor) in the pharmacy and analyzed for CP concentrations by GC-MSMS (LOD 0.2 ng/sample). The detection rate was 70% in the BSC versus 15% in APOTECAchemo. During manual preparation of admixtures using BSC contamination with CP was below 0.001 ng/cm(2) at most locations, but significant on gloves (0.0004-0.0967 ng/cm(2)) and the majority (70%) of infusion bags (preparation by APOTECAchemo, gloves (1 of 8: 0.0007 ng/cm(2)) and infusion bags (3 of 20: 0.0005, 0.0019, 0.0094 ng/cm(2)) were considerably less contaminated. Residual contamination was found on the surfaces under the dosing device in the compounding area (0.0293-0.1603 ng/cm(2)) inside the robotic system. Compared to outcomes of other studies, our results underline good manufacturing procedures in this pharmacy with low contamination for both techniques (BSC and APOTECAchemo). Comparison of both preparation procedures validated that contamination of infusion bags was much lower by using the robotic system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  9. Policy of Kyrgyz Republic in the field of weapons of mass destruction nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duisheeva, Zh.Z.

    2010-01-01

    adoption the Law On export control, Republic of Kyrgyzstan demonstrated its adherence to WMD nonproliferation and means of its delivery and Republic's entrance to world system of export control. Kyrgyzstan is a member of Nuclear-weapon nonproliferation treaty from 5 July 1994. Also, on 8 October 1996, Kyrgyzstan signed Treaty on comprehensive prohibition of nuclear tests. Kyrgyz Republic considers this document as one of the key instruments in the field of nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, ensuring strategic stability and safety. On 16 September 2003, the IAEA General Conference adopted resolution on accepting Kyrgyz Republic as member. Thus, Kyrgyzstan officially became 137 member of IAEA. Then Kyrgyz Republic in the field of prevention nuclear weapon and materials spread, which can be used at creation of WMD, as well as ensuring safe application and use of nuclear materials ratified Agreement with IAEA on Application of Safeguards in connection with Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Treaty. Kyrgyzstan considers Convention on prohibition of development, manufacture and accumulation of chemical weapons and its elimination as effective instrument of strengthening international peace and safety. Kyrgyz Republic is member of Convention on prohibition of chemical weapon and member of Organization of chemical weapon prohibition from April 2003. Confirmation to Kyrgyz Republic adherence to WMD nonproliferation policy is Kyrgyz Republic joining to Convention on prohibition, development, manufacturing and accumulation of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons stock and their elimination. Kyrgyzstan is member of this convention from august 2004. Currently, the Government of Kyrgyz Republic defined National bodies on cooperation with International Atomic Energy Agency and Organization on prohibition of chemical weapon. As it is known one of the important factors, really ensuring the effectiveness of export control is necessity to strengthen physical protection of

  10. Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, R. H.

    1985-10-01

    This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but requires a substantial amount of time to inflict damage. The fire control computer apparatus utilizes the weapon's status, dwell time, slow time and fuel limits to yield a weapon pointing sequence and weapon on-off times.

  11. Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries' military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities

  12. International agreements on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite detection of a nuclear explosion in the South Atlantic and Israel's destruction of a research reactor in Iraq make it essential to strengthen existing monitoring and enforcement programs to prevent proliferation. While there was no reliable evidence that either South Africa or Iraq was violating non-proliferation agreements, worst case scenarios can demonstrate to unfriendly countries that South Africa had diverted fuel to test a nuclear weapon and that Iraq is intending to produce weapons-grade plutonium 239. The situation can be improved by formulating better terms and conditions for internationalizing access to materials. Nuclear suppliers need to agree on terms that will assure their customers that contracts for civil programs will be honored. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which includes both nuclear suppliers and customers, could achieve stronger agreements that take into account recent technological advances that will expand enrichment and reprocessing activities. 23 references, 1 figure

  13. C, B, R, or N: The Influence of Related Industry on Terrorists’ Choice in Unconventional Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alexandra Tishler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores which factors, given that a terrorist has crossed the threshold over conventional weapons and into using unconventional ones such as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN, will determine the likelihood that he/she chooses to use C, B, R, or N weapons. Relying primarily on data from the incident-based Monterey WMD Database, it employs multinomial logit regression with C, B, R, or N as a categorical dependent variable: a first within the relevant econometric literature. Fundamentally, the study tests the widely-held—although empirically unsubstantiated—technological deterministic assumption that the more readily CBRN technology, materials, and knowledge are accessible to terrorists, the more likely terrorists will be to use unconventional weapons of the corresponding kind: a relationship hypothesized to be stronger for serious attack perpetrators than for hoaxers. Next, the study tests the notion of a continuum of proliferation potential, hypothesizing that as states’ regulatory capacity increases, biological terrorism will be most likely and nuclear terrorism will be least likely. Finally, the study assesses variables that have previously been proven as significant determinants of CBRN over conventional terrorism, to provide the groundwork for future evaluation of the extent to which terrorists may be induced to pursue C, B, R, or N over conventional weapons. Cette étude explore les facteurs, en supposant qu'un terroriste ait franchi le seuil des armes traditionnelles en utilisant des armes non traditionnelles comme les armes chimiques, biologiques, radiologiques et nucléaires (CBRN, qui détermineront la possibilité qu'il/elle choisisse d'utiliser les armes C, B, R ou N. En s'appuyant sur des données primaires de la base de données Monterey WMD, elle se sert d'une régression logit multinomial avec C, B, R ou N comme une variante dépendante catégorique : il s'agit d'une première pour la

  14. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  15. After the world court opinion: Towards a world without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, D.

    1998-01-01

    With the World Court advisory opinion on the treat or use of nuclear weapons, a new moment has arrived in the 51-year history of atomic bomb. The highest legal body in the world has said that governments must not only pursue but conclude negotiations leading to total nuclear disarmament. Both a sharp focus and a comprehensive action are required in developing public support and political action towards a safer, more peaceful world. Three-pronged interrelated course of action is proposed: a Nuclear Weapon Convention; reduction in conventional arms and control of arms trade; and new spending priorities or sustainable development

  16. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  17. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, Morten Bremer

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Conventional weaponry and tactics are likely to remain the primary terrorist means for a definitive majority of sub-national groups. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device. However, recent developments in international terrorism may point in the direction of future terrorist uses of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear devices. Some terrorist groups with a high international profile have showed disturbing interests in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities. As the 'terrorist nuclear weapon standards' are likely to be lower than the strict requirements for traditional state nuclear weapons, technical barriers should not be considered sufficient to avoid future nuclear terrorist violence. Preventing any extremist group from achieving their goals of large-scale nuclear killing is likely best done by preventing the access to fissile materials through state compliances to rigorous standards of Material Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC and A). (author)

  18. The Army’s Commitment to Supporting the Homeland Security Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosive Weapon Terrorist Threat: Can the Reserve Components Meet the Requirement by Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-10

    Achilles’ Heel: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998), 269. 8 Clinton...Accessed 29 September 2000. Falkenrath, Richard A., Robert D. Newman, and Bradley A. Thayer. America’s Achilles’ Heel: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical ... Terrorism and Covert Attack .The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998. Gonzales, Kenneth. "Military Support Detachment (RAID): The Tip of the

  19. A Diagnostic Approach to Weapon System Lifecycle Support: The Phalanx Close-in Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apte, Aruna; Rendon, Rene

    2009-01-01

    This study discusses a diagnostic approach to examining the lifecycle support system of a weapon system specifically illustrating the approaches for the US Navy Phalanx Close-in Weapon System (CIWS...

  20. Laser Weapons in Space: A Critical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    AU/AWC /197/1998-04 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY LASER WEAPONS IN SPACE: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT by William H. Possel, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report...Subtitle Laser Weapons in Space: A Critical Assessment Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Possel, William H. Project Number...Ballistic Missile Vulnerabilities from Lasers ............................................................. 14 CURRENT STATE OF LASER WEAPON TECHNOLOGY

  1. Neutron weapons. War prevention by credible deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The neutron bomb has prompted fierce and controversial public discussions which are more emotional than based on facts. Unaware of the factual repercussions this weapon has, it has been described as the most inhumane weapon ever. By saying so, the public is wrongly informed and is made feel insecure. The following contributions made by competent authorities may be used for getting to the point, pointing out that the neutron bomb is primarily a defensive weapon. (orig.) [de

  2. Kinematics of Laying an Automated Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 899 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-16024 KINEMATICS OF LAYING AN AUTOMATED WEAPON SYSTEM ...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE KINEMATICS OF LAYING AN AUTOMATED WEAPON SYSTEM 5a. CONTRACT...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army ARDEC, WSEC Weapons Systems & Technology Directorate (RDAR-WSW-I) Picatinny

  3. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  4. Application of weapon framework ground vehicle technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Susanta P.; Novak, Brian; Adams, Curtis

    1998-08-01

    In the distributed computing domain a framework is defined as a software environment that simplifies application development and management. Frameworks are categorized in three distinct classes: infrastructure, integration and enterprise. Using an enterprise wide framework approach, weapon system development and maintenance can be simplified and can lead to significant advantages such as extensibility and interoperability. The weapon system technical architecture working group has developed such a framework to infuse interoperability and extensibility among all weapon systems within the army. Application of the concepts of generic open architecture within this framework leads to extensibility. This paper reports on the initial stage of an effort to develop a framework for weapon system.

  5. [Difficulties of the negotiation process of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the application of biology and medicine (and a call for its adhesion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba Ulloa, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Making an attempt to frame the controversial topic of bioethics within international law and with the aim of watching over the society, the Council of Europe elaborated the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the application of biology and medicine. The instrument, which came into force 12 years ago, is opened to all countries but only 29 states have ratified it. This legal document represents the base of a universal legislation on the subject. The present article examines the origin of the Convention, its process and evolution. It analyses the intense debates with regard to the human dignity, the freedom of science, the beginning of life, among others; equally it explores the interests at stake within the convention, whether political, moral, scientific, and economic, at the moment of its draft and in the present. Finally, the article analyses the possibility of the adoption of the Convention by the Mexican government. It concludes on the effectiveness of the international law of bioethics, and calls for the need that the Convention be used as a base for universal legislation.

  6. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    ballistic missiles or caches of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) might allow the United States to destroy these weapons before an adversary could... coherent force structure. Hence, although the Air Force considered the NPR objective of integrating nuclear and conventional strike forces as a

  7. Another weapon too far: the anti-personnel laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, J T

    1995-06-01

    The last decade has seen the development of military lasers designed to blind. Medical professionals dedicated to the prevention and treatment of visual disability, and particularly ophthalmologists under the terms of their newly acquired Royal Charter, have a responsibility to: document this new technology; explain its medical effects; and influence the threshold at which these weapons might be used. Proposals to prohibit anti-eye laser warfare at The United Nations Convention Conference in September 1995 present a unique opportunity to stigmatize blinding as a method of warfare.

  8. Naval Directed-Energy Weapons - No Longer a Future Weapon Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    DE efforts. High-Energy Laser Weapons HEL weapon systems have been envisioned for a great many years, to include be- ing referred to as Martian “Heat...Ray” weapons in H.G. Wells’ epic novel The War of the Worlds, originally published in 1898. In reality, a high-average-power laser weapon sys- tem is...PMS 405) has been actively developing a fiber laser-based Laser Weapon System (LaWS) that could be a retrofit to augment the current ca- pabilities of

  9. The Effects of Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons on Civil-Military Relations in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    favor of building a strong nuclear arsenal. For instance, the chief of naval staff, Admiral Nadkarni , argued that a functional nuclear policy would...help offset Pakistan’s nuclear weapons capability. Nadkarni further noted that a nuclear arsenal would be cheaper to maintain than conventional

  10. Space weapon-The arms control dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasani, B.

    1985-01-01

    Anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, rather than ballistic missile defense, is the main focus of this volume, prepared by SIPRI. There are many authors from the West and the East. The volume as a whole argues a consistent case for a bilateral moratorium on the testing of ASAT weapons, to be followed by a complete ban.

  11. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  12. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  13. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  14. Experimental manipulation reveals a trade-off between weapons and testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjee, U; Miller, C W; Tatarnic, N J; Simmons, L W

    2018-01-01

    Theory predicts a trade-off between sexually selected weapons used to secure mates and post-copulatory traits used to maximize fertilization success. However, individuals that have a greater capacity to acquire resources from the environment may invest more in both pre- and post-copulatory traits, and trade-offs may not be readily apparent. Here, we manipulate the phenotype of developing individuals to examine allocation trade-offs between weapons and testes in Mictis profana (Hemiptera: Coreidae), a species where the hind legs are sexually selected weapons used in contests over access to females. We experimentally prevented males from developing weapons by inducing them to autotomize their hind legs before the final moult to adulthood. We compared trait expression in this group to males where autotomy was induced in the mid-legs, which are presumably not under sexual selection to the same extent. We found males without weapons invested proportionally more in testes mass than those with their mid-legs removed. Males that developed to adulthood without weapons did not differ from the mid-leg removal group in other traits potentially under precopulatory sexual selection, other post-copulatory traits or naturally selected traits. In addition, a sample of adult males from the same population in the wild revealed a positive correlation between investment in testes and weapons. Our study presents a critical contribution to a growing body of literature suggesting the allocation of resources to pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits is influenced by a resource allocation trade-off and that this trade-off may only be revealed with experimental manipulation. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Weapon allometry varies with latitude in the New Zealand giraffe weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, C J; Buckley, T R; Holwell, G I

    2014-12-01

    Animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: Bergmann's rule. Although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. We present data showing latitudinal variation in body size and weapon allometry for the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). Males display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during fights for access to females. Consistent with Bergmann's rule, mean body size increased with latitude. More interestingly, weapon allometry also varied with latitude, such that lower latitude populations exhibited steeper allometric slopes between weapon and body size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a latitudinal cline in weapon allometry and is therefore a novel contribution to the collective work on Bergmann's rule and secondary sexual trait variation. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  17. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  18. Characterization of relative biological effectiveness for conventional radiation therapy: a comparison of clinical 6 MV X-rays and 137Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Beltran, Chris; Sarkaria, Jann; Herman, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Various types of radiation are utilized in the treatment of cancer. Equal physical doses of different radiation types do not always result in the same amount of biological damage. In order to account for these differences, a scaling factor known as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) can be used. 137Cesium (137Cs) has been used as a source of radiation in a significant body of radiation therapy research. However, high-energy X-rays, such as 6 MV X-rays, are currently used clinically to treat patients. To date, there is a gap in the literature regarding the RBE comparison of these two types of radiation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the RBE of 137Cs relative to that of 6 MV X-rays. To determine the RBE, five cell lines were irradiated [Chinese hamster ovary (CHO); human lung adenocarcinoma (A549); human glioma (U251); human glioma (T98); and human osteosarcoma (U2OS)] by both types of radiation and assessed for cell survival using a clonogenic assay. Three of the five cell lines resulted in RBE values of ~1.00 to within 11% for all survival fractions, showing the physical and biological dose for these two types of radiation were equivalent. The other two cell lines gave RBE values differing from 1.00 by up to 36%. In conclusion, the results show the range in biological effect seen between cell lines, and therefore cell type must be considered when characterizing RBE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  20. Non proliferation of nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-10-01

    After having evoked the behaviour of nuclear countries regarding the development of nuclear weapons and uranium procurement, or nuclear programmes after the Second World War until nowadays, the author presents the non proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a construction at the service of super-powers. He comments and discusses the role of the IAEA control system and its evolutions: a control limited to declared installations, an export control with the spectre of plutonium, a control system thwarted by some technological innovations, information systems coming in, and an additional protocol related to the application of guarantees. He comments the evolution of the context from a bipolar world to a world without pole which raises the issue of how to have commitments respected: description of the role and practice of non proliferation during the Cold War, after the Cold War, and in a world without governance

  1. AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This reviews the work of AWRE at Aldermaston and Foulness. The main programme is nuclear and is concerned with the design and development of warheads for strategic and tactical nuclear weapons for the British nuclear deterrent, including those for the Royal Navy's missile carrying submarine fleet. The work is described grouped as design physics, development and materials. Services to these groups and to the whole establishment are provided by Engineering, Safety and Administration. The work ranges from long-term fundamental research, the development of technology, design, prototype development to the environmental testing of engineered products. In materials research the emphasis is on plutonium, uranium and beryllium, on high explosives and a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. The physics of the earth's crust is studied to aid detection of underground nuclear explosions. Reactor research facilities include the two reactors, Herald and Viper. (U.K.)

  2. Characterising the online weapons trafficking on cryptomarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Werner, Denis; Gilliéron, Quentin; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin

    2018-02-01

    Weapons related webpages from nine cryptomarkets were manually duplicated in February 2016. Information about the listings (i.e. sales proposals) and vendors' profiles were extracted to draw an overview of the actual online trafficking of weapons. Relationships between vendors were also inferred through the analysis of online digital traces and content similarities. Weapons trafficking is mainly concentrated on two major cryptomarkets. Besides, it accounts for a very small proportion of the illicit trafficking on cryptomarkets compared to the illicit drugs trafficking. Among all weapon related listings (n=386), firearms only account for approximately 25% of sales proposal since the proportion of non-lethal and melee weapons is important (around 46%). Based on the recorded pseudonyms, a total of 96 vendor profiles were highlighted. Some pseudonyms were encountered on several cryptomarkets, suggesting that some vendors may manage accounts on different markets. This hypothesis was strengthened by comparing pseudonyms to online traces such as PGP keys, images and profiles descriptions. Such a method allowed to estimate more accurately the number of vendors offering weapons across cryptomarkets. Finally, according to the gathered data, the extent of the weapons trafficking on the cryptomarkets appear to be limited compared to other illicit goods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Head-to-head comparison of aggressive conventional therapy and three biological treatments and comparison of two de-escalation strategies in patients who respond to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Heiberg, Marte S; Rudin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    -to-head comparison between csDMARD plus glucocorticoid therapy and three different biological DMARD (bDMARD) therapies with different modes of action and (2) two de-escalation strategies in patients who respond to first-line therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: In a pragmatic, 80-160-week, multicenter, randomized, open......-label, assessor-blinded, phase 4 study, 800 patients with early RA (symptom duration less than 24 months) are randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four different treatment arms: (1) aggressive csDMARD therapy with methotrexate + sulphasalazine + hydroxychloroquine + i.a. glucocorticoids (arm 1A) or methotrexate...

  4. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  5. On weapons plutonium in the arctic environment (Thule, Greenland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.

    2002-04-01

    This thesis concerns a nuclear accident that occurred in the Thule (Pituffik) area, NW Greenland in 1968, called the Thule accident.Results are based on different analytical techniques, i.e. gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, SEM with EDX and different sediment models, i.e. (CRS, CIC). The scope of the thesis is the study of hot particles. Studies on these have shown several interesting features, e.g. that they carry most of the activity dispersed from the accident, moreover, they have been very useful in the determination of the source term for the Thule accident debris. Paper I, is an overview of the results from the Thule-97 expedition. This paper concerns the marine environment, i.e. water, sediment and benthic animals in the Bylot Sound. The main conclusions are; that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface water in this shelf sea, the debris has been efficiently buried in the sediment to great depth as a result of biological activity and transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low. Paper II, concludes that the resuspension of accident debris on land has been limited and indications were, that americium has a faster transport mechanism from the catchment area to lakes than plutonium and radio lead. Paper III, is a method description of inventory calculation techniques in sediment with heterogeneous activity concentration, i.e. hot particles are present in the samples. It is concluded that earlier inventory estimates have been under estimated and that the new inventory is about 3.8 kg (10 TBq) of 239,240 Pu. Paper IV, describes hot particle separation/identification techniques using real-time digital image systems. These techniques are much faster than conventionally used autoradiography and give the results in real time. Paper V, is a study of single isolated hot particles. The most interesting result is that the fission material in the weapons involved in the accident mostly consisted of 235 U (about 4times

  6. On weapons plutonium in the arctic environment (Thule, Greenland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M

    2002-04-01

    This thesis concerns a nuclear accident that occurred in the Thule (Pituffik) area, NW Greenland in 1968, called the Thule accident.Results are based on different analytical techniques, i.e. gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, SEM with EDX and different sediment models, i.e. (CRS, CIC). The scope of the thesis is the study of hot particles. Studies on these have shown several interesting features, e.g. that they carry most of the activity dispersed from the accident, moreover, they have been very useful in the determination of the source term for the Thule accident debris. Paper I, is an overview of the results from the Thule-97 expedition. This paper concerns the marine environment, i.e. water, sediment and benthic animals in the Bylot Sound. The main conclusions are; that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface water in this shelf sea, the debris has been efficiently buried in the sediment to great depth as a result of biological activity and transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low. Paper II, concludes that the resuspension of accident debris on land has been limited and indications were, that americium has a faster transport mechanism from the catchment area to lakes than plutonium and radio lead. Paper III, is a method description of inventory calculation techniques in sediment with heterogeneous activity concentration, i.e. hot particles are present in the samples. It is concluded that earlier inventory estimates have been under estimated and that the new inventory is about 3.8 kg (10 TBq) of {sup 239,240}Pu. Paper IV, describes hot particle separation/identification techniques using real-time digital image systems. These techniques are much faster than conventionally used autoradiography and give the results in real time. Paper V, is a study of single isolated hot particles. The most interesting result is that the fission material in the weapons involved in the accident mostly consisted of {sup 235}U

  7. Weapon Control System for Airborne Application.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2000-01-01

    The integrated fire' control system (IFCS) plays an important role in the present-day fighter aircraft and helicopters. Wecapons, such as missiles (active/passive), rockets and guns may be present on thelfighter aircraft or helicopter .IFCS monitors the status of the weapons present on the vehicle and passes the information to pilot/co-pilot. Depending upon the health/availability of the weapons, IFCS selects/fires the weapons. An attempt has been made to bring out the details of one such IFC...

  8. Optimum electromagnetic weapons detection system. [Airport security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capots, L.H.; Gregory, W.D.; George, J.P.

    1973-09-01

    An optimized weapons detection system based on the ''active'' or ''a.c. susceptibility'' principle is described. For such uses as airport security the method should be capable of screening both passengers and hand baggage simultaneously. This detector uses the latest basic research results obtained on studies of a.c. susceptibility of metals, and identifies weapons characteristics using those results obtained from identifying chemical spectra with search routines, employing minicomputers. The detector is capable of characterizing both magnetic and non-magnetic weapons with a precision otherwise presently unavailable. System design and test data are presented.

  9. Weapon Focus Effect on Eyewitness Testimony

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 恭子; 中條, 和光

    2010-01-01

    Weapon focus refers to a phenomenon that occurs when a crime witness focuses on the weapon, and as a result, experiences a reduced ability to remember the other details of the crime. The purpose of this study was to examine "unusualness" as a possible explanation for the weapon focus effect. In this experiment, this phenomenon was examined by playing videotapes that depicted an event in a classroom or a kitchen. In the videotapes, a male target held a knife while nearing a female person (cont...

  10. Virtual, on-line, frog dissection vs. conventional laboratory dissection: A comparison of student achievement and teacher perceptions among honors, general ability, and foundations-level high school biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Ronald H.

    2002-09-01

    Dissecting animal specimens has long been a tradition in biology classes. Objections by students, based on religious or ethical grounds, have been raised regarding the dissections of animals in classroom laboratories. A number of states now have legal proceedings or statewide policies requiring that alternatives to the actual dissection of laboratory animal specimens be permitted in their school districts. Alternatives to actual dissections have been developed in recent years. For a variety of reasons, performing an actual or conventional animal dissection may not be a desirable option. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a virtual On-line frog dissection compares with an actual laboratory dissection. What were the perceptions of the teacher's using it? How does student achievement compare among three the different ability levels on a pre and posttest regarding basic frog anatomy? Is a virtual On-line dissection a suitable alternative for students who, for whatever reason, do not participate in the actual laboratory experience? The subjects consisted of 218 biology students among three different ability levels, in a Northeastern suburban high school. Approximately half of the student groups participated in a virtual On-line dissection, the other half in an actual laboratory dissection. A pretest of basic frog anatomy was administered to the students two days before and the posttest one day after their dissection experience. Data were analyzed using matched pairs t-Tests, Analysis of Variance, Tukey HSD, and Squared Curvilinear Coefficients. Survey questionnaires were administered to the teachers after the dissection experiences were completed. There were no significant differences found in achievement between the virtual and conventional dissection groups. There were significant differences found in achievement score means among the three ability levels. There was no significant interaction between gender and achievement. Perceptions of the teacher

  11. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  12. Dealing With Russian Tactical Nuclear Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... tactical weapons in such talks as well--a move that the United States always resisted. Only in recent years have the tables turned, with the United States now taking the lead on nuclear initiatives...

  13. FY96 Advanced Weapons Technology Area Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... On-going and planned R&D will lead to advanced weapon systems using high energy lasers, high power microwaves, high energy plasmas, and related capabilities such as high resolution optical imaging...

  14. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly reviews previous WHO work on the health consequences of nuclear war and concentrates on current information about the effects of nuclear weapons on health, and related environmental problems. 15 refs

  15. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  16. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  17. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    .... The Six-Party Talks include the United States, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia, and North Korea, and were begun in August 2003 to attempt to resolve the current crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons...

  18. CHEMICAL EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS – DATA DICTIONARY (CEBS-DD): A COMPENDIUM OF TERMS FOR THE CAPTURE AND INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL STUDY DESIGN DESCRIPTION, CONVENTIONAL PHENOTYPES AND ‘OMICS’ DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical component in the design of the Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) Knowledgebase is a strategy to capture toxicogenomics study protocols and the toxicity endpoint data (clinical pathology and histopathology). A Study is generally an experiment carried out du...

  19. Distributed Weapons: Sea Strike Human Systems Integration in Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Chris

    2004-01-01

    ... Damage Indication and Imagery to Tomahawk Command and Control stations. These capabilities have been successfully brought forward through the development of the Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS...

  20. Proliferation of nuclear weapons: opportunities for control and abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, Victor W; Levy, Barry S

    2007-09-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. "Horizontal" proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. "Vertical" proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation--and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons--involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

  1. Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    and Technology, Air War College, 325 Chennault Circle, Maxwell AFB, Alabama 36112, or on the CSAT web site at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate...from established custom , from the principles of humanity and from the dictates of public conscience. In addition to these general principles, other...Concerning Non-Lethal Weapons107 Treaties 1. Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and Its Annex: Regulations Concerning the

  2. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, O.V.; Murin, B.P.; Kochurov, B.P.; Shubin, Yu.M.; Volk, V.I.; Bogdanov, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  3. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...... of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10$^{6}$ fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238....

  4. Reducing Peak Power in Automated Weapon Laying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    LAYING Joshua Stapp Matthew Tomik February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...PEAK POWER IN AUTOMATED WEAPON LAYING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Joshua Stapp and...aiming a weapon is referred to as gun laying . This report describes a method to calculate motion profiles that reach a given lay within the least

  5. Responsibilities of the nuclear-weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun

    1994-01-01

    The responsibilities of Nuclear Weapon States are presented by a straightforward analysis together with the ways in which they could fulfill them. The complete undertaking of all the commitments by the Nuclear Weapon States may take a long time. However they do not have a single excuse to neglect such a historic opportunity to do their best to provide a genuinely secure world environment for the international community, of which they too are members

  6. Optimization of Aimpoints for Coordinate Seeking Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    aiming) and independent (ballistic) errors are taken into account, before utilizing each of the three damage functions representing the weapon. A Monte...into account, before utilizing each of the three damage functions representing the weapon. A Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to calculate the...Rectangular Cookie Cutter RDF Rectangular Damage Function REP Range Error Probable xvi SSPD Single Sortie Probability of Damage TLE Target Location

  7. Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) Reference Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    exist regarding the use of a Optical Distractors (e.g., Dazzling Lasers )? ANSWER: Strict laws, SECDEF guidance, and ROE exist to control the use of...National Guard Bureau (NGB) 1 Domestic Operations Kits (DOK) Joint Non-Lethal Warning Munitions (JNLWM) 2 Green Lasers 2...Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. Paris, 13 January 1993. 16. UNCCW Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV to the 1980

  8. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  9. Imaging of Nuclear Weapon Trainers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The Configurable Muon Tracker (CMT) is an adaptation of the existing drift tube detector commercially available from Decision Sciences International Corporation (DSIC). NSTec engineered the CMT around commercially available drift tube assemblies to make a detector that is more versatile than previous drift tube assemblies. The CMT became operational in February 2013. Traditionally, cosmic-ray muon trackers rely on near-vertical trajectory muons for imaging. Since there are scenarios where imaging using vertical trajectory muons is not practical, NSTec designed the CMT specifically for quick configurability to track muons from any trajectory. The CMT was originally designed to be changed from vertical imaging mode to horizontal imaging mode in a few hours with access to a crane or other lifting equipment. In FY14, locations for imaging weapon trainers and SNM were identified and it was determined that lifting equipment would not typically be available in experimental areas. The CMT was further modified and a portable lifting system was developed to allow reconfiguration of the CMT without access to lifting equipment at the facility. This system was first deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s W-division, where several trainers were imaged in both horizontal and vertical modes. Real-time images have been compared in both modes showing that imaging can be done in both modes with the expected longer integration time for horizontal mode. Further imaging and post processing of the data is expected to continue into early FY15.

  10. Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A.

    1995-01-01

    The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union's economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. open-quotes Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,close quotes says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. open-quotes With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,close quotes Ustinov concludes

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  12. High-energy laser weapons: technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perram, Glen P.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Goda, Matthew

    2004-09-01

    High energy laser (HEL) weapons are ready for some of today"s most challenging military applications. For example, the Airborne Laser (ABL) program is designed to defend against Theater Ballistic Missiles in a tactical war scenario. Similarly, the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) program is currently testing a laser to defend against rockets and other tactical weapons. The Space Based Laser (SBL), Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) and Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) programs promise even greater applications for laser weapons. This technology overview addresses both strategic and tactical roles for HEL weapons on the modern battlefield and examines current technology limited performance of weapon systems components, including various laser device types, beam control systems, atmospheric propagation, and target lethality issues. The characteristics, history, basic hardware, and fundamental performance of chemical lasers, solid state lasers and free electron lasers are summarized and compared. The elements of beam control, including the primary aperture, fast steering mirror, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, beacons and illuminators will be discussed with an emphasis on typical and required performance parameters. The effects of diffraction, atmospheric absorption, scattering, turbulence and thermal blooming phenomenon on irradiance at the target are described. Finally, lethality criteria and measures of weapon effectiveness are addressed. The primary purpose of the presentation is to define terminology, establish key performance parameters, and summarize technology capabilities.

  13. Maintaining non-nuclear weapon status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, H.

    1991-01-01

    Among the some 170 sovereign states in the world, five are legally recognized as nuclear weapon states (NWS) under the terms of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Six countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa) are counted as threshold states: they possess sizeable unsafeguarded nuclear facilities or have passed the brink of a nuclear test or of clandestine weapon production. Six other countries (Iran, Iraq, Libya, Taiwan, and North and South Korea) have been suspected periodically of either considering the nuclear weapon option or of working secretly on the development of weapons. Thus, about 150 non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain which neither possess nuclear weapons nor strive to acquire them. These states are distributed throughout the globe and encompass highly industrialized as well as underdeveloped countries, liberal democracies, socialist states, sheikdoms and dictatorships. Some NNWS face acute military threats; other are far removed from the quarrels of the world, as in the case of some remote fortunate islands. Furthermore, NNWS may be members of nuclear-umbrella alliances or may have opted for a policy of neutrality or non-alignment

  14. China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler

  15. RESTRICTIONS BY THE USE OF WEAPONS OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS

    OpenAIRE

    Lyatsa A. Kodzokova

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article considers the restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons. The author analyzes the restrictions on the circulation of weapons, the procedure for their implementation in practice. Federal Law "On weapons" only in paragraph 6 p. 1, art. 6 "Restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons" refers to the prohibition of 'turnover as a civilian and service weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of rad...

  16. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  17. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project, Treatment Definitions and Descriptions, and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, Final Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions)

  18. Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    U.S. electrical power.16 Nonetheless, building up such a huge nuclear capability cost only a fraction of what maintaining large conventional...the spirit of trust and cooperation it has engen - dered. So far as ratification is concerned, NATO mem- bers have argued since the Istanbul Summit in

  19. From biodefence to biosecurity: the Obama administration's strategy for countering biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblentz, Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    The Seventh Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), the first international treaty to outlaw an entire class of weapons, was held in Geneva in December 2011. On 7 December, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton became the highest-ranking US government official to address a BWC meeting. Secretary Clinton told the assembled delegation that ‘we view the risk of bioweapons attack as both a serious national security challenge and a foreign policy priority’. At the same time, she warned that a large-scale disease outbreak ‘could cripple an already fragile global economy’. Secretary Clinton's speech reflected a new understanding that the range of biological threats to international security has expanded from state-sponsored biological warfare programmes to include biological terrorism, dual-use research and naturally occurring infectious diseases such as pandemics. Recognizing these changes, President Barack Obama released a new national strategy for countering biological threats in 2009. This strategy represents a shift in thinking away from the George W. Bush administration's focus on biodefence, which emphasized preparing for and responding to biological weapon attacks, to the concept of biosecurity, which includes measures to prevent, prepare for and respond to naturally occurring and man-made biological threats. The Obama administration's biosecurity strategy seeks to reduce the global risk of naturally occurring and deliberate disease outbreaks through prevention, international cooperation, and maximizing synergies between health and security. The biosecurity strategy is closely aligned with the Obama administration's broader approach to foreign policy, which emphasizes the pragmatic use of smart power, multilateralism and engagement to further the national interest. This article describes the Obama administration's biosecurity strategy; highlights elements of continuity and change from the policies of the Bush administration; discusses

  20. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  1. Mortality associated with use of weapons in armed conflicts, wartime atrocities, and civilian mass shootings: literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Robin M; Meddings, David R

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the implications of variation in mortality associated with use of weapons in different contexts. Design Literature review. Settings Armed conflicts and civilian mass shootings, 1929-96. Main outcome measure Mortality from wounds. Results During the fighting of war the number of people wounded is at least twice the number killed and may be 13 times as high; this ratio of the number wounded to the number killed results from the impact of a weapon system on human beings in the particular context of war. When firearms are used against people who are immobilised, in a confined space, or unable to defend themselves the wounded to killed ratio has been lower than 1 or even 0. Conclusions Mortality from firearms depends not only on the technology of the weapon or its ammunition but also on the context in which it is used. The increased mortality resulting from the use of firearms in situations other than war requires a complex interaction of factors explicable in terms of wound ballistics and the psychology of the user. Understanding these factors has implications for recognition of war crimes. In addition, the lethality of conventional weapons may be increased if combatants are disabled by the new non-lethal weapons beforehand; this possibility requires careful legal examination within the framework of the Geneva Conventions. Key messagesMortality from firearms varies according to the context in which they are usedIn war the number of people wounded is at least twice the number killedThe number killed may be greater than the number wounded when firearms are used against people who are immobilised, in a confined space, or unable to defend themselvesRecognising how the wounded to killed ratio varies has implications for recognising war crimesCombining use of weapons that are designed to incapacitate with use of conventional weapons requires examination under the law of war PMID:10445920

  2. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign... CONTACT: Pamela K. Durham, Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of... government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability: Gerhard...

  3. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  4. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  5. Detecting necessary and sufficient parts for assembling a functional weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Solomon, Divya; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Adkins, Tracy; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2017-05-01

    Continuing our previous research to visually extract and visually and conceptually match weapons, this study develops a method to determine whether a set of weapon parts visually extracted from images taken from different scenes can be assembled as a firing weapon. This new approach identifies potential weapons in the ontology via tracing detected necessary and sufficient parts through their meronymic relation to the whole weapon. A fast algorithm for identifying potential weapons that can be assembled from a given set of detected parts is presented.

  6. Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-08-08

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

  7. The medical consequences of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.; Hartog, M.; Middleton, H.

    1982-01-01

    A pamphlet has been produced by the Medical Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (MCANW) and by the Medical Association for the Prevention of War (MAPW) to bring the catastrophic effects that the use of nuclear weapons would entail to the attention of the general public, politicians and members of the medical profession. It describes the medical consequences of the effects of blast, heat and ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons, including details from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. The medical consequences of a nuclear attack including consideration of the casualties, care of the injured, psychological effects and the outcome are also discussed. It is concluded that if for none other than purely medical reasons, nuclear warfare must never be allowed to happen. (UK)

  8. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  9. Nuclear weapons headed for the trash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.; Durrant, D.; Kristensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Whether he intended it or not, Bush has taken steps that mean the beginning of the end for nuclear weapons. His proposals significantly reduce the numbers of nuclear weapons and the burdens associated with deploying and controlling them. And although he retains many of the options for continuing and regenerating the nuclear arsenal, he has exposed the fact that there are no longer any grand justifications or doctrinal needs for nuclear weapons - and that the nuclear machine is choking on its economic, political, environmental, and human contradictions. The initiatives fundamentally altered the nuclear stance of both nations. Yet, as momentous as the changes were, they were set in motion in an almost businesslike manner. Neither leader truly framed the moves as an end to the nuclear age. But they didn't need to. The steps they have taken practically guarantee it

  10. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.

    1998-01-01

    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  11. Anti-satellite Weapons, Deterrence and Sino-American Space Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    kinetic kill mechanisms such as lasers and jam- mers. Counter-space capabilities reside in conventional- and nuclear-armed weapon systems, including...satellites. As noted above, lasers and jammers could also be employed to disrupt space opera- tions, and could do so without creating debris fields. In this...through various flavors of jamming, dazzling and other non-kinetic attacks with either temporary or lasting effects, up to outright attacks by

  12. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  13. Industry Study, Weapons Industry, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    arms manufacturers such as Colt, Smith and Wesson , and FN/USA, all indications are that industry is prepared to meet the potential impending...sect&dcn=0001193125-09-037012, March 16, 2009. 58 Joby Warrick and R. Jeffrey Smith , "Lost U.S. Weapons may be Going to Taliban, GAO Says...displayfilinginfo.aspx?FilingID=6436604-149185- 289710&type=sect&dcn=0001193125-09-037012. Warrick, Joby and R. Jeffrey Smith , "Lost U.S. Weapons may be Going

  14. Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling Alex Lodge INSTITUTE FOR...E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-8048 Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling Alex Lodge This page is intentionally blank...representative of the highest typical activ- ity of that radioisotope , the amount of radioactive material found with that practice (Activ- ity of Practice

  15. Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, K H

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile as well as the nuclear-weapons enterprise needs to continue to change to reflect this evolving role. Stockpile reductions in the early 1990s and the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), established after the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992, began this process of change. Further evolution is needed to address changing security environments, to enable further reductions in the number of stockpiled weapons, and to create a nuclear enterprise that is cost effective and sustainable for the long term. The SSP has successfully maintained the U.S. nuclear stockpile for more than a decade, since the end of nuclear testing. Current plans foresee maintaining warheads produced in the 1980s until about 2040. These warheads continue to age and they are expensive to refurbish. The current Life Extension Program plans for these legacy warheads are straining both the nuclear-weapons production and certification infrastructure making it difficult to respond rapidly to problems or changes in requirements. Furthermore, refurbishing and preserving Cold-War-era nuclear weapons requires refurbishing and preserving an infrastructure geared to support old technology. Stockpile Stewardship could continue this refurbishment approach, but an alternative approach could be considered that is more focused on sustainable technologies, and developing a more responsive nuclear weapons infrastructure. Guided by what we have learned from SSP during the last decade, the stewardship program can be evolved to address this increasing challenge using its computational and experimental tools and capabilities. This approach must start

  16. Application of image simulation in weapon system development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available weapon systems; including sensor development, image processing algorithm development and knowledge management. The simulator environment has proved invaluable in the development and evaluation of complex optronics weapon systems...

  17. Mortality associated with use of weapons in armed conflicts, wartime atrocities, and civilian mass shootings: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, R M; Meddings, D R

    1999-08-14

    To determine the implications of variation in mortality associated with use of weapons in different contexts. Literature review. Armed conflicts and civilian mass shootings, 1929-96. Mortality from wounds. During the fighting of war the number of people wounded is at least twice the number killed and may be 13 times as high; this ratio of the number wounded to the number killed results from the impact of a weapon system on human beings in the particular context of war. When firearms are used against people who are immobilised, in a confined space, or unable to defend themselves the wounded to killed ratio has been lower than 1 or even 0. Mortality from firearms depends not only on the technology of the weapon or its ammunition but also on the context in which it is used. The increased mortality resulting from the use of firearms in situations other than war requires a complex interaction of factors explicable in terms of wound ballistics and the psychology of the user. Understanding these factors has implications for recognition of war crimes. In addition, the lethality of conventional weapons may be increased if combatants are disabled by the new non-lethal weapons beforehand; this possibility requires careful legal examination within the framework of the Geneva Conventions.

  18. The future of nuclear weapons in Europe workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.A.; Garrity, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    A summary is presented of a workshop that addressed the future of nuclear weapons in Europe. The workshop topics included the evolving European security environment; the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and nuclear weapons; the United States, NATO, and nuclear weapons; and Western Europe and nuclear weapons. The workshop, held at Los Alamos July 26, 1991, was sponsored by the Center for National Security Studies of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

  19. ORDNANCE CORPS VIEWS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION HAZARDS TO WEAPONS SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS, * ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), HAZARDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, ANTENNAS, ATTENUATORS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING, SENSITIVITY, WEAPON SYSTEMS, MODULATION, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND

  20. Combating the spread of weapons of mass destruction: Some reflections. Essay, published in Le Monde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    With all the changes in international relations since the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have continued to have a position of prominence as the currency of ultimate power. And although a number of countries such as South Africa have given up their nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons ambitions, the nuclear umbrellas of NATO and other alliances continue to expand. More importantly, the objectives embodied in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), developed in the early 1970s to control the spread of nuclear weapons and to move us towards nuclear disarmament, are under growing stress. Several thousands of nuclear weapons continue to exist in the five nuclear weapon States party to the NPT (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). And of the three countries that remain outside the NPT, two India and Pakistan have in the last few years demonstrated their nuclear weapons capability, while the third Israel is generally presumed to have such weapons. Most recently North Korea, a party to the NPT, has decided to walk away from the Treaty and, not unlike some other parties to the Treaty, is suspected of working to acquire nuclear weapons. Other States, on the other hand, have opted for the 'poor man's alternative' by pursuing the acquisition of chemical and biological weapons. And in the aftermath of the events of 11 September 2001, the threat of Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) proliferation gained a new dimension: the prospect of sub-national groups seeking to acquire and use these weapons. Faced with this reality, one must conclude that it is futile to try to combat the spread of WMD through a collective, rule-based system of international security and that people have to acquiesce to living in a world plagued with the constant threat of a nuclear holocaust or other disasters? But reliance on a system of collective security to curb the proliferation of WMD will require bold thinking, a willingness to work together

  1. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    close to reaching the muzzle, and the bolt is thrust rearward by the propellant gases against the action of a spring. The impulse generated before...weapon at the hip and adjusting fire (to the desired impact point) by *Incidentally, there have been

  2. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  3. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers

  4. Atomic Energy Authority (Weapons Group) Act 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This Act, which came into force on 6th March 1973 and modified Section 2 of the Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954 in respect of the Authority's power to do work on explosive nuclear devices, made provision for the transfer to the Secretary of State for Defence of the Weapons Group of the Atomic Energy Authority. (NEA) [fr

  5. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. Virtually without exception, the spear is present wherever there are humans. The spear may claim to be the senior martial art, and the weapon is still in use today. Early techniques are preserved by the small number of Japanese sojutsu schools, and modern Chinese martial artists have developed elegant and impressive gymnastic routines for the spear. The javelin throw is a modern Olympic track and field event, and there are people who have resurrected the Aztec atlatl for sporting competition. Today, the spear is still used in Europe for hunting wild boar, and the continued issue of the obsolete bayonet to modern soldiers testifies to a deep, almost instinctive respect still possessed by the military for the spear.

  6. Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera

  7. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Selected Weapon Programs Appendix III GAO Contact and Acknowledgments CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement (HLR) Kevin J. Heinz Combat Search and Rescue...E-2D AHE) Lauren M. Heft EA-18G Jerry W. Clark/Bonita P. Oden Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-Atlas V, Delta IV (EELV) Maria A. Durant

  8. On the reduction of nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Bacher, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    The United States, in 1946, proposed that an international authority be formed to control the dangerous parts of atomic energy. The proposal met with very little success, except to lead to the conclusion that there was no apparent reason why it was not technically feasible. Discussions on nuclear weapons testing, initiated in 1958, reached some agreement on test restrictions in Subsequent years.

  9. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  10. What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

  11. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  12. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...

  13. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  14. The spread of nuclear weapons among nations: militarization or development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews nuclear proliferation among nations. Nuclear weapons promotion and proliferation are discussed, including both motivation and lack of motivation to manufacture nuclear weapons. The failure of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is examined with respect to vertical and horizontal proliferation, and the containment of horizontal proliferation. Risks of nuclear war by accident are outlined, as well as nuclear weapon development. (UK)

  15. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the later years the risks of nuclear proliferation have again become a major topic of interest. This is primarily due to the acute problems caused by Iraq, North Korea, and the 3 new states of the former USSR, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Analysis shows that security problems and prestige are the two most important motives, when the risks of proliferation are considered. But motives are not enough. To produce nuclear weapons a number of technological requirements must also be fulfilled. The country must be able to produce almost pure fissile material, i.e. 235 U or 239 Pu. It must also be able to solve a number of metallurgical, explosive, ignition, physics and other problems. These are in particular non-trivial, if a implosion weapon is to be designed. A review is made of the nuclear facilities in a number of the countries which have been suggested as possible future nuclear weapons countries. In particular facilities which can produce almost pure fissile materials, 235 U and 239 Pu, are considered. The possibility of nuclear terrorists have often been discussed in the media. However, it seems very unlikely that even a major terrorist or mafia organization will be able to solve all the weapons design problems, even if they could steal the fissile material. It is finally discussed what can be done to reduce the risk of further nuclear proliferation. Political pressure can be brought to bear on countries outside the NPT to join it, but it can be counter-productive, and sometimes the countries that are able to exert such pressure, are not willing to do so for other political reasons. The problem of countries which are party to the NPT, but which are believed to acquire nuclear weapons capability in violation of the treaty, can be countered by unannounced inspections of non-declared facilities. However, such inspections can only be meaningfully performed if the necessary intelligence is available. (EG)

  16. Stepping towards a nuclear-weapon-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to reach zero nuclear weapons, the role of nuclear weapons must change. As long as nuclear weapons are seen as an important factor preventing war, their continued existence will be assured. This does not mean that the nuclear-weapon-free world will not occur or that intermediate steps towards zero are not important. In the past five years the world has seen agreements to sharply reduce the number of warheads, significant progress towards a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and renewed support for the Non-proliferation Treaty including several surprise new members. The next five years will probably bring the world closer to nuclear-weapon-free world

  17. From the nuclear stalemate to a nuclear-weapon free world. In memory of Klaus Fuchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, Guenter; Fuchs-Kittowski, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The first soviet atomic bomb and Klaus Fuchs, in illusory worlds of Andrei Sakharov, Edward Teller, and Klaus Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs as grandfather of the hydrogen bomb, memories of and thinking about Klaus Fuchs, the Scottish years of Klaus Fuchs 1937-1941, Klaus Fuchs in the mirror of the Venona documents, Gernot Zippe and the ultracentrifuge or east-west technology transfer in the cold war, secret impulses for the soviet nuclear project, responsibility of knowledge with anti-facism, philosophy, and science as well as peace as the first human right in the work of Klaus Fuchs, the request of Klaus Fuchs for a lasting peace, Klaus Fuchs in Daniel Granin's roman ''Escape to Russia'', ways to a nuclear-weapon free world, Otto Hahn and the declarations of Mainau and Goettingen, nuclear winter, initiatives of the GDR for the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in negative entropy, militarism and antimilitarism of the nuclear age, contributions of the young Klaus Fuchs to statistical physics, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the responsibility of the scientists for a socially effective and efficient energy change, Berlin-Bucher contributions to a world free of biological weapons. (HSI)

  18. Making Weapons for the Terracotta Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Terracotta Army of the First Emperor of China is one of the most emblematic archaeological sites in the world. Many questions remain about the logistics of technology, standardisation and labour organisation behind the creation of such a colossal construction in just a few decades over 2,000 years ago. An ongoing research project co-ordinated between the UCL Institute of Archaeology and the Emperor Qin Shihang's Terracotta Army Museum is beginning to address some of these questions. This paper outlines some results of the typological, metric, microscopic, chemical and spatial analyses of the 40,000 bronze weapons recovered with the Terracotta Warriors. Thanks to a holistic approach developed specifically for this project, it is possible to reveal remarkable aspects of the organisation of the Qin workforce in production cells, of the standardisation, efficiency and quality-control procedures employed, and of the sophisticated technical knowledge of the weapon-makers.

  19. Low yield nuclear weapons and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, S.

    1999-01-01

    It is unlikely that anybody would imagine the route to a nuclear-weapon-free world as a straight and unimpeded one. At the moment, there is a fading interest in the possibility of the concerted bilateral reduction of the US and Russian nuclear weapon stockpiles. The reason is evident: these powers demonstrate quite different approaches to two large political campaigns initiated in American political circles, namely NATO expansion to the East, and the attack on Anti-Ballistic-Missile (ABM) Treaty. Russia considers these initiatives as provocative in content and high-handed in the form. The West argues that Russian response is unjustified and insists on the peaceful nature of its plans?

  20. Is there any future for nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisbourg, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons occupy a paradoxal place both in the collective imagination and in the historical reality: on the one hand everybody dreads the apocalypse horror, and on the other hand, dissuasion appears as an unchanging and quite comfortable situation. However, the world has become multipolar in this domain as well. The geopolitical map is reconstructing. Doctrinal revisions, initiatives against nuclear weapons proliferation, and nuclear disarmament measures are now on the agenda. The best foreign and French experts examine for the first time the consequences of these evolutions. They analyse in particular the split up risks and the potential consequences of a nuclear conflict in regions where atomic arms have become a key-component of the strategic landscape: Middle-Est, Far-East, Southern Asia. The choices France and its allies will have to face are examined as well. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear weapons Latin American Proscription Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Military descentralization of Latin America will constitute a measure that will keep its peoples from squandering in nuclear weapons out of their limited resources and will protect them from eventually being attacked in such fashion within their territories. This constitutes a considerable contribution award avoiding proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as a giant step towards general and complete disarmament. It will also constitute evidence that Latin America, faithful to its universalist tradition, not only must make a greater effort towards proscribing from its territories the treat of a nuclear war, but also must use all its resources to persevere in its struggle for welfare and progress of its peoples, cooperating along with the rest of the world to achieve the ideals of mankind as a whole

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apold, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theme of Dr. Marshall's lecture was that it is, from the viewpoint of prevention of proliferation of nuclear weapons,preferable to use plutonium as a fuel in FBR reactors rather than store it in what, in effect, would be plutonium mines. The true threat of proliferation lies in uranium enrichment. The FBR reactor is misunderstood and the US policy is not against breeders as such. Safeguards against the misuse of plutonium by leaving a residue of radioactivity after reprocessing is quite feasible, despite certain practical problems and extra costs. Weapon proliferation is subject to political objectives and intentions. Definite proposals are, (a) a limited number of reprocessing centres, (b) an accelerated development of FBR reactors, (c) a new FBR fuel cycle, (d) stop storage of spent thermal reactor fuel, (e) reinforced safeguards. (JIW)

  3. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...... of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary conflicts....

  4. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  5. High Power Laser Weapons and Operational Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Roso, Nelson Alex; Moreira, Romero da Costa; Oliveira, José Edimar Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The operational implications of high power laser weapons are constantly growing in countries with advanced military technological level. As well as on progress in integration with air, land and naval platforms, this paper discusses the necessary development and implementation of the operational concepts into Armed Forces, which should target orientation in the improvement process of the appropriate warfare material, i.e. the laser, as well as remodeling the existing combat's doctrin...

  6. Polonium-210 as Weapon for Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Properties of Po-210 make it possible for its use as weapon of mass destruction. Po-210 occurs naturally in minute quantities in the human body, in Uranium ore (< 0.1 mg Po-210 / ton ) and as a product of Radon-222 gas decay chain. Po-210 also occurs as deposition on vegetation (tobacco leaves). Po-210 is produced by bombardment of Bi-209 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Russia produces 8 grams per year for export to USA market

  7. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Imprecise Probability Methods for Weapons UQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Building on recent work in uncertainty quanti cation, we examine the use of imprecise probability methods to better characterize expert knowledge and to improve on misleading aspects of Bayesian analysis with informative prior distributions. Quantitative approaches to incorporate uncertainties in weapons certi cation are subject to rigorous external peer review, and in this regard, certain imprecise probability methods are well established in the literature and attractive. These methods are illustrated using experimental data from LANL detonator impact testing.

  9. Tactical Nuclear Weapons: Their Purpose and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    against North Atlantic Treaty powers by all means available, including air, naval, land and psychological operations.”27 “All means available” was the...the political and psychological value of these weapons. - Douglas Stuart, “Introduction of European Policies and Opinions Relating to Tactical... Humanistic Perspectives on International Relations. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2003. 69 Schnabel, James F. Policy and Direction: The First Year

  10. The Nuclear Weapons Effects National Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    spirals, which is likely to be cost prohibitive .27 Some notable progress, however, is starting to occur. The Army elevated its watchdog agency, the...widespread high-altitude electromagnetic pulse ( HEMP ). These tests were hastily planned and among the last to occur prior to the 1962 moratorium on nuclear... HEMP levels and system response for different weapon yields and burst altitudes did not occur. The observed effects on systems at the time of the

  11. Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orient, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness. A decision analysis approach clarifies the risks and benefits of a change to a strategy of preparedness

  12. Environmental problems in the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    This paper provide the authors' views on the environmental problems facing the Department of Energy. Testimony is based on a large body of work, over 50 reports and testimonies since 1981, on environmental, safety, and health aspects of DOE's nuclear weapons complex. This work has shown that the complex faces a wide variety of serious problem areas including aging facilities, safety concerns which have shut down DOE's production reactors, and environmental cleanup

  13. Reinventing the weapons systems of the future

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    "If lucky, a surface ship has ten to twenty seconds to defend itself once a guided missile is launched from a nearby shore, or a sea-skimming missile is detected coming over the horizon. Because reaction times are so short, especially with ships now closer to shore missile batteries due to the Navy's focus on littoral missions, a directed energy weapon travelling near the speed of light becomes critical for survival, let alone defense..."

  14. Design and Simulation of Weapon Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Strogalev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the problems of implementing a systematic approach to design the complex technical systems, such as the objects of weapons, as a hierarchically ordered structure. It considers the possibility of using the simulation techniques for designing weapon objects to improve efficiency of methods used to determine design parameters of developed system.The article justifies the role and place of simulation in information technology of making design decisions. It analyses the construction features of simulation models and areas of their applications. This approach allows us to determine design parameters of developed complex technical systems in the most reasonable and time-effective way and reduce the cost of expensive field tests.The article defines key terms used in development of complex technical systems, such as a systematic approach, design, decision-making, information technology, hierarchical approach, methodology, methods, techniques, etc.An example of the classical test simulation model construction is shown to determine the probability of an eagle coin toss, which describes in detail all phases of developing a simulation model such as information gathering, information processing and promotion of statistical hypotheses, and, at last, further behavior prediction of the complex technical system.The article reviews the issues to estimate a simulation adequacy in terms of functioning real technical objects, including objects of weapons. It gives an algorithm for estimating a probability of the armored target defeat by a tactical guided missile. It is noted that using the appropriate methods to search design parameters of complex technical systems developed on the basis of simulation allows a significant improvement of their efficiency and reducing cost of expensive field tests, which is especially important when creating the new perspective weapons.

  15. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  16. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  17. Definition of weapons-usable uranium-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Hopper, C.M.; Richter, J.L.; Vantine, H.C.

    1998-03-01

    A definition of low-enriched uranium-233 (LEU-233) is developed herein to provide a technical basis for changing the safeguards and security requirements for storing, using, and disposing of uranium-233 ( 233 U) that is isotopically diluted with uranium-238 ( 238 U). LEU-233 is defined as 233 U that contains sufficient 238 U such that the mixture is effectively non-weapons-usable material. It is widely recognized within the technical community that 233 U which has been isotopically diluted to a sufficient degree with 238 U can not be used to build nuclear weapons. However, because of a set of historical factors, this knowledge was not incorporated into the regulations covering international and domestic safeguards and security requirements for fissile materials. A technical basis is required to define how much dilution of 233 U with 238 U is required to convert the 238 U to LEU-233, which would not require the safeguards and security that are currently mandated with direct-use (weapons-usable) materials. The definition of LEU-233 developed herein was chosen to be equivalent to the definition of LEU containing 235 U. However, because 233 U has nuclear characteristics different than those of 235 U, the numerical isotopic dilution requirements to make LEU-233 are different from those of LEU. It is proposed that LEU-233 be defined as a uranium mixture containing 233 U and > 88 wt% 238 U. In comparison, LEU is defined as a uranium mixture containing 235 U

  18. The German Debate on Tactical Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the debate in Germany about tactical nuclear weapons deployments in Europe. It is mainly based on interviews conducted with senior officials from the German Federal Foreign Ministry, the Federal Ministry of Defence, senior members of Parliament as well as experts from research institutes and think-tanks. The interviews focused on the more recent past in the German debate as well as the future of tactical nuclear weapon deployments in Germany and Europe. The report concludes that while a change of Germany's position on tactical nuclear weapons is unlikely to change in the short-term, several developments will make it unlikely that the continued involvement of Germany in NATO nuclear sharing will have to be debated in the medium term. Should the next Parliamentary elections, which will take place in 2009 at the latest, result in a Social Democrat-led government, a push for a reduction of Germany's involvement in NATO nuclear sharing appears possible. A conservative-led government is likely to maintain the nuclear status quo within NATO

  19. Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

  20. The real value of nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carasales, J.

    1998-01-01

    The international community has greeted the establishment of two new nuclear weapon-free zones with praise. Africa and South Asia are the regions which will join, once the respective treaties are ratified and in force, Latin America and the South Pacific to ensure that extensive areas of the earth remain free of nuclear weapons. The usual reaction to these accomplishments is to hail them as important contributions to international peace and security, and as meaningful steps towards a world free of nuclear weapons. The nuclear weapon-free zones have their value but this value relates mainly to the countries within the zone. The interest of nuclear-weapon states are not really affected, or, if they are, the influence is not significant. One should bear in mind that the really important and meaningful nuclear weapon-free zones have yet to be achieved

  1. International controls and the elimination of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.

    1997-01-01

    The elimination of nuclear weapons will require success in three interrelated efforts: stopping the proliferation of nuclear weapons by states through indigenous programs; preventing the illicit acquisition o warheads, components or essential materials by states, sub-national organizations or individuals; and halting further production and eliminating existing nuclear weapons in acknowledged nuclear-weapon-states and in other states that may now possess such weapons. The elimination of nuclear weapons is a challenge for regional and global security and perhaps more than any other security issue, a matter of most appropriate for collective control measures. The most significant issues concerning control are related to proliferation and peaceful uses of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The IAEA has a special role, tasks and responsibilities concerning verification of non-proliferation, plutonium management, illegal trafficking of plutonium and/or highly enriched uranium, production cut-off of fissile material

  2. Uranium power and horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1984-01-01

    Only a few nonnuclear weapons states with uranium-fueled power plants have kept the weapons option open, and gives evidence of activities intended to divert fissionable material from its civilian system. Analysis of alternative strategies shows that the acquisition of nuclear weapons material would probably depend on military production facilities rather than diversion. Horizontal proliferation is primarily a political issue, and is related only marginally to uranium power development. Restrictions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act on the supply of equipment and fuel by the US appear to have led some nonnuclear weapons states to build small-scale facilities that can be modified for the production of weapons material, however. More attention should be given to the international political, economic, and military factors that persuade such states to forego nuclear weapons. 19 references

  3. Vulnerability of digitized platforms to modern rf electromagnetic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frater, Michael R.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2001-08-01

    Radio Frequency Directed Energy Weapons (RF DEW) have the potential to disrupt the operation of, or cause the failure of, a broad range of military electronic equipment. Over the past 30 years, there has been considerable effort in the development of these weapons. Recent reports suggest that a number of countries, including the USA and Russia, have fielded such weapons. This paper examines the potential performance of non-nuclear RF DEW.

  4. The shipboard employment of a free electron laser weapon system

    OpenAIRE

    Allgaier, Gregory G.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited A megawatt (MW) class Free Electron Laser (FEL) shows promise as a new weapon for antiship cruise missile defense. An FEL weapon system delivers energy at the speed of light at controllable energy levels, giving the war fighter new engagement options. Considerations for this weapon system include employment, design, and stability. In order to reach a MW class laser, system parameters must be optimized and the high power optical beam mu...

  5. A Free Electron Laser Weapon for Sea Archer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Free Electron Laser Weapon for Sea Archer 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR (S) Ng, Ivan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...iii Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A FREE ELECTRON LASER WEAPON FOR SEA ARCHER Ivan Y.C. Ng Defence Science...of laser weapon in a naval environment would be the Free Electron Laser (FEL). FELs provide coherent, tunable, high power radiation, which spans

  6. The Shipboard Employment of a Free Electron Laser Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    EMPLOYMENT OF A FREE ELECTRON LASER WEAPON SYSTEM by Gregory G. Allgaier December 2003 Thesis Advisor: William Colson Second Reader...Free Electron Laser Weapon System 6. AUTHOR(S) Allgaier, Gregory G. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...release; distribution is unlimited. THE SHIPBOARD EMPLOYMENT OF A FREE ELECTRON LASER WEAPON SYSTEM Gregory G. Allgaier Lieutenant, United

  7. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository

  8. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  9. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  10. Diehl weapons lab works on sensors, lasers, flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flume, W.

    1986-06-01

    The Diehl Weapons Laboratory activities include: warheads, ballistics, sensor technology, mensuration technology, and simulation. The facilities at the laboratory are described. Research projects are summarized.

  11. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons

  12. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  13. Time is ripe to act on Middle East weapons. Op-ed essay, published in the Financial Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.; Rotblat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The writing is on the wall: the Middle East is fertile ground for proliferation concerns. Despite progress in obtaining greater transparency on the nuclear programmes of Iran, Iraq and Libya, a deep sense of insecurity remains. The symptoms are everywhere in the region: the Arab-Israeli conflict continues to fester. Regime change is talked of as the most efficient route to democracy. The situation in Iraq, and its regional security implications, remains far from certain. Tensions with the west have increasingly become subtly - and not so subtly - associated with Muslim culture. More countries in the Middle East have refused to sign global treaties banning nuclear, biological and chemical weapons than in any other region. In the absence of a comprehensive settlement, Israel refuses to discuss its purportedly sizeable nuclear arsenal and shrugs off repeated requests to join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). This and the accompanying sense of insecurity have served as an incentive for countries to arm themselves with equal or similar weapons capacity. A recent poll by the Arabic-language Al-Jazeera website showed that more than 80 per cent of respondents favoured acquisition of nuclear weapons by the Arab world. But this mini arms-race has made no one feel more secure. In addition, the increasing sophistication of clandestine programmes, greater access to nuclear and other weapons technology and the increasingly evident black market for illicit acquisition of designs, components and expertise increase the prospect that extremist groups will acquire weapons of mass destruction. If we had any doubts before, it should be clear now that the Middle East situation is unsustainable. If we do nothing, catastrophe is only a matter of time. A great deal of rhetoric has emerged over the idea of making the Middle East a WMD-free region. The establishment of a nuclear-weapons-free zone has been the topic of UN resolutions for 30 years, with

  14. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  15. The Drivers of Indias Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The China Factor,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 53, no. 1 (1999): 34. 74 Jeffrey Lewis, “China’s Nuclear Modernization: Surprise...databank.world bank.org/data/download/GDP.pdf. 280 Goldman Sachs , “India Revisited, White Paper,” June 2010, http://www.goldmansachs.com/ gsam/docs...heightens-pakistani-anger-20110509. 388 Clary, “Future of Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program,”142. 389 Jeffrey Goldberg and Marc Ambinder, “The

  16. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  17. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  18. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  19. Role of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in Combating Chemical Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Main reason for concluding the CWC was preventing use of CWs in hostilities by state actors. Chemical terrorism is a broader phenomenon involving not only misuse of CWs but also of non-weaponised toxic compounds and intended strikes on industrial and social infrastructures with release of toxic, liquefied and inflammable chemicals. Nevertheless, the CWC is an important instrument in combating the most dangerous forms of international chemical terrorism. The effort of OPCW and mainly of SPs national authorities ensure that chemicals produced for peaceful purposes are not misused, provide some guarantees that terrorists will not be able to acquire or make their own CWs. That is why universality of the CWC and respective national implementation measures including comprehensive legislation are of utmost importance. The enforcement by all countries of the CWCs requirement to make the development, production, stockpiling, transfers and use of CWs illegal for anyone means that terrorist could be put on trial for violating the CWC. The OPCWs expertise and knowledge of CWs, verification regime and the system of assistance and protection under the CWC as a reflection of international co-operation are being put to use to prevent and respond to chemical terrorist strikes and thus considerably diminish their potential consequences. It can be added that pursuant to the UN SC Resolution 1540, all nations are obliged to take actions ensuring that non-State actors cannot develop, produce, use or trade CWs in the terms of the CWC. Current status of implementing the CWC is analysed with special emphasis on prevention of and response to terrorist chemical attacks.(author)

  20. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... June 15, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... Hall, BIS ICB Liaison, (202) 482-4895, Lawrence[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I...

  1. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer... ICB Liaison, (202) 482-4895, Lawrence[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: [[Page 59892

  2. 77 FR 75145 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... interests of chemical, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical firms in the United States are not being..., medical, or pharmaceutical purposes (commercial production for ``protective purposes'' is precluded, as... Schedule 1 chemical'' means the formation of ``Schedule 1'' chemicals through chemical synthesis, as well...

  3. 75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... synthesis of other chemicals, not just when the Schedule 1 chemicals are end products. The purpose of this... commercial activities and interests of chemical, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical firms in the United States... pharmaceutical purposes. The CWCR also contain other requirements and prohibitions that apply to ``Schedule 1...

  4. Technical Ramifications of Inclusion of Toxins in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Substitutions. Minor differences in amino acid composition , sometimes involving only one or two amino acids, results in marked changes in physiological...pulmonary vasoconstriction, increases systemic vascular permeability, and stimulates bronchial mucus secretion (7,41,62,63,116). Aerosol challenge of...UNCLASSIFIED) 6. Al-Hassan, J.A., et al. "Prostaglandin Associated Mortality Following Intravenous Injection of Catfish Epidermal Secretions in Rabbits." (U

  5. Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jason C.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Gatesman, Andrew J.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Root, Zachary G.; Giles, Robert H.; Waldman, Jerry; Nixon, William E.

    2006-05-01

    In response to the growing interest in developing terahertz imaging systems for concealed weapons detection, the Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory (STL) at the University of Massachusetts Lowell has produced full-body terahertz imagery using coherent active radar measurement techniques. The proof-of-principle results were readily obtained utilizing the compact radar range resources at STL. Two contrasting techniques were used to collect the imagery. Both methods made use of in-house transceivers, consisting of two ultra-stable far-infrared lasers, terahertz heterodyne detection systems, and terahertz anechoic chambers. The first technique involved full beam subject illumination with precision azimuth and elevation control to produce high resolution images via two axis Fourier transforms. Imagery collected in this manner is presented at 1.56THz and 350GHz. The second method utilized a focused spot, moved across the target subject in a high speed two dimensional raster pattern created by a large two-axis positioning mirror. The existing 1.56THz compact radar range was modified to project a focused illumination spot on the target subject several meters away, and receive the back-reflected intensity. The process was repeated across two dimensions, and the resultant image was assembled and displayed utilizing minimal on-the-fly processing. Imagery at 1.56THz of human subjects with concealed weapons are presented and discussed for this scan type.

  6. Nuclear weapons: new threats, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief history of the Iranian nuclear crisis since 2003, the author discusses the four aspects of this crisis which make it a textbook case: a country which wants to control the whole nuclear process and therefore may reach the capacity to produce military-grade uranium (this raises the question of the relationship between nuclear energy and disarmament), the validity and efficiency of international controls is at stake, divergence may appear on the ways to have international treaties respected (different approaches between Europe and the USA), a country which is looking for nuclear weapon for matters of regional security and power (this raises the issue of a new approach to security). Then, the author describes the new nuclear threats: proliferating states, terrorist groups, and states with nuclear weapons (attitude of the USA, China, Russia, France and the United Kingdom, perspective of a nuclear disarmament of Europe). He gives an overview of the current status of disarmament and of treaties (START, NPT), and discusses the opportunities to save the non proliferation treaty from collapsing in 2005

  7. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    the Cold War, the enduring relevance of nuclear weapons has been the subject of immense debate with policy analysts proposing several alter-native...nuclear weapons are seen as the only means to compensate for the growing gap in nonnuclear forces between Russia and technologically advanced countries

  8. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper Brushless DC (BLDC) Technology and its Application in Articulation of Weapon System Launching Platform using Electromechanical Servo Drive is presented. ... Due to inherent properties of BLDC Technology BLDC Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon system applications.

  9. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model is proposed by modelling the weapon assignment problem as a multi-objective variation of the celebrated vehicle routing problem with time windows. A multi-objective, evolutionary metaheuristic for solving the vehicle routing problem with time windows is ...

  10. Constraining potential nuclear-weapons proliferation from civilian reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Gaines, L.L.; Minkov, V.; Olson, A.P.; Snelgrove, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cessation of the Cold War and renewed international attention to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are leading to national policies aimed at restraining nuclear-weapons proliferation that could occur through the nuclear-fuel cycle. Argonne, which has unique experience, technology, and capabilities, is one of the US national laboratories contributing to this nonproliferation effort

  11. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent...

  12. Nuclear weapons and NATO operations: Doctrine, studies, and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karber, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A listing of papers is presented on the doctrine, studies, and exercises dealing with nuclear weapons and NATO operations for the period 1950-1983. The papers deal with studies on massive retaliation, sword and shield, and flexible response. Some of the enduring issues of nuclear weapons in NATO are listed

  13. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to inherent properties of BLDC Technology BLDC Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon system applications. In this paper, BLDC Motor and Electromechanical Servo Drive System, operating principle, modeling, characteristics and its application in various weapon system programs are ...

  14. Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

  15. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  16. A nuclear-weapon-free world and true disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, G.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary note about is important to consider when discussing hopes of achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world. Without a serious effort to establish intelligent, powerful bodies to control and judge the behavior of the nations on Earth, whatever they future weapons may be, the objective to reach a nuclear-weapon-free world may even succeed, but it is not enough to stop wars and death. Even more than that: if taken alone, as the 'Great Way', it could prove negative, for it could slow down the general effort to achieve peace on out planet. A nuclear-weapon-free world is of course a very good idea but two points must be discussed: how to achieve the nuclear-weapon-free world; and what will happen afterwards. Some considerations on the second point are made

  17. Psychological markers underlying murder weapon profile: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, M R; Othman, A; Ismail, K H; Mat Saat, G A

    2017-12-01

    The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 male murderers incarcerated in 11 prisons within Peninsular Malaysia. The selection of the sample was based on predetermined selection criteria using a purposive sampling method. A guided self-administered questionnaire comprising sociodemography variables and four Malay validated psychometric instruments: Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-40-Cross-Culture, Self-control Scale, "How I Think" Questionnaire and Aggression Questionnaire; was used. Independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score differences of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple weapons while Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the differences between the specific types of weapons used among the murderers. Following this, one-way ANOVA was carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences among the murderers according to the different sources of weapon. Results indicated specific psychological traits influenced the number(s), source(s) and type(s) of weapon used in committing murder. The findings have implications for the psychological profiling of unknown murderers within the Malaysian context.

  18. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Conventional Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carneige Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp...124 James M. Acton, Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp. 120-129. ...Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy

  19. Controlling nuclear weapons: Democracy versus guardianship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, R.

    1985-01-01

    This is not a new plan for arms control but an inquiry as to whether democratic institutions can cope with the major problems of public policy today. Robert Dahl points out that decisions on nuclear weapons (or disposal of nuclear waste, reactor safety or industrial pollution, to cite a few examples) are too complex and technical for the average citizen; yet if they are turned over to an elite of experts or ''wise men'' or guardians, there is no guarantee that those men will have the moral and other qualities needed to serve the public good-delegated power in these circumstances tends to become alienated power. Dahl has a partial answer: make use of the new communications technology to raise level of public knowledge and understanding.

  20. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  1. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G M

    2003-01-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs

  2. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  3. Plan for a laser weapon verification research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, T.J.

    1990-03-01

    Currently there is great interest in the question of how, or even whether, a treaty limiting the development and deployment of laser weapons could be verified. The concept of cooperative laser weapon verification is that each party would place monitoring stations near the other party's declared or suspect laser weapon facilities. The monitoring stations would measure the primary laser observables'' such as power or energy, either directly or by collecting laser radiation scattered from the air or the target, and would verify that the laser is operated within treaty limits. This concept is modeled along the lines of the seismic network recently activated in the USSR as a joint project of the United States Geologic Survey and the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The seismic data, gathered cooperatively, can be used by each party as it wishes, including to support verification of future nuclear test ban treaties. For laser weapon verification the monitoring stations are envisioned as ground-based, and would verify treaty limitations on ground-based laser anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons and on the ground-based development of other laser weapons. They would also contribute to verification of limitations on air-, sea- and space-based laser weapons, and the technology developed for cooperative verification could also be used in national technical means of verification. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Males that drop a sexually selected weapon grow larger testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Emberts, Zachary; Sasson, Daniel A; Miller, Christine W

    2018-01-01

    Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). In a second experiment, we measured offspring production for males that lost a weapon during development. As predicted, males that dropped a hind limb during development grew significantly larger testes than the control treatments. Hind-limb autotomy did not result in the enlargement of other nearby traits. Our results are the first to experimentally demonstrate that males compensate for natural weapon loss by investing more in testes. In a second experiment we found that females paired with males that lost a hind limb had 40% lower egg hatching success than females paired with intact males, perhaps because of lower mating receptivity to males with a lost limb. Importantly, in those cases where viable offspring were produced, males missing a hind limb produced 42% more offspring than males with intact limbs. These results suggest that the loss of a hind-limb weapon can, in some cases, lead to greater fertilization success. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Superconducting RF Linacs Driving Subcritical Reactors for Profitable Disposition of Surplus Weapons-grade Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Mary Anne; Johnson, Rolland

    Acceptable capital and operating costs of high-power proton accelerators suitable for profitable commercial electric-power and process-heat applications have been demonstrated. However, studies have pointed out that even a few hundred trips of an accelerator lasting a few seconds would lead to unacceptable thermal stresses as each trip causes fission to be turned off in solid fuel structures found in conventional reactors. The newest designs based on the GEM*STAR concept take such trips in stride by using molten-salt fuel, where fuel pin fatigue is not an issue. Other aspects of the GEM*STAR concept which address all historical reactor failures include an internal spallation neutron target and high temperature molten salt fuel with continuous purging of volatile radioactive fission products such that the reactor contains less than a critical mass and almost a million times fewer volatile radioactive fission products than conventional reactors. GEM*STAR is a reactor that without redesign will burn spent nuclear fuel, natural uranium, thorium, or surplus weapons material. It will operate without the need for a critical core, fuel enrichment, or reprocessing making it an excellent candidate for export. As a first application, the design for a pilot plant is described for the profitable disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium by using process heat to produce green diesel fuel for the Department of Defense (DOD) from natural gas and renewable carbon.

  6. High-Energy Laser Weapon Integration with Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-07

    RTO-MP-AVT-108 58 - 1 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED High-Energy Laser Weapon Integration with Ground Vehicles Michael Hafften...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUN 2004 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-Energy Laser Weapon Integration...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 High-Energy Laser Weapon Integration with Ground Vehicles 58 - 2 RTO-MP-AVT-108

  7. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  8. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  9. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  10. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  11. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  12. What to think about deterrence? New absolute weapons? The beautiful future of the concept of deterrence. Can the world free itself from nuclear deterrence? Deterrence, did you say deterrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrotin, Joseph; Le Dauphin, Jacques; Vahe, Raphael

    2010-09-01

    In a first article, a researcher comments and discusses the evolution of the concept of deterrence from a conventional and tactical approach to a strategic approach. He notices that the end of Cold War resulted in an important evolution of this concept and of its theory. As the nuclear weapon has been appearing as the absolute weapon since 1945, the question is now to see whether war would be different without nuclear weapons, and then whether chemical weapons could prevail and become again the absolute weapons as they were in the 1930's. In the next article, the author recalls the Church's position about nuclear weapons: condemnation as a matter of principle, and call for a progressive disarmament leading to a world without nuclear weapons. He notices that nuclear deterrence was the foundation of equilibriums during the Cold War, and that the end of Cold War resulted in strategic upheavals and difficulties to implement the non-proliferation regime. He also comments the initiative of President Obama for nuclear disarmament, and wanders whether there will be a realistic alternative to deterrence. The last article comments the historical evolutions of deterrence during the Cold War, and after the Cold War

  13. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  14. United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crisis. Learn More Containing drug costs in the United States The FDA is currently exploring a variety of ... Notices Privacy Policy Terms of Use Sitemap © The United States Pharmacopeial Convention ×

  15. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  16. Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control; MILSATs, ASATs, and national security; ASAT capabilities and countermeasures; ASAT arms control: history; ASAT arms control: options; and a comparative evaluation of ASAT policy options are discussed.

  17. Impact of Year 2000 Issues on the Aegis Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... are not disrupted by year 2000-related issues. Specifically, we reviewed year 2000 test plans and reports, initialization procedures, system interfaces, system certification, and contingency plan for the Aegis weapon system...

  18. China: Suspected Acquisition of U.S. Nuclear Weapon Secrets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2006-01-01

    ... of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets in its development of nuclear forces, as well as whether the Administration's response to the security problems was effective or mishandled and whether it fairly used or abused...

  19. Software Testing During Post-Deployment Support of Weapon Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final audit report for your information and use. The report discusses policies, procedures, and methodologies for software testing during post-deployment support of weapon systems...

  20. Can Al Qaeda Be Deterred from Using Nuclear Weapons?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunn, Lewis A

    2005-01-01

    The use of a nuclear weapon would be the ultimate al Qaeda terrorist outrage. Over the past decade, however, the prevailing assessment of the likelihood of terrorist acquisition and use of nuclear (specifically...

  1. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice...

  2. The Shipboard Employment of a Free Electron Laser Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allgaier, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    .... Considerations for this weapon system include employment, design, and stability. In order to reach a MW class laser, system parameters must be optimized and the high power optical beam must be appropriately managed...

  3. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  4. High-Speed-/-Hypersonic-Weapon-Development-Tool Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duchow, Erin M; Munson, Michael J; Alonge, Jr, Frank A

    2006-01-01

    Multiple tools exist to aid in the design and evaluation of high-speed weapons. This paper documents efforts to integrate several existing tools, including the Integrated Hypersonic Aeromechanics Tool (IHAT)1-7...

  5. Friction and Wear Sciences for a Highly Durable Railgun Weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satapathy, S; Persad, C

    2007-01-01

    .... To be effective, a weapon must be able to fire thousands of rounds without refurbishment. New approaches are needed to understand the friction and wear sciences that influence the life of the railgun bore...

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory JOWOG 31 Weapons Engineering Education & Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domzalski, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-03

    The objectives of this report are to recruit talented staff, invest in new and early/mid career staff, retain trained and talented staff and future leaders, and shorten the ~5-10 year time line to realize new Weaponeers.

  7. Directed Energy Weapons: De We Have a Game Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lincoln, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Today's military performs missions across the spectrum of warfare. In these roles, operators and planners must leverage technology in order to gain an advantage over their enemy and protect their forces. Directed Energy (DE) weapons (DEW...

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Willard; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

  9. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  10. Improving NATO's Interoperability Through U.S. Precision Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westhauser, Todd

    1998-01-01

    .... This paper compares and contrasts two U.S. advanced precision weapons capabilities, the Paveway LGBs using buddy-lasing tactics and the JDAM, against the criteria of training, cost, interoperability...

  11. Cartagena declaration on renunciation of weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Cartagena Declaration on Renunciation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, signed by the Presidents of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on 4 December 1991

  12. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  13. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Dudeja; G.S. Kalsey

    2000-01-01

    Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs) are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper com...

  14. Defense and Regional Integration: Brazil’s Weapons Industry Case

    OpenAIRE

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias; Eduardo Lucas de Vasconcelos Cruz

    2009-01-01

    This paper works with the relation between technological development and weapons industry in Brazil, pointing out the dependence of this to that one. One reveals as the changes in the commerce of armaments that currently privileges the production of small weapons for exportation. The conclusion is that to keep projects of this nature, is using to advantage the industrial park for the dual production, that is, that one takes care the civil and the military demands. At last, it defends the poss...

  15. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  16. The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

  17. Japan's nuclear weapons options and U.S. Security interests

    OpenAIRE

    Sharman, Christopher H.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan's nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nu...

  18. Can we stop the spread of nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-02-01

    In his address to the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, IAEA Director General Hans Blix reviewed the world's non-proliferation regime and the role of IAEA safeguards in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. He emphasized that the first and fundamental barrier to proliferation is the political will and determination of individual States not to acquire nuclear weapons, other barriers being legal obligations under treaties or agreements and the acceptance of safeguards inspections to verify peaceful uses of nuclear facilities

  19. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

    2013-10-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

  20. The evolution of tail weaponization in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2018-01-31

    Weaponry, for the purpose of intraspecific combat or predator defence, is one of the most widespread animal adaptations, yet the selective pressures and constraints governing its phenotypic diversity and skeletal regionalization are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of tail weaponry in amniotes, a rare form of weaponry that nonetheless evolved independently among a broad spectrum of life including mammals, turtles and dinosaurs. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test for links between morphology, ecology and behaviour in extant amniotes known to use the tail as a weapon, and in extinct taxa bearing osseous tail armaments. We find robust ecological and morphological correlates of both tail lashing behaviour and bony tail weaponry, including large body size, body armour and herbivory, suggesting these life-history parameters factor into the evolution of antipredator behaviours and tail armaments. We suggest that the evolution of tail weaponry is rare because large, armoured herbivores are uncommon in extant terrestrial faunas, as they have been throughout evolutionary history. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  2. Precursor of other nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Morey, E.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the long process of negotiations for implementing the Treaty of Tlatelolco and its history during the last three decades, especially its influence on other regions of the world for stimulating the creation of new nuclear-weapon-free zones, the following conclusions were drawn: nuclear danger still persists; the end of Cold War implies the end of a nuclear threat; the nuclear fear should not become nuclear complacency and be accepted by international community; common security as the goal of international community should be recognised and definitive abolition of nuclear weapons should be sought; the Treaty of Tlatelolco represents the cornerstone for creating new nuclear-weapon-free zones; Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba should be examples to be followed by other regions and groups of countries for creating new nuclear-weapon-free zones which should be recognised as very important phase in achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world and means for attaining an international regime of non-proliferation of weapons for mass destruction

  3. Towards the complete prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhiqiong

    1998-01-01

    For 40 years, the Pugwash Conference on Science and world affairs has been making unremitting efforts to achieve it main objectives the struggle to eliminate nuclear weapons, the elimination of wars and maintenance of world peace. The end of the Cold War vigorously encouraged world efforts in arms control and disarmament. On the day of exploding her first nuclear bomb in October 1964, China declared solemnly that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time under any circumstances. China has also committed unconditionally not to use nuclear weapons or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states and nuclear free zones. China is the sole nuclear weapon state that has made this commitment, and she has kept her word. China is in favour of comprehensive nuclear test ban in the move towards complete nuclear disarmament, taking an active part in the CTBT negotiations in Geneva and contributing to the conclusion of a fair, reasonable, verifiable treaty of universal adherence and unlimited duration within this year

  4. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  5. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  6. Individual Preparedness and Response to Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear, and Biological Terrorist Attacks: A Quick Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    .... Many people know how to respond in such disasters as fires and earthquakes, but few would know what to do if someone were to use a chemical, radiological, nuclear, or biological weapon in their vicinity...

  7. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  8. Cross-sectional associations between violent video and computer game playing and weapon carrying in a national cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Huesmann, L Rowell; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Reisner, Sari L

    2014-01-01

    Data were collected from 9 to 18 year olds surveyed nationally in a three-wave longitudinal survey. The population-average (generalized estimating equation, GEE) odds of carrying a weapon to school in the last month were estimated as a function of past-year exposure to violent content in video, computer, and Internet games, as well as peer aggression and biological sex. The sample included youth who were at risk for both the exposure (i.e., game play) and the outcome (i.e., who attended public or private school). 3,397 observations from 1,489 youth were included in analyses. 1.4% of youth reported carrying a weapon to school in the last month and 69% reported that at least some of the games they played depicted violence. After adjusting for other potentially influential characteristics (e.g., aggressive behavior), playing at least some violent games in the past year was associated with a fourfold increase in odds of also reporting carrying a weapon to school in the last month. Although youth who reported frequent and intense peer victimization in the past year were more likely to report carrying a weapon to school in the last month, this relation was explained by other influential characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of social-cognitive, observational learning theory, this study supports the hypothesis that carrying weapons to school is associated with violent game play. As one of the first studies of its kind, findings should be interpreted cautiously and need to be replicated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming

  10. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  11. Convents as homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Enrique Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present article discusses convents as homes. Resulting from the study of a Gregorian source presently housed at DePaul University's Richardson library, this article probes the complexities and restrictions of convent life in 17th century Spain. The Sanctoral de Visperas (1653) functions as a backdrop for a consideration of how singing chant and attendant rituals enriched the lives of nuns. Also included are references to nuns from this period who were outstanding musicians and poets and whose works have recently received enthusiastic attention.

  12. Sources and basic threats of biological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, O.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Biological safety of any state is connected with development of its public protection against biological weapons and opportunity to prevent bio terrorist attacks. That's why in modern social-economic and geo-political conditions, the problem of biological safety strengthening become significant, which is connected with migration process globalization, development of bio-technology and dramatically increased risk of pathogenic germ infections proliferation, which can be used as biological weapon. Despite of undertaken efforts by world community on full prohibition of biological weapon, its proliferation in the world still takes place. Biology revolution during second and third millennium lead to development not only biotechnology but new achievements in medicine, agriculture and other fields of economy, but also created scientific and research preconditions for development of advanced biological means of mass destruction, that make it more attractive for achieving superiority and assigned targets: low developments costs, opportunity to create it by one small laboratory with two-three high qualified specialists bio technologists; tremendous impact effect: one substance gram can contain from one till one hundreds quintillions (10 18 - 10 20 ) active pathogen molecules and in case if they belong to amplificated RNA and DNA, each molecule getting to organism, will multiply and contaminate environment (the last one is its principal difference from chemical weapon); bypass of organism immunological barriers and specific vaccinations; unusual clinic finding, hard diagnosis; weakness of traditional medications and treatment methods; lack of material destruction; opportunity of tight-lipped developments; opportunity of tight-lipped application; opportunity of delayed effect; opportunity of selective influence on specific population (by use of genetic, climatic and cultural specifications of race, nations and nationalities). Above mentioned specifications

  13. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  14. Principles of establishing a Middle East Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone (MEWMDFZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.; Ali, Adel M.

    2001-01-01

    The Middle East is one of the most dangerous regions in the world. It has suffered conflicts and wars - with weapons of mass destruction (WMD) implications - at higher frequency and intensity than any other region during the last 60 years. The Middle East was the largest importer of conventional weapons in the world since the second gulf war and the UNSCR 687, which aimed at destroying the Iraqi WMD capabilities and capacity. This arms race is fueled by stockpiles of nuclear and other WMD. In addition several countries remain outside the global nonproliferation and disarmament regimes such as the NPT, CWC and BWC. The situation is further complicated by the serious problems facing the Middle East peace process, which is not only threatening peace and security in the region but also in the world. This unstable risky situation cannot continue like this and cannot be handled step by step any more. The establishing of a MEWMDFZ in the context of a regional security system is the only way out. It is a difficult and remote objective but a tenable one. It is essential to work out the technical, legal and political framework of the envisaged system. This paper deals with efforts undertaken to establish a MEWMDFZ and the development of the underlying principles, based on lessons learnt from the evolution of NWFZs as well as regional and global nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament (NPACD) developments

  15. Mobile and stationary laser weapon demonstrators of Rheinmetall Waffe Munition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewigt, K.; Riesbeck, Th.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Graf, A.; Jung, M.

    2014-10-01

    For some years Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile high energy laser (HEL) weapon systems for air- and ground-defence scenarios like C-RAM, UXO clearing. By employing beam superimposition technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms and now military mobile vehicles were equipped with high energy laser effectors. Our contribution summarises the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls high energy laser weapon program. We present three different vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V integrated in an M113 tank, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX integrated in a multirole armoured vehicle GTK Boxer 8x8 and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L integrated in a reinforced container carried by an 8x8 truck. As a highlight, a stationary 30 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator shows the capability to defeat saturated attacks of RAM targets and unmanned aerial vehicles. 2013 all HEL demonstrators were tested in a firing campaign at the Rheinmetall testing centre in Switzerland. Major results of these tests are presented.

  16. Hitler's bomb: the secret story of Germans' attempts to get the nuclear weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    In this historical book, the author claims to have evidence concerning the development and testing of a possible 'nuclear weapon' by Nazi Germany in 1945. The 'weapon' in question is not alleged to be a standard nuclear weapon powered by nuclear fission, but something closer to either a radiological weapon (a so-called 'dirty bomb') or a hybrid-nuclear fusion weapon. Its new evidence is concerned primarily with the parts of the German nuclear energy project (an attempted clandestine scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce atomic weapons during World War II) under Kurt Diebner, a German nuclear physicist who directed and administrated the project

  17. Planning, design and technological criteria of conventional and nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoon, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis aims to establish a special criteria for building the shelters in two types. The conventional and nuclear, in respect to planning design and technological aspects, and finally establishing a special reference of planning, design and technology for Iraq which can be used when planning or designing a conventional or nuclear shelter. The thesis included four chapters, the first chapter included definition of shelters, and explanation of the effects of all types of weapons on buildings, and the second chapter included definition of planning and design concepts of shelters in its two types and analytical studies for international examples. The third chapter covered definition for technologies of structural, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems. The fourth chapter included details of a case study in order to approach the results of research which included the conclusions, recommendations, criteria and prospects of planning design and technological aspects. 51 tabs.; 180 figs.; 32 refs.; 15 apps

  18. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  19. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  20. Environmental Restoration Strategic Plan. Remediating the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    With the end of the cold war, the US has a reduced need for nuclear weapons production. In response, the Department of Energy has redirected resources from weapons production to weapons dismantlement and environmental remediation. To this end, in November 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (renamed the Office of Environmental Management in 1994). It was created to bring under a central authority the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes at DOE sites and inactive or shut down facilities. The Environmental Restoration Program, a major component of DOE's Environmental Management Program, is responsible for the remediation and management of contaminated environmental media (e.g., soil, groundwater, sediments) and the decommissioning of facilities and structures at 130 sites in over 30 states and territories

  1. Consistency analysis on laser signal in laser guided weapon simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruiguang; Zhang, Wenpan; Guo, Hao; Gan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    The hardware-in-the-loop simulation is widely used in laser semi-active guidance weapon experiments, the authenticity of the laser guidance signal is the key problem of reliability. In order to evaluate the consistency of the laser guidance signal, this paper analyzes the angle of sight, laser energy density, laser spot size, atmospheric back scattering, sun radiation and SNR by comparing the different working state between actual condition and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Based on measured data, mathematical simulation and optical simulation result, laser guidance signal effects on laser seeker are determined. By using Monte Carlo method, the laser guided weapon trajectory and impact point distribution are obtained, the influence of the systematic error are analyzed. In conclusion it is pointed out that the difference between simulation system and actual system has little influence in normal guidance, has great effect on laser jamming. The research is helpful to design and evaluation of laser guided weapon simulation.

  2. Asynchronous data-driven classification of weapon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xin; Mukherjee, Kushal; Gupta, Shalabh; Ray, Asok; Phoha, Shashi; Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2009-01-01

    This communication addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), and (ii) pattern classification based on the extracted features using the language measure (LM) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed algorithm has been tested on field data, generated by firing of two types of rifles. The results of analysis demonstrate high accuracy and fast execution of the pattern classification algorithm with low memory requirements. Potential applications include simultaneous shooter localization and weapon classification with soldier-wearable networked sensors. (rapid communication)

  3. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL's Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents

  4. Weapons, Body Postures, and the Quest for Dominance in Robberies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosselman, Floris; Weenink, Don; Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    2018-01-01

    Objective: A small-scale exploration of the use of video analysis to study robberies. We analyze the use of weapons as part of the body posturing of robbers as they attempt to attain dominance. Methods: Qualitative analyses of video footage of 23 shop robberies. We used Observer XT software....... In the cases where resistance occurred, robbers either expressed insecure body movements or minimizing postures and related weapon usage or they failed to impose a robbery frame as the victims did not seem to comprehend the situation initially. Conclusions: Video analysis opens up a new perspective of how...... (version 12) for fine-grained multimodal coding, capturing diverse bodily behavior by various actors simultaneously. We also constructed story lines to understand the robberies as hermeneutic whole cases. Results: Robbers attain dominance by using weapons that afford aggrandizing posturing and forward...

  5. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  6. Defense and Regional Integration: Brazil’s Weapons Industry Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper works with the relation between technological development and weapons industry in Brazil, pointing out the dependence of this to that one. One reveals as the changes in the commerce of armaments that currently privileges the production of small weapons for exportation. The conclusion is that to keep projects of this nature, is using to advantage the industrial park for the dual production, that is, that one takes care the civil and the military demands. At last, it defends the possibility of the defense industry works as mechanism of regional integration.

  7. Nuclear-weapon-free zones in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    The Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty decided on the indefinite extension of the Treaty, and adopted two documents 'principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament' and 'Strengthening the Review Process for the Treaty'. In the former document, the Conference encourages the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, on the conviction that such zones will enhance global and regional peace and security. Besides the Rarotonga Treaty, ASEAN countries plan to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the South-East Asia

  8. IFR starts to burn up weapons-grade material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With funding from different parts of the federal government, the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project has survived into fiscal year 1994 and is now embarking on a demonstration of how this type of liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) can be used to burn fuel derived from weapons-grade plutonium. This month, an assembly made from weapons-grade material is to be loaded into Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho, which is serving as the prototype for the IFR concept. Although FY 1994 work is being funded by the DOE, this particular examination of plutonium burnup is backed by the Department of Defense

  9. Pulsed sphere measurements for weapons and fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed sphere measurements provide a way of validating the Monte Carlo transport codes and the input cross sections used in the design of thermonuclear weapons and fusion reactors. In these measurements pulsed 14-MeV neutrons are generated at the center of spheres of materials to be investigated, and the emitted neutron spectrum is measured by time-of-flight techniques. The measurements described in this article cannot reproduce the complex conditions found in weapons and fusion reactors. However, agreement between measurement and calculations for a simple geometry and one material (or simple composites) is a necessary prerequisite to reliable fusion reactor calculations

  10. Correcting environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses DOE's efforts to correct the environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex. It focuses on three main points. First, the weapons complex faces a variety of serious and costly environmental problems. Second, during the past year, DOE has made some important changes to its organization that should help change its management focus from one that emphasizes materials production to one that more clearly focuses on environmental concerns. Third, because resolution of DOE's environmental problems will require considerable resources during a period of budgetary constraints, it is imperative that DOE have internal controls in place to ensure that resources are spent efficiently

  11. World hazards and nuclear weapons: right and wrong answers. To reach a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons is possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Daniel; Nivet, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A first article notices that modernisation of nuclear weapons are resumed with the emergence of new nuclear temptations: ambitious modernisation programme in the USA, catching-up race by Russia to be able to pierce antimissile defences, Chinese modernisation, renewal of the British Trident programme, doubling of nuclear military budgets in France, developments in India and Pakistan. However, the author discusses the possible emergence of new opportunities for a nuclear disarmament: humanitarian ICAN campaign for a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons. He highlights the need of a debate in France on these issues even though no politician dares to take a strong position in favour of nuclear disarmament. In a third article, a member of an activist association shows that, after the adoption of a U N resolution on favour of the elaboration of a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of civil society seems necessary

  12. An Overview of Crowd Control Theory and Considerations for the Employment of Non-Lethal Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieger, Dion

    2003-01-01

    .... In campaigns such as these, there is a case for the use of non-lethal weapons to complement the existing range of traditional weapons in order to help bridge the gap between responding with lethal...

  13. Seized Drugs and Weapons: DEA Needs to Improve Certain Physical Safeguards and Strength Accountability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This report focuses on DEAs controls over seized drugs and weapons. There is an inherent risk of theft, misuse, and loss of drugs and weapons due to the fact that such evidence typically has a market or "street" value...

  14. The Army Can Better Integrate Manpower, Personnel, and Training into the Weapon Systems Acquisition Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    The Army must effectively integrate manpower, personnel, and training (MPT) needs into its weapon systems acquisition process to ensure that when the weapon systems are deployed, they can be satisfactorily operated and maintained...

  15. Active Flow Control for High-Speed Weapon Release from a Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kibens, Valdis; Bower, William W; Schwartz, David R

    2004-01-01

    ...%-scale weapons bay model representative of a Long Range Strike Aircraft configuration. Results are presented from acoustic testing, grid testing with force-balance and pressure instrumented weapon models, and drop testing...

  16. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method

  17. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  18. Conventional magnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of conventional, steel-cored, direct-current magnets are discussed. Laplace's equation and the associated cylindrical harmonic solutions in two dimensions are established. The equations are used to define the ideal pole shapes and required excitation for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Standard magnet geometries are then considered and criteria determining the coil design are presented. The use of codes for predicting flux density distributions and the iterative techniques used for pole face design are then discussed. This includes a description of the use of two-dimensional codes to generate suitable magnet end geometries. Finally, standard constructional techniques for cores and coils are described. (orig.)

  19. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  20. The High-Energy Laser: Tomorrow’s Weapon to Improve Force Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fight. High-energy Laser Weapons First, it is important to understand what a HEL is. Current military HELs are generally defined as having laser... laser weapon , possible reaction maneuvers by an intended target could include a change in speed, attitude, or altitude; a counterattack; or a movement...the enemy, making a stand- alone laser weapons system difficult to target. The current limited ability to detect a HEL weapons system or the effects

  1. Analysis of High Energy Laser Weapon Employment from a Navy Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    general model of laser weapons is established to identify the attributes that characterize the laser weapon system. Quantitative values of each attribute...are identified and compared for four laser weapon systems that are currently under development by the Navy to determine their potential for employment...are assessed to determine whether they meet the laser weapon requirements that would be needed to counter the small boat threats described in the

  2. Lasers and Missile Defense: New Concepts for Space-Based and Ground-Based Laser Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Is the Department of Defense (DoD) pursuing the correct investment strategy for space-based laser weapons ? Recent advances in lasers optics and...spacecraft technologies may bring high-energy laser weapons to a sufficient level of maturity for serious consideration as space weapons against the...technology improvements have affected the strategic employment concepts for high-energy laser weapons . This study presents a comparison of competing space

  3. The danger of chemical weapons in Syria: unfinished disarmament and international control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    On 4 January 2016, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague announced that the process of destroying Syrian chemical weapons had been completed. Despite that declaration of success, problems obviously persist. Since April 2014, the civil war parties have accused each other in more than one hundred cases of having used chemical weapons. In more than twenty incidents the OPCW has confirmed the use of chemical weapons. The United States also accuses Syria of h...

  4. Weaponizing the Final Frontier: The United States and the New Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the FAS test, but contains major levels of risk. The major risk associated with this policy corresponds to the concern from outside regulation. Any...United States develop and deploy weapons in space? The ultimate decision is driven by the National Space Policy developed by the President of the...security and freedom of access. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Space Weapons, Weaponization of Space, Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT), Space Policy , Outer Space Treaty

  5. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  6. The GT-MHR for destruction of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A.M.; Neylan, A.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of nearly 100 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) made surplus by the disarmament treaties is receiving urgent attention, highlighted by the recent seizure in Germany of small quantities of weapons-useful plutonium. Unlike highly enriched uranium, simple denaturing cannot make this plutonium worthless for use in future weapons. The use of physical security and institutional barriers, including long-term storage in high-level waste repositories, to provide secure storage for centuries to come is questionable when considering government instability and the possibility of national recidivism. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and General Atomics have signed an agreement for the cooperative design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) to burn the WG-Pu stockpile. A formal proposal for a joint U.S./Russian program for the development of this reactor has been submitted by MINATOM to Vice President Gore. The major benefit of this program is that the reactor would deplete the Russian surplus plutonium stockpile, provide jobs for technical specialists in the former weapons complex, and produce valuable electric power. It would also provide a mutually assured means of destroying the U.S. and Russian stockpiles.

  7. Military laser systems - A costly search for ultimate weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, J. (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The military interests that have resulted in the creation of a rich diversity of military laser systems are discussed. Some of the more significant technological laser developments are examined, including rage finders and designators, directed energy weapons, laser communications, and laser radar. Some of the military lasers that can be expected in the future are discussed. 8 refs.

  8. Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden, Comp.

    The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

  9. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  10. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stands within the context of a ground based air defence system (GBADS) at the turn of the twenty first century. However, much of the contents of the paper maye generalized to military environments other than a GBADS one. Keywords: Threat evaluation, weapon assignment, decision support. ORiON Vol. 23 (2) 2007: pp.

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Neutron Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) spallation neutron source utilizes 800-MeV protons from the Los Alamos Meson Physics linac. The proton beam transport system, the target systems, and the data acquisition and control system are described. Operating experience, present status, and planned improvements are discussed

  12. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... of available surface-based weapon systems to engage aerial threats in an attempt to protect defended surface ...... time stages to include in the fixed mean calculation in (2) be fixed to the minimum length of a FW. ... to solve the model in 139 seconds on an Intel Core i7-4770 processor with 8GB of random.

  13. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  14. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...... of justification and risk management in contemporary conflicts....

  15. Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola M. Ostojić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned air transport mules from IsraelSensor monitoring of land areaSatellite telescope Moiraorbital weapons "cosmic dome"Automat for frogmen from TulaHeckler & Koch HK XM25, smart grenade launcher

  16. A multiobjective approach towards weapon assignment in a ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A typical ground-based air defence (GBAD) environment comprises defended assets on the ground which require protection from enemy aircraft entering the defended airspace. ... of computerised threat evaluation and weapon assignment (TEWA) decision support systems (DSSs) within the context of a GBAD system.

  17. Seventy Years of Computing in the Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos has continuously been on the forefront of scientific computing since it helped found the field. This talk will explore the rich history of computing in the Los Alamos weapons program. The current status of computing will be discussed, as will the expectations for the near future.

  18. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Robert MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:151-156.

  19. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  20. Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard.{close_quotes} One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed.

  1. Joint Sustainment of Weapon Systems. Would We Be Better Off?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... As depots within the military begin to implement new procedures based on the Lean Six Sigma model, a proposed consolidation of efforts based on major weapon systems could lead to improved cost benefits and decreased maintenance time. Tied with the current Joint Depot Maintenance Program, Lean Six Sigma can continue to improve the Service's depot performance.

  2. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Robert MD; Wills, Brandon DO; Kang, Christopher MD

    2010-01-01

    Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2):151-156.

  3. Materials research and development for nuclear weapons applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Highlights of a comprehensive summary of materials research and development being conducted at Sandia in support of the nuclear weapons development programs are presented. The developments include foams, encapsulants, metals with memories, material equations-of-state, composites, glass-to-metal bonds, and design processes

  4. Project Leninism -- The Powerful Weapon Against Modern Revisionism - Communist China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    ...) and the editorial department of the Jen-min Jih-pao. Being important documents on Marxism-Leninism, these three articles represent a powerful weapon for protecting Marxism-Leninism against modern revisionism. Based on Marxist-Leninist viewpoints and the theory of Mao Tse-tung, these articles give a penetrating analysis of some important problems in the present international communist movement.

  5. Field Artillery Cannon Weapons Systems and Ammunition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    overhanging the platorm to warp and become unserviceable. weigni ot me tune , and prevents undue wear ox me (a) The cause of this problem is that the elevating...SHAF 1 TRAVEK ~iNG ARC TRAVERSING TýVRIGWR WORM WHE E L TVRIGWR Figure 5-11. Are and pinion. tvpe of traversing mechanism. weapon in elevation and

  6. the international politics of nuclear weapons: a constructivist analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JK

    is evident in the nuclear stand-off between the US and Iran, and North Korea's continued contravention of established ... regarding the export of and trade in nuclear weapons and technology. Constructivism. The article follows a .... A new source of authority, power, influence and prestige. Nuclear technology and its military ...

  7. Internationalization to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The recent International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) has concluded that, in a world in which an increasing number of countries are using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, no technical ways exist to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Non-proliferation is a political problem and must, therefore, be solved by political means. The reasons why countries want nuclear weapons - whether to meet their real or perceived security requirements or for political prestige - must be removed. Resolution of regional conflicts would diminish the stimulus for proliferation, while significant nuclear disarmament measures would de-emphasize the role of nuclear weapons in international politics. Meanwhile, institutional arrangements could minimize the risks of nuclear weapon proliferation. One such arrangement could be the internationalization of the sensitive, that is, the most proliferation-prone, elements of the nuclear fuel cycle. This book analyses some of the political, economic, technical and legal issues involved in internationalizing the nuclear fuel cycle. It consists of two parts. Part I is SIPRI's (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) evaluation of the advantages, as well as the weaknesses, of the existing proposals for internationalization. Part II contains the papers contributed to the SIPRI symposium on 'internationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle', which was held in October/ November 1979. (author)

  8. Nuclear Weapons and Communication Studies: A Review Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the body of work inspired by the late Cold War period, where nuclear weapons briefly became a compelling object for communication scholars. Considers the prospects for nuclear communication scholarship in post-Cold War culture. Discusses "nuclear criticism" and issues regarding the bomb in communication. (SC)

  9. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  10. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  11. Nuclear Weapons and the Future: An "Unthinkable" Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    The author looks ahead 30 or 40 years to see what might come of the nuclear weapons predicament. As a minimal first step in the campaign against nuclear warfare, he suggests a unilateral and complete disarmament by the United States. (AM)

  12. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Electromechanical Servo Drive System, operating principle, modeling, characteristics and its application in various weapon ... they offer advantages of DC motor and Induction motor both including reduced noise, long lifetime, reduced noise, good weight/size to power ratio, ... These types of motor have low rotor inertia in.

  13. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  14. Mitigation and propagation of sound generated by heavy weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Much environmental research is performed on predicting the noise impact of heavy weapons or explosives, as the shock waves can propagate over large distances. In the densely populated area of the Netherlands this is of particular interest for the Ministry of Defense. In one research program the

  15. Optimizing the Weapons Officer in the Mobility Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    development of officers will be used to gather current, relevant data. To properly gauge responses both qualitatively and quantitatively, the Delphi ...to optimize the utilization of their Weapons Officers (WOs). To accomplish an unbiased analysis, the researcher performed a Delphi Study of 34...10 Delphi Method ..............................................................................................................12 The Likert Scale

  16. Nuclear Weapons Effects on Army Tactical Systems. Volume 1. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    DRCPM-PE, MR. J. PETTIT ATTN 2750, OPTICAL SCIENCES DIV COMMANDING OFFICEP ATTN 5000, ELECTRONIC SCI & TECH DIR NAVAL WEAPONS EVALUATION FACILITYPM ATTN...RAYMOND J. DEBATTISTA POMPANO BEACH, FL 33061 ATTN PHILIP J.- HART, DEPT 81-14 ATTN PETEP ALBRECHT, MS13-3 ATTN WM. J. HIGERC ATTN NAVPRO (SSPO) C/O L

  17. American big dirty secret. About the depleted uranium weapons reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    From International organizations point of view, as the WHO, the hazard of the depleted uranium weapons use, is more and more obvious for the environment and the people health. The author shows how the USA military Government seems not really ''clean'' on this situation and denounces the danger of such a policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US is actively pursuing an RMA, conceptualised as integrating new IT into weapons systems and integrated command, control, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) and, in turn, doctrinal, operational and organisational change in the military to take advantage of information dominance on ...

  19. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  20. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach...