WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological waste processes

  1. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  2. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  3. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  4. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  5. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  6. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  7. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process development for biological cleaning of industrial waste water; Prozessentwicklung fuer die biologische Reinigung industrieller Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik; Noertemann, B. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Surface water, and drinking water obtained from surface water, should be largely free of organic compounds. This applies particularly to substances that are not or poorly degradable in the environment. Pollution of surface water with poorly degradable toxic substances - especially from industrial applications - can be avoided or at least largely reduced by means of specially adapted biological waste water cleaning techniques. The compound ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), which has multiple technical applications and is used in large amounts, demonstrates that even contaminants considered to be unsuitable for biological treatment can be eliminated from waste water by means of certain biological processes employing specially enriched bacterial cultures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oberflaechengewaesser und daraus gewonnenes Trinkwasser sollen moeglichst frei von organischen Verbindungen sein. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer Substanzen, die in der Umwelt nicht oder nur sehr langsam abbaubar sind. Eine Belastung von Oberflaechengewaessern mit schwer abbaubaren `Problemstoffen` - insbesondere aus industriellen Anwendungsbereichen - kann unter anderem mit Hilfe speziell angepasster Verfahren zur biologischen Abwasserreinigung vermieden beziehungsweise weitestgehend reduziert werden. Am Beispiel der technisch sehr vielfaeltig und in grossen Mengen eingesetzten Verbindung EDTA (Ethylendiamintetraacetat) laesst sich erkennen, dass durch bestimmte bioverfahrenstechnische Massnahmen mit Hilfe speziell angereicherter Bakterienkulturen auch als `biologieunfaehig` eingestufte Problemstoffe aus Abwaessern eliminiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  9. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Weichgrebe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.

  10. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  12. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and anaerobic processes. 59. information meeting, Neuwied, October 1999; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung und Anaerobverfahren. 59. Informationsgespraech in Neuwied im Oktober 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O.; Euler, H.; Leonhardt, H.W. [comps.

    1999-10-01

    This proceedings volume discusses the specifications for and cost of mechanical-biological waste treatment, the optimisation of economic efficiency and pollutant emissons, the combination of mechanical-biological and thermal waste treatment processes, the value of mechanical-biological waste treatment, waste management concepts, process engineering and practical experience, and the eco-balance of the process. [German] Themen dieses Proceedingsbandes sind: Anforderungen und Kosten der mechanisch-biologischen Abfallbehandlung; Optimierung der Wirtschaftlichkeit und Emissionssituation; Kombination von mechanisch-biologischer und thermischer Muellbehandlung; Bewertung der mechanisch-biologischen Abfallbehandlung, Abfallwirtschaftskonzepte, Verfahrenstechnik und Betriebserfahrungen; Oekobilanz. (SR)

  13. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  14. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  15. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10 -3 Ci/m 3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10 -3 Ci/m 3 , detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  16. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  17. Chemical and biological processes for multi-metal extraction from waste printed circuit boards of computers and mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2014-11-01

    E-waste printed circuit boards (PCB) of computers, mobile-phones, televisions, LX (LongXiang) PCB in LED lights and bulbs, and tube-lights were crushed to ≥250 µm particle size and 16 different metals were analysed. A comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) and mobile-phone printed circuit boards (m-PCB) by chemical and biological methods. Chemical process showed the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni by ferric sulphate was best among the studied chemical lixiviants. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with the iron oxidising consortium, which showed that when E-waste and inoculum were added simultaneously in the medium (one-step process); 60.33% and 87.50% Cu, 75.67% and 85.67% Zn and 71.09% and 81.87% Ni were extracted from 10 g L(-1) of c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, within 10-15 days of reaction time. Whereas, E-waste added after the complete oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) iron containing medium (two-step process) showed 85.26% and 99.99% Cu, 96.75% and 99.49% Zn and 93.23% and 84.21% Ni extraction from c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, only in 6-8 days. Influence of varying biogenerated Fe(3+) and c-PCB concentrations showed that 16.5 g L(-1) of Fe(3+) iron was optimum up to 100 g L(-1) of c-PCB. Changes in pH, acid consumed and redox potential during the process were also studied. The present study shows the ability of an eco-friendly process for the recovery of multi-metals from E-waste even at 100 g L(-1) printed circuit boards concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Treatment of biological waste and residues V. Biological - mechanical - thermal processes; Bio- und Restabfallbehandlung V. Biologisch - mechanisch - thermisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Weber-Wied, R. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    From 2005, the TA Siedlungsabfall (Waste Management Regulation) will come into force, and European legislation will overrule national legislation. Dumping of untreated waste in landfills will be prohibited, i.e. incinerators for thermal waste treatment must be constructed. In view of the rigid specifications for emissions and residues and the demand for Europe-wide invitations for tender, time is running short. The book outlines the options for action of the German states and of some applicant states for EC membership. The German government already issued an Ordinance for Power Generation from Biomass. Independent of this, also secondary fuels are gaining ground, and several contributions of the conference discussed quality assurance and utilization of secondary fuels. Composting and sewage sludge utilization are further current issues. Air pollution, soil and groundwater protection, job security and energy potential are gone into, and an outline of the current situation of waste management is attempted. [German] Die aktuelle abfallwirtschaftliche Situation wird in besonderem Masse gepraegt durch das nahende Jahr 2005 sowie die zunehmende Abhaengigkeit nationalstaatlicher Handlungsspielraeume von den Vorgaben europaeischer Rahmenrichtlinien. Hierbei wird der Handlungsdruck spuerbar, spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 der TA Siedlungsabfall Rechnung tragen zu muessen. Die verbleibenden Zeitraeume sind daher eng bemessen, beruecksichtigt man insbesondere die langen Genehmigungs- und Errichtungszeitraeume fuer thermische Behandlungsanlagen. Vor dem Hintergrund der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht wird die gegenwaertige technische Diskussion zur MBA sehr stark durch die nunmehr von der Bundesregierung konkretisierten Emissions- und Ablagerungsanforderungen gepraegt. Der vorliegende Band soll aufzeigen, welche Handlungsspielraeume sich hierbei aus Sicht der verschiedenen Bundeslaender ergeben. Ein Blick ueber die Grenzen hinaus zu einigen zukuenftigen EU

  19. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  20. Mechanical-biological waste treatment with thermal processing of partial fractions; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Technologies for mechanical-biological treatment of waste in the Land of Hessen were compared including thermal processes like combustion and gasification. The new and more rigid limiting values specified in the Technical Guide for Municipal Waste Treatment (Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall - TASI) get a special mention. [Deutsch] Verschiedene Technologien der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung im Raum Hessen wurden unter Einbezug thermischer Verfahren (Verbrennung, Vergasung) miteinander verglichen. Dabei wurden besonders auf die verschaerften Grenzwerte der Technischen Anleitung Siedlungsabfall (TASI) eingegangen. (ABI)

  1. Behaviors of intercellular materials and nutrients in biological nutrient removal process supplied with domestic wastewater and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, So-Ryong; Jeong, Hyeong-Seok; Lim, Jae-Lim; Kang, Seok-Tae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Paik, Byeong-Cheon; Youn, Jong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    A four-stage biological nutrient removal (BNR) process was operated to investigate the effect of anaerobically fermented leachate of food waste (AFLFW) as an external carbon source on nutrient removal from domestic wastewater having a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. The BNR system that was supplemented with AFLFW showed a good performance at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 30 days, despite low temperature. With this wastewater, average removal efficiencies of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 88 to 93%, 70 to 74%, and 63 to 68%, respectively. In this study, several kinds of poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were observed in cells. These included 24% poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), 41% poly-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHV), 18% poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHH), 10% poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate (PHO), 5% poly-3-hydroxydecanoate (PHD). and 2% poly-3-hydroxydodecanoate (PHDD), indicating that microorganisms could store various PHAs through the different metabolic pathways. However, breakdown of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) mechanism was observed when SRT increased from 30 to 50 days for the enhancement of nitrification. To study the effect of SRT on EBPR, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system that was supplied with glucose was operated at various SRTs of 5, 10, and 15 days. Nitrification and denitrification efficiencies increased as SRT increased. However, the content of intracellular materials such as PHAs, glycogen. and poly-P in cells decreased. From these results, it was concluded that SRT should be carefully controlled to increase nitrification activity and to maintain biological phosphorus removal activity in the BNR process.

  2. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L -1 for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  3. EPRI waste processing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) manages research for its sponsoring electric utilities in the United States. Research in the area of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) from light water reactors focuses primarily on waste processing within the nuclear power plants, monitoring of the waste packages, and assessments of disposal technologies. Accompanying these areas and complimentary to them is the determination and evaluation of the sources of nuclear power plants radioactive waste. This paper focuses on source characterization of nuclear power plant waste, LLRW processing within nuclear power plants, and the monitoring of these wastes. EPRI's work in waste disposal technology is described in another paper in this proceeding by the same author. 1 reference, 5 figures

  4. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  5. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  6. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  7. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 6: Deep-sea biology, biological processes and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Hargrave, B.T.; Roe, H.S.J.; Sibuet, M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the biological description of selected sites, the means by which radionuclides could result in human exposure via seafood pathways, and the doses likely to be received by, and effects on, the deep-sea fauna

  8. Analysis of the composition and formation of biogas produced during the processing of biological waste by anaerobic digestion technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Hnilica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the operating system of anaerobic fermentation of agricultural biogas plants with realization using biowaste. It deals with the operation system of anaerobic fermentation of agricultural biogas plants and implement an appropriate system to enable the use of biowaste. Based on the comparison of technological solutions and operational parameters of specific sites has been designed to allow the system biowaste were made a practical experiment to verify the assumption of increased biogas production. In experiments used substrates, which are industrially produced from the available bio-wastes, treated and then provide to operator of biogas plants. The work was carried out practical measurements to verify the production of biogas from different substrates. Utilize of nominal electric power using biowaste amounted up to 97.66%. Processing of such modified substrates in anaerobic digestion technology can greatly affect the amount of energy crops. Benefit of waste is governed primarily by such projects, where is the problem of ensuring sufficient energy crops. The proposed composition of raw materials also allows the implementation of the existing ope­ra­tion of anaerobic digestion. Operational data on real operations demonstrate the real possibility of further development of the area and secondly the use of biogas plants as well as in the preparation of suitably prepared substrates for the operators. The entire data set underwent a complete statistical analysis. Differences between variants were statistically significant.

  9. Biological process linkage networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikla Dotan-Cohen

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN.We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods.Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

  10. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  11. Process and device for processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for processing liquid radioactive wastes. It includes the heating of the liquid wastes so that the contained liquids are evaporated and a practically anhydrous mass of solid particles inferior in volume to that of the wastes introduced is formed, then the transformation of the solid particles into a monolithic structure. This transformation includes the compressing of the particles and sintering or fusion. The solidifying agent is a mixture of polyethylene and paraffin wax or a styrene copolymer and a polyester resin. The device used for processing the radioactive liquid wastes is also described [fr

  12. Vermicomposting of vegetable waste: A biophysicochemical process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological processes such as composting followed by vermicomposting to convert vegetables waste (as valuable nutrient source) in agriculturally useful organic fertilizer would be of great benefit. Therefore this technique is studied in the present research work. A simple and potentially inexpensive Hydro Based Operating ...

  13. Methods for maintaining a record of waste packages during waste processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During processing, radioactive waste is converted into waste packages, and then sent for storage and ultimately for disposal. A principal condition for acceptance of a waste package is its full compliance with waste acceptance criteria for disposal or storage. These criteria define the radiological, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties of radioactive waste that can, in principle, be changed during waste processing. To declare compliance of a waste package with waste acceptance criteria, a system for generating and maintaining records should be established to record and track all relevant information, from raw waste characteristics, through changes related to waste processing, to final checking and verification of waste package parameters. In parallel, records on processing technology and the operational parameters of technological facilities should adhere to established and approved quality assurance systems. A records system for waste management should be in place, defining the data to be collected and stored at each step of waste processing and using a reliable selection process carried over into the individual steps of the waste processing flow stream. The waste management records system must at the same time ensure selection and maintenance of all the main information, not only providing evidence of compliance of waste package parameters with waste acceptance criteria but also serving as an information source in the case of any future operations involving the stored or disposed waste. Records generated during waste processing are a constituent part of the more complex system of waste management record keeping, covering the entire life cycle of radioactive waste from generation to disposal and even the post-closure period of a disposal facility. The IAEA is systematically working on the preparation of a set of publications to assist its Member States in the development and implementation of such a system. This report covers all the principal

  14. Evaluation of combustion experiments conducted during the research and development project ``Mechanical-biological waste conditioning in combination with thermal processing of partial waste fractions``; Auswertung der Verbrennungsversuche zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben ``mechanisch-biologische Restmuellbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, J.; Lohf, A.; Herr, C. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The technical code on municipal waste makes specific demands on waste to be deposited at landfills which can only be met if mechanical-biological conditioning of waste as well as thermal processing of partial waste fractions are continued also in the future. But waste that has undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning presents different combustion properties from those of unconditioned waste. In this second stage of the research project, the thermal processability of waste having undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning was studied. Together with the results from the first project stage, where the throughput represented exclusively mechanically conditioned material, the results of the latter measuring campaigns comprehensively demonstrate possibilities for the thermal processing of partial waste fractions having undergone biological-mechanical conditioning, and inform on changes in plant performance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um die in der TA-Siedlungsabfall an den abzulagernden Restmuell gestellten Deponieeingangsbedingungen zu erfuellen, muss neben einer mechanisch-biologischen Aufbereitung bei Teilfraktionen auch weiterhin eine thermische Behandlung eingeplant werden. Die Verbrennungseigenschaften von mechanisch oder mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandeltem Restmuell weichen allerdings von denen von unbehandeltem Restmuell ab. In dieser zweiten Projektphase des Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Untersuchung bezueglich der thermischen Behandelbarkeit von mechanisch und auch biologisch vorbehandeltem Muell durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse der Messkampagnen bilden zusammen mit den Ergebnissen der ersten Projektphase, in der ausschliesslich mechanisch vorbehandeltes Material durchgesetzt wurde, eine umfassende Darstellung ueber Moeglichkeiten und veraenderte Anlagenverhalten bei der thermischen Behandlung von Teilfraktionen aus der biologisch-mechanisch Vorbehandlung. (orig.)

  15. Combining mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants with the carbonisation-combustion process; Kombination MBA mit dem Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, J.; Wiehn, G. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Energieerzeugung

    1998-09-01

    The disposal market for household waste is strongly influenced by the legal framework governing it. A further factor that makes it difficult for the authorities responsible for disposal to decide on residual waste disposal by means of thermal or mechanical-biological treatment plants is the downward pressure on disposal prices from inexpensive, underused landfills. This makes it all the more important for a future-oriented waste management to develop a both economically and ecologically optimised waste disposal concept. In this situation there is much in favour of adopting a concept consisting of a combination of mechanical, mechanical-biological, and thermal treatment which takes due account of waste disposal concepts at the regional and supraregional scale. [Deutsch] Der Entsorgungsmarkt fuer Siedlungsabfaelle wird stark durch die Entwicklung der rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen beeinflusst. Hinzu kommt, dass der Entscheidungsprozess der oeffentlichen Entsorgungstraeger zur Restabfallentsorgung mittels thermischer oder mechanisch-biologischer Anlagen durch den Druck auf die Entsorgungspreise aufgrund der kostenguenstigen, nicht ausgelasteten Deponien erschwert wird. Umso mehr muss das Ziel einer zukunftsorientierten Abfallwirtschaft sein, unter oekonomischen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten ein optimiertes Abfallkonzept aufzubauen. Hier kann es sehr hilfreich sein, sich eines Konzeptes, bestehend aus der Kombination von mechanischer, mechanisch-biologischer und thermischer Behandlung unter Beruecksichtigung des regionalen und ueberregionalen Abfallkonzeptes zu bedienen. (orig./SR)

  16. Integrated electrochemical-biological process as an alternative mean for ammonia monitoring during anaerobic digestion of organic wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia monitoring is important to control anaerobic digestion (AD) process due to inhibition effect. Here, an electrolysis cell (EC) was integrated with a complete nitrification reactor as an alternative approach for online monitoring of ammonia during AD processes. The AD effluent was pumped...... = 0.9673). The linear relationship was always observed regardless of different wastewater pH and external voltage. Pre-removal of other electron acceptors from digestate at cathode could eliminate their disturbances to sensor performance. Finally, the accuracy of biosensor was verified with real digestate test...

  17. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  18. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  19. Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, J.P.; Eibling, R.E.; Marek, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor

  20. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Yuka.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive gaseous wastes are introduced to a cooling tower and cooled by cooling water discharged from a cooling water discharging nozzle. Cooled radioactive gaseous wastes are cleaned by cleaning water in the cleaning tower and introduced accompanied with water to a condenser. Water in the gases is condensed in a condenser and gathered in a condensated water receiving tank. Water-removed gases are removed with fine particles by way of filters and then released out of the system by using a blower. Further, water used for cleaning the radioactive gaseous wastes in the cleaning tower is gathered to the liquid wastes receiving tank and sent to a radioactive liquid wastes processing device. On the other hand, condensates collected to the condensates receiving tank are returned to a cooling water discharging nozzle by a pump and re-utilized as cooling water. This can reduce the amount of radioactive liquid wastes, to reduce the processing amount of the radioactive liquid waste processing devices. (I.N.)

  1. Monitoring and controlling the biological purification process in a waste water treatment plant using a respirometry analyser; Vigilancia y control del proceso de la depuracion biologica en una EDAR por medio de un analizador de respirometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    In a waste water biological treatment, we have to take into account that the activated sludge is a living and breathing process, and a lack of bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about control criteria on the biological reactor. For this reason, to get bioactivity information in a timely manner through the respiration analysis would be a real breakthrough in better process control. Therefore, to identify the respiration rates and calculate their derived parameters represents the guidelines of respirometry and can be considered as the most sensitive variables on the basis of which activated sludge process theory can be validated. (Author)

  2. Radioactive liquid waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Tamada, Shin; Oura, Masato; Sawa, Toshio.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is intended for preventing degradation of an evaporation permeable membrane in a facility for processing radioactive liquid wastes generated in a nuclear power plant, while taking advantages of a film evaporation and concentration system. That is, surface active agents, oils and solids are removed by a pre-filter before sending the radioactive liquid wastes to a liquid wastes processing device (membrane evaporation concentration device) comprising an evaporation permeable membrane. Active carbon or active silica is preferably used for the pre-filter. This can prevent the reduction of surface tension of the radioactive liquid wastes caused by the surface active agents and the destruction of the hydrophobic property of the membrane due to the deposition of the surface active agents to the evaporation permeable membrane in the membrane evaporation and concentration device, that is a back-filter. (T.M.)

  3. Biological production of products from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  4. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  5. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Osamu; Kitamura, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a radioactive liquid waste processing device comprising a freeze-drying vessel for freezing and then vacuum drying acidic liquid wastes containing radioactive materials and a cold trap condensing steams evaporated in the freeze-drying vessel, a dust collecting electrode of an electric dust collector is disposed in the freeze-drying vessel for capturing fine solid particles and inorganic salts in steams. With such a constitution, upon sublimation of the water content contained in a freezing product of an acidic solution, since fine solid particles and inorganic salts entrained by steams are collected by the dust collecting electrode, radioactive materials entrained by recovered steams are almost eliminated, decontamination efficiency of the liquid waste processing device can be increased. Further, heat for the sublimation can be supplied to the solution-freezing product by a radiation heat caused by electric discharge of the dust collecting electrode, thereby enabling to eliminate the heater which was unnecessary so far. (T.M.)

  6. Processes for production of alternative waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Rusin, J.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous waste forms and processes have been proposed for solidification of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The number has increased significantly during the past 3 to 4 years. At least five factors must be considered in selecting the waste form and process method: 1) processing flexibility, 2) waste loading, 3) canister size and stability, 4) waste form inertness and stability, and 5) processing complexity. This paper describes various waste form processes and operations, and a simple system is proposed for making comparisons. This system suggests that one goal for processes would be to reduce the number of process steps, thereby providing less complex processing systems

  7. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... agro-food waste has been the subject of the previous work on sugar cane Ouhssine et al., 2000b), the breakdown of the cellulose (Fann and Lee, 1992) and fermentation of olives (Asehraou A, 1993). Other processes have been used for the transformation of garbage of animal origin (Hammoumi A., 1998).

  8. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  9. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Method of processing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi; Oohashi, Takeshi; Kawakatsu, Ryu; Kuribayashi, Kotaro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive liquid wastes with safety by distillating radioactive liquid wastes while passing gases, properly treating the distillation fractions, adding combustible and liquid synthetic resin material to the distillation residues, polymerizing to solidify and then burning them. Method: Radioactive substance - containing liquid wastes are distillated while passing gases and the distillation fractions containing no substantial radioactive substances are treated in an adequate method. Synthetic resin material, which may be a mixture of polymer and monomer, is added together with a catalyst to the distillation residues containing almost of the radioactive substances to polymerize and solidify. Water or solvent in such an extent as not hindering the solidification may be allowed if remained. The solidification products are burnt for facilitating the treatment of the radioactive substances. The resin material can be selected suitably, methacrylate syrup (mainly solution of polymethylmethacrylate and methylmethacrylate) being preferred. (Seki, T.)

  11. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  12. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Radioactive liquid wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauda, Kenzo; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Yagi, Takuro; Yamazaki, Hideki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To carry out optimum photooxidizing procession following after the fluctuation in the density of organic materials in radioactive liquid wastes to thereby realize automatic remote procession. Constitution: A reaction tank is equipped with an ultraviolet lamp and an ozone dispersing means for the oxidizing treatment of organic materials in liquid wastes under the irradiation of UV rays. There are also provided organic material density measuring devices to the inlet and outlet of the reaction tank, and a control device for controlling the UV lamp power adjusting depending on the measured density. The output of the UV lamp is most conveniently adjusted by changing the applied voltage. The liquid wastes in which the radioactivity dose is reduced to a predetermined level are returned to the reaction tank by the operation of a switching valve for reprocession. The amount of the liquid wastes at the inlet is controlled depending on the measured ozone density by the adjusting valve. In this way, the amount of organic materials to be subjected to photolysis can be kept within a certain limit. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Physicochemical processes and wastes in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    This is volume two of the Oceanic Processes in Marine Pollution series. This volume emphasizes physical and chemical processes associated with wastes disposed of into the ocean. Physical processes include dilution, dispersion, and mixing wastes. Chemical processes include adsorption kinetics, binding of metals, and bioavailability of radioactive materials. This book also examines vertical transport of wastes and the role of marine organisms in the transport of waste materials

  15. Biodegradation of chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons in relation to biological waste-gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, S.

    1993-01-01

    The original goal of the research described in this thesis was to develop a biological process for the removal of vinyl chloride from waste gases. The gaseous and carcinogenic vinyl chloride is used to produce the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC). During this production process waste gases

  16. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

  17. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

  18. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To treat this garbage of algae, we employed a biological fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria (BL11) and yeast (THE 16). These were isolated and selected for their acidifying and fermentation qualities, respectively. The fermentation resulted in a decrease of pH from 7.4 to 3.75 and a reduction of the different ...

  19. Cleaning of process and excess water from organic waste fermentation with a combination of biological treatment stage and microfiltration; Reinigung von Prozess- und Ueberschusswaessern aus der Bioabfallvergaerung durch Kombination aus biologischer Stufe und Mikrofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buer, T.; Schumacher, J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of an R and D project sponsored by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, cleaning of process and excess water from organic waste fermentation plants was studied at the Institute for Siedlungswasserwirtschaft of Aachen Technical University RWTH. The focus in studying these waste waters was on the adaptation and optimization of the ZenoGem {sup trademark} process - a biological cleaning technique with an integrated microfiltration membrane. The use of this technology had the following objectives: to safeguard compliance with the limiting values for direct or indirect discharge of excess water and to reduce the heavy metal freight of circulating process water reentering the fermentation process for mashing raw organic waste. Thus the pollutant content of the fermentation residue was to be cut down. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines von der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt gefoerderten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens wurde am Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft der RWTH Aachen die Prozess- und Ueberschusswasserreinigung von Bioabfallvergaerungsanlagen untersucht. Dabei stellte die Adaption und Optimierung des ZenoGem {sup trademark} -Verfahrens - ein biologisches Reinigungsverfahren mit integrierter Mikrofiltrationsmembran - fuer diese Abwaesser den Untersuchungsschwerpunkt dar. Ziel war es, mit dieser Technologie zum einen die Grenzwerte fuer eine direkte oder indirekte Einleitung des Ueberschusswassers zu gewaehrleisten und zum anderen die zirkulierenden Prozesswaesser, die in den Vergaerungsprozess zum Anmaischen der Roh-Bioabfaelle zurueckgefuehrt werden, an Schwermetallen zu entfrachten. Hierdurch sollte eine Schadstoffreduktion im Gaerreststoff erzielt werden. (orig.)

  20. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  1. Low temperature waste form process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This study successfully demonstrated process intensification of low temperature waste form production. Modifications were made to the dry blend composition to enable a 50% increase in waste concentration, thus allowing for a significant reduction in disposal volume and associated costs. Properties measurements showed that the advanced waste form can be produced using existing equipment and processes. Performance of the waste form was equivalent or better than the current baseline, with approximately double the amount of waste incorporation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of significantly accelerating low level waste immobilization missions across the DOE complex and at environmental remediation sites worldwide.

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing Module 2A waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, M.D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Hyre, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document addresses the certification of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) that will be treated in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) and is destined for disposal in the MLLW trench of the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The MLLW that will be treated in WRAP 2A contains land disposal restricted and radioactive constituents. Certification of the treated waste is dependent on numerous waste management activities conducted throughout the WRAP 2A operation. These activities range from waste treatability testing conducted prior to WRAP 2A waste acceptance to overchecking final waste form quality prior to transferring waste to disposal. This document addresses the high level strategies and methodologies for certifying the final waste form. Integration among all design and verification activities that support final waste form quality assurance is also discussed. The information generated from this effort may directly support other ongoing activities including the WRAP 2A Waste Characterization Study, WRAP 2A Waste Analysis Plan development, Sample Plan development, and the WRAP 2A Data Management System functional requirements definition

  3. Solidifying processing device for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueto, Kumiko; Toyohara, Naomi; Tomita, Toshihide; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a solidifying device for radioactive wastes. Solidifying materials and mixing water are mixed by a mixer and then charged as solidifying and filling materials to a wastes processing container containing wastes. Then, cleaning water is sent from a cleaning water hopper to a mixer to remove the solidifying and filling materials deposited in the mixer. The cleaning liquid wastes are sent to a separator to separate aggregate components from cleaning water components. Then, the cleaning water components are sent to the cleaning water hopper and then mixed with dispersing materials and water, to be used again as the mixing water upon next solidifying operation. On the other hand, the aggregate components are sent to a processing mechanism as radioactive wastes. With such procedures, since the discharged wastes are only composed of the aggregates components, and the amount of the wastes are reduced, facilities and labors for the processing of cleaning liquid wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System optimized processing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.; Boldt, A.L.; Boomer, K.D.; Galbraith, J.D.; Leach, C.E.; Waldo, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  5. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  6. Method of processing radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takamori; Suzuki, Takeo; Takahara, Toshio.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the processing performance of radioactive laundry waste processing device, as well as improve the working life of back osmotic membranes to be secondary wastes. Method: Upon removal of radioactive nucleids in radioactive laundry wastes by separation, radioactive nuclides-containing solids contained in the radioactive laundry wastes are separated and removed in a separation plate type centrifugal cleaner. Then, solid radioactive nuclides and ionized radioactive nuclides remained in the radioactive laundry wastes from which the solids have been removed by separation are separated and removed in a back osmotic membrane processing device. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaero...... the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization....

  8. Pyro-processes and the wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masaki; Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Inoue, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tomohiro

    2000-01-01

    Reprocessing using pyrometallurgical processes is generally considered to have economical benefits comparing with conventional aqueous processes because of the combination of simpler process and equipments, less criticality, and more compact facilities. On the other hand, the pyrometallurgical processes must generate peculiar wastes and R and D on those wastes is slightly inferior, as compared with the main processes. In this paper, process flows of major pyrometallurgical processes are firstly summarized and, then, the present R and D condition on the wastes are shown. (author)

  9. Pelletization process of postproduction plant waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, S.

    2012-07-01

    The results of investigations on the influence of material, process, and construction parameters on the densification process and density of pellets received from different mixtures of tobacco and fine-grained waste of lemon balm are presented. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that postproduction waste eg tobacco and lemon balm wastes can be successfully pelletized and used as an ecological, solid fuels.

  10. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  11. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  12. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. Fluctuations in the

  14. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In a radioactive gaseous waste processing device, a dehumidifier in which a lot of hollow thread membranes are bundled and assembled is disposed instead of a dehumidifying cooling device and a dehumidifying tower. The dehumidifier comprises a main body, a great number of hollow thread membranes incorporated in the main body, a pair of fixing members for bundling and fixing both ends of the hollow thread membranes, a pair of caps for allowing the fixing members to pass through and fixing them on both ends of the main body, an off gas flowing pipe connected to one of the caps, a gas exhaustion pipe connected to the other end of the cap and a moisture removing pipeline connected to the main body. A flowrate control valve is connected to the moisture removing pipeline, and the other end of the moisture removing pipeline is connected between a main condensator and an air extraction device. Then, cooling and freezing devices using freon are no more necessary, and since the device uses the vacuum of the main condensator as a driving source and does not use dynamic equipments, labors for the maintenance is greatly reduced to improve economical property. The facilities are reduced in the size thereby enabling to use space effectively. (N.H.)

  15. Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Naoki; Kuroda, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Katsushi; Kawato, Yoshimi; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

  16. Discarding processing method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Shiro; Kato, Hiroaki; Hatakeyama, Takao; Oura, Masato.

    1992-01-01

    At first, in a discrimination step, extremely low level radioactive wastes are discriminated to metals and concretes and further, the metal wastes are discriminated to those having hollow portions and those not having hollow portions, and the concrete wastes are discriminated to those having block-like shape and those having other shapes respectively. Next, in a processing step, the metal wastes having hollow portions are applied with cutting, devoluming or packing treatment and block-like concrete wastes are applied with surface solidification treatment, and concrete wastes having other shapes are applied with crushing treatment respectively. Then, the extremely low level radioactive wastes contained in a container used exclusively for transportation are taken out, in a movable burying facility with diffusion inhibiter kept at a negative pressure as required, in a field for burying operation, and buried in a state that they are isolated from the outside. Accordingly, they can be buried safely and efficiently. (T.M.)

  17. Environmental information document defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report documents the impact analysis of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing high-level waste currently being stored on an interim basis at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The DWPF will process the waste into a form suitable for shipment to and disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will convert the high-level waste into: a leach-resistant form containing above 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residue of slightly contaminated salt. The document describes the SRP site and environs, including population, land and water uses; surface and subsurface soils and waters; meteorology; and ecology. A conceptual integrated facility for concurrently producing glass waste and saltcrete is described, and the environmental effects of constructing and operating the facility are presented. Alternative sites and waste disposal options are addressed. Also environmental consultations and permits are discussed

  18. Processability analysis of candidate waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.H. Jr.; Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Schuyler, R.L. III.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation, or processability analysis, was performed to assess the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste form candidates. The reference borosilicate glass process was rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete, glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramics (SYNROC-D and tailored ceramics), and coated ceramic particles. Cost estimates for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities are also reported

  19. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na 2 O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will

  20. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  1. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  2. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  3. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF AN INTEGRATED, PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative, cost-effective, biological treatment process has been designed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). A pilot-scale demonstration is being conducted under the Mine Waste Technology Program using water flowing from an abandoned mine ...

  6. Defense Waste Processing Facility integrated cold runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentilucci, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is being constructed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP). The primary mission of the DWPF is to convert the radioactive waste, presently stored in underground tanks, to a more stable form, borosilicate glass, for eventual storage in a federal repository. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is responsible for determining the criteria for waste acceptance at a federal repository. These requirements are contained in the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS). Each waste producer is responsible for developing a Wasteform Compliance Plan (WCP) designed to meet these specifications. Data from tests described in the WCP will be reported in the Wasteform Qualification Report (WQR). Six of these: control of radionuclide release, verification of radionuclide release control, chemical and physical stability, free volume, free liquid, and fabrication and closure require demonstration of full-scale operation of the production facility to satisfy the WAPS documentation requirements

  7. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  8. Defense Waste Processing Facility: a remote process for solidification of Savannah River Plant high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Kelley, J.A.; Zeyfang, R.W.; Lethco, A.J.

    1982-03-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing that a Defense Waste Processing Facility be built at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to remotely process and immobilize high level radioactive waste produced at the site. Research, development, and design of the facility is being provided by a multidisciplined task force of personnel from the Du Pont Company which designed, built and has operated SRP since 1950. This remotely operated facility will immobilize 28 million gallons of high level waste now stored in tanks, plus the waste to be generated from continued reprocessing operations. Borosilicate glass has been selected as the reference waste form for the immobilization process

  9. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently being designed to convert Savannah River Plant liquid, high-level radioactive waste into a solid form, such as borosilicate glass. To prevent the spread of radioactivity, the outside of the canisters of waste glass must have very low levels of smearable radioactive contamination before they are removed from the DWPF. Several techniques were considered for canister decontamination: high-pressure water spray, electropolishing, chemical dissolution, and abrasive blasting. An abrasive blasting technique using a glass frit slurry has been selected for use in the DWPF. No additional equipment is needed to process waste generated from decontamination. Frit used as the abrasive will be mixed with the waste and fed to the glass melter. In contrast, chemical and electrochemical techniques require more space in the DWPF, and produce large amounts of contaminated by-products, which are difficult to immobilize by vitrification

  10. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  11. Closed Loop Waste Processing Dryer (DRYER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a gravity-independent pasteurization and hot air drying process suitable for stabilization of ALS wet cabin waste,...

  12. Dynamic respiration index as a descriptor of the biological stability of organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Fabrizio; Confalonieri, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia

    2004-01-01

    Analytical methods applicable to different organic wastes are needed to establish the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed (i.e., biological stability). The objective of this study was to test a new respirometric method for biological stability determination of organic wastes. Dynamic respiration index (DRI) measurements were performed on 16 organic wastes of different origin, composition, and biological stability degree to validate the test method and result expression, and to propose biological stability limits. In addition, theoretical DRI trends were obtained by using a mathematical model. Each test lasted 96 h in a 148-L-capacity respirometer apparatus, and DRI was monitored every hour. The biological stability was expressed as both single and cumulative DRI values. Results obtained indicated that DRI described biological stability in relation to waste typology and age well, revealing lower-stability waste characterized by a well-pronounced DRI profile (a marked peak was evident) that became practically flat for samples with higher biological stability. Fitting indices showed good model prediction compared with the experimental data, indicating that the method was able to reproduce the aerobic process, providing a reliable indication of the biological stability. The DRI can therefore be proposed as a useful method to measure the biological stability of organic wastes, and DRI values, calculated as a mean of 24 h of the highest microbial activity, of 1000 and 500 mg O(2) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) h(-1) are proposed to indicate medium (e.g., fresh compost) and high (e.g., mature compost) biological stabilities, respectively.

  13. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  14. Process of radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.; Schroter, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described in which the radiation level of waste gases from nuclear power plants containing both activation and fission gases is controlled at or below limits permitted by applicable standards by passing such gases, prior to release to the atmosphere, through an adsorptive delay path including a body of activated carbon having the relation to the throughput and character of such gases. (U.S.)

  15. An assessment of biological processes close to the sea bed in a slope region and its significance to the assessment of sea bed disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, P.M.; Ellis, C.J.; Angel, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Vertical profiles of planktonic and micronektonic biomass observed close to the sea bed along a transect running up the continental slope on the southern flank of the Porcupine Seabight (to the southwest of Ireland) showed that a doubling in biomass concentration occurs from 100 to 10m above the sea bed. Comparison with biomass concentrations at two deep water stations, one in the Seabight and the other in the Rockall Trough, showed that there was a consistent increase in standing crop close to the sea bed over the slope. Supplementary data were collected on the northern flank of the Seabight. Analysis of both taxonomic groups and individual species showed that some taxa were more abundant near the sea floor and extended their vertical ranges to greater depths over the slope than over deep water, other taxa were unaffected. The implications to the problem of assessing the safety of sea bed disposal of high level radioactive waste are summarised. (author)

  16. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyoshi, Hideki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to process medium level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants and facilities handling radioisotopes and uranium at an inexpensive precession cost. Method: After adding water glass and solidification aids to the radioactive liquid wastes, they are concentrated through ultrafine filtration membrane treatment to process the radioactive liquid wastes. The concentrates obtained through the ultrafine filtration membrane treatment are directly concentrating to solidify (asphalt solidification, vitrification, evaporation to dry or the like), or the liquids obtained by washing the ultrafine filter membranes by adding surface active agents are subjected to bubble separation and, thereafter, to concentrated solidification in the same manner as described above. This enables to increase the decontaminating coefficient and decrease the processing cost as compared with the mere ultrafine filtration of the liquid wastes. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Biological conversion of anglesite (PbSO4) and lead waste from spent car batteries to galena (PbS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Hoop, de K.; Bosma, W.; Dijkman, H.

    2002-01-01

    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO4, PbO2, PbO/Pb(OH)2 precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted

  18. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Eiji; Nakamura, Haruto; Miyazaki, Kazuhide; Sato, Toshikazu; Ishii, Masato.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively and economically eliminate toxic radioactive nuclides contained at an extremely low concentration of about 10 -6 - 10 -10 ppm in radioactive liquid wastes. Method: Radioactive liquid wastes are subjected to DC current electrolysis using aluminum or aluminum alloy as an anode. Toxic nuclides contained at an extremely low concentration in the liquid wastes are adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide having intense activity formed from aluminum ions leached out from the anode and combined with hydroxyl ions. The process can effectively separate to remove the following radioactive nuclides: Cr-51, Co-53, Co-60 (heavy metal elements), La-140, Ce-143 (Lanthanoide elements), Pu-239, Np-239 (actinoid elements). (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO 3 -HF and H 2 C 2 O 4 to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated

  20. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO 3 -HF and H 2 C 2 O 4 to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated

  1. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  2. Correlation between radwaste processing and hazardous waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, O.U.J.; Tulipano, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The basic framework under SARA has established that preferred remedies are those which permanently and significantly reduce toxicity, mobility or volume of wastes. In the 1970's radwaste process designs at power plants received pressure to satisfy essentially the same criteria when increased emphasis was placed on limited disposal sites which resulted in rapidly escalating disposal costs. This paper provides a historical perspective of radwaste experience and discusses valuable insight to hazardous waste treatment technologies. The radwaste system experience is discussed in terms of providing a source of proven and reliable technologies. Discussion is presented on specific radwaste processes which are applicable technologies for hazardous waste treatment. The technologies presented include (a) Solidification, (b) Evaporation, and (c) Incineration. Experience is presented which establishes assurance that the treatment technologies will provide a permanent remedy to hazardous waste treatment. This paper describes typical radwaste solidification, evaporation and incineration processes at power plants. The design requirements and implementation of radwaste equipment is correlated to design requirement of hazardous waste equipment. Specific discussion is provided on how the available process equipment can reduce toxicity, mobility, and volume of waste. Discussion is presented on how the standard off the shelf processing equipment needs to be modified for radwaste and hazardous waste applications

  3. Full-scale biodrying process of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębicka Marlena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in the full-scale waste biodrying reactor. The studied facility includes in the biological stage a rectangular-shaped, galvanized steel reactor equipped with a module for active aeration connected with a stove and a bio-filter for removing odours. The undersize fraction (Ø <80 mm of the municipal solid waste (MSW that undergoes mechanical pretreatment is treated by 14th days in the 150 m3 capasity reactor. Initial moisture content of the untreated waste was 54.65%. Moisture content was declined gradually during biodrying process. Temperature changes during 14th days of biodrying process were monitored with the maximum temperature 70°C. To assess the degree of stabilization of the biodried waste, the determination of the O2 uptake was measured. The oxygen demand of untreated waste was 53.16 mg O2/g d.m. and after 14th days for biodried waste oxygen consumption was 19.78 mg O2/g d.m. The results obtained in studies by respirometric dynamic method of oxygen uptake (expressed as O2/96h parameter had been compared to the results performed using the static method, where AT4 is the applied indicator.

  4. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential

  5. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  6. Microbial processes in radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Farkas-Galgoczi, G.; Diosi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial processes could potentially affect the performance of a radioactive waste disposal system and related factors that could have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides are outlined. Analytical methods, including sampling of water, rock and surface swabs from a potential disposal site, are described and the quantitative as well as qualitative experimental results obtained are given. Although the results contribute to an understanding of the impact of microbial processes on deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, there is not yet sufficient information for a model which will predict the consequences of these processes. (author)

  7. Evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.

    1979-11-01

    An aspect of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's nuclear waste management R and D programs has been to develop an evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes. This report describes the process evaluation method. Process worth is expressed as a numerical index called the Figure-of-Merit (FOM), which is computed using a hierarchial, linear, additive, scoring model with constant criteria weights and nonlinear value functions. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the procedure and to point out some of its strengths and weaknesses. Potential modifications and extensions are discussed, and an extensive reference list is included

  8. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neugart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold.

  9. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  10. Processing method of chemical decontamination liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Yaita, Yumi; Fujihata, Kenji; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    A method of processing spent chemical decontamination liquid wastes containing an aminocarboxylic acid type chelating agent comprises a combination of a step of decomposing the chelating agent in the decontamination liquid wastes to gaseous carbon dioxide, water and an ammonium ion, a step of separating the ammonium ion and a step of neutralizing and solidifying the decontamination liquid wastes from which the ammonium ion is separated and removed. The decomposition is conducted by using an oxidizing means such as anodic oxidation, irradiation of UV rays, ozone or sodium peroxide. The ammonium ion is separated from the decontamination liquid wastes by an electrolytic (electric) dialysis method. Decomposition of EDTA and separation/removal of the ammonium ion as a decomposed product can be conducted simultaneously by the electrolytic dialysis. (N.H.)

  11. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  12. Utilization of low grade and waste uranium ores by means of biological processes. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czegledi, B.

    1978-01-01

    Investigation of the possible affect of bacteria in leaching uranium using alkaline carbonate medium has been investigated. Eleven strains of bacteria were isolated from the alkaline percolation solutions. Most belonged to the genus Thiobacillus. Each strain was characterized by growth under aerobic conditions in Levinthal - bouillon medium and under vaseline (semi-anaerobic in Hetehens medium. Growth of the bacteria was optimum at pH range 7 to 8 but a significant population was found to exist in alkaline leaching solutions of about pH 9 to 9.5 in heap leaching experiments. It was concluded that microbiological processes can play a role in alkaline heap leaching although the quantitative measure is yet uncertain

  13. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karisen, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components (1) The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degrees C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms, such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, developed by Rockwell International, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900-1000 degrees C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degrees C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  14. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karlsen, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components. The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degree C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms. such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900--1000 degree C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degree C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  15. Processing of Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Labpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, C. H.; Franco, P.; Bisaria, A.

    2002-02-26

    The Oak Ridge Site Treatment Plan (STP) issued under a Tennessee Commissioner's Order includes a compliance milestone related to treatment of mixed waste labpacks on the Oak Ridge sites. The treatment plan was written and approved in Fiscal Year 1997. The plan involved approximately 1,100 labpacks and 7,400 on-the-shelf labpackable items stored at three Department of Energy (DOE) sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The labpacks and labpack items consist of liquids and solids with various chemical constituents and radiological concerns. The waste must be processed for shipment to a commercial hazardous waste treatment facility or treatment utilizing a Broad Spectrum mixed waste treatment contract. This paper will describe the labpack treatment plan that was developed as required by the Site Treatment Plan and the operations implemented to process the labpack waste. The paper will discuss the labpack inventory in the treatment plan, treatment and disposal options, processing strategies, project risk assessment, and current project status.

  16. Piecewise deterministic processes in biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a concise introduction to piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), with particular emphasis on their applications to biological models. Further, it presents examples of biological phenomena, such as gene activity and population growth, where different types of PDMPs appear: continuous time Markov chains, deterministic processes with jumps, processes with switching dynamics, and point processes. Subsequent chapters present the necessary tools from the theory of stochastic processes and semigroups of linear operators, as well as theoretical results concerning the long-time behaviour of stochastic semigroups induced by PDMPs and their applications to biological models. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and biologists alike. The first group will find new biological models that lead to interesting and often new mathematical questions, while the second can observe how to include seemingly disparate biological processes into a unified mathematical theory, and...

  17. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Katsuya; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Hyakutake, Hiroshi.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the life of the DWPF melter, projects to increase facility throughput, initiatives to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated, improved remote decontamination capabilities, and improvements to remote canyon equipment to extend equipment life span. This paper also includes a review of a melt rate improvement program conducted by Savannah River Technology Center personnel. This program involved identifying the factors that impacted melt rate, conducting small scale testing of proposed process changes and developing a cost effective implementation plan

  19. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  20. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Chaudhary Awais; Schwede Sebastian; Thorin Eva; Yan Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents ...

  1. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  2. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.J.; Worl, L.; Harradine, D.; Padilla, D.; McInroy, R.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  3. Process for storing radioactive waste in ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Gouvenot, D.; Pagny, P.

    1983-01-01

    A process for storing radioactive waste in a cavity in the ground is claimed. The waste is conditioned and isolated from the ground by at least one retention barrier. A grout consisting of 1000 parts by weight of water, 40 to 400 parts by weight of cement, 80 to 1000 parts by weight of at least one clay chosen from the group including montmorillonite, illite and vermiculite, as well as 25 to 1200 parts by weight of kieselguhr and/or natural or artificial pozzuolanas is introduced into gaps in the soil areas surrounding the cavity

  4. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Shirai, Takamori

    1990-01-01

    Conventional hollow thread filters were prepared by melt spinning polyethylene and then stretching it into a porous structures. In the present invention, electron-rays are irradiated to the conventional filters to form radicals on the ethylene chains. Then, chloromethyl styrene and methacrylic acid are brought into contact with each other to take place graft polymerization. Then, secondary or lower amine is brought into contact to aminate them. This can provide a functional resin having weakly acidic groups (-COOH) and weakly basic groups (-NRR') in the polyethylene main chain. When a pretreatment device is disposed to a desalting tower using hollow thread filters provided with the ion exchanging function, it is possible to reduce both the load due to the suspensions and load due to the ionic ingredients to the desalting tower and the quality of processed water can be improved. (T.M.)

  5. Thermal process for immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1971-01-01

    The Thermalt process involves an exothermic, thermite-like reaction of aluminum metal with basalt, quartz sand, and radioactive waste. The resulting melt when solidified is a silicious stone-like material that is similar in chemical composition to basalt. The process utilizes low cost ingredients: basalt rock, which occurs naturally in the Hanford region, inexpensive aluminum metal such as aluminum scrap which need not be pure, and the waste which is predominately sodium nitrate salt. The waste itself along with the basalt provides the oxygen necessary for the reaction. The exothermic reaction provides the necessary heat to melt the ingredients thus eliminating the need for external heat sources such as furnaces which are necessary with most other melt methods. The final product is highly stable and essentially nonleachable; leach rates appear as low or lower than other melt products described in the literature. Initial studies indicate the process is effective for both low-level and high-level wastes. (U.S.)

  6. Processing method for radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Yoshikawa, Jun; Ozaki, Shigeru.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of processing a radioactive liquid wastes, such as washing water for working cloths, hand washing water and shower water generated from a nuclear power plant having extremely low-level radioactivity and containing COD ingredients such as surface active agents. Namely, an adsorbent (powdery active carbon) for adsorbing the surface active agents is added to the radioactive liquid wastes containing the surface active agents. Precise filtration is conducted by using the adsorbent as a filtering aid. In a case where the radioactive liquid wastes contain harmful ion ingredients, zeolite and inorganic or organic ion exchanger powder are added to the radioactive liquid wastes as an ion remover before adding the adsorbent for removing the harmful ion ingredients. According to the present invention, since the radioactive liquid wastes containing the surface active agents generated in the nuclear power plant are applied with the powdery active carbon and then filtered precisely, the surface active agents and floating particles can be removed at the same time. (I.S.)

  7. Waste rock revegetation: Evaluation of nutrient and biological amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, T.W.; Lu, S.; Barta, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Lack of salvaged topsoil for the reclamation of historical waste rock piles is a common problem in the arid Great Basin region. Utilization of amended waste rock as a growth media could reduce further disturbance resulting from topsoil harvest, minimize hauling costs, and potentially allow for the use of a higher quality material for plant growth. Getchell Gold Corporation initiated a study in 1995 to determine the suitability of waste rock substrates to support plant growth following application of nutrient and biological amendments. Three nutrient amendments and a biological seed treatment were evaluation for use in establishing vegetative cover on three distinct waste rock substrates. Completely randomized blocks were placed on the three substrates. Treatments included organic fertilizers (Biosol and Gro-Power), a mineral fertilizer (16-20-0), and Azospirillum bacterial inoculant, plus controls. The seed mix consisted of Agropyron riparium, Agropyron spicatum, Elymus cinereus, Poa secunda, and Sitanion hystrix. Canopy and ground cover were monitored for three growing seasons. Conclusions from the study are: (1) two of the three substrates supported plant growth following amendment with organic fertilizers; (2) organic fertilizers increased cover substantially over the mineral fertilizer; and (3) Azospirillum had no effect on canopy cover.

  8. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  9. Selective oxidation of organic compounds in waste water by ozone-based oxidation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    For many different types of waste water, treatment systems have been implemented in the past decades. Waste water treatment is usually performed by biological processes, either aerobic or anaerobic, complemented with physical / chemical post treatment techniques.

  10. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  11. Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  12. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility Process Simulation Package Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to immobilize high level liquid radioactive waste into safe, stable, and manageable solid form. The complexity and classification of the facility requires that a performance based operator training to satisfy Department of Energy orders and guidelines. A major portion of the training program will be the application and utilization of Process Simulation Packages to assist in training the Control Room Operators on the fluctionality of the process and the application of the Distribution Control System (DCS) in operating and managing the DWPF process. The packages are being developed by the DWPF Computer and Information Systems Simulation Group. This paper will describe the DWPF Process Simulation Package Life Cycle. The areas of package scope, development, validation, and configuration management will be reviewed and discussed in detail

  14. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  15. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Hooper, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  16. Method of processing low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Yoshiro; Takaya, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to dispose a great amount of low level radioactive wastes with safety in the process of burying underground radioactive wastes tightly sealed in vessels. Method: Water shield walls surrounding the boundary of a disposal site are constructed by the method of successively repeating the steps of digging out shafts holes with the width corresponding to the wall thickness and reaching the water impermeable layer of the disposal site, putting iron wire cages into the holes and then spiking concretes. Then, vertical shafts each of a rectangular transversal section are dug out in the disposal site surrounded with the walls with an appropriate gap from the wall. Then, after accommodating vessels containing low level radioactive wastes tightly shield therein in the shafts, stabilizing liquid filled in the shafts is replaced with self-curing stabilizing liquid, by which radioactive wastes can be disposed with safety being covered around the periphery thereof and with the outside of them being surrounded with the water shield walls. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed

  18. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  19. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  20. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes

  1. Long-term emissions from mechanically biologically treated waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste treatment in passively aerated open windrows, using the Dome Aeration Technology (DAT), was identified as an appropriate technology due to low construction and operational resource requirements. Three self-aerated windrows were set up at the Bisasar Road Landfill in order to study the efficiency of the process ...

  2. A review of biological processes within oceanic water columns relevant to the assessment of the safety of disposal of waste, notably radioactive isotopes on or within the sea bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Pelagic biological processes and their connotations in the assessment of possible dispersal mechanisms of contaminants released on the deep oceanic seabed are reviewed. Biological gradients tend to be from the surface down so the search is for processes which run counter to these general gradients. Observed profiles of standing crop of both plankton and micronekton show that below 2000 m biological activity would have to be exceptionally dynamic to have an influence that will even approach within an order of magnitude of the dispersive effect of physical mixing. Examination of all forms of known migration mechanisms fails to reveal such dynamic activity. Nor have any critical pathways been identified within the present or foreseeable pattern of exploitation of the oceans. However, a major gap in knowledge is whether the pattern of these biological processes changes substantially in the region of continental slopes. (author)

  3. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable.

  4. Thermal processes evaluation for RWMC wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this activity was to provide a white paper that identifies, collects information, and presents a preliminary evaluation of ''core'' thermal technologies that could be applied to RWMC stored and buried mixed waste. This paper presents the results of the following activities: General thermal technology identification, collection of technical and cost information on each technology, identification of thermal technologies applicable to RWMC waste, evaluation of each technology as applied to RWMC waste in seven process attributes, scoring each technology on a one to five scale (five highest) in each process attribute. Reaching conclusions about the superiority of one technology over others is not advised based on this preliminary study alone. However, the highly rated technologies (i.e., overall score of 2.9 or better) are worthy of a more detailed evaluation. The next step should be a more detailed evaluation of the technologies that includes onsite visits with operational facilities, preconceptual treatment facility design analysis, and visits with developers for emerging technologies. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  6. Chemical and biological studies on producing high quality biscuits with irradiated tomato wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to produce high quality biscuits for treatment of some special diseases. In this study, the total tomato processing wastes were used as new source of protein in which the most predominate elements were found to be phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acid, while lysine was the second limiting amino acid. It was found to contain about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processing wastes remain unutilized and they not only add to the disposal problem, but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato wastes were irradiated in two doses (1.5 and 2.5 KGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% tomato wastes. All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated tomato wastes. The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined. Internal organs were also followed. The results obtained showed that 15% tomato wastes biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36, 2.72 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiation on the rats internal organs

  7. Investigations on mechanical biological treatment of waste in South America: Towards more sustainable MSW management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezama, Alberto; Aguayo, Pablo; Konrad, Odorico; Navia, Rodrigo; Lorber, Karl E.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an analysis on the suitability of mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste in South America, based on two previous experimental investigations carried out in two different countries. The first experiment was performed for determining the mass and volume reduction of MSW in the province of Concepcion (Chile). The implemented bench-scale process consisted of a manual classification and separation stage, followed by an in-vessel biological degradation process. The second experiment consisted of a full-scale experiment performed in the city of Estrela (Brazil), where the existing municipal waste management facility was adapted to enhance the materials sorting and separation. Expressed in wet weight composition, 85.5% of the material input in the first experiment was separated for biological degradation. After 27 days of processing, 60% of the initial mass was reduced through degradation and water evaporation. The final fraction destined for landfilling equals 59% of the total input mass, corresponding to about 50% of the initial volume. In the second experiment, the fraction destined to landfill reaches 46.6% of the total input waste mass, whilst also significantly reducing the total volume to be disposed. These results, and the possible recovery of material streams suitable for recycling or for preparing solid recovered fuels, are the main advantages of the studied process

  8. Process of disposing radioactive washed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yasuyuki; Shirai, Takamori; Hasegawa, Akira.

    1973-01-01

    Object: To use a surface active agent, which produces no bubble when vaporized and concentrated, as a cleaning material, to effect processes of vaporization and concentration without removing the surface active agent from the cleaned waste. Structure: A cleaning agent containing 10 - 30% of a non-ion surface active agent comprising a combination of polyethylene-alkyl-ether and polyethylene-alkyl-phenylether in a ratio of 1 to 1, 0 - 30% of chelate, 1% of re-adhesion prohibitor (CMC), and 1 - 5% of emulsion stabilizer is used to wash a radioactive contamination, an anti-foaming agent in a small amount is added to the washed waste only when in start to directly vaporize and concentrate the same, after which it is heated and dried and thereafter, it is decomposed at a temperature less than 400 0 C for treatment of reduction in volume. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Development of methods for treatment and conditioning of biological radioactive waste in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, J.

    1997-01-01

    Incineration of biological radioactive waste was performed in a facility manufactured in the Czech Republic for combustion of burnable, radioactive and non-radioactive residues. The equipment has shown an adequate capability for combustion of biological waste. Basic technical parameters of the incinerator SP-603 can guarantee combustion of majority of wastes from different radionuclide users in the country. To ensure proper further handling with the resulting ash, three conditioning options were studied, the bituminization process, incorporation into cement, and embedding of ash into a mixture of bituminous and cementitious materials. Mechanical properties of the conditioned ash were in good compliance with those published elsewhere. Bituminized ash exhibits lowest leachibility, followed by the ash conditioned by means of the mixed process. Potential abnormal operation conditions were evaluated and their consequences assessed. The evaluation encompassed sensitivity analysis of the consequences potentially affecting the operating staff, nearby population and the environment. Cost estimate was carried out using a national approach for the calculation. From the results it can be seen that there are no large differences between the conditioning and disposal of wastes resulting from different conditioning processes. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  11. Biological Processes Associated with Impact Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Koeberl, Christian; Gilmour, Iain

    The diversity of papers presented in this volume attest to the fact that impact cratering is very much a biological process. This volume is the tenth in a series of books resulting from the activities of the scientific programme, "Response of the Earth System to Impact Processes" (IMPACT), by the European Science Foundation. The papers were presented at an international meeting at King's College, Cambridge in 2003. These papers investigate the effects of asteroid and comet impacts on a diversity of biological and evolutionary processes including the survival of organics and microbial ecosystems to the extinction of organisms.

  12. Biochemical Studies for Producing Biscuits from Irradiated Tomato Processed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to produce biscuits as therapeutic diets. Raw materials of tomato processed waste (TPW) were used as a source of some amino acids and elements, (phosphorus, potassium and magnesium), besides amino acids (Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acids while lysine was the second limiting one). It was present about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processed wastes remain un-utilized and they not only add to the disposal problem but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato processed wastes were irradiated at two doses (1.5 and 2.5 kGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% (TPW). All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated (TPW). The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined, besides the internal organs. The results obtained showed that 15% (TPW) biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was significant changes were recorded irradiation treatment on the rats internal organs

  13. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  14. Applying interactive control to waste processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1992-08-01

    At present waste and residue processing includes steps that require human interaction. The risk of exposure to unknown hazardous materials and the potential for radiation contamination motivates the desire to remove operators from these processes. Technologies that facilitate this include glove box robotics, modular systems for remote and automated servicing, and interactive controls that minimize human intervention. LLNL is developing an automated system which is designed to supplant the operator for glove box tasks, thus protecting the operator from the risk of radiation exposure and minimizing operator-associated waste. Although most of the processing can be automated with minimal human interaction, there are some tasks where intelligent intervention is both desirable and necessary to adapt to Enexpected circumstances and events. These activities require that the operator interact with the process using a remote manipulator which provides or reflects a natural feel to the operator. The remote manipulation system which was developed incorporates sensor fusion and interactive control, and provides the operator with an effective means of controlling the robot in a potentially unknown environment. This paper describes recent accomplishments in technology development and integration, and outlines the future goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for achieving this integrated interactive control capability

  15. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  16. High-Risk Biodegradable Waste Processing by Alkaline Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalambura, Sanja; Voća, Neven; Krička, Tajana; Šindrak, Zoran; Špehar, Ana; Kalambura, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable waste is by defi nition degraded by other living organisms. Every day, meat industry produces large amounts of a specifi c type of biodegradable waste called slaughterhouse waste. Traditionally in Europe, this waste is recycled in rendering plants which produce meat and bone meal and fat. However, feeding animals with meat and bone meal has been banned since the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In consequence, new slaughterhouse waste processing technologies ...

  17. Adsorption of heavy metals in waste water using biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Tejada-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is a process that allows active or passive uptake of metal ions due to the property that different living or dead biomass have to bind and accumulate these pollutants by different mechanisms. The application of low-cost materials obtained from different biomass from microbial flora, agro-industrial waste and algae has been investigated to replace the use of conventional methods for the removal of contaminants such as heavy metals. Some of the metals of greatest impact to the environment due to its high toxicity and difficult to remove are chromium, nickel, cadmium, lead, and mercury. In this paper, an overview of adsorption as an alternative process for the removal of contaminants in solution and biomass commonly used in these processes, as well as some of the modifications made to improve the efficiency of adsorption of these materials is presented. It was concluded that the use of adsorption in the removal of pollutants in aqueous solution using waste biomass is applicable to these decontamination processes avoiding subsequent problems such as the generation of chemical sludge, and generating an alternative to use materials considered as waste. It is further identified that such factors as the pH of the solution, particle size, temperature, and concentration of metal effect on the process.

  18. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Gonzalez, Lino A.; Broadbelt, Linda; Raviknishan, Vinu

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of waste plastic to energy is a growing problem that is especially acute in space exploration applications. Moreover, utilization of heavy hydrocarbon resources (wastes, waxes, etc.) as fuels and chemicals will be a growing need in the future. Existing technologies require a trade-off between product selectivity and feedstock conversion. The objective of this work was to maintain high plastic-to-fuel conversion without sacrificing the liquid yield. The developed technology accomplishes this goal with a combined understanding of thermodynamics, reaction rates, and mass transport to achieve high feed conversion without sacrificing product selectivity. The innovation requires a reaction vessel, hydrocarbon feed, gas feed, and pressure and temperature control equipment. Depending on the feedstock and desired product distribution, catalyst can be added. The reactor is heated to the desired tempera ture, pressurized to the desired pressure, and subject to a sweep flow at the optimized superficial velocity. Software developed under this project can be used to determine optimal values for these parameters. Product is vaporized, transferred to a receiver, and cooled to a liquid - a form suitable for long-term storage as a fuel or chemical. An important NASA application is the use of solar energy to convert waste plastic into a form that can be utilized during periods of low solar energy flux. Unlike previous work in this field, this innovation uses thermodynamic, mass transport, and reaction parameters to tune product distribution of pyrolysis cracking. Previous work in this field has used some of these variables, but never all in conjunction for process optimization. This method is useful for municipal waste incinerator operators and gas-to-liquids companies.

  19. Processing method of radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Urata, Megumu; Sato, Masao.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume and increase the density of radioactive metal wastes easily while preventing scattering of radioactivity and process them into suitable form to storage and treatment. Method: Metal wastes mainly composed of zirconium are discharged from nuclear power plants or fuel re-processing plants, and these metals such as zirconium and titanium vigorously react with hydrogen and rapidly diffuse as hydrides. Since the hydrides are extremely brittle and can be pulverized easily, they can be volume-reduced. However, since metal hydrides have no ductility, dehydrogenation is applied for the molding fabrication in view of the subsequent storage and processing. The dehydrogenation is easy like the hydrogenation and fine metal pieces can be molded in a small compression device. For the dehydrogenation, a temperature is slightly increased as compared with that in the hydrogenation, pressure is reduced through the vacuum evacuation system and the removed hydrogen is purified for reuse. The upper limit for the temperature of the hydrogenation is 680 0 C in order to prevent the scttering of radioactivity. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  1. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  2. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  4. Analysis of waste management issues arising from a field study evaluating decontamination of a biological agent from a building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Wood, J; Drake, J; Minamyer, S; Silvestri, E; Yund, C; Nichols, T; Ierardi, M; Amidan, B

    2016-01-01

    The Bio-response Operational Testing and Evaluation (BOTE) Project was a cross-government effort designed to operationally test and evaluate a response to a biological incident (release of Bacillus anthracis [Ba] spores, the causative agent for anthrax) from initial public health and law enforcement response through environmental remediation. The BOTE Project was designed to address site remediation after the release of a Ba simulant, Bacillus atrophaeus spp. globigii (Bg), within a facility, drawing upon recent advances in the biological sampling and decontamination areas. A key component of response to a biological contamination incident is the proper management of wastes and residues, which is woven throughout all response activities. Waste is generated throughout the response and includes items like sampling media packaging materials, discarded personal protective equipment, items removed from the facility either prior to or following decontamination, aqueous waste streams, and materials generated through the application of decontamination technologies. The amount of residual contaminating agent will impact the available disposal pathways and waste management costs. Waste management is an integral part of the decontamination process and should be included through "Pre-Incident" response planning. Overall, the pH-adjusted bleach decontamination process generated the most waste from the decontamination efforts, and fumigation with chlorine dioxide generated the least waste. A majority of the solid waste generated during pH-adjusted bleach decontamination was the nonporous surfaces that were removed, bagged, decontaminated ex situ, and treated as waste. The waste during the two fumigation rounds of the BOTE Project was associated mainly with sampling activities. Waste management activities may represent a significant contribution to the overall cost of the response/recovery operation. This paper addresses the waste management activities for the BOTE field test

  5. Waste processing practices at waste management department from INR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), subsidiary of the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities has its own Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). The object of activity of STDR within the INR Pitesti is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. Also, it will must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from other decommissioning activities. In according with the National Nuclear Program and the Governmental order no. 11/2003, the Institute for Nuclear Research is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The classes and criteria of classification for radioactive waste generated in operation and decommissioning in Romania are established in compliance with the classification recommended by IAEA and generally valid in EU countries. The general classification takes into consideration the disposal requirements to isolate the radioactive waste from environment. In Romania, waste minimization is considered by Order No. 56/2004 of CNCAN President for approval of Fundamental regulations on the safe management of radioactive waste. According to this regulation, the generation of radioactive waste is to be kept to the minimum practicable level in terms of both its activity and volume through appropriate design measures, facility operation and decommissioning practices. In order to meet this requirement, the operator must ensure: - selection and control of materials; - recycling and reuse of materials, including clearance of materials; - implementing adequate operating procedures, including those referring to the physical, chemical and radiological characterization of the waste and sorting of different type of materials. (orig.)

  6. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO 2 and H 2 O, with 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture

  7. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed during the 4th gas sampling at a temperature of approx. 720–780°C. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in the range from 22 to 40 vol.%. The resulting iodine numbers of samples CHFO, DS, DSFW reach values that indicate the possibility of using them to produce the so-called “disposable sorbents” in wastewater treatment. The WC condensate can be directed to further processing and upgrading for energy use.

  8. Towards distributed multiscale simulation of biological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsdorf, J.; Berti, G.; Chopard, B.; Hegewald, J.; Krafczyk, M.; Wang, D.; Lorenz, E.; Hoekstra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of biological processes, e.g. related to cardio-vascular disease and treatment, can significantly be improved by numerical simulation. In this paper, we present an approach for a multiscale simulation environment, applied for the prediction of in-stent re-stenos is. Our focus is on

  9. Ozone pretreatment of process waste water generated in course of fluoroquinolone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Fares; Pelzer, David; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    During production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Whenever possible, the resulting waste water will be processed by conventional waste water treatment plants. Currently, incineration of the process waste water is the method to eliminate compounds with high biological activity. Thus, ozone treatment followed by biological waste water treatment was tested as an alternative method. Two prominent representatives of the large group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin) were investigated, focussing on waste water of the bulk production. Elimination of the target compounds and generation of their main transformation products were determined by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The obtained results demonstrated, that the concentration of moxifloxacin and its metabolites can be effectively reduced (>99.7%) prior entering the receiving water. On the contrary, the concentration of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites remained too high for safe discharge, necessitating application of prolonged ozonation for its further degradation. The required ozonation time can be estimated based on the determined kinetics. To assure a low biological activity the ecotoxicity of the ozonated waste water was investigated using three trophic levels. By means of multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS n ) experiments several new transformation products of the fluoroquinolones were identified. Thus, previously published proposed structures could be corrected or confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization and process technology capabilities for Hanford tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Weimer, W.C.; Schrempf, R.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Paciflc Northwest National Laboratory's (the Laboratory) capabilities in characterization and unit process and system testing that are available to support Hanford tank waste processing. This document is organized into two parts. The first section discusses the Laboratory's extensive experience in solving the difficult problems associated with the characterization of Hanford tank wastes, vitrified radioactive wastes, and other very highly radioactive and/or heterogeneous materials. The second section of this document discusses the Laboratory's radioactive capabilities and facilities for separations and waste form preparation/testing that can be used to Support Hanford tank waste processing design and operations

  11. Process alternatives for HTGR fuel reprocessing wastes: an engineering evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K. H.

    1977-05-01

    An evaluation has been made of numerous process alternatives for different types of radioactive wastes resulting from reprocessing of HTGR fuels. Discussion of pertinent waste characteristics is followed by a description and an assessment of selected process alternatives. The final phase of the discussion is concerned with identification of research and development needs for specific alternatives. High-level solid wastes from the head-end system, which are unique to HTGR fuel reprocessing, require major process development efforts. Most other types of wastes can reasonably be expected to make use of technologies being developed for LWR wastes, and will require minor to moderate modifications.

  12. Urban Biomining: Biological Extraction of Metals and Materials from Electronics Waste Using a Synthetic Biology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Rothschild, L.

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life electronics waste (e-waste) containing toxic and valuable materials is a rapidly progressing human health and environmental issue. Using synthetic biology tools, we have developed a recycling method for e-waste. Our innovation is to use a recombinant version of a naturally-occurring silica-degrading enzyme to depolymerize the silica in metal- and glass- containing e-waste components, and subsequently, to use engineered bacterial surfaces to bind and separate metals from a solution. The bacteria with bound metals can then be used as "bio-ink" to print new circuits using a novel plasma jet electronics printing technology. Here, we present the results from our initial studies that focus on the specificity of metal-binding motifs for a cognate metal. The candidate motifs that show high affinity and specificity will be engineered into bacterial surfaces for downstream applications in biologically-mediated metal recycling. Since the chemistry and role of Cu in metalloproteins is relatively well-characterized, we are using Cu as a proxy to elucidate metal and biological ligand interactions with various metals in e-waste. We assess the binding parameters of 3 representative classes of Cu-binding motifs using isothermal titration calorimetry; 1) natural motifs found in metalloproteins, 2) consensus motifs, and 3) rationally designed peptides that are predicted, in silico, to bind Cu. Our results indicate that naturally-occurring motifs have relative high affinity and specificity for Cu (association constant for Cu Ka 104 M-1, Zn Ka 103 M-1) when competing ions are present in the aqueous milieu. However, motifs developed through rational design by applying quantum mechanical methods that take into account complexation energies of the elemental binding partners and molecular geometry of the cognate metal, not only show high affinity for the cognate metal (Cu Ka 106 M-1), but they show specificity and discrimination against other metal ions that would be

  13. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  14. Waste Disposition Issues and Resolutions at the TRU Waste Processing Center at Oak Ridge TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper prepared for the Waste Management Conference 2009 provides lessons learned from the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) associated with development of approaches used to certify and ensure disposition of problematic TRU wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The TWPC is currently processing the inventory of available waste TRU waste at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). During the processing effort several waste characteristics were identified/discovered that did not conform to the normal standards and processes for disposal at WIPP. Therefore, the TWPC and ORNL were challenged with determining a path forward for this problematic, special case TRU wastes to ensure that they can be processed, packaged, and shipped to WIPP. Additionally, unexpected specific waste characteristics have challenged the project to identify and develop processing methods to handle problematic waste. The TWPC has several issues that have challenged the projects ability to process RH Waste. High Neutron Dose Rate resulting from both Californium and Curium in the waste stream challenge the RH-TRU 72-B limit for dose rate measured from the side of the package under normal conditions of transport, as specified in Chapter 5.0 of the RH-TRU 72-B SAR (i.e., ≤10 mrem/hour at 2 meters). Difficult to process waste in the hot cell has introduced processing and handling difficulties included problems associated with the disposition of prohibited items that fall out of the waste stream such as liquids, aerosol cans, etc. Lastly, multiple waste streams require characterization and AK challenge the ability to generate dose-to curie models for the waste. Repackaging is one solution to the high neutron dose rate issue. In parallel, an effort is underway to request a change to the TRAMPAC requirements to allow shielding in the drum or canister to reduce the impact of the high neutron dose rates. Due diligence on supporting AK efforts is important in ensuring adequate

  15. Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38 and 41

  16. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  17. Plasma processing of compacted drums of simulated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Larsen, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to identify and develop technologies that have potential application in the treatment of DOE wastes. One particular waste of concern within the DOE is transuranic (TRU) waste, which is generated and stored at several DOE sites. High temperature DC arc generated plasma technology is an emerging treatment method for TRU waste, and its use has the potential to provide many benefits in the management of TRU. This paper begins by discussing the need for development of a treatment process for TRU waste, and the potential benefits that a plasma waste treatment system can provide in treating TRU waste. This is followed by a discussion of the results of a project conducted for the DOE to demonstrate the effectiveness of a plasma process for treating supercompacted TRU waste. 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Dissolved air flotation primary clarifier improves performance of biological waste treatment at a latex manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.R.; Kerecz, B.J.; Davis, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. operates a chemical manufacturing facility in Piedmont, SC which generates a high strength COD emulsion wastewater from latex manufacturing. The on-site wastewater treatment facility consisted of flow equalization, activated sludge treatment and gravity clarification. The inability of the biological system to assimilate the high strength emulsion wastwater loadings led to incomplete conversion within the activated sludge process and poor settling waste sludge with turbid final effluent high in COD, BOD and TSS. The facility installed a dissolved air flotation (DAF) clarifier to effectively remove greater than 99 percent of the wastewater emulsion solids ahead of the activated sludge system. An organic coagulant is used for emulsion destabilization instead of iron or aluminum metal coagulants, improving DAF clarifier performance and minimizing operational cost and system complexity. An innovative DAF float solids collection and handling system produces disposal solids concentrations of 50 - 60% total solids resulting in further waste disposal cost savings. By removing more than 99 percent of the emulsion solids with the DAF clarifier ahead of the activated sludge process, the waste-water treatment facility now consistently produces a high quality effluent low in COD, BOD, TSS and turbidity. Wastewater treatment performance improved dramatically, as evident by the facility receiving the Western Carolina Regional Sewer Authority`s {open_quotes}Best Pollution Prevention Program{close_quotes} award. In addition, the wastewater treatment facility can now process three times the pre-DAF waste loads.

  19. A big picture prospective for wet waste processing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of general observations made relative to the technical and economical considerations being evaluated by many commercial nuclear power plants involving their decision making process for implementation of several new wet waste management technologies. The waste management processes reviewed include the use of, Reverse Osmosis, Non-Precoat Filters, Resin Stripping ampersand Recycling, Evaporation ampersand Calcination (RVR trademark, ROVER trademark ampersand Thermax trademark), Compression Dewatering (PressPak trademark), Incineration (Resin Express trademark), Survey ampersand Free Release (Green Is Clean) and Quantum Catalytic Extraction Processing (QCEP trademark). These waste management processes are reviewed relative to their general advantages and disadvantages associated with the processing of various wet waste streams including: reactor make-up water, floor drain sludges and other liquid waste streams such as boric acid concentrates and steam generator cleaning solutions. A summary of the conclusions generally being derived by most utilities associated with the use of these waste management processes is also provided

  20. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  1. A process for solidifying radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for solidifying radioactive liquid waste, its pH is adjusted, solids precipitated and then it is concentrated to about 50% solids content using a thin film evaporator, the concentrate then being dried to powder in a heated mixer. The mixer has a heated wall and working means, e.g. a rotor and helical screw, to shear the dried concentrate from the internal walls, subdivide it into a dry particulate powder, and advance the powder to the mixer outlet. The dried particles are then encapsulated in a suitable matrix. Vapour from the mixer and evaporator is condensed and recycled after any particles have been removed from it. The mixer may both dry the concentrate and mix the dry particles with the encapsulating matrix, and possibly, part of the mixer may be used for pH adjustment and precipitation. (author)

  2. Performance of mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal waste in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Emilia; Jędrczak, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The number and capacity of mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants in Europe increased significantly in the past two decades as a response to the legal obligation to limit the landfilling of biodegradable waste in landfills and to increase recycling and energy recovery from waste. The aim of these plants is to prepare residual municipal waste for recovery and disposal operations, including especially separation and stabilization of the easily biodegradable fraction (the biofraction). The final products of MBP technology are recyclables, stabilate, high calorific fraction which is used for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and the remaining residual fraction. The shares of the output fractions, especially of the recyclables and RDF determine the overall efficiency of MBT technology in diverting waste from landfills. In this paper results of an assessment of one exemplary MBT plant are provided. The analysis was performed within a comparative study in which 20 selected MBT plants in Poland were subject to a detailed analysis, focusing, both at the design parameters as well as operational ones. The selected plant showed relatively higher overall materials recovery efficiency. With the view to circular economy targets, increased automation of the mechanical waste treatment will be required to support achieving high level diversion from landfills. The study reviled that stabilisation of biofraction should be improved by a better control of process conditions, especially moisture content.

  3. Development of the alcohol waste processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kiyoshi; Ooyama, Etsuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Oohara, Norikazu

    2004-01-01

    In the experimental fast Reactor JOYO, gripper of Fuel Handling Machine and Ex-Vessel Transfer Machine that the sodium adhered is being washed with alcohol. This radioactive alcohol waste that was used to the washing is stored to the tank. If it is able to separate the alcohol and sodium in the alcohol waste it becomes possible to dispose of the alcohol waste. Japan Nuclear Institute and Fuji Electric Systems CO., LTD. Developed the device that adds carbonic acid gas to the alcohol waste and cause the sodium in the alcohol waste separated as carbonate and remove this carbonate by using the thin film evaporator. (author)

  4. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  5. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  6. Geode process achieves high volume reduction [of power plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, David.

    1987-01-01

    The Geode process is a two-step crystallisation and cementation process for power plant liquid wastes. The process is carried out in two steps. The first step provides volume reduction of the liquid waste stream by use of a Mobile Crystalliser Unit; the second step immobilises and stabilises the concentrated waste solution in disposable liners by use of a Mobile Cement Solidification Unit. (author)

  7. Processing of transuranic waste at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, B.A.; Gruber, L.M.; Mentrup, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been retrievably stored on concrete pads since early 1972. This waste is stored primarily in 55-gallon drums and large carbon steel boxes. Higher activity drums are placed in concrete culverts. In support of a National Program to consolidate and permanently dispose of this waste, a major project is planned at SRP to retrieve and process this waste. This project, the TRU Waste Facility (TWF), will provide equipment and processes to retrieve TRU waste from 20-year retrievable storage and prepare it for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geological repository in New Mexico. This project is an integral part of the SRP Long Range TRU Waste Management Program to reduce the amount of TRU waste stored at SRP. The TWF is designed to process 15,000 cubic feet of retrieved waste and 6200 cubic feet of newly generated waste each year of operation. This facility is designed to minimize direct personnel contact with the waste using state-of-the-art remotely operated equipment

  8. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  9. Development of combined liquid radioactive waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Cho, Hang Rae; Yang, Ho Yeon

    2009-01-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes generated from nuclear power plants in Korea include floor and equipment drainage, chemical wastes, and laundry wastes, etc. Evaporation of radioactive liquid wastes has been employed in several PWR nuclear power plants. Although evaporators provide satisfactory decontamination and volume reduction factors, the chemicals and impurities present in these wastes cause problems such as corrosion and scaling of the evaporators as well as foaming during evaporation. These problems remarkably decrease the performance of decontamination and also reduce the evaporator life. Studies have been carried out on the use of processes such as ion exchange, ultrafiltration(UF), and reverse osmosis(RO) in order to replace the evaporators in nuclear power plants. However, no single unit process can treat liquid waste of various physico chemical characteristics. Thus a combined technology consisting of several unit processes may be more effective in treating these radioactive wastes. Feasibility studies on processing units such as fibre filters (FF), UF membranes, RO membranes, and selective ion exchange systems (SIES) have been carried out for the treatment of these wastes. This paper summarizes the results of a lab scale experiment using these combined processes for the removal of radionuclides such as cobalt and cesium, and the organics in simulated waste and application of these combined processes to Yonggwang 5, 6 and Ulchin 5, 6 nuclear power plants also showed improved liquid radioactive waste system(LRS) performance

  10. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  11. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  12. Dynamic transformations of nitrogen during mechanical-biological pre-treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical-biological pre-treatment (MBP) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has gained evidence as a practice capable of accomplishing the requirements for environmental sustainable landfilling. In particular, MBP is effective in reducing the ammoniacal nitrogen content in the leachate. However, few data are available on the modifications of the nitrogen forms occurring during MBP and on the role played by processes such as nitrification and generation of refractory organic compounds. The dynamic transformations of nitrogen were investigated during the MBP. MSW was mechanically and biologically pre-treated; samples were collected at different stages of the process and analysed to investigate the evolution of nitrogen forms; batch and column leaching tests were performed as well. The results indicate that nitrification is negligible and volatilization can only partially explain the low ammoniacal nitrogen content in the leachate. Incorporation of ammoniacal nitrogen into a refractory organic form was assessed and is likely to play an important role. The maximum content of refractory organic nitrogen in the solid waste was achieved after about 60 days of aerobic pre-treatment; therefore, the minimal duration of the MBP should be about 8-9 weeks in order to optimize the ammoniacal nitrogen incorporation, unless the waste is characterized by a low C/N ratio.

  13. A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.; Munger, D.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

  14. Treating waste waters from anchovy canneries for subsequent re-use by means of a combined anaerobic and anoxic-anaerobic biological process followed by physico-chemical tertiary treatment.; Tratamiento de aguas residuales de industrias conserveras de anchoas para su posterior reutilizacion, mediante un proceso biologico combinado anaerobio, anoxico-aerobio y un tratamiento terciario fisicoquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, N.; Alonso, E.; Giron, A. M.; Amieva, J. J.; Tejero, I. [Universidad de Cantabria. Torrelavaga (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A study was made at a pilot plant of a method of treating waste waters from anchovy canneries so that they could subsequently be re-used. This waste contains high concentrations of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, oils and fats, and has a high degree of salinity. The first stage of the pilot plant consisted of a homogenization tank, a dissolved air flotation clarifier, a hybrid anaerobic digester (UASB+ plastic filling filter), an activated sludge aerobic reactor (which alternates aerobic and anoxic stages) and a secondary decanter. The effluent from the biological process was subjected to physicochemical treatment in a second pilot plant operating intermittent lt. The second pilot plant consisted of a granular active carbon filter, a 5 mn filter and a reverse osmosis membrane module. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  16. Methods for the Evaluation of Waste Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Gehrmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers for waste management are confronted with the problem of selecting the most economic, environmental, and socially acceptable waste treatment process. This paper elucidates evaluation methods for waste treatment processes for the comparison of ecological and economic aspects such as material flow analysis, statistical entropy analysis, energetic and exergetic assessment, cumulative energy demand, and life cycle assessment. The work is based on the VDI guideline 3925. A comparison of two thermal waste treatment plants with different process designs and energy recovery systems was performed with the described evaluation methods. The results are mainly influenced by the type of energy recovery, where the waste-to-energy plant providing district heat and process steam emerged to be beneficial in most aspects. Material recovery options from waste incineration were evaluated according to sustainability targets, such as saving of resources and environmental protection.

  17. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  18. Low-level radioactive waste disposal process and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.E.; Anderson, R.E.; Vander Wall, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    The primary object of this invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus for disposing of low-level liquid radioactive wastes wherein the volume of the wastes can be reduced by a factor of at least ten to thereby minimize costs of storage and ultimate disposal of the wastes. The wastes will be in a form more suitable for storage, transit and burial while still conforming to safety codes. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of disposing of low-level liquid radioactive wastes wherein the wastes are reduced in volume to a mass of free-flowing, solid particles by calcining and the particles are packaged in the presence of a solidifying agent or the particles are compressed, sintered or fused to cause the wastes to be converted to a monolithic product capable of being readily and more safely stored or moved to a burial site. (auth)

  19. Method and apparatus for processing radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takamori; Suzuki, Takeo; Inami, Ichiro

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the processing efficiency by processing radioactive laundry waste by removing solid components and then eliminating ionic components contained therein. Constitution: Stored liquid wastes are sent to a cyclone to remove particles of greater specific weight and sludges are accumulated in a sludge reservoir. The liquid wastes are sent to a self-cleaning strainer to remove thread dusts, hairs and the likes, and then sent to a storage tank. The liquid wastes are further sent to a self-cleaning type centrifugal settler. Fine clads separated there are stored in a sludge reservoir and cleaned liquid wastes are sent to ultrafilter and an ion exchange resin column to remove radioactive components. The concentration liquid wastes from the ultrafilter are dried in a drier and the resin wastes from the ion exchange column are subjected to solidification. Sludges in the sludge reservoirs are solidified in a solidifier and then packed in drum can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2000-04-01

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  1. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  2. Process for treating radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Yoshiyuki; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; An, Bunzai; Tsuda, Koji.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To securely perform separation and enrichment of radioactive rare gases to store safely them for a long period of time. Structure: The wastes extracted by an air extractor are processed by a heater and a recombiner and hydrogen and oxygen are changed into water thereby and it is passed through a gas and water separator to be dewatered, after which water and carbon dioxide gas are removed by passing through a delay pipe, filter, and water- and carbon dioxide gas removing device and then fed to a lower temperature adsorbing device to adsorb and remove the radioactive rare gases. This low temperature adsorbing device is composed of two towers, one of which is designed to saturate the radioactive rare gases, which are processed by a heater and passed through a recycle line to meet raw gases. Then, it is fed to the other lower temperature adsorbing device and this cycle is repeated to enrich the radioactive rare gases. Oxygen and impurities in the enriched gases are removed by the impurity removing device and thereafter are stored in a gas holder and finally sealed in a cylinder. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  4. Management Waste Of Of Radiography Of Personal Certification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjanarko; Sutomo; Umar; Purnomo, Sugeng

    2001-01-01

    Have been conducted analysis of waste of Radiography Personnel Certification Level 1 and Level 2 to measure whether Certification NDE Radiography activity to effect environment or not. The result of waste analysis to be compared with standard is 0.05 ppm. Three locations are selected to get waste sample continuously are : Fixer Tank, Back of 71 Building and Control Main Drain Box. Result of analysis from three selected locations of waste flow have reduced silver containment. The Silver containment of waste to be release to environment is below 0.05 ppm; it means that Radiography of Personnel Certification Process is not effect environmental

  5. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  6. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex D.; Lamber, D.P.; Calloway, T. Bond; Stone, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays

  7. The acid digestion process for radioactive waste: The radioactive waste management series. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Simon, R.

    1983-01-01

    This volume focuses on the acid digestion process for the treatment of alpha combustible solid waste by presenting detailed performance figures for the principal sub-assemblies of the Alona pilot plant, Belgium. Experience gained from the operation of the US RADTU plant, the only other acid digestion pilot plant, is also summarized, and the performances of these two plants compared. In addition, the research and development programmes carried out or supported by the Commission of the European Communities are reviewed, and details of an alternative to acid digestion for waste contamination described. Topics considered include review of the treatment of actinides-bearing radioactive wastes; alpha waste arisings in fuel fabrication; Alona Demonstration Facility for the acid digestion process at Eurochemic Mol (Belgium); the treatment of alpha waste at Eurochemic by acid digestion-feed pretreatment and plutonium recovery; US experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic waste; and The European Communities R and D actions on alpha waste

  8. Sequencing biological acidification of waste-activated sludge aiming to optimize phosphorus dissolution and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilayn, Felipe; Braak, Etienne; Piveteau, Simon; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2017-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as pure crystals such as struvite (MgNH 4 PO 4 .6H 2 O), potassium struvite (KMgPO 4 .6H 2 O) and calcium phosphates (e.g. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ) is an already feasible technique that permits the production of green and marketable fertilizers and the reduction of operational costs. Commercial crystallizers can recovery more than 90% of soluble P. However, most of the P in WWTP sludge is unavailable for the processes (not dissolved). P solubilization and separation are thus the limiting steps in P-crystallization. With an innovative two-step sequencing acidification strategy, the current study has aimed to improve biological P solubilization on waste-activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale plant. In the first step (P-release), low charges of organic waste were used as co-substrates of WAS pre-fermentation, seeking to produce volatile fatty acids to feed the P-release by Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, while keeping its optimal metabolic pH (6-7). In this phase, milk serum, WWTP grease, urban organic waste and collective restaurant waste were individually applied as co-substrates. In the second step (P-dissolution), pH 4 was aimed at as it allows the dissolution of the most common precipitated species of P. Biological acidification was performed by white sugar addition, as a carbohydrate-rich organic waste model, which was compared to chemical acidification by HCl (12M) addition. With short retention times (48-96 h) and without inoculum application, all experiences succeeded on P solubilization (37-55% of soluble P), principally when carbohydrate-rich co-substrates were applied. Concentrations from 270 to 450 mg [Formula: see text] were achieved. [Formula: see text].

  9. Electronic Waste and Existing Processing Routes: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and electronic products have become an integral part of the current economy and, with the development of newer technologies, the life span of these products are getting shorter. As a consequence, the volume of electronic waste is increasing drastically around the globe. With the implementation of new rules, regulations, and policies by the government, the landfilling of electronic waste has been reduced. The presence of valuable metals in the e-waste stream provides a major economic benefit for recycling industries but, due to the presence of hazardous materials, a proper recycling technique is required prior to the disposal of the e-waste. The total e-waste generated in Canada was 725 kt in 2014. There are several organizations currently working in various provinces to deal with the collection and recycling of e-waste. These organizations collected nearly 20% of the total e-waste generated in 2014. The collection rate for e-waste can be boosted by increasing awareness and by creating more centers to collect all kinds of e-waste. The collected e-waste is processed at local processing facilities mostly dealing with dismantling and hazardous material removal processes and then shipping the remaining material to a central location for subsequent processing.

  10. Container for processing and disposing radioactive wastes and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko; Kasai, Noboru; Sudo, Giichi; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of containers for radioactive wastes for ocean disposal and on-land disposal such as impact strength, chemical resistance, fire resistance, corrosion resistance, water impermeability and the like. Constitution: Steel fiber-reinforced concrete previously molded in a shape of a container is impregnated with polymerizable impregnating agent selected from the group consisting of a polymerizable monomer, liquid mixture of a polymerizable monomer and an oligomer, a polymer solution, a copolymer solution and the liquid mixture thereof. Then, the polymerizable impregnating agent is polymerized to solidify in the concrete by way of heat-polymerization or radiation-induced polymerization to form a waste container. The container thus obtained can be improved with the impact resistance and wear resistance and further improved with salt water resistance, acid resistance, corrosion resistance and solidity by the impregnation of the polymer, as well as can effectively be prevented from leaching out of radioactive substances. (Furukawa, Y.)

  11. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  12. IMPROVED COMBUSTION PROCESSES IN MEDICAL WASTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small rig was designed for conducting tests on the incineration of rural clinical wastes in Botswana. Experimental results showed that if proper combustion conditions are applied to low technology rural clinical waste incinerators, the operating temperatures could increase from around 400 to above 850oC. It was ...

  13. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Processing and discarding method for contaminated concrete wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Konishi, Masao; Matsuda, Atsuo; Iwamoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikane, Toru; Koie, Toshio; Nakajima, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    Contaminated concrete wastes are crashed into granular concrete wastes having a successive grain size distribution. They are filled in a contamination processing vessel and made hardenable in the presence of a water-hardenable material in the granular concrete wastes. When underground water intrudes into the contamination processing vessel filled with the granular concrete wastes upon long-term storage, the underground water reacts with the water-hardenable material to be used for the solidification effect. Accordingly, leaching of contaminated materials due to intrusion of underground water can be suppressed. Since the concrete wastes have a successive grain size distribution, coarse grains can be used as coarse aggregates, medium grains can be used as fine aggregates and fine grains can be used as a solidifying material. Accordingly, the amount of wastes after processing can be remarkably reduced, with no supply of a solidifying material from outside. (T.M.)

  15. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  16. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  17. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  18. Biological conversion of poultry and animal waste to a feedstuff for poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Boushy, A.R.; Klaassen, G.J.; Ketelaars, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    Poultry and animal waste can be converted into a high protein feed-stuff by biological digestion and degradation, oxidation or by the action of micro-organisms and algae. These processes might help to solve the accummulating problem of disposal of poultry and animal waste, which in some cases are not suitable as soil fertilizers and cause pollution problems. International co-operation between advanced industrialized countries and developing areas is not only desirable but essential to overcome malnutrition by increasing the animal protein supply in the form of meat and eggs. Only a limited number of published data are available but nevertheless five types of treated waste are considered useful under certain conditions as feedstuffs for poultry: 1. housefly pupae meal - caged layer manure degraded by housefly larvae; 2. earthworm meal - another biodegradation of caged layer manure; 3. liquor and residue from a ditch used for oxidizing swine liquid manure; 4. aerobic fermentation of poultry manure; and 5. meals produced from algae grown in ponds of sedimented animal waste and sewage. 46 references.

  19. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area

  20. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  1. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  2. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION: TREATMENT OF STONE PROCESSING ENTERPRISES WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobiіchuk V. V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine Stone industry is undergoing dramatic changes. Today is a restructuring of the industry. In a market economy, modernization of existing stone processing enterprises, the use of new technologies in the production of stone products is actually. Analysis of stone processing enterprise activity shows a large variation in quantitative and qualitative indicators, low competitiveness. However, the demand for stone products with traditional characteristics is stored. Waste stone processing enterprises often exported to landfills that are not suited to the storage of waste or unauthorized, and remain there, taking up more and more land area. During the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro independent Ukraine declared its intention to be actively involved in global environmental policy and development strategy of sustainable development, implementing guidelines defining international instruments at the national level. Consequently, there is an urgent need for real action on comprehensive recycling stone processing enterprises to obtain a secondary product. It should be noted that the use of modern methods of stone processing enterprises will waste the protection of nature and natural resources, improve the quality of life, restore lost harmony between man and nature. This publication analyzes the level of recycling waste stone processing enterprises. These volumes of industrial waste stone processing enterprises and highlights stone processing companies hand waste I-IV classes of danger Zhitomir region (Ukraine. These waste composition and properties of stone processing enterprises. Principles of artificial and natural lighting water are noted. Mathematical and economical model of the stone processing enterprises are constructed.

  3. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    'Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena. Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control

  4. Method of processing combustible nuclear waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    In treating combustible radio-waste which may contain volatile radio nuclides, e.g. Ru, the waste is heated and agitated with concentrated sulphuric acid, and the resulting residue which comprises elemental carbon which retains the volatile radio-nuclides is separated from the acid. Compounds which form borosilicate glass may be added to the waste, and after removal of sulphate, the resulting residual mixture may be fused into a glass. If the sulphate is not removed from the borosilicate mix, the residual mixture produces a ceramic product on heating. (author)

  5. Thermal processing of conditioned waste and fuel substitutes; Thermische Behandlung vorbehandelter Abfaelle und Ersatzbrennstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, F. van der; Engweiler, J. [Von Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Different technologies for the thermal processing of mechanical-biologically conditioned waste are described and compared in terms of cost and flexibility. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden verschiedene Technologien der thermischen Behandlung mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandelter Abfaelle vorgestellt und im Hinblick auf Kosten und Flexibilitaet verglichen. (orig.)

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, M.A.; Cammann, J.W.; McBeath, R.S.; Rode, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A new Hanford waste management facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility (planned to be operational by FY 1994) will receive, inspect, process, and repackage contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) contaminated solid wastes. The wastes will be certified according to the waste acceptance criteria for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geologic repository in southeast New Mexico. Three alternatives which could cost effectively be applied to certify Hanford CH-TRU waste to the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) have been examined in this updated engineering study. The alternatives differed primarily in the reference processing systems used to transform nonconforming waste into an acceptable, certified waste form. It is recommended to include the alternative of shredding and immobilizing nonconforming wastes in cement (shred/grout processing) in the WRAP facility. Preliminary capital costs for WRAP in mid-point-of-construction (FY 1991) dollars were estimated at $45 million for new construction and $37 million for modification and installation in an existing Hanford surplus facility (231-Z Building). Operating, shipping, and decommissioning costs in FY 1986 dollars were estimated at $126 million, based on a 23-y WRAP life cycle (1994 to 2017). During this period, the WRAP facility will receive an estimated 38,000 m 3 (1.3 million ft 3 ) of solid CH-TRU waste. The study recommends pilot-scale testing and evaluation of the processing systems planned for WRAP and advises further investigation of the 231-Z Building as an alternative to new facility construction

  7. Proposed Changes to EPA's Transuranic Waste Characterization Approval Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, R.D.; Feltcorn, E.M.; Ortiz, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the changes to the waste characterization (WC) approval process proposed in August 2002 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency or we). EPA regulates the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository in Carlsbad, New Mexico. EPA regulations require that waste generator/storage sites seek EPA approval of WC processes used to characterize TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP. The regulations also require that EPA verify, through site inspections, characterization of each waste stream or group of waste streams proposed for disposal at the WIPP. As part of verification, the Agency inspects equipment, procedures, and interviews personnel to determine if the processes used by a site can adequately characterize the waste in order to meet the waste acceptance criteria for WIPP. The paper discusses EPA's mandate, current regulations, inspection experience, and proposed changes. We expect that th e proposed changes will provide equivalent or improved oversight. Also, they would give EPA greater flexibility in scheduling and conducting inspections, and should clarify the regulatory process of inspections for both Department of Energy (DOE) and the public

  8. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  9. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  10. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes

  11. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Phosphorus-containing oily waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji; Takeda, Tadashi.

    1993-01-01

    TBP is used, as an extracting agent, in a reprocessing step for spent fuels and phosphoric ester oil is used as a controlling oil in a nuclear power plant, radioactive phosphorus-containing oil wastes are formed. An organic solution containing calcium is added and mixed to the radioactive oil wastes such that the ratio of calcium relative to phosphorus is greater than a stoichiometrical amount, and it is burnt in an incinerator. Combustion exhaustion gases are filtered by a high temperature filter filled with ceramic honeycombs further filtered precisely by an exhaustion gas filter and then released. Since phosphorus-containing oil wastes are mixed with the organic solution containing calcium and burnt in the incinerator, burning can be conducted without generating corrosive phosphoric acid. In addition, phosphorus-containing oil wastes of poor combustion property can be burnt without any trouble, clogging of the high temperature filter is reduced, and no large-sized facility is necessary. (N.H.)

  13. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  14. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  15. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  16. The Characterization of a Bauxite Waste From The Bayer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Yalçın

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bayer process for the alumina frombauxite produce a high quantity of waste in the formof mud. This waste -red mud- ııresent seriousproblems on environmental pollution. A possiblesolution for these wastes would be the utilization atthe ceramic industry. Because of this, thecharacterization of a bauxite 'vaste has beenperformed using various techniques. The particle sizedistribution licd bet1veen 1 and 30 J.lm. The meandeıısit

  17. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  18. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne

    2011-05-01

    Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed in the country, such that there is a noticeable improvement. The interviews with officials from municipalities and private waste companies, conducted as part of the piloting of the SAWIS, highlighted that certain organizations, typically private waste companies have been successful in collecting waste data. Through a process of learning, these organizations have utilized this waste data to inform and manage their operations. The drivers of such data collection efforts were seen to be financial (business) sustainability and environmental reporting obligations, particularly where the company had an international parent company. However, participants highlighted a number of constraints, particularly within public (municipal) waste facilities which hindered both the collection of waste data and the utilization of this data to effect change in the way waste is managed. These constraints included a lack of equipment and institutional capacity in the collection of data. The utilization of this data in effecting change was further hindered by governance challenges such as politics, bureaucracy and procurement, evident in a developing country context such as South Africa. The results show that while knowledge is a necessary condition for resultant action, a theoretical framework of learning does not account for all observed factors, particularly external influences.

  19. Basic design of alpha aqueous waste treatment process in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Nishizawa, Ichio; Mitsui, Takeshi; Ueki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Atsushi; Sakai, Ichita; Takeshita, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nishimura, Kenji

    1996-11-01

    This paper described the basic design of Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process in NUCEF. Since various experiments using the TRU (transuranium) elements are carried out in NUCEF, wastes containing TRU elements arise. The liquid wastes in NUCEF are categorized into three types. Decontamination and volume reduction of the liquid waste mainly of recovery water from acid recovery process which has lowest radioactive concentration is the most important task, because the arising rate of the waste is large. The major function of the Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process is to decontaminate the radioactive concentration below the level which is allowed to discharge into sea. Prior the process design of this facility, the followings are evaluated:property and arising rate of the liquid waste, room space to install and licensing condition. Considering varieties of liquid wastes and their large volume, the very high decontamination factor was proposed by a process of multiple evaporation supported with filtration and adsorption in the head end part and reverse osmosis in the distillate part. (author)

  20. SPEEDUP simulation of liquid waste batch processing. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannahan, K.L.; Aull, J.E.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has accumulated radioactive hazardous waste for over 40 years during the time SRS made nuclear materials for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. This waste is being stored as caustic slurry in a large number of 1 million gallon steel tanks, some of which were initially constructed in the early 1950's. SRS and DOE intend to clean up the Site and convert this waste into stable forms which then can be safely stored. The liquid waste will be separated into a partially decontaminated low-level and radioactive high-level waste in one feed preparation operation, In-Tank Precipitation. The low-level waste will be used to make a concrete product called saltstone in the Saltstone Facility, a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concrete will be poured into large vaults, where it will be permanently stored. The high-level waste will be added to glass-formers and waste slurry solids from another feed preparation operation, Extended Sludge Processing. The mixture will then be converted to a stable borosilicate glass by a vitrification process that is the other major part of the DWPF. This glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters and sent to a temporary storage facility prior to delivery to a permanent underground storage site

  1. Biological production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of OFMSW and co-fermentation with slaughterhouse wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, A.; Gomez, X.; Cuestos, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen is an ideal, clean and sustainable energy source for the future because of its high conversion and nonpolluting nature (Lin and Lay, 2003). There are different methods for the production of hydrogen, the traditional ones, are the production from fossil fuels. Aiming to reach a development based on sustainable principles the production of hydrogen from renewable sources is a desirable goal. Among the environmental friendly alternatives for the production of hydrogen are the biological means. Dark fermentation as it is known the process when light is not used; it is a preferable option thanks to the knowledge already collected from its homologous process, the anaerobic digestion for the production of methane. There are several studies intended to the evaluation of the production of hydrogen, many are dedicated to the use of pure cultures or the utilization of basic substrates as glucose or sucrose (Lin and Lay, 2003; Chang et al., 2002, Kim et al., 2005). This study is performed to evaluate the fermentation of a mixture of wastes for the production of hydrogen. It is used as substrate the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and a mixture of this residue with slaughterhouse waste. (Author)

  2. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  3. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides.

  5. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-05-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes; and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides

  6. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides

  7. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Talbert, D.M.; Marietta, M.G.; Hessler, R.R.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Yayonos, A.A.; Jackson, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The primary goal of the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear wastes in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing the effects of potential releases of radionuclides on the ecosystem, as well as the possible health effects fo man frin the radionuclides that may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure, benthic community metabolism, the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers, the faunal composition of midwater nekton, rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms that may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore a multicompartment foodweb model is being developed that considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact of potential releases of radionuclides on the ocean environment and on man

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  9. A process for solidifying sodium nitrate waste in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H. III; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01

    A laboratory-scale process has been developed for the solidification of nitrate salt wastes in polyethylene. The process uses a commercially available single-screw extruder which continuously discharges prescribed polyethylene-waste mixtures from the hoppers to the output die, where it is extruded into a container while still in the molten form. The molten mixture (/approximately/110--120/degree/C) conforms to the shape of the container and solidifies upon cooling. Proportional feeders maintain waste to binder ratio and homogeneity of the waste form. Present studies use dry wastes, although wet solid wastes can be processed using vented extrudes of the type used for the bitumen solidification process. Tests were performed to determine leachability and mechanical stability. Emphasis is placed upon leaching of nitrates from the waste forms. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to confirm the compatibility of polyethylene and simulated salt wastes at elevated temperatures. Components of the polyethylene/NaNO 3 system, alone and in combination, were tested by DSC at temperatures to 400/degree/C. 14 refs., 6 figs

  10. New growing media and value added organic waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Rijpsma, E.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Public pressure to use peat alternatives in horticultural rooting media offers room for the re-use of local organic waste materials. The re-use of organic wastes requires value added processing such as composting, co-composting, digestion, fractioning/sieving, pressing, binding, stabilising by

  11. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  12. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  14. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-12-01

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet

  15. Electrical processes for liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bridger, N.J.; Junkison, A.R.; Pottinger, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the development of electrical techniques for the treatment of liquid waste streams. Part I is concerned with solid/liquid separation and the demonstration of the electrokinetic thickening of flocs at inorganic membranes suitable for intermediate-level wastes and electrochemical cleaning of stainless steel microfilters and graphite ultrafilters. Part II describes work on the development of electrochemical ion exchange, particularly the use of inorganic absorption media and polarity reversal to enhance system selectivity. Work on the adsorption and desorption of plutonium in acid nitrate solution at various electrode materials is also included. (author)

  16. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.; Hill, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  17. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of subsurface organic waste injection near Wilmington, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Malcolm, R.L.; White, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    From May 1968 to December 1972, an industrial organic waste was injected at rates of 100 to 200 gallons per minute (6.3 to 12.6 litres per second) into a sand, gravel, and limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous age by Hercules Inc. located near Wilmington, North Carolina. This report presents both field and laboratory data pertaining to the physical, chemical, and biological effects of waste injection into the subsurface at this particular site, a case history of the operation, predictions of the reactions between certain organic wastes and the aquifer components, and descriptions of the effects of these reactions on the subsurface movement of the wastes. The case history documents a situation in which subsurface waste injection could not be considered a successful means of waste disposal. The first injection well was used only for 1 year due to excessive wellhead pressure build-up above the specified pressure limit of 150 pounds per square inch (10.3 bars). A second injection well drilled as a replacement operated for only 5 months before it too began to have problems with plugging. Upward leakage of waste into shallower aquifers was also detected at several wells in the injection-observation well system. The multiple problems of plugging, high pressures, and waste leakage suggested that the reactive nature of the waste with the aquifer into which it was injected was the primary reason for the difficulties experienced with waste injection. A site study was initiated in June 1971 to investigate waste-aquifer interactions. The first stage of the study determined the hydrogeologic conditions at the site, and characterized the industrial waste and the native ground water found in the injection zone and other aquifers. The injection zone consisted of multiple permeable zones ranging in depth from about 850 to 1,000 feet (259 to 305 metres) below land surface. In addition to the injection zone, aquifers were found near depths of 60, 300, 500, and 700 feet (18, 91, 152

  18. Recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Pil-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Qureshi, T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. 'Contrast' alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. (author)

  19. Composting system for waste treatment coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators in the Experimental Center Kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composting process waste coca leaf with the addition of three biological activators (yogurt, whey and yeast. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The values in N are classified medium and high levels the quantities of P, K are classified as middle levels. The value obtained 7.9 pH, EC 12950 µS/cm and 61% organic matter belong to treatment T1. The decomposition time was a period of 105 days corresponds to treatment T3.

  20. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  1. Waste and resources management. Ordinance on Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from Human Settlements and on Biological Waste Treatment Facilities (Landfill Ordinance - AbfAblV) - one year on; Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. 1 Jahr Abfallablagerungsverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R.; Bidlingmaier, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    As early as the beginning of 2005 there were signs of trouble ahead resulting from the new Landfill Ordinance - it was only the extent of the trouble that was somewhat underestimated. Suddenly and unexpected to everyone, the industrial wastes that were supposed to have been avoided or reutilised were there again. These ''returned wastes'', in most cases arisings that were not taken into account during plant design, are currently causing serious capacity problems both in waste incineration and in mechanical biological waste treatment plants. In not a few cases the originally planned supply rates are being exceeded by up to 35%, with dramatic consequences. Another source of problems is the lack of utilisation capacities for high-caloric waste fractions, especially for those from mechanical biological waste treatment. The underlying causes are manifold, ranging from market misjudgment, insufficient fuel processing capacities to supposed or factual quality problems with the generated secondary fuel. The only remedial option available at present - at least from the legal viewpoint - is interim storage. The changed framework conditions for biowaste and green waste utilisation brought about by the Renewable Energy Law offers new interesting perspectives. Numerous unresolved questions and quite as many solution proposals provide reason enough for making residual waste treatment and biowaste utilisation one of the focal topics of the congress. Many EU countries, but also developing and threshold countries, are on the verge of making decisions on waste utilisation and treatment. The experiences, positive and negative, that have been gained to date in Germany with the full-area implementation of residual waste treatment can serve these countries as a valuable guide. Another focal topic of the congress is climate and resource protection.

  2. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  3. Method of processing concentrated liquid waste in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Ohashi, Satoru.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the oxidizable material in the concentrated liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants. Constitution: Nitrate bacteria are added to liquid wastes in a storage tank for temporarily storing concentrated liquid wastes or relevant facilities thereof. That is, nitrites as the oxidizable material contained in the concentrated liquid wastes are converted into nitrate non-deleterious to solidification by utilizing biological reaction of nitrate bacteria. For making the conversion more effectively, required time for the biological reaction of the nitrate bacteria is maintained from the injection of nitrate bacteria to solidification, thereby providing advantageous conditions for the propagation of the nitrate bacteria. In this way, there is no problem for the increase of the volume of the powdery wastes formed by the addition of inhibitor for the effect of oxidizable material. Further, heating upon solidification which is indispensable so far is no more necessary to simplify the facility and the operation. Furthermore, the solidification inhibiting material can be reduced stably and reliably under the same operation conditions even if the composition of the liquid wastes is charged or varied. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Retrieval process development and enhancements waste simulant compositions and defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Geeting, J.G.H.

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the physical waste simulant development efforts of the EM-50 Tanks Focus Area at the Hanford Site. Waste simulants are used in the testing and development of waste treatment and handling processes because performing such tests using actual tank waste is hazardous and prohibitively expensive. This document addresses the simulant development work that supports the testing of waste retrieval processes using simulants that mimic certain key physical properties of the tank waste. Development and testing of chemical simulants are described elsewhere. This work was funded through the EM-50 Tanks Focus Area as part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The mission of RPD ampersand E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing processes, gather performance data on those processes, and relate the data to specific tank problems to provide end users with the requisite technical bases to make retrieval and closure decisions. Physical simulants are prepared using relatively nonhazardous and inexpensive materials rather than the chemicals known to be in tank waste. Consequently, only some of the waste properties are matched by the simulant. Deciding which properties need to be matched and which do not requires a detailed knowledge of the physics of the process to be tested using the simulant. Developing this knowledge requires reviews of available literature, consultation with experts, and parametric tests. Once the relevant properties are identified, waste characterization data are reviewed to establish the target ranges for each property. Simulants are then developed that possess the desired ranges of properties

  5. Transformation process for wastes containing organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J.P.; Faup, G.

    1988-04-15

    Wastes containing organic matter are treated between 180 and 200/sup 0/C under atmospheric pressure by a hydroaromatic solvent (tetralines, naphtalenes, methylnaphtalenes, creosotes, anthracenes, chrysenes and their oils or mixtures) to obtain a fluid fuel of high calorific value (between 8500 and 9500 kcal/kg).

  6. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  7. The biological treatment of the wastes facing the greenhouse effect and the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, E.

    2007-01-01

    The weight of the wastes treatment in the accounting of the greenhouse gases production is really poor: 1 to 2% of the CO 2 and NO 2 emissions. The aim of this paper is to qualify and quantify the interest of biological solutions for the treatment of domestic wastes and sludges. (A.L.B.)

  8. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  9. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ

    2006-01-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m 3 result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m 3 /a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m 3 /a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured crossflow filtration

  10. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr VI to Cr III from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions

  11. Potential of membrane processes in management of radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Jain, Savita; Raj, Kanwar

    2010-01-01

    Various categories of radioactive liquid waste are generated during operations and maintenance of nuclear installations. The potential of membrane processes for the treatment of low-level radioactive liquids is discussed in this paper

  12. Technical resource document for assured thermal processing of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrow, R.L.; Fisk, G.A.; Hartwig, C.M.; Hurt, R.H.; Ringland, J.T.; Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a concise compendium of resource material covering assured thermal processing of wastes (ATPW), an area in which Sandia aims to develop a large program. The ATPW program at Sandia is examining a wide variety of waste streams and thermal processes. Waste streams under consideration include municipal, chemical, medical, and mixed wastes. Thermal processes under consideration range from various incineration technologies to non-incineration processes such as supercritical water oxidation or molten metal technologies. Each of the chapters describes the element covered, discusses issues associated with its further development and/or utilization, presents Sandia capabilities that address these issues, and indicates important connections to other ATPW elements. The division of the field into elements was driven by the team`s desire to emphasize areas where Sandia`s capabilities can lead to major advances and is therefore somewhat unconventional. The report will be valuable to Sandians involved in further ATPW program development.

  13. Centralized processing of contact-handled TRU waste feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This report presents work for the feasibility study of central processing of contact-handled TRU waste. Discussion of scenarios, transportation options, summary of cost estimates, and institutional issues are a few of the subjects discussed

  14. Closed Loop Waste Processing Dryer (DRYER), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a gravity-independent pasteurization and hot air drying process suitable for stabilization of ALS wet cabin waste,...

  15. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

  16. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2)

  17. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  18. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  19. Process waste assessment: Area 143C trichloroethylene vapor degreaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    A process waste assessment (PWA) is a systematic, planned procedure with the overall objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce and eliminate waste. This specific PWA examines waste minimization and emission information for the trichloroethylene vapor degreaser in area 143, Chem Clean. Area 143 Chem Clean is involved in the solvent cleaning and acid cleaning (etching) of various metal and ceramic parts in preparation for further processing (e.g., electroplating, brazing, final assembly). A standard set of worksheets for a level three PWA is included.

  20. Commercial low level waste processing in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Phil

    1991-01-01

    In most nations with active nuclear establishments, Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) is treated, packaged and disposed of by a single governmental organization or corporation that operates in a monopoly situation. In the US, LLW generated from utility and industry sources is processed at various commercial enterprises throughout the country and buried in commercially owned and operated LLW disposal facilities. These centralized waste processing or 'fixed base' companies provide their services in a competitive, free market environment. This competition has led to the development and use of effective technologies for waste volume reduction. The actual techniques used are chosen based on cost impact to company's financial performance rather than budget considerations

  1. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  2. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vijay [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, Hasmukh [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Occhipinti, John E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, Richard E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  3. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Weight Scale Analysis Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fairbanks Weight Scales are used at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to determine the weight of waste drums as they are received, processed, and shipped. Due to recent problems, discovered during calibration, the WRAP Engineering Department has completed this document which outlines both the investigation of the infeed conveyor scale failure in September of 1999 and recommendations for calibration procedure modifications designed to correct deficiencies in the current procedures

  4. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  5. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  6. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Masami.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of removing metal ions in ion exchange resins for use in clean-up of service water or waste water in BWR type reactors. Method: A column filled with activated carbon is disposed at the pre- or post-stage of a clean-up system using ion exchange resins disposed for the clean-up of service water or waste water of a nuclear reactor so that organics contained in water may be removed through adsorption. Since the organic materials are thus adsorbed and eliminated, various types of radioactive ions contained in radioactive liquid are no more masked and the performance of removing ions in the ion exchanger resins of the clean-up device can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Solidification process for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Chisato

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To integrally solidify high level radioactive wastes with water-curable solidifying material thereby improve the heat- and radiation-resistance. Constitution: High level radioactive wastes are integrally solidified with water curable solidifying material comprising a mixture of alumina cements, aggregates, inorganic fluidizing materials and dispersing agent. Alumina cements are mainly composed of calcium aluminate and excellent in refractory property. Chamotte particles and baked bauxite particles are used as the aggregates, which can improve the strength of the solidification products. Fine alumina powder and fine silica powder of less than 10 μm radius are used as the inorganic fluidizing materials and condensated phosphoric acid salt and polycarboxylic acid type polymeric surface active agent are used as the dispersing agents for improving the slidability between the particles. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

      Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  9. Inclusion of products of physicochemical oxidation of organic wastes in matter recycling of biological-technical life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergei; Ushakova, Sofya

    Inclusion of products of human and plant wastes' `wet' incineration in 22 medium using alter-nating current into matter recycling of biological-technical life support system (BTLSS) has been considered. Fluid and gaseous components have been shown to be the products of such processing. In particular, the final product contained all necessary for plant cultivation nitrogen forms: NO2, NO3, NH4+. As the base solution included urine than NH4+ form dominated. At human solid wastes' mineralization NO2 NH4+ were registered in approximately equal amount. Comparative analysis of mineral composition of oxidized human wastes' and standard Knop solutions has been carried out. On the grounds of that analysis the dilution methods of solutions prepared with addition of oxidized human wastes for their further use for plant irrigation have been suggested. Reasonable levels of wheat productivity cultivated at use of given solutions have been obtained. CO2, N2 and O2 have been determined to be the main gas components of the gas admixture emitted within the given process. These gases easily integrate in matter recycling process of closed ecosystem. The data of plants' cultivation feasibility in the atmosphere obtained after closing of gas loop including physicochemical facility and vegetation chamber with plants-representatives of LSS phototrophic unit has been received. Conclusion of advance research on creation of matter recycling process in the integrated physical-chemical-biological model system has been drawn.

  10. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  11. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.C.; Silva, L.J.

    1995-02-01

    A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350 degrees C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system >99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved

  13. The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Silva, L.J.

    1995-02-01

    A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350{degrees}C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system >99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved.

  14. Quality assurance in processing radioactive waste for land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    To provide the appropriate assurances as to the quality of processed radioactive waste it is necessary to consider the complete range of activities involved in the formation and operation of a radioactive waste processing facility. To this end, an outline has been given to the individual elements which should be addressed in quality assurance proposals to the authorising Departments. In general terms, the quality checks on product material should be aimed at demonstrating that the radioactive waste product is what was agreed at the time of process approval. In addition, at the discretion of the authorising Departments, the waste processor will be required to confirm that the product meets any specific acceptance criteria such as the capability to retain the immobilised radionuclides when in contact with water. (author)

  15. Chlorine behavior of waste plastics recycling process using coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K.; Nomura, S. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Futtsu (Japan). Environmental & Protection Technological Center

    2004-10-01

    At the advent of the 21st century, mankind is facing a global environmental problem, and the industrial sector is required to take initiatives in the establishment of recycling society for efficient utilization of natural resources. To establish the waste plastics recycling method by using iron-making process, waste plastics recycling process using coke ovens was developed by Nippon Steel in 2000. In this process, waste plastics are charged into coke ovens with coal, and carbonized at about 1200{degree}C under the reducing atmosphere. Waste plastics are converted to chemical products, such as coke, tar and light oil, and coke oven gas. However, waste plastics involves chlorine-contained plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride, etc. It is generally known that such chlorine-contained plastics cause corrosion problem at the incinerator or gasification equipment. Therefore, the behavior of chlorine content of waste plastics was investigated. As a result, it was found that the chlorine content of waste plastics is mostly pyrolysed during carbonization with coal in a coke oven and effectively captured by ammonia liquor.

  16. Increasing operational efficiency in a radioactive waste processing plant - 16100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.W.; Watson, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The solid waste plant at Harwell in Oxfordshire, contains a purpose built facility to input, assay, visually inspect and sort remote handled intermediate level radioactive waste (RHILW). The facility includes a suite of remote handling cells, known as the head-end cells (HEC), which waste must pass through in order to be repackaged. Some newly created waste from decommissioning works on site passes through the cells, but the vast majority of waste for processing is historical waste, stored in below ground tube stores. Existing containers are not suitable for long term storage, many are already badly corroded, so the waste must be efficiently processed and repackaged in order to achieve passive safety. The Harwell site is currently being decommissioned and the land is being restored. The site is being progressively de-licensed, and redeveloped as a business park, which can only be completed when all the nuclear liabilities have been removed. The recovery and processing of old waste in the solid waste plant is a key project linked to de-licensing of a section of the site. Increasing the operational efficiency of the waste processing plant could shorten the time needed to clear the site and has the potential to save money for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The waste processing facility was constructed in the mid 1990's, and commissioned in 1999. Since operations began, the yearly throughput of the cells has increased significantly every year. To achieve targets set out in the lifetime plan (LTP) for the site, throughput must continue to increase. The operations department has measured the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) of the process for the last few years, and has used continuous improvement techniques to decrease the average cycle time. Philosophies from operational management practices such as 'lean' and 'kaizen' have been employed successfully to drive out losses and increase plant efficiency. This paper will describe how the solid waste plant

  17. Chlorine behavior of waste plastics recycling process using coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenji Kato; Seiji Nomura [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment & Process Technology Center

    2005-07-01

    At the advent of the 21st century, mankind is facing a global environmental problem, and the industrial sector is required to take initiatives in the establishment of recycling society for efficient utilization of natural resources. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF), as its voluntary energy-saving action plan, proposed a 10% energy reduction by 2010 with 1990 as the basis. Further it has suggested an additional 1.5% energy saving by the use of waste plastics as a metallurgical raw material. The amount of processing of waste plastics which corresponds to this amount of energy conversion is about 1 million ton scale during 1 year. To establish the waste plastics recycling method by using iron-making process, waste plastics recycling process using coke ovens was developed by Nippon Steel in 2000. In this process, waste plastics are charged into coke ovens with coal, and carbonized at about 1200{sup o}C under the reducing atmosphere. Waste plastics are converted to chemical products, such as coke, tar and light oil, and coke oven gas. However, waste plastics involves chlorine-contained plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride, etc. It is generally known that such chlorine-contained plastics cause corrosion problem at the incinerator or gasification equipment. Therefore, the behavior of chlorine content of waste plastics was investigated. As a result, it was found that the chlorine content of waste plastics is mostly pyrolysed during carbonization with coal in a coke oven and effectively captured by ammonia liquor. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant - the project and process systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, L.D.; Miller, W.C.; Smith, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project is scheduled to start construction on the Hanford reservation in southeastern Washington State in 1991. The project will immobilize the liquid high-level defense waste stored there. The HWVP represents the third phase of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities that are focused on the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste, building on the experience of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, and of the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP), New York. This sequential approach to disposal of the country's commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste allows HWVP to make extensive use of lessons learned from the experience of its predecessors, using mature designs from the earlier facilities to achieve economies in design and construction costs while enhancing operational effectiveness

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problems of recycling and solid waste. It is investigated traditional methods of waste management (storage, disposal, incineration. Authors insist on ineffectiveness of these methods, because of the pollution increases anthropogenic pressure on the environment. It is proved harmful health effects using the traditional methods of disposal. The question of introducing innovative recycling, particularly separating solid waste, the development and use of clean technology waste processing, using microorganisms, pyrolysis. It is determined implementation barriers such as lack of effective government support, and high cost. It is noted that there is a problem of underestimating the complexity, scope and specifics of the issue. The experience of developed countries is outlined. The comparative performance of existing tariffs for disposal of solid waste is used. The ways of solving problems are done.

  20. Using disposal criteria for choosing waste processing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Maria; Andersson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • Reading the WAC for the repository will give guidance not only on what is allowed and in which amount but also on what needs to be documented; • Based on a Repository WAC a strategy to achieve allowed characteristics for the waste can be developed to ensure safety during the waste processing and disposal; • Characteristics that in some way are described in the disposal WAC is worth collecting information about; • If a waste form is not present declaring it as zero will make a clear statement instead of leaving the information field blank, in particular later on in the repository lifetime; • A Waste Type Description can only be as good as the Disposal WAC allows – but collect all info that is available even if it is not asked for yet; • Small reflection – don’t try to fit all waste into one WTD – it will only create more work than you really want

  1. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R.; Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000 degrees C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700 degrees C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  3. Use of food waste, fish waste and food processing waste for China's aquaculture industry: Needs and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Wong, Ming Hung

    2018-02-01

    China's aquaculture industry is growing dramatically in recent years and now accounts for 60.5% of global aquaculture production. Fish protein is expected to play an important role in China's food security. Formulated feed has become the main diet of farmed fish. The species farmed have been diversified, and a large amount of 'trash fish' is directly used as feed or is processed into fishmeal for fish feed. The use of locally available food waste as an alternative protein source for producing fish feed has been suggested as a means of tackling the problem of sourcing safe and sustainable feed. This paper reviews the feasibility of using locally available waste materials, including fish waste, okara and food waste. Although the fishmeal derived from fish waste, okara or food waste is less nutritious than fishmeal from whole fish or soybean meal, most fish species farmed in China, such as tilapia and various Chinese carp, grow well on diets with minimal amounts of fishmeal and 40% digestible carbohydrate. It can be concluded that food waste is suitable as a component of the diet of farmed fish. However, it will be necessary to revise regulations on feed and feed ingredients to facilitate the use of food waste in the manufacture of fish feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, from vision to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    When the Savannah River Plant began operation in the early 1950's producing nuclear materials for the National defense, liquid, highly radioactive waste was generated as a by-product. Since that time the waste has been stored in large, carbon steel tanks that are buried underground. In 1960 one of the tanks developed a leak, and before recovery measures could be taken, about 25-gallons of radioactive salt solution had overflowed the secondary liner and seeped into the soil surrounding the tank. Significant improvements to the tanks were made, but constant surveillance was still required. Thus, the opinion began forming that storage of the mobile, highly radioactive waste in tanks was not a responsible long-term practice. So in the late 1960's the Savannah River Laboratory began research to find a suitable long-term solution to the waste disposal problem. Several alternative waste forms were evaluated, and in 1972 the first Savannah River waste was vitrified on a laboratory scale. By the mid-1970's, the DuPont Company, prime contractor at the Savannah River Plant, began to develop a vision of constructing America's first vitrification plant to immobilize the high level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This vision was later championed by DuPont in the form of a vitrification plant called the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Today, the DWPF processes Savannah River High Level Waste sludge turning it into a solid, durable waste form of borosilicate glass. The DWPF is the world's largest vitrification facility. It was brought to reality through over 25-years of research and 13-years of careful construction, tests, and reviews at a cost of approximately $3 billion dollars

  5. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Robert D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

  6. Steam generation by combustion of processed waste fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudel, F.; Lengenfeld, P. [OEHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The use of specially processed waste fats as a fuel oil substitute offers, at attractive costs, an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional disposal like refuse incineration or deposition. For that purpose the processed fat is mixed with EL fuel oil and burned in a standard steam generation plant equipped with special accessories. The measured emission values of the combustion processes are very low.

  7. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption

  8. Ninth Processing Campaign in the Waste Calcining Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, K.F.; Donovan, R.I.; Swenson, M.C.

    1982-04-01

    This report discusses the Ninth (and final) Processing Campaign at the Waste Calcining Facility. Several processing interruptions were experienced during this campaign and the emphasis of this report is on process and equipment performance with operating problems and corrective actions discussed in detail

  9. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  10. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  11. Development of bituminization process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masao; Miyao, Hidehiko; Mizuno, Ryukichi

    1973-01-01

    For the bituminization of radioactive wastes from a fuel reprocessing plant, the leachability, irradiation stability and burning property of bitumen products have been studied. Sodium nitrate was used for simulated evaporator concentrate, and mixed with distillation bitumen or blown bitumen; the sodium nitrate content in the mixture was 30 to 60 wt%. The distillation bitumen is superior to the blown bitumen in leachability and flash point, but inferior in the increase of volume by irradiation. Since the volume increase is not large, the distillation bitumen is satisfactory for the bituminization of the evaporator concentrate from a fuel reprocessing plant. (Mori, K.)

  12. Development of plutonium liquid waste treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kouji; Nemoto, Takeshi; Todokoro, Akio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1995-06-01

    At plutonium Fuel Facility, radioactive liquid waste is treated with the flocculating precipitation method, which gives by-product such as sludge. To reduce the by-product, fundamental experiments have been carried out on undisolved tannin as an adsorbent with mainly examining plutonium adsorption characteristics and pyrolysis characteristics. The results of these experiments show that the {alpha}-activity of the treated solution is satisfactorily reduced and further, the used tannin is completely gasified by pyrolysis with the adsorbed plutonium to be recovered in a stable oxide form. (author).

  13. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-01-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10 −5 Ci/m 3 . The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour −1

  14. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  15. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  16. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinno, T.; Salluzzo, A.; Nardi, L.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Troiani, F.; Cornacchia, G.

    1989-11-01

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  17. Water-immiscible solvents for the biological treatment of waste gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    In conventional biological systems for the treatment of waste gases, contaminants are transferred directly to the aqueous phase and then converted by the micro-organisms. When poorly water-soluble pollutants are to be removed, biological degradation is often limited by the slow transport

  18. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  19. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  20. Waste dewatering process improvements at Brunswick Steam Electric Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, L.; Roy, B.

    1990-01-01

    In September 1989, Brunswick Steam Electric began with a new waste contractor and compression dewatering system to process the plant's spent powdered and bead ion exchange resins. The waste processing contract included incentives and penalties related to waste volume reduction performance and total processing costs to the plant. This was the first commercial use of its compression dewatering system by the contractor, Westinghouse Radiological Services, Inc. (now part of the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc.). The installation at Brunswick was made in the existing four-cubicle outdoor processing area. The system controls and monitoring are remote. Operating experience to date includes five powdered resin containers and eight bead. Volume reductions of powdered resin wastes indicate a 80% improvement over recent previous processing experience at the plant. Processing times on a per cubic foot of resin processed have been deceased by faster dewatering and less container handling. The dewatered and consolidated waste product characteristics (dry weight percent, density, lack of free water) have been very consistent. 4 figs

  1. SILVER RECYCLING FROM PHOTO-PROCESSING WASTE USING ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Feri Hadiyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver electrodeposition of photo-processing waste and without addition of KCN 1,0 M has been studied for silver recycling. Photo procesing waste containing silver in form of [Ag(S2O32]3- was electrolysed at constant potential and faradic efficiency was determined at various of electrolysis times. Electrolysis of 100 mL photo processing waste without addition of KCN 1,0 M was carried out at constant potential 1.20 Volt, while electrolysis 100 mL photo procesing waste with addition of 10 mL KCN 1,0 M electrolysis was done at 1.30 Volt.The results showed that for silver electrodeposition from photo processing waste with addition of KCN 1,0 M was more favorable with faradic efficiency respectively were 93,16; 87,02; 74,74 and 78,35% for 30; 60; 90 and 120 minutes of electrolysis.   Keywords: Silver extraction, electrodeposition, photo-processing waste

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility staged operations: environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Environmental information is presented relating to a staged version of the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The information is intended to provide the basis for an Environmental Impact Statement. In either the integral or the staged design, the DWPF will convert the high-level waste currently stored in tanks into: a leach-resistant form containing about 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residual, slightly contaminated salt, which is disposed of as saltcrete. In the first stage of the staged version, the insoluble sludge portion of the waste and the long lived radionuclides contained therein will be vitrified. The waste glass will be sealed in canisters and stored onsite until shipped to a Federal repository. In the second stage, the supernate portion of the waste will be decontaminated by ion exchange. The recovered radionuclides will be transferred to the Stage 1 facility, and mixed with the sludge feed before vitrification. The residual, slightly contaminated salt solution will be mixed with Portland cement to form a concrete product (saltcrete) which will be buried onsite in an engineered landfill. This document describes the conceptual facilities and processes for producing glass waste and decontaminated salt. The environmental effects of facility construction, normal operations, and accidents are then presented. Descriptions of site and environs, alternative sites and waste disposal options, and environmental consultations and permits are given in the base Environmental Information Document

  3. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  4. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  5. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-03-21

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  6. Organic waste process containing at least one radioactive element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, F.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of an organic waste process containing at least one element from the group comprising strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium. It comprises the introduction of the organic waste and gaseous oxygen in a bath of melted salt containing an alkaline carbonate, the bath being maintained at a high temperature between 400 and 1000 0 C and at a pressure of 0.5 to 10 bars, so that the organic waste is burnt and oxidised at least partly, the element selected being retained by the bath of melted salt [fr

  7. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste. • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste , in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS

  8. Liquid radioactive waste processing system for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard sets forth design, construction, and performance requirements, with due consideration for operation, of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System for pressurized water reactor plants for design basis inputs. For the purpose of this Standard, the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary and the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems, or at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material; and it terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system, and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse

  9. The evolution of waste management processes and technologies in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, R. W.; Fairhall, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastes arising from BNFL's nuclear fuel cycle operations can be traced through a number of phases. The first was the development of vitrification and cementation for fresh arising and plants are now in operation. To handle the mixed, heterogeneous intermediate level wastes, retrieval, segregation and robust treatment processes are at an advanced stage of development, with all plants to be operational from 2002. BNFL is focusing attention on reducing waste management lifetime costs including reducing waste volumes of source. Technologies aimed at significant reductions are now being developed. The final phase, now in progress, recognizes the need for an integrated approach to advanced fuel cycle processes which incorporates BNFL holistic concept. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig

  10. The evolution of waste management processes and technologies in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, R.W.; Fairhall, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastes arising from BNFL''s nuclear fuel cycle operations can be traced through a number of phases. The first was the development of vitrification and cementation for fresh arisings. Plants utilising these technologies are now in operation. To handle the mixed, heterogeneous intermediate level wastes, retrieval, segregation and robust treatment processes are at an advanced stage of development, with all plants to be operational from 2002. BNFL is focusing attention on reducing waste management lifetime costs including reducing waste volumes of source. Technologies aimed at significant reductions are now being developed. The final phase, now in progress, recognizes the need for an integrated approach to advanced fuel cycle processes which incorporates BNFL''s holistic concept. (author)

  11. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  12. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  13. The defense waste processing facility: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.P.; Fulmer, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Fascility (DWPF) will be the nation's first production scale facility for immobilizing high-level waste for disposal. It will also be the largest facility of its kind in the world. The technology, design, and construction efforts are on schedule for ''hot'' operation in fiscal year 1990. This paper provides a status report on the DWPF technology, design, and construction, and describes some of the challenges that have arisen during design and construction

  14. Hydration process of nuclear-waste glass: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1982-07-01

    Aging of simulated nuclear waste glass by contact with a controlled-temperature, humid atmosphere results in the formation of a double hydration layer penetrating the glass, as well as the formation of minerals on the glass surface. The hydration process can be described by Arrhenius behavior between 120 and 240 0 C. Results suggest that simulated aging reactions are necessary for demonstrating that nuclear waste forms can meet projected Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. 16 figures, 4 tables

  15. Remote viewing of melter interior Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1986-01-01

    A remote system has been developed and demonstrated for continuous reviewing of the interior of a glass melter, which is used to vitrify highly radioactive waste. The system is currently being implemented with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now under construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The environment in which the borescope/TV unit is implemented combines high temperature, high ionizing radiation, low light, spattering, deposition, and remote maintenance

  16. Method and equipment of processing radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takamori; Suzuki, Takeo; Tabata, Masayuki; Takada, Takao; Yamaguchi, Shin-ichi; Noda, Tetsuya.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively process radioactive laundry wastes generated due to water-washing after dry-cleaning of protective clothings which have been put on in nuclear facilities. Method: Dry cleaning soaps and ionic radioactive materials contained in radioactive laundry wastes are selectively adsorbed to decontaminate by adsorbents. Then, the adsorbents having adsorbed dry cleaning soaps and ionic radioactive materials are purified by being removed with these radioactive materials. The purified adsorbents are re-used. (Seki, T.)

  17. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  18. Biodegradation of bituminous products from processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Hladky, E.; Halama, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the possible ways of disturbing the stability of bituminous products from liquid radioactive waste processing, is biodegradation caused by common microorganisms. Pseudomonas bacteria and a Bacillus cereus culture were selected for experimental study of cultivation of microorganisms. Experiments with mixed cultures were also performed. Pitches, ajatin and imidazoline were used as inhibitors. The thin layer and the emulsion methods were used in assessing biological corrosion. The results of the experiments are discussed with respect to the dependence of bacterial growth on bitumen biodegradation, the effect of pH on bitumen degradation and the effect of inhibitors on bitumen biodegradation. The salts contained in bituminous products were not found to significantly affect the rate of destruction. The degree of degradation was found to mainly depend on the bitumen, its chemical composition, and on the conditions of storage. It was also found that inhibitor additions in some cases modified the properties of the matrix such that it became more liquid. The coefficient of extractibility thus increased of matrix salts. The recultivation of bacteria on a full-value medium resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect. In some cases, the inhibitor even stimulated the growth of microorganisms. The use of inhibitors in an effort to achieve biostability of bituminous products thus did not solve the problem. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 9 refs

  19. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Mendoza, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  20. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  1. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon

    2016-01-01

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  2. Radioactive waste processing and disposal: A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-05-01

    The Technical Information Center, beginning in 1958, has periodically issued bibliographies on radioactive wastes. This compilation contains 3382 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books entered in the DOE Energy Data Base since December 1980. The citations are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Within a given category the arrangement is alphanumeric by report number. Citations of unnumbered documents are arranged in reverse chronological order after the reports. Each complete bibliographic record is followed by an abstract or a listing of the subject descriptors used to describe the contents of the reference for machine storage and retrieval. In many cases phrases or clauses that augment the title are also included. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  3. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  4. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  5. Mixed waste treatment with a mediated electrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Gray, L.W.; Chiba, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The process described in this paper is intended to convert mixed waste containing toxic organic compounds (not heavy metals) to ordinary radioactive waste, which is treatable. The process achieves its goal by oxidizing hydrocarbons to CO 2 and H 2 O. Other atoms that may be present in the toxic organic generally are converted to nonhazardous anions such as sulfate and phosphate. This electro chemical conversion is performed at conditions of temperature and pressure that are just moderately above ambient conditions. Gaseous hydroxides and oxyhydroxides that are formed by many radionuclides during incineration cannot form in this process. 1 ref., 3 figs

  6. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  7. Geochemical and biological research at the NEA dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A geochemical and biological study of the sea floor at the NEA dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste is reported. The sea bottom has rather steep hillsides. Slumps are usual phenomena and could be triggered by the dumping operations. The sediment is described in terms of its mineralogical and elemental composition. The variation in CaCO 3 content accounts for most of the variation in the elemental composition and cation exchange capacity. The present depth of the lysocline is shown to be about 4700 m. A description is given of the early diagenetic processes: (1) Mineralization of organic material, (2) Cation exchange, (3) Change in redox conditions and (4) Carbonate dissolution and recrystallization; and discussed in terms of their effects on the redistribution and transport of trace elements and radionuclides within the sediment and between sediment and overlying water. (orig.)

  8. 10. Biogas conference Dresden. Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornack, Christina; Liebetrau, Jan; Fassauer, Burkhardt; Nelles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The biogas conference in Dresden will be held for the tenth time and is still the only conference in Germany, which focuses on the production of biogas solely from waste. This year, the implementation of paragraph 11 of the Recycling and Waste Management Act and the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2014, the chances of the waste management biogas technology will be spotlighted here. The efficiency and wise use of the end products of the biogas production - the biogas and fermentation residues are equally critical for the success of biogas technology as the emission reduction of biogas plants. In this context, the biogas technology will also be dependent in the future on legal requirements and funding instruments such as the EEG. For the technical implementation, the development of reliable system concepts with specific sinking biogas and electricity supply costs and with greater flexibility in terms of launching needs-based biogas and electricity production. The contributions in this paper discuss possible solutions and implementations from the perspective of politics, associations, research and practice. Innovative topics will be discussed, which will be decisive for the future of biogas production from organic wastes. [de

  9. High-risk biodegradable waste processing by alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambura, Sanja; Voća, Neven; Krička, Tajana; Sindrak, Zoran; Spehar, Ana; Kalambura, Dejan

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradable waste is by definition degraded by other living organisms. Every day, meat industry produces large amounts of a specific type of biodegradable waste called slaughterhouse waste. Traditionally in Europe, this waste is recycled in rendering plants which produce meat and bone meal and fat. However, feeding animals with meat and bone meal has been banned since the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In consequence, new slaughterhouse waste processing technologies have been developed, and animal wastes have now been used for energy production. Certain parts of this waste, such as brains and spinal cord, are deemed high-risk substances, because they may be infected with prions. Their treatment is therefore possible only in strictly controlled conditions. One of the methods which seems to bear acceptable health risk is alkaline hydrolysis. This paper presents the results of an alkaline hydrolysis efficiency study. It also proposes reuse of the obtained material as organic fertiliser, as is suggested by the analytical comparison between meat and bone meal and hydrolysate.

  10. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  11. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  12. Establishing a central waste processing and storage facility in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.; Darko, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste and spent sealed sources in Ghana are generated from various nuclear applications - diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine, measurement and processing techniques in industry, irradiation techniques for food preservation and sterilization of medical products and a research reactor for research and teaching. Statistics available indicate that over 15 institutions in Ghana are authorized to handle radiation sources. At present radioactive waste and spent sealed sources are collected and stored in the interim facility without conditioning. With the increasing use of radioactive sources in the industry, medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose and research and teaching, the volume of waste is expected to increase. The radioactive waste expected include spent ion exchange resins from the nuclear reactor water purification system, incompactible solid waste from mechanical filter, liquid and organic waste and spent sealed sources. It is estimated that four 200L drums will be needed annually to condition the waste to be generated. The National Radioactive Waste Management Centre (NRWMC) was therefore established to carry radioactive waste safety operations in Ghana and research to ensure that each waste type is managed in the most appropriate manner. Its main task includes development and establishment of the radioactive waste management infrastructure with a capacity considering the future nuclear technology development in Ghana. The first phase covers the establishment of administrative structure, development of basic regulations and construction of the radioactive waste processing and storage facility. The Ghana Radioactive Waste Management regulation has been presented to the Parliament of Ghana for consideration. The initial draft was reviewed by the RPB. A 3-day national seminar on the Understanding and Implementation of the Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management in Ghana was held to discuss and educate the general public on the

  13. Radioactive waste processing method and processing device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi; Noge, Kenji; Matsuda, Masami; Takeshi, Kiyotaka

    1998-01-01

    Each predetermined amount of aggregates such as cements and sands as water-hardening solidification materials and kneading water are charged from a solidification material containing vessel, an aggregate containing vessel and a kneading water containing vessel to a kneading vessel of a paste supply device. The cements, the sands and the kneading water are kneaded by the rotation of a kneader. A produced solidification material paste is charged from the kneader to a drum through a paste transporting pump. Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes have been filled in a drum. The solidification paste produced while supplying the cements, the sands and the kneading water into the kneader is discharged from the kneader. Since increase of viscosity of the solid material paste in the kneader is suppressed, the solidification paste can be easily flown into narrow gaps between radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes in the drum. (I.N.)

  14. Study of plastic solidification process on solid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Weiguan; Zhang Yinsheng; Qian Wenju

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons between the plastic solidification conditions of incinerated ash and waste cation resin by using thermosetting plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE), and identified physico-chemical properties and irradiation resistance of solidified products were presented. These solidified products have passed through different tests as compression strength, leachability, durability, stability, permeability and irradiation resistance (10 6 Gy) etc. The result showed that the solidified products possessed stable properties and met the storage requirement. The waste tube of radioimmunoassay, being used as solidification medium to contain incinerated ash, had good mechanical properties and satisfactory volume reduction. This process may develop a new way for disposal solid radioactive waste by means of re-using waste

  15. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite

  16. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  17. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  18. Application of thermal technologies for processing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the various thermal technologies for processing various solid, liquid, organic and inorganic radioactive waste streams. The advantages, limitations and operating experience of various thermal technologies are explained. This publication also goes beyond previous work on thermal processes by addressing the applicability of each technology to national or regional nuclear programmes of specific relative size (major advanced programmes, small to medium programmes, and emerging programmes with other nuclear applications). The most commonly used thermal processing technologies are reviewed, and the key factors influencing the selection of thermal technologies as part of a national waste management strategy are discussed. Accordingly, the structure and content of this publication is intended to assist decision-makers, regulators, and those charged with developing such strategies to identify and compare thermal technologies for possible inclusion in the mix of available, country-specific waste management processes. This publication can be used most effectively as an initial cutting tool to identify whether any given technology will best serve the local waste management strategy in terms of the waste generated, technical complexity, available economic resources, environmental impact considerations, and end product (output) of the technology. If multiple thermal technologies are being actively considered, this publication should be instrumental in comparing the technologies and assisting the user to reach an informed decision based on local needs, economics and priorities. A detailed set of conclusions is provided in Section 7

  19. Flow measurement and control in the defense waste process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1985-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive waste is now under construction. Previously stored waste is retrieved and processed into a glass matrix for permanent storage. The equipment operates in an entirely remote environment for both processing and maintenance due to the highly radioactive nature of the waste. A fine powdered glass frit is mixed with the waste prior to its introduction as a slurry into an electric glass furnace. The slurry is Bingham plastic in nature and of high viscosity. This combination of factors has created significant problems in flow measurement and control. Specialized pieces of equipment have been demonstrated that will function properly in a highly abrasive environment while receiving no maintenance during their lifetime. Included are flow meters, flow control technology, flow switching, and remote connections. No plastics or elastomers are allowed in contact with fluids and all electronic components are mounted remotely. Both two- and three-way valves are used. Maintenance is by crane replacement of process sections, utilizing specialized connectors. All portions of the above are now operating full scale (radioactively cold) at the test facility at SRP. 4 references, 8 figures

  20. Theoretical methane production generated by the co-digestion of organic fraction municipal solid waste and biological sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nielfa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The co-digestion of two problematic and available wastes, namely Organic Fraction Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW and biological sludge, was carried out in this work. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP tests are a useful tool for determining the best substrate and co-digestion configurations, however there are some methodologies destined to save costs and time from this process by using the theoretical final methane potential of a substrate from its organic composition. Besides there are some models capable not only of reproducing the methane curve behavior, but also of predicting final methane productions from the first days of experimentation. Methodologies based in the elemental composition for the determination of theoretical production fit better with the experimental results and behavior, nevertheless the Gompertz model was capable of predicting the final productivity within the 7th day of experiment, selecting at the same time the co-digestion of 80% OFMSW and 20% Biological sludge as the optimum.

  1. Method of processing radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Naoshi; Iwakura, Nobuhiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the load of the method in a reverse osmotic step and efficiently treating activated carbon by combining a reverse osmotic treatment with scavenging and activated carbon adsorbing treatments utilizing a chemical reaction. Method: Waste drained from laundry is introduced into a storage tank, transferred through a filter into a scavenging tank, and a part of an anionic surface active agent is flocculated. The scavenged liquid has its pH adjusted and is applied to a floc separator, slurry containing mainly the floc is fed to a sludge reservoir, and the supernatant liquid is fed to a supernatant tank. The supernatant tank feeds the supernatant liquid to a reverse osmotic device to obtain a concentrated liquid which is fed through an activated carbon layer where a nonionic surface active agent and residual anionic surface active agent are adsorbed and removed therefrom, the thus adsorbed liquid is fed to an evaporation concentrating device, and water is recovered. The other residue is solidified together with the sludge. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Radioactive waste processing and disposal: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, L.H.

    1981-04-01

    The Technical Information Center, beginning in 1958, has periodically issued bibliographies on radioactive wastes. This compilation contains 3700 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books entered in the DOE Energy Data Base since Nov. 1979. These references, as well as references from the period January 1967 through November 1979, are available for on-line searching and retrieval using the DOE/RECON system. The citations are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Within a given category the arrangement is alphanumeric by report number. Citations of unnumbered documents are arranged in reverse chronological order after the reports. Each complete bibliographic record is followed by an abstract or a listing of the subject descriptors used to describe the contents of the reference for machine storage and retrieval. In many cases phrases or clauses that augment the title are also included Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  3. Quality Assurance Program description, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslar, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Quality Assurance Program for Defense Waste Processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC is the operating contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the SRS. The following objectives are achieved through developing and implementing the Quality Assurance Program: (1) Ensure that the attainment of quality (in accomplishing defense high-level waste processing objectives at the SRS) is at a level commensurate with the government's responsibility for protecting public health and safety, the environment, the public investment, and for efficiently and effectively using national resources. (2) Ensure that high-level waste from qualification and production activities conform to requirements defined by OCRWM. These activities include production processes, equipment, and services; and products that are planned, designed, procured, fabricated, installed, tested, operated, maintained, modified, or produced

  4. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Biological reduction of dust nuisance on power station waste dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of pot trials and succeeding field trials carried out in 1966-72 to find out the best method of reclamationand stabilishing the fly ash and cinder waste dump at the Melnik power station are summarised. The material consists mainly of fine particles with a size range of less than 1 micron to 0.16 mm in diam., and creates a source of blown dust in dry weather. Treatment of the waste material before sowing grass and legume species, the species tested, sowing rates, applied fertilizers, irrigation and treatment of the resulting swards are discussed. The most suitable species were Festuca rubra, F. ovina, perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass; the cost of stabilising the dump was lowest with Italian ryegrass. (In English)

  7. Volume reduction of solid waste by biological conversion of cellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1981-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the types of cellulosic wastes generated at ORNL can be effectively degraded in an anaerboic bioreactor. The rate and extent of anaerobic microbial digestion of blotter paper, cloth, sanitary napkins, and pine sawdust in various types and sizes of bench-scale anaerobic bioreactors are described. Preliminary tests indicate that the resulting digests are amenable to incorporation into hydrofracture grouts

  8. The biological utilization of bagasse, a lignocellulose waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paterson-Jones, JC

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of the biological utilization of Bagasse programme, a programme of the CSIR's foundation for research development, aimed at developing and evaluating the expertise and technology for hydrolyzing the hemicelluloses...

  9. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  11. French processes for waste embedding. The use of epoxy resin for waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The low- and medium-level wastes generated by nuclear facilities when operating as well as during their decommissioning (dismantling, decontamination, etc.) are embedded for the purpose of obtaining a product suitable for disposal. Due to the varieties of waste produced, it was necessary to resort to multi-purpose techniques to solve problems relating to their embedding. The process for waste embedding in thermosetting polymer (polyester, epoxy) developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its subsidiary TECHNICATOME is easy to operate and yields excellent results having regard to volume reduction and containment of radioisotopes (particularly caesium). The industrial development of this process has led to the design of small, flexible, fixed or mobile, embedding stations. Examples illustrating the increasing use of this process during facility dismantling are described

  12. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunandjar; Zainus Salimin; Sugeng Purnomo; Ratiko

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10 -1 Ci/m 3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  13. Application of membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Membrane separation processes have made impressive progress since the first synthesis of membranes almost 40 years ago. This progress was driven by strong technological needs and commercial expectations. As a result the range of successful applications of membranes and membrane processes is continuously broadening. In addition, increasing application of membrane processes and technologies lies in the increasing variations of the nature and characteristics of commercial membranes and membrane apparatus. The objective of the report is to review the information on application of membrane technologies in the processing of liquid radioactive waste. The report covers the various types of membranes, equipment design, range of applications, operational experience and the performance characteristics of different membrane processes. The report aims to provide Member States with basic information on the applicability and limitations of membrane separation technologies for processing liquid radioactive waste streams

  14. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling a novel glass immobilization waste treatment process using flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    One option for control and disposal of surplus fissile materials is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), a process developed at ORNL for directly converting Pu-bearing material into a durable high-quality glass waste form. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the GMODS process flowsheet using FLOW, a chemical process simulator. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated ion the models has acceptable levels of risks

  16. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS, ECOMAT, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, CA has developed a two-stage ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification process. The process is a fixed film bioremediation, using biocarriers and specific bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water. Unique to EcoMat's process is a patented mixed bed r...

  18. Co-transport and co-combustion. An alternative to separate collecting of biological waste?; Co-Transport und Co-Verwertung. Eine Alternative zur getrennten Bioabfallsammlung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegebein, J.; Hoffmann, E.; Hahn, H.H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    2001-06-01

    As an alternative or supplementary to the separate bio-waste collection system the transport of ground organic kitchen waste along with wastewater in sewer systems has been investigated and reuse processes are discussed. Organic kitchen waste has been ground with a commercial food-waste-grinder, the suspensions were characterized with respect to transport, particle size and settling velocity distribution. Approximately 1/3 of the solids were solbilized due to the grinding-process. Residual non-solubilized solids have been transported evenly as bed load and as suspended solids within a half-scale flow channel at low flow velocities. Organic food waste may be utilized as carbon-source for enhanced biological nutrient removal or as substrate for anaerobic digestion and bio-gas production or as a combination of both reuse path-ways. (orig.)

  19. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 3. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creamer, S.C.; Lalies, A.A.; Wise, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd, and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd, on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. Volume 3, describes the work carried out by Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd on the data-processing aspects of an integrated waste assay facility. It introduces the need for a mathematical model of the assay process and develops a deterministic model which could be tested using Harwell experimental data. Relevant nuclear reactions are identified. Full implementation of the model was not possible within the scope of the Harwell experimental work, although calculations suggested that the model behaved as predicted by theory. 34 figs., 52 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Coupled processes in NRC high-level waste research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzi, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses NRC research effort in support of evaluating license applications for disposal of nuclear waste and for promulgating regulations and issuing guidance documents on nuclear waste management. In order to do this they fund research activities at a number of laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial organizations. One of our research efforts is the coupled processes study. This paper discusses interest in coupled processes and describes the target areas of research efforts over the next few years. The specific research activities relate to the performance objectives of NRC's high-level waste (HLW) regulation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HLW standard. The general objective of the research program is to ensure the NRC has a sufficient independent technical base to make sound regulatory decisions

  1. Quantum-CEP trademark for mixed waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahass, P.; Sekula-Moise, P.A.; Chanenchuk, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    No commercially available technology exists to effectively treat the hundreds of thousands of tons of mixed waste stored and generated in the United States and worldwide. Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) is an innovative flexible recycling technology which has inherent advantages for processing mixed wastes in a wide variety of chemical and physical forms. CEP uses a molten metal bath to completely dissociate feeds and recombine them with selected reactants to form useful products. Dissolved carbon in the metal bath creates a reducing atmosphere, readily converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas, metals to alloys in their reduced state, and inorganics to an engineered ceramic phase. Process conditions can be manipulated to strongly favor partitioning of select radionuclides to a nonleachable vitreous phase, ready for final form disposal. Molten Metal Technology has adapted its CEP technology for radioactive processing and has delivered Quantum-CEP trademark units to customers for demonstration of mixed waste processing leading to commercial scale installations for reducing both private and government inventories. Agreements have also been reached to build commercial CEP facilities to recycle hazardous and industrial wastes

  2. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  3. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells

  4. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  5. Control of DWPF [Defense Waste Processing Facility] melter feed composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  7. Food processing waste dewatering by electro-osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsat, V.; Raghavan, G.S.V.; Norris, E.R. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Macdonald Coll.

    1996-01-01

    A method of removing water from industrial food processing wastes was discussed. Many of these food wastes have nutritional value as animal feed, but they have little economic value because of their low dry-matter content which means high transportation and drying costs. This has focused attention on ways of separating the solid waste from the liquid waste, or dewatering, as a way to reduce the cost of the drying process. This study examined two methods of dewatering: pressure alone, and pressure combined with an electric field. Results showed that combining an electric field with mechanical dewatering can increase the percent solids from 30 to 49% for brewer`s spent grain, from 23 to 53% for apple pomace and from 11 to 67% for vegetable waste. The addition of electro-osmosis added considerably to the energy requirement, but it allowed an increase in solids content by several percentage points. Even at that, the energy consumption for all separation trials was significantly less than that of thermal drying. 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Enhancing the hydrolysis process of a two-stage biogas technology for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Zeeshan; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    the hydrolytic (1st) stage, which enables pump-free feeding of the waste into the 1st stage (processing module), and eliminates the risk for blocking of pumps and pipes by pumping only the percolate from the 1st stage into the 2nd stage (biogas reactor tank). The biogas yield of the AIKAN® two-stage process......The Danish company Solum A/S has developed a two-stage dry anaerobic digestion process labelled AIKAN® for the biological conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into biogas and compost. In the AIKAN® process design the methanogenic (2nd) stage is separated from...... time, recirculation rate of percolate, ratio of admixing effluent from the anaerobic stage to the percolate, water submerge of waste) on the efficiency of the hydrolytic stage. •The effect of addition of adapted mixed cultures and specific hydrolytic microorganisms on the hydrolysis of the waste. •The...

  9. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.L.; Telles, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  10. Innovative processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacary, V.; Barre, Y.; Plasari, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because of the high salinity (0.5 to 2 M) of liquid wastes and the variability of their composition, the method which is the most appropriate and commonly used to remove the contaminants consists in the in situ formation of adsorbent particles in the waste stream. This technique is often called coprecipitation. To increase the efficiency of this treatment, a study is performed to point out the impact of the choice of the process and the influence of operating parameters (mean residence time, stirring speed, etc.) on the formation of crystals and ultimately on their ability to capture radionuclide. Barium sulphate was chosen as a reference because it is a well known precipitate and a material used in the decontamination facilities to remove radiostrontium. Two issues are encountered with the classic treatments which are consequences of the variability of effluents composition. On the one hand when high activity effluents have to be treated, the efficiency of the classic processes can not be sufficient and the liquid must be once again decontaminated. Thus the volume of disposal waste produced by the treatment is doubled. On the other hand when low activity effluents have to be treated, the classic processes produce a low activity waste. Consequently the volume of storage occupied by this waste is disproportionate with regard to its low activity. To return the more flexible process, various configurations were tested. They can be classified in two categories: improvements of the classic treatments and new types of reactors. Because of the good results which are obtained, these processes are patent pending. To support the experimental investigations, a modelling study at the reactor scale is initiated to distinguish the influence of each process parameter. These models assume that the surface of adsorbent particles is continuously renewed by crystal growth. The aim of this work is to determine the decisive parameters which allow the

  11. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF CELLULOSE WASTE FROM POULTRY AND SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sklyadnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.To solve the problem of disposing of huge volumes of cellulose waste from sugar production in the form of beet pulp and waste of poultry farms in the form of poultry manure is proposed to use the joint use of two methods of thermal processing of waste - pyrolysis and gasification. The possibility of using pyrolysis applied to the waste are confirmed by experimental results. Based on the results of laboratory studies of the properties of by-products resulting from the thermal processing of the feedstock, it is proposed complex processing to produce useful products, to be implemented in the form of marketable products, and the organization's own process energy utilization. Developed flow diagram of an integrated processing said waste comprises 3 sections, which successively carried out: pyrolytic decomposition of the feedstock to obtain a secondary product in the form of solid, liquid and gas fractions, the gasification of solids to obtain combustible gas and separating the liquid fraction by distillation to obtain valuable products. The main equipment in the first region is the pyrolysis reactor cascade condensers; the second section - gasifiers layers and stream type; the third - one or more distillation columns with the necessary strapping. Proper power supply installation is organized by the use of the heat produced during combustion of the synthesis gas for heating and gasification reactor. For the developed scheme presents calculations of the heat balance of the installation, supporting the energy efficiency of the proposed disposal process. Developments carried out in the framework of the project the winner of the Youth Prize Competition Government of Voronezh region to support youth programs in the 2014-2015.

  12. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  13. ECOMAT INC. BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS, ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, California (EcoMat) has developed an ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification (BDN) process. The process uses specific biocarriers and bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water and employs a patented reactor that retains biocarrier within the syste...

  14. Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskov, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI) c for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants

  15. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. (Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F[sup [minus

  16. Solid radioactive waste processing facility of the NPP Leningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, Swetlana

    2008-01-01

    On behalf of the Russian Company Rosenergoatom NUKEM Technologies GmbH is planning and constructing a complete facility for the processing of solid low- and medium-active radioactive wastes. The NPP Leningrad comprises 4 units of RBMK-1000 reactors, the plant life has been extended by 15 years, the first unit is to be decommissioned in 2018. The construction of four new units is planned. NUKEM is in charge of planning, manufacture, construction and startup of the following facilities: sorting, internal transport, combustion and waste gas cleaning, emission surveillance, compacting, packaging and radiological measurement.

  17. Process for preparing wastes for non-pollutant disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstiel, T.L.; Debus, A.A.G.

    1984-01-01

    In disposing of wastes, particularly toxic wastes, containing organic liquids, i.e. solvents or oil, which may be radio-active a non-ionic surface active agent which is a polyoxy alkylphenol is added to the oily material and then calcium sulphate hemihydrate and water are added. This forms part of a process in which a melamine resin is also added to the mix which is then allowed to harden and the hardened mass disposed of. The use of polyoxyethylene glycol soaps as emulsifying agents is also referred to. Preferred soaps are tallates and preferred alkyl groups in the alkylphenol are octyl and ronyl. (author)

  18. Westinghouse integrated cementation facility. Smart process automation minimizing secondary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrmann, H.; Jacobs, T.; Aign, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Westinghouse Cementation Facility described in this paper is an example for a typical standardized turnkey project in the area of waste management. The facility is able to handle NPP waste such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The facility scope covers all equipment required for a fully integrated system including all required auxiliary equipment for hydraulic, pneumatic and electric control system. The control system is based on actual PLC technology and the process is highly automated. The equipment is designed to be remotely operated, under radiation exposure conditions. 4 cementation facilities have been built for new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in China

  19. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  20. Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive wastes in a purpose-built repository at Sellafield, Cumbria. The overview takes into account published information from the UK as available from Nirex's safety and assessment research programme and HMIP's disposal assessment programme, as well as that available from studies in the UK and elsewhere. (Author)

  1. Development of waste plastics recycling process using coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K.; Nomura, S.; Uematsu, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Laboratories

    2002-07-01

    Laboratory tests are reported to evaluate the feasibility of adding waste plastics to coal for carbonization in coke ovens. It was found that the process was feasible. Coke, tar and light oil and gas were collected without affecting coke strength. The yield of coke, tar and light oil and gas were about 20%, 40% and 40% respectively. Waste plastics recycling equipment with a total capacity of 80,000 tons per year started operation in 2000 at Nagoya and Kimitsu works in Japan. Equipment is operating well. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Processing method for discharged radioactive laundry water waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    In order to process discharged radioactive laundry water wastes safely and decrease radioactive wastes, bubbling of a surface active agent in a detergent which causes a problem upon its condensation is suppressed, so that the liquid condensate are continuously and easily dried into a powder. A nonionic surface active agent is used against the bubbling of the surface active agent. In addition, the bubbling in an the evaporation can is reduced, and the powderization is facilitated by adding an appropriate inorganic builder. (T.M.)

  3. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate

  4. A study of the process control and hydrolytic characteristics in a thermophilic hydrogen fermentor fed with starch-rich kitchen waste by using molecular-biological methods and amylase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Shiue-Lin; Chen, I.-Chieh; Tseng, I.-Cheng; Cheng, Sheng-Shung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Starch-rich kitchen waste was chosen as the feedstock in this study, and a 3-L intermittent-continuous stirred tank reactor (I-CSTR) was established. Within 240 days, the maximum average hydrogen production rate of 2.2 L-H{sup 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} and the highest average hydrogen yield of 2.1 mmol-H{sub 2} g-COD{sup -1} were both observed in run 3-2, which was operated at an eight-day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 39 g-COD L{sup -1} day{sup -1} of organic loading rate. According to the analyses of amylase and reducing sugar, the maximum average amylase activity was about 11 U mL{sup -1} in run 1, but the maximum solid carbohydrate hydrolysis rate was about 45% in run 3. Some Michaealis-Menton kinetic parameters, such as K{sub M} (17 g L{sup -1}) and the maximum activity (1.5 U mL{sup -1}) of the amylase were obtained. The best amylase reacting temperature was 55 C, and the best reacting pH was 4.4 tested with acetate buffer. Twenty-seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were selected from this reactor by using a cloning method. According to the data of terminal restricted fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and amylase assay, the OTUs that were related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium sp. were in direct proportion to the amylase activity. (author)

  5. Sandia solidification process: a broad range aqueous waste solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.W.; Dosch, R.G.; Kenna, B.T.; Johnstone, J.K.; Nowak, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    New ion-exchange materials of the hydrous oxide type were developed for solidifying aqueous radioactive wastes. These materials have the general formula M[M'/sub x/O/sub y/H/sub z/]/sub n/, where M is an exchangeable cation of charge +n and M' may be Ti; Nb; Zr, or Ta. Affinities for polyvalent cations were found to be very high and ion-exchange capacities large (e.g., 4.0--4.5 meq/g for NaTi 2 O 5 H depending on moisture content). The effectiveness of the exchangers for solidifying high-level waste resulting from reprocessing light-water reactor fuel was demonstrated in small-scale tests. Used in conjunction with anion exchange resin, these materials reduced test solution radioactivity from approximately 0.2 Ci/ml to as low as approximately 2 nCi/ml. The residual radioactivity was almost exclusively due to 106 Ru and total α-activity was only a few pCi/ml. Alternative methods of consolidating the solidified waste were evaluated using nonradioactive simulants. Best results were obtained by pressure-sintering which yielded essentially fully dense ceramics, e.g., titanate/titania ceramics with bulk density as high as 4.7 g/cm 3 , waste oxide content as high as 1.2 g/cm 3 , and leach resistance comparable to good borosilicate glass. Based on the above results, a baseline process for solidifying high-level waste was defined and approximate economic analyses indicated costs were not prohibitive. Additional tests have demonstrated that, if desired, operating conditions could be modified to allow recovery of radiocesium (and perhaps other isotopes) during solidification of the remaining constituents of high-level waste. Preliminary tests have also shown that these materials offer promise for treating tank-stored neutralized wastes

  6. Energy efficient way of processing waste of milk production

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova Julija; Ivantsova Maria; Selezneva Irina

    2016-01-01

    The research aim is the search of practical application of biotechnological waste processing of dairy production plants. The result of the study is the development of a process with biogas production by using anaerobic Biomar reactor. Scale of laboratory installation has been conducted based on laboratory studies. Moreover, principal technological scheme of production has been composed, and the appropriate material and technical and economic calculations have been carried out. In addition, ma...

  7. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with § 194.24(c)(4), to confirm that the total amount of each waste component that will be... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment...

  8. Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, H.L.

    1977-11-01

    A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x10 8 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 5 0 C and 25 0 C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

  9. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leachable metal content may still pose a contamination concern and potential human and ecological exposure if uncontrollably released to the environment. As a result, salt cake should always be managed at facilities that utilize synthetic liner systems with leachate collection (the salt content of the leachate will increase the hydraulic conductivity of clay liners within a few years of installation). The mineral phase analysis showed that various species of aluminum are present in the salt cake samples with a large degree of variability. The relative abundance of various aluminum species was evaluated but it is noted that the method used is a semi-quantitative method and as a result there is a limitation for the data use. The analysis only showed a few aluminum species present in salt cake which does not exclude the presence of other crystalline species especially in light of the variability observed in the samples. Results presented in this document are of particular importance when trying to understand concerns associated with the disposal of salt cake in MSW landfills. From the end-of-life management perspective, data presented here suggest that salt cake should not be size reduce

  10. Enzymatic processing of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Rønsch, Georg Ørnskov; Nørholm, Nanna Dreyer

    2010-12-01

    The focus of this work was to investigate an enzymatic liquefaction of MSW organics, paper and cardboard. Liquefaction trials were conducted in different trial volumes: 50 g lab-scale trials and 5 0kg vessel-tests and evaluated based on particle size and viscosity. The viscosity results showed that Celluclast 1.5L had the singular significant effect on liquefaction of model MSW. No effect of α-amylase, protease and interaction in between and with cellulases on viscosity and particle size distribution was found in this study. Degradable material with a particle size above 1mm after treatment was evaluated using SEM microscopy. These results showed that paper particles were the main obstacles needing additional treatment in order to become fully liquefied. In a pilot scale test treating authentic MSW; more than 90% of initial organic and paper dry matter (DM) was recovered as liquid slurry after sieving through a 5-mm sieve. These tests were performed at up to 35% DM, showing that this process can easily manage high DM loadings. MSW enzymatic liquefaction promotes the separation of organics and paper from solids, which facilitate the use of these degradable fractions, with minimal loss, capable to enter a biogas plant through existing pipes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs

  12. Gel adsorption processing for waste solidification in NZP ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.J.; Komareni, S.; Roy, R.

    1984-01-01

    Simulated PW-4b waste solution along with Na additive was mixed with Zr-P-O gel, dried and then fired to form the desired sodium zirconium phosphate, NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 [NZP] ceramic. NZP and monazite were the only phases produced upon firing at 900 0 C with 10 to 40% of PW-4b mixed with the gel. CsZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 which is isostructural with NZP was also identified when fired under reducing conditions. The -200 mesh powders of these waste forms prepared under reducing conditions showed excellent leach resistance under hydro-thermal conditions. Alternatively, PW-4b and Three Mile Island (TMI) wastes were adsorbed on Zr-P-O gel in a column. The gel was dried, pelletized and fired to form the desired [NZP] ceramic. Cesium was found to be selective on the Zr-P-O gel because no breakthrough of Cs was detected up to 38 column volumes of TMI waste. Thus, it is possible to use a tailored gel to sorb Cs and/or Sr from accident waste water and then fire the bed to form the [NZP] ceramic below 1000 0 C. The main advantages of the gel adsorption process are its simplicity and its enormous compositional flexibility. 12 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  13. A systems study of the waste management system in Gothenburg. Part of the project: Thermal and biological waste treatment in a systems perspective; Systemstudie Avfall i Goeteborg. Delprojekt i Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan; Haraldsson, Maarten; Norrman Eriksson, Ola

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the project A system study of waste management in Gothenburg is to evaluate new waste treatment options for municipal and industrial waste from a system perspective. The project has been carried out as a part of the project Thermal and biological waste treatment in a systems perspective - WR21. The focus is set to the waste and district heating system in Gothenburg. The project has been running for 2,5 years with an active group consisting of persons from Renova, Kretsloppskontoret, Goeteborg Energi, Gryaab and Profu. The work on development of models and of methods of handling strategic questions within the field has gone back and forth within the group. This report focuses on presenting the final results from the project, which means that the process in which we've excluded several treatment options and scenarios are only briefly described

  14. Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials

  15. Experimental evaluation of main emissions during coal processing waste combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Legros, Jean C; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    The total volume of the coal processing wastes (filter cakes) produced by Russia, China, and India is as high as dozens of millions of tons per year. The concentrations of CO and CO 2 in the emissions from the combustion of filter cakes have been measured directly for the first time. They are the biggest volume of coal processing wastes. There have been many discussions about using these wastes as primary or secondary components of coal-water slurries (CWS) and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Boilers have already been operationally tested in Russia for the combustion of CWSP based on filter cakes. In this work, the concentrations of hazardous emissions have been measured at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000°С. The produced CO and CO 2 concentrations are shown to be practically constant at high temperatures (over 900°С) for all the coal processing wastes under study. Experiments have shown the feasibility to lowering the combustion temperatures of coal processing wastes down to 750-850°С. This provides sustainable combustion and reduces the CO and CO 2 emissions 1.2-1.7 times. These relatively low temperatures ensure satisfactory environmental and energy performance of combustion. Using CWS and CWSP instead of conventional solid fuels significantly reduces NO x and SO x emissions but leaves CO and CO 2 emissions practically at the same level as coal powder combustion. Therefore, the environmentally friendly future (in terms of all the main atmospheric emissions: CO, CO 2 , NO x , and SO x ) of both CWS and CWSP technologies relies on low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials...... for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different...... background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different...

  17. Processing industrial wastes with the liquid-phase reduction romelt process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romenets, V.; Valavin, V.; Pokhvisnev, Yu.; Vandariev, S.

    1999-08-01

    The Romelt technology for liquid-phase reduction has been developed for processing metallurgical wastes containing nonferrousmetal components. Thermodynamic calculations were made to investigate the behavior of silver, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, chrome, and silicon when reduced from the slag melt into the metallic solution containing iron. The process can be applied to all types of iron-bearing wastes, including electric arc furnace dust. The distribution of elements between the phases can be controlled by adjusting the slag bath temperature. Experiments at a pilot Romelt plant proved the possibility of recovering the metallurgical wastes and obtaining iron.

  18. Optimizing a recycling process of SMC composite waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, D; Clerc, L; Leroy, E; Lopez-Cuesta, J-M; Bergeret, A

    2008-01-01

    Investigations about the recycling of sheet moulding compounds (SMC) waste as incorporation material for thermoplastic polymer matrix are reported in this paper. A new efficient process is developed in order to strongly increase the reinforcement glass fraction of SMC leading to good mechanical performance of the new thermoplastic compounds. The overall process is composed of two main steps: mechanical and chemical. The second stage is characterised in terms of optimization and capability by means of experimental design and statistical process control techniques for finding the optimal chemical conditions and validating the process.

  19. Rheological characterisation of biologically treated and non-treated putrescible food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Munir, M T; Sun, Jiyang; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Young, Brent R

    2018-01-01

    Food waste is gaining increasing attention worldwide due to growing concerns over its environmental and economic costs. Understanding the rheological behaviour of food waste is critical for effective processing so rheological measurements were carried out for different food waste compositions at 25, 35 and 45 °C. Food waste samples of various origins (carbohydrates, vegetables & fruits, and meat), anaerobically digested and diluted samples were used in this study. The results showed that food waste exhibits shear-thinning flow behaviour and viscosity of food waste is a function of temperature and composition. The composition of food waste affected the flow properties. Viscosity decreased at a given temperature as the proportion of carbohydrate increased. This may be due to the high water content of vegetable & fruits as the total solids fraction is likely to be a key controlling factor of the rheology. The Herschel-Bulkley model was used successfully to model food waste flow behaviour. Also, a higher strain was needed to break down the structure of the food waste as digestion time increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and construction innovations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.M.; Pair, C.R.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is essentially complete. The facility is designed to convert high level radioactive waste, now contained in large steel tanks as aqueous salts and sludge, into borosilicate glass which will solidify in stainless steel canisters. All processing of the radioactive material and operations in a radioactive environment will be done remotely. The stringent requirements dictated by remote operation and new approaches to the glassification process led to the development of a number of first-of-a-kind pieces of equipment, new construction fabrication and erection techniques, and new applications of old techniques. The design features and construction methods used in the vitrification building and its equipment were to accomplish the objective of providing a state-of-the-art vitrification facility. 3 refs., 10 figs

  1. Processing method and device for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1997-01-01

    When only suspended particulate ingredients are contained as COD components in radioactive washing liquid wastes, the liquid wastes are heated by a first process, for example, an adsorption step to adsorb the suspended particulate ingredients to an activated carbon, and then separating and removing the suspended particulate ingredients by filtration. When both of the floating particle ingredients and soluble organic ingredients are contained, the suspended particulate ingredients are separated and removed by the first process, and then soluble organic ingredients are removed by other process, or both of the suspended particulate ingredients and the soluble organic ingredients are removed by the first process. In an existent method of adding an activated carbon and then filtering them at a normal temperature, the floating particle ingredients cover the layer of activated carbon formed on a filter paper or fabric to sometimes cause clogging. However, according to the method of the present invention, since disturbance by the floating particle ingredients does not occur, the COD components can be separated and removed sufficiently without lowering liquid waste processing speed. (T.M.)

  2. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2009-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H 2 O 2 / Fe +2 ) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H 2O 2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe +2 /H 2 O 2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  3. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regeneration based on HA, gold nanoparticles, and graphene. We devised a one- step method in which Au and hydroxyapatite were used as a catalytic system in a...detection of cancer cells/nanomaterials in circulation.  We showed that graphitic materials can increase the osteogenesis of bone cells.  We finished...GCNFs) were produced by a single- step reduction process and used for the growth and differentiation of human adult stem cells. The nanomaterials were

  4. Selection of efficient options for processing and storage of radioactive waste in countries with small amounts of waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The report is intended to assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies for processing and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. The report reviews both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels. It makes practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation. These wastes may arise from production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research. The report also considers waste generated at research reactors, research centers and research laboratories using radioisotopes, as well as waste from decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities such as hot cells, laboratories and irradiation facilities. Management of uranium mining and milling waste and management of spent fuel from research reactors are not considered in this report. Discussed in detail are: the basic legal, regulatory, administrative and technical requirements set up in a national waste management system and review of the factors and components affecting the selection of an appropriate national waste management system. the origins and characteristics of radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. the technical factors that might affect the selection of waste processing and storage technologies, the main waste management steps, information on available technologies, the basis for planning of waste processing and storage and the selection of a particular option for radioactive waste processing and storage in countries with a different scale of nuclear applications

  5. Hanford underground storage tank waste filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. Two Hanford waste processing applications have been identified as candidates for the use of cross-flow filtration. The first of the Hanford applications involves filtration of the decanted supernate from sludge leaching and washing operations. This process involves the concentration and removal of dilute (0.05 wt percent) fines from the bulk of the supernate. The second application involves filtration to wash and concentrate the sludge during out-of-tank processing. This process employs a relatively concentrated (8 wt percent) solids feed stream. Filter studies were conducted with simulants to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters and 0.1 micron cross-flow Graver filters can perform solid-liquid separation of the solid/liquid waste streams effectively. In cross-flow filtration the fluid to be filtered flows in parallel to the membrane surface and generates shearing forces and/or turbulence across the filter medium. This shearing influences formation of filter cake stabilizing the filtrate flow rate

  6. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume I. Identification of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Blair, H.T.; Carter, J.G.; Gorton, P.S.; Partain, W.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document contains preconceptual design data on 11 processes for the solidification and isolation of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HLLW). The processes are: in-can glass melting (ICGM) process, joule-heated glass melting (JHGM) process, glass-ceramic (GC) process, marbles-in-lead (MIL) matrix process, supercalcine pellets-in-metal (SCPIM) matrix process, pyrolytic-carbon coated pellets-in-metal (PCCPIM) matrix process, supercalcine hot-isostatic-pressing (SCHIP) process, SYNROC hot-isostatic-pressing (SYNROC HIP) process, titanate process, concrete process, and cermet process. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that each of the solidification processes is capable of handling similar amounts of HLLW generated in a production-sized fuel reprocessing plant. It was also assumed that each of the processes would be enclosed in a shielded canyon or cells within a waste facility located at the fuel reprocessing plant. Finally, it was assumed that all of the processes would be subject to the same set of regulations, codes and standards. Each of the solidification processes converts waste into forms that may be acceptable for geological disposal. Each process begins with the receipt of HLLW from the fuel reprocessing plant. In this study, it was assumed that the original composition of the HLLW would be the same for each process. The process ends when the different waste forms are enclosed in canisters or containers that are acceptable for interim storage. Overviews of each of the 11 processes and the bases used for their identification are presented in the first part of this report. Each process, including its equipment and its requirements, is covered in more detail in Appendices A through K. Pertinent information on the current state of the art and the research and development required for the implementation of each process are also noted in the appendices

  7. Biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelghani, A.; Hartley, W.; Bart, H.; Ide, C.; Ellgaard, E.; Sherry, T.; Devall, M.; Thien, L.; Horner, E.; Mizell, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the cluster investigators is to develop a dynamic model for the evaluation of the biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity from multiple chemical contamination of the Mississippi River Basin. To develop this environmental model, FY 93-94 most of cluster investigators focused on Devil's Swamp Site (DSS), a cypress swamp which lies just Northwest of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, adjacent to the Mississippi River. The DSS which includes a man-made lake has contaminated sediment, water and biota. The DSS receives flood water from the Mississippi River during high flow periods and the Baton Rouge Bayou drains through the DSS. The DSS receives toxic substances and hazardous waste from a wide variety of surrounding industrial operations including an abandoned hazardous waste disposal facility. In addition, some investigators studied Bayou Trepangnier. This research cluster will continue studying Devil Swamp. The large number of investigators in this cluster resulted from incorporating related research proposals based on reviewer recommendations. The specific aims of the cluster for the first year were to conduct a physical, chemical, ecological survey and baseline toxicological characterization of the DSS from existing databases maintained by State and federal agencies, field studies (assessment) of sediment, air, water and biota, and laboratory screening studios. This assessment will provide critical information and focus for the next two years in-depth studies of critical transport and fate processes, ecotoxicity, biomarkers of effect, and uptake, metabolism and distribution of toxicants. The primary significant outcome of the cluster researchers will be the development of an ecological risk assessment model combining biotic and physical/chemical variables for DSS with a projection of model reliability and accuracy for use at other typical Mississippi River Basin sites

  8. Biological process of soil improvement in civil engineering: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Murtala Umar; Khairul Anuar Kassim; Kenny Tiong Ping Chiet

    2016-01-01

    The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically co...

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-01-01

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program

  10. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  11. Annotated bibliography for biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1981-12-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to accompany the Biologic Overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, EG and G, Santa Barbara Operations Report No. EGG 1183-2443, which documents and synthesizes important biotic information related to Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). As such, it is an important part of the NNWSI screening process that was designed to include a systematic, traceable, defensible, and documented basis for a decision to proceed or not with site-specific phases on NTS. Included are all published, and available but unpublished, baseline information on life histories, habitat requirements, distributions, and ecological relationships of the flora and fauna of the region. Special effort was made to include information on endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. 131 references

  12. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  13. The use KPI's to determine the waste in production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, G.; Iacob, C. C.; Calefariu, G.

    2016-11-01

    In theory and practice of management is well-known Lean approach about forms of waste from production processes (Muda) and the method VSM (Value Stream Map), one of the most effective methods for determining the activities generating value within industrial companies. It is also obvious concern of the specialists for performance measurement regardless of purview of the organizations. The literature review has shown that the link between performance indicators and the objectives of the companies is researched in detail. However, the correlation between indicators and the forms of waste that generate deviations from the setpoints is rather nature practical and it depends on the talent and managerial skills of those directing production processes. The paper presents the results of a applied study, performed by the authors, through which it was has sought to will create a system of performance indicators specific to manufacturing activity that to be a useful tool to quantify the losses and to determining ways to improve default losses.

  14. Nuclear and environmental licensing process for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Branco, Otavio E.A.; Alves, Paulo R.R.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated in the power plants. This question echoes in many people voices, every time that the nuclear energy is the subject in assignment. The long time that is necessary for the radioactive decay of some elements makes this issue a big challenge for the actual and future generations. Several environmental and nuclear aspects must be considered in this process, and the national and international legislation must be observed. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the applicability of the regulatory aspects of the Low and Intermediate Level Activity Waste Repository project, contemplating all the development phases, accomplishing a diagnosis of all the laws, norms and pertinent national regulations, observing the recommendations of the relevant international organs and the aspects of Nuclear and Environmental Licensing. Also, another goal is to discuss the compatibility of the application of these two licensing processes. (author)

  15. Process control in municipal solid waste incinerators: survey and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, R; Baxter, D

    2004-06-01

    As there is only rare and scattered published information about the process control in industrial incineration facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW), a survey of the literature has been supplemented by a number of waste incineration site visits in Belgium and The Netherlands, in order to make a realistic assessment of the current status of technology in the area. Owing to the commercial character, and therefore, the confidentiality restrictions imposed by plant builders and many of the operators, much of the information collected has either to be presented in a generalized manner, and in any case anonymously. The survey was focused on four major issues: process control strategy, process control systems, monitors used for process control and finally the correlation between the 850 degrees C/2 s rule in the European waste incineration directive and integrated process control. The process control strategies range from reaching good and stable emissions at the stack to stabilizing and maximizing the energy output from the process. The main indicator to be monitored, in cases in which the focus is controlling emissions, is the oxygen content in the stack. Keeping the oxygen concentration in a determined range (usually between 8 and 12 vol.%) ensures stable and tolerated concentrations of the gaseous emissions. In the case for which stabilization of energy production is the principal aim, the main controlled parameter is the steam temperature and flow-rate, which is usually related to the fuel energetic input. A lot of other parameters are used as alarm criteria, the most common of which is the carbon monoxide concentration. The process control systems used most commonly feature partially automated classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. New and innovative process control systems, such as fuzzy-logic control systems, are still unknown to most plant managers while their performance is reported to be unsatisfactory in plants in which such systems

  16. A literature-based similarity metric for biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagoyen Monica

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses in systems biology pursue the discovery of functional modules within the cell. Recognition of such modules requires the integrative analysis of genome-wide experimental data together with available functional schemes. In this line, methods to bridge the gap between the abstract definitions of cellular processes in current schemes and the interlinked nature of biological networks are required. Results This work explores the use of the scientific literature to establish potential relationships among cellular processes. To this end we haveused a document based similarity method to compute pair-wise similarities of the biological processes described in the Gene Ontology (GO. The method has been applied to the biological processes annotated for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We compared our results with similarities obtained with two ontology-based metrics, as well as with gene product annotation relationships. We show that the literature-based metric conserves most direct ontological relationships, while reveals biologically sounded similarities that are not obtained using ontology-based metrics and/or genome annotation. Conclusion The scientific literature is a valuable source of information from which to compute similarities among biological processes. The associations discovered by literature analysis are a valuable complement to those encoded in existing functional schemes, and those that arise by genome annotation. These similarities can be used to conveniently map the interlinked structure of cellular processes in a particular organism.

  17. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  18. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  19. Master slave manipulator maintenance at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lethco, A.J.; Beasley, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    Equipment has been developed and tested to provide transport, installation, removal, decontamination, and repair for the master slave manipulators that are required for thirty-five discrete work locations in the 221-S Vitrification Building of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This specialized equipment provides a standardized scheme for work locations at different elevations with two types of manipulators.

  20. Master slave manipulator maintenance at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lethco, A.J.; Beasley, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Equipment has been developed and tested to provide transport, installation, removal, decontamination, and repair for the master slave manipulators that are required for thirty-five discrete work locations in the 221-S Vitrification Building of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This specialized equipment provides a standardized scheme for work locations at different elevations with two types of manipulators.

  1. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Dwight, C.; McClellan, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  2. The processing and management of wastes from atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.; Bourdrez, J.

    1964-01-01

    The policy concerning radioactive wastes studied by all Atomic Centres has led to various procedures which, while apparently numerous, come under a few standard headings. Whether the wastes are in the liquid or solid state their management depends on their physical and chemical nature. The procedure adopted is governed by three general principles: - determination of the most economical means possible of storage and processing by volume reduction; - conversion to a solid compact form; - complete acceptance of the accepted standards at all places and all times. In this communication all the standard solutions adopted and used by the various Centres of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique will be examined bearing in mind the preceding remarks. Particular mention will be made of the following: - For liquids, physical, chemical and physico-chemical processing - For solids, decontamination, volume reduction and long-term conditioning techniques. The different procedures for collecting and storing solid wastes before and after processing are also discussed. The paper ends with a brief review of the studies, both technical and economic, being pursued on this subject. (authors) [fr

  3. Investigation of solid organic waste processing by oxidative pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibaba, O. B.; Sokolsky, A. I.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2017-11-01

    A thermal analysis of a mixture of municipal solid waste (MSW) of the average morphological composition and its individual components was carried out in order to develop ways to improve the efficiency of its utilization for energy production in thermal reactors. Experimental studies were performed on a synchronous thermal analyzer NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Jupiter combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer QMC 403. Based on the results of the experiments, the temperature ranges of the pyrolysis process were determined as well as the rate of decrease of the mass of the sample of solid waste during the drying and oxidative pyrolysis processes, the thermal effects accompanying these processes, as well as the composition and volumes of gases produced during oxidative pyrolysis of solid waste and its components in an atmosphere with oxygen content of 1%, 5%, and 10%. On the basis of experimental data the dependences of the yield of gas on the moisture content of MSW were obtained under different pyrolysis conditions under which a gas of various calorific values was produced.

  4. Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  5. Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Comparison Of Reference Process For Ceramic Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K. S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Marra, J. C. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Amoroso, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Tang, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-08-22

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explore the phase formation and microstructural differences between lab scale melt processing in varying gas environments with alternative densification processes such as Hot Pressing (HP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a simulant derived from a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. Melt processing as well as solid state sintering routes SPS and HP demonstrated the formation of the targeted phases; however differences in microstructure and elemental partitioning were observed. In SPS and HP samples, hollandite, pervoskite/pyrochlore, zirconolite, metallic alloy and TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed distributed in a network of fine grains with small residual pores

  6. Process innovations to minimize waste volumes at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983 approximately 1.6 x 10 3 m 3 (427,000 gallons) of radioactive salt solution were decontaminated in a full-scale demonstration. The cesium decontamination factor (DF) was in excess of 4 x 10 4 vs. a goal of 1 x 10 4 . Data from this test were combined with pilot data and used to design the permanent facilities currently under construction. Startup of the Salt Decontamination Process is scheduled for 1987 and will decontaminate 2 x 10 4 m 3 (5.2 million gallons) of radioactive salt solution and generate 2 x 10 3 m 3 (520,000 gallons) of concentrated and washed precipitate per year. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin processing this concentrate in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process starting in 1989. Laboratory data using simulated salt solution and nonradioactive cesium are being used to design this process. A 1/5-scale pilot plant is under construction and will be used to gain large-scale operating experience using nonradioactive simulants. This pilot plant is scheduled to startup in early 1987. The incentives to reduce the volume of waste that must be treated are self-evident. At Savannah River process development innovations to minimize the DWPF feed volumes have directly improved the economics of the process. The integrity of the final borosilicate glass water form has not been compromised by these developments. Many of the unit operations are familiar to chemical engineers and were put to use in a unique environment. As a result, tax dollars have been saved, and the objective of safely disposing of the nation's high-level defense waste has moved forward

  7. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  8. The Ceramic Waste Form Process at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Bateman; Stephen Priebe

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of spent nuclear fuel for disposition using an electrometallurgical technique results in two high-level waste forms: a ceramic waste form (CWF) and a metal waste form (MWF). The CWF is a composite of sodalite and glass, which stabilizes the active fission products (alkali, alkaline earths, and rare earths) and transuranic (TRU) elements. Reactive metal fuel constituents, including all the TRU metals and the majority of the fission products remain in the salt as chlorides and are processed into the CWF. The solidified salt is containerized and transferred to the CWF process where it is ground in an argon atmosphere. Zeolite 4A is dried in a mechanically-fluidized dryer to about 0.1 wt% moisture and ground to a particle-size range of 45μ to 250μ. The salt and zeolite are mixed in a V-mixer and heated to 500 C for about 18 hours. During this process, the salt occludes into the structure of the zeolite. The salt-loaded zeolite (SLZ) is cooled and then mixed with borosilicate glass frit with a comparable particle-size range. The SLZ/glass mixture is transferred to a crucible, which is placed in a furnace and heated to 925 C. During this process, known as pressureless consolidation, the zeolite is converted to the final sodalite form and the glass thoroughly encapsulates the sodalite, producing a dense, leach-resistant final waste form. During the last several years, changes have occurred to the process, including: particle size of input materials and conversion from hot isostatic pressing to pressureless consolidation, This paper is intended to provide the current status of the CWF process focusing on the adaptation to pressureless consolidation. Discussions will include impacts of particle size on final waste form and the pressureless consolidation cycle. A model will be presented that shows the heating and cooling cycles and the effect of radioactive decay heat on the amount of fission products that can be incorporated into the CWF

  9. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  10. Development of technical design for waste processing and storage facilities for Novi Han repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.; Benitez, J.C.; Asuar, O.; Yordanova, O.; Demireva, E.; Stefanova, I.

    2005-01-01

    Empresarion Agrupados Internacional S.A. (Spain) and ENPRO Consult Ltd. (Bulgaria) were awarded a contract by the Central Finance and Contracts Unit to develop the technical design of the waste processing and storage facilities at the Novi Han repository. At present conceptual design phase is finished. This conceptual design covers the definition of the basic design requirements to be applied to the installations defined above, following both European and Bulgarian legislation. In this paper the following items are considered: 1) Basic criteria for the layout and sizing of buildings; 2) Processing of radioactive waste, including: treatment and conditioning of disused sealed sources; treatment of liquid radioactive wastes; treatment of solid radioactive waste; conditioning of liquid and solid radioactive waste; 3) Control of waste packages and 4) Storage of radioactive waste, including storage facility and waste packages. An analysis of inventories of stored and estimated future wastes and its subsequent processes is also presented and the waste streams are illustrated

  11. Biological process of soil improvement in civil engineering: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtala Umar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically controlled and biologically induced mineralization, were also discussed. Environmental and other factors that may be encountered in situ during microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP and their influences on the process were identified and presented. Improvements in the engineering properties of soil such as strength/stiffness and permeability as evaluated in some studies were explored. Potential applications of the process in geotechnical engineering and the challenges of field application of the process were identified.

  12. Benchmarking of DFLAW Solid Secondary Wastes and Processes with UK/Europe Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elvie E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Surman, J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kay, R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-08

    This report provides information and background on UK solid wastes and waste processes that are similar to those which will be generated by the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) facilities at Hanford. The aim is to further improve the design case for stabilizing and immobilizing of solid secondary wastes, establish international benchmarking and review possibilities for innovation.

  13. Mechanical-biological waste conditioning with controlled venting - the Meisenheim mechanical-biological waste conditioning plant; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung nach dem Kaminzugverfahren - MBRA Meisenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O. [Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Landkreis Bad Kreuznach, Bad Kreuznach (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The decision of the rural district of Bad Kreuznach to propose creating facilities for mechanical-biological waste conditioning at the new northern Meisenheim landfill was consistent and correct. It will ensure that the material deposited at this new, state-of-the-art landfill is organically `lean` and can be deposited with a high density. Preliminary sifting of the material prior to depositing safeguards that no improper components are inadvertently included. Three years of operation warrant the statement that waste components that cannot be appropriately biologically conditioned should be eliminated prior to rotting. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entscheidung des Landkreises Bad Kreuznach, der neu eingerichteten Norddeponie Meisenheim eine MBRA vorzuschlaten, war auf jeden Fall konsequent und richtig. Es ist damit sicher gestellt, dass in diesem neuen nach dem Stand der Technik eingerichteten Deponiebereich von Anfang an ein Material eingelagert wird, das `organisch abgemagert` ist und mit hoher Einbaudichte eingebaut werden kann. Die Sichtung des gesamten Deponie-Inputs in der Vorsortierhalle gibt ein Stueck Sicherheit, dass keine nicht zugelassenen Stoffe verdeckt dem Ablagerungsbereich der Deponie zugefuehrt werden. Nach mehr als 3 Jahren Betriebszeit kann festgestellt werden, dass biologisch nicht sinnvoll behandelbare Abfallbestandteile vor dem Rotteprozess abgetrennt werden sollten. (orig.)

  14. Properties of waste stillage from shochu distillery and waste water occurred sosei paper production process

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 正仁; 平田, 登基男; 前野, 祐二; 三原, めぐみ; 松藤, 康司

    1999-01-01

    As an effective utilization of waste stillage, which will be banned from being dumped into sea from the year of 2001, authors have been studied and succeeded to make the sosei paper by using waste stillage form shochu distillery. This research is tried to consider the property of waste stillage from shochu distillery ( sweet potato waste stillage and barley waste stillage) and the weight and property of waste water in compressing samples added some amount of old newspaper to waste stillage. F...

  15. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  16. Treatability of chromite ore processing waste by leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, K; Haskök, S

    2001-06-01

    Developing treatment and disposal strategies and health-based clean-up standards for chromium containing wastes continues to be an important environmental regulatory issue because of the opposing solubility and toxicity characteristics of chromium species under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, leaching characteristics of total Cr and Cr(VI) were investigated using laboratory column studies. The data obtained from the experimental studies were analysed to assess the treatability of chromite ore processing waste (COPW) by leaching and to identify the leaching strategies that enhance mass removal rates of chromium species. COPW used for laboratory soil column studies was obtained from an industrial plant producing sodium chromate in Mersin, Turkey. Laboratory investigations involved chemical characterisation of waste material and column studies. For waste characterisation, U.S. EPA toxicity characterisation leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed on COPW to determine the concentrations of metal species in the TCLP extract. For column studies, various laboratory columns containing plain COPW material, 1:1 COPW/reducing agent (elemental iron or manure) mixture and different type soils (sand, loam and clay) overlain by COPW were subjected to leaching tests using acidic, neutral and alkaline influent water to determine Cr mass leaching efficiencies. Based on the TCLP analyses, COPW is classified as hazardous waste. As a result of comparing the leaching efficiency data from twelve leaching columns, the maximum removal of total Cr was achieved by leaching COPW/manure mixture using acidic (pH 4.78) influent water. The highest Cr(VI) leaching efficiency was achieved in the columns of plain COPW and COPW/manure mixture using highly alkaline (pH 12.0) influent water. The least effective leaching efficiency for both total Cr and Cr (VI) was obtained by leaching plain COPW with neutral (pH 7.0) influent water. Land-disposal of the treated COPW material by mixing

  17. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; Grate, Jay W.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    This research program is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and trans-uranium (TRU) elements in low activity waste (LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radiochemical measurement principles, which entails integration of sample treatment and separation chemistries and radiometric detection within a single functional analytical instrument. Nuclear waste process streams are particularly challenging for rapid analytical methods due to the complex, high-ionic-strength, caustic brine sample matrix, the presence of interfering radionuclides, and the variable and uncertain speciation of the radionuclides of interest. As a result, matrix modification, speciation control, and separation chemistries are required for use in automated process analyzers. Significant knowledge gaps exist relative to the design of chemistries for such analyzers so that radionuclides can be quantitatively and rapidly separated and analyzed in solutions derived from low-activity waste processing operations. This research is addressing these knowledge gaps in the area of separation science, nuclear detection, and analytical chemistry and instrumentation. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for sample matrix modification and analyte speciation control and chemistries for rapid and selective separation and preconcentration of target radionuclides from complex sample matrices. In addition, new approaches for quantification of alpha emitters in solution using solid-state diode detectors, as well as improved instrumentation and signal processing techniques for use with solid-state and scintillation detectors, will be developed. New knowledge of the performance of separation materials, matrix modification and speciation control chemistries, instrument configurations, and quantitative analytical approaches will

  18. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs

  19. Measures for waste water management from recovery processing of Zhushanxia uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Xu Lechang

    2000-01-01

    Measures for waste water management from recovery processing of Zhushanxia uranium deposit of Wengyuan Mine is analyzed, which include improving process flow, recycling process water used in uranium mill as much as possible and choosing a suitable disposing system. All these can decrease the amount of waste water, and also reduce costs of disposing waste water and harm to environment

  20. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  1. Recovery process for aqueous waste streams in adipic acid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, C.A.

    1978-08-08

    By-product or waste streams from adipic acid plants which contain adipic acid, glutaric acid, succinic acid, nitric acid and catalyst values of copper and vanadium are treated to substantially recover all the components. The process consists of esterifying the dibasic acids with an alcohol, such as normal butanol, which creates esters that are substantially immiscible in the aqueous solution, allowing the organic esters to form a separate layer from the aqueous phase in which the metal values are retained, recovering the organic layer containing the esterified dibasic acids and thereafter re-using the aqueous solution containing the catalyst values in the adipic acid process.

  2. Treatment of phosphogypsum waste produced from phosphate ore processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Didamony, H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, El Sharqia (Egypt); Gado, H.S. [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Fawzy, M.M., E-mail: mfawzynma@yahoo.com [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Attallah, M.F. [Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Purification of phosphogypsum waste by separating the contaminated radionuclides. ► Separation process depends on leaching of wastes using suitable organic extractants. ► Costs treatment of PG depending on the type and quality of the used reagents. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG), primary byproduct from phosphoric acid production, is accumulated in large stockpiles and occupies vast areas of land. Phosphogypsum is a technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TE-NORM) that contains radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay series which are of most radio-toxicity. The reduction in concentration of radionuclides content from PG was based on leaching of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K using tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene. The factors which affect the leaching process such as contact time, concentration of the solvent and temperature were optimized. Based on the experimental results, about 92.1, 88.9, 83.4, 94.6% of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K respectively were successfully removed from the PG. The reduction in the concentration of radionuclides was accompanied by reduction in the concentration of rare earth elements (∑REE) equals to 80.1%. Using the desired organic extractant under optimum conditions for treatment of the PG waste leads to obtain a decontaminated product that can be safely used in many industrial applications.

  3. Management of uranium mining and processing wastes at Turamdih project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.C.; Verma, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Based on environmental impact assessment, comprehensive plan for management of wastes has been drawn up. No solid waste from the mine is being disposed off outside the project area. The quantity of waste generated after processing of ore is large because of low content of uranium in the ore. A big tailings pond has been planned in specially selected suitable valley near the plant. No liquid effluents are to be discharged into general surrounding environment. Mine water is to be fed to the process plant. Effluents from tailings pond will be collected in a storage cum evaporation pond. All water from different zones of the project shall be collected in zonal ponds and then pumped to tailings effluent storage pond. All the ponds will be provided with requisite impervious liners. The effluents of the storage pond will be treated for removal of radium and manganese and discharged into monitoring pond. Large surface areas for various ponds are envisaged to take advantage of evaporation with aim for zero discharge. To reduce impact from gaseous emissions, high efficiency dust suppression and extraction systems shall be provided. High stacks have been incorporated for DG set, boiler plants, sulphuric acid plant and dust extraction systems for crushing and grinding section and the quality of discharges will be very much within the prescribed limits. The paper describes the management plan in detail. (author)

  4. Electron beam induced dis-infection of biologically treated waste water effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, K.P.; Khader, S.A.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of water is need of the hour as there is vast gap between demand and supply. The waste water generated in conventional waste water treatment plant can be recycled for irrigation. The presence of pathogenic micro-organism makes it unsafe for this purpose. EB is very effective in killing all forms of pathogens. The biologically treated waste water effluent was used for this purpose. The pathogen count reduced to undetectable level with the EB dose of 0.45 kGy. The BOD and COD values were within the permissible limit. The other physico-chemical parameters remained unaltered. The ability of EB to deliver higher dose rates makes it ideal for handling large volumes of effluent generated in megacities. (author)

  5. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment ''systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs

  6. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1 the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2 the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3 the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  7. Synthetic biology: tools to design, build, and optimize cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  8. Method of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Shirai, Takamori; Nemoto, Kuniyoshi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsuda, Takeshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the number of solidification products by removing, particularly, Co-60 that is difficult to remove in a radioactive liquid wastes containing a water-soluble chelating agent, by adsorbing Co-60 to a specific chelating agent. Method: Liquid wastes containing radioactive cobalt and water-soluble chelating agent are passed through the layer of less water-soluble chelating agent that forms a complex compound with cobalt in an acidic pH region. Thus, the chelating compound of radioactive cobalt (particularly Co-60) is eliminated by adsorbing the same on a specific chelating agent layer. The chelating agent having Co-60 adsorbed thereon is discarded as it is through the cement- or asphalt-solidification process, whereby the number of solidification products to be generated can significantly be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. An introduction to stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Linda J S

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes.New to the Second EditionA new chapter on stochastic differential equations th

  10. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  11. [Investigation of microbial contamination of the air and equipment of a biological waste water purification station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbaeva, L A; Figurovskiĭ, A P; Vasil'ev, O D; Ermolaev-Makovskiĭ, M A; Merkur'eva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a study of ambient air microbiological pollution in the working premises and equipment surfaces in the main shops of the biological waste water purification station of a cardboard-polygraphic plant. The findings suggest that there is high microbial contamination of the working environment, which should be born in mind on developing measures to optimize working conditions and on studying morbidity rates among the workers.

  12. Is metabolic rate a universal 'pacemaker' for biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    A common, long-held belief is that metabolic rate drives the rates of various biological, ecological and evolutionary processes. Although this metabolic pacemaker view (as assumed by the recent, influential 'metabolic theory of ecology') may be true in at least some situations (e.g. those involving moderate temperature effects or physiological processes closely linked to metabolism, such as heartbeat and breathing rate), it suffers from several major limitations, including: (i) it is supported chiefly by indirect, correlational evidence (e.g. similarities between the body-size and temperature scaling of metabolic rate and that of other biological processes, which are not always observed) - direct, mechanistic or experimental support is scarce and much needed; (ii) it is contradicted by abundant evidence showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. hormonal action and temperature changes) can dissociate the rates of metabolism, growth, development and other biological processes; (iii) there are many examples where metabolic rate appears to respond to, rather than drive the rates of various other biological processes (e.g. ontogenetic growth, food intake and locomotor activity); (iv) there are additional examples where metabolic rate appears to be unrelated to the rate of a biological process (e.g. ageing, circadian rhythms, and molecular evolution); and (v) the theoretical foundation for the metabolic pacemaker view focuses only on the energetic control of biological processes, while ignoring the importance of informational control, as mediated by various genetic, cellular, and neuroendocrine regulatory systems. I argue that a comprehensive understanding of the pace of life must include how biological activities depend on both energy and information and their environmentally sensitive interaction. This conclusion is supported by extensive evidence showing that hormones and other regulatory factors and signalling systems coordinate the processes of

  13. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F. H.; Woodall, K. B.; Sood, S. K.; Vogt, H. K.; Krochmainek, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A process developed at Ontario Hydro for recovering carbon-14 (C-14) from spent ion exchange resin wastes is described. Carbon-14 is an undesirable by-product of CANDU 1 nuclear reactor operation. It has an extremely long (5730 years) half-life and can cause dosage to inhabitants by contact, inhalation, or through the food cycle via photosynthesis. Release of carbon-14 to the environment must be minimized. Presently, all the C-14 produced in the Moderator and Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of the reactor is effectively removed by the respective ion exchange columns, and the spent ion exchange resins are stored in suitably engineered concrete structures. Because of the large volumes of spent resin waste generated each year this method of disposal by long term storage tends to be uneconomical; and may also be unsatisfactory considering the long half-life of the C-14. However, purified C-14 is a valuable commercial product for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and organic chemistry research. Currently, commercial C-14 is made artificially in research reactors by irradiating aluminum nitride targets for 4.5 years. If the C-14 containing resin waste can be used to reduce this unnecessary production of C-14, the total global build-up of this radioactive chemical can be reduced. There is much incentive in removing the C-14 from the resin waste to reduce the volume of C-14 waste, and also in purifying the recovered C-14 to supply the commercial market. The process developed by Ontario Hydro consists of three main steps: C-14 removal from spent resins, enrichment of recovered C-14, and preparation of final product. Components of the process have been successfully tested at Ontario Hydro's Research Division, but the integration of the process is yet to be demonstrated. A pilot scale plant capable of processing 4 m 3 of spent resins annually is being planned for demonstrating the technology. The measured C-14 activity levels on the spent resins ranged from 47

  14. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  15. Feasibility of Direct Disposal of Salt Waste from Electochemical Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Rechard, Rob P; Hadgu, Teklu; Wang, Yifeng; Sanchez, Larry C.; McDaniel, Patrick; Skinner, Corey; Fathi, Nima; Frank, Steven; Patterson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The US Department of Energy decided in 2000 to treat its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, produced for experiments on breeder reactors, with an electrochemical process. The metallic waste produced is to be cast into ingots and the salt waste further processed to form a ceramic waste form for disposal in a mined repository. However, alternative disposal pathways for metallic and salt waste streams are being investigated that may reduce the processing complexity. As summarized here, performanc...

  16. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  17. Biological denitrification of high-nitrates wastes generated in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    Biological denitrification appears to be one of the most effective methods to remove nitrates from wastewater streams (Christenson and Harremoes, 1975). However, most of the research and development work has been centered on removal of nitrates from sewage or agricultural drainage waters, nitrate nitrogen concentration usually less than 50 g/m 3 . Work was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1974 to test the use of biological nitrification in the removal of high concentrations of nitrate (in excess of 1.0 kg NO 3 -N/m 3 ) from uranium purification waste streams. Since then, a full-scale treatment facility, a stirred reactor, has been installed at the Y-12 plant; and a pilot-plant, using a fluidized bed, has been proposed at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The objective of this manuscript is to present some applied microbiological research relating to possible constraints in biologically denitrifying certain waste streams in the nuclear industry and comparing the effectiveness of denitrification of these waste streams in three bench scale reactors, (1) a continuous flow-stirred reactor, (2) stirred bed rector, and (3) a fluidized bed reactor

  18. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury solid recovered fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  19. Audit Report on 'Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  20. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage

  1. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. Mercury inclusion a waste processing; Suigin ganyu haikibutsu no shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-05

    BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) developed process (SPSS) which granularly stabilized the mercury contamination material including the radioactive material. In the SPSS Inc. method, the sulfur similarly is made to react on the mercury with the amalgamation, and mercury sulfide of low vapor pressure is formed at the low solubility. In the new process, in this amalgamation, the dispersion of the fine powder becomes a problem, and the pollutant mixes with 'the sulfur (95%)-dicyclopentadiene (5%) mixture', and it pours in melting post-container heated to 120 degrees C. The possible uniform composition lump fixes mercury and radioisotope as the result. 200 of the EPA standard in the product by the pilot study the 0.5-3ppb mercury which drastically fell below ppb was contained. In addition, BNL has planned the test operation in the commercial. In the future, the processing of a mercury inclusion waste in the radioactive waste disposal authorization facilities will become possible, if the actual/real process is established. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  4. Strategy for research on radioactive waste processing and conditioning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavedon, J.M.; Tallec, M.

    2001-01-01

    Research on radioactive medium level waste processing and conditioning aims at offering processing routes for waste forms and materials of potential value that are not yet provided easy handling by existing industrial processes. These studies are mandatory under the Dec 31, 1991 law and are coordinated by CEA. The strategy relies on the completion and rationalization of the existing processing routes, within acceptable technical and economic limits. Waste processing techniques aim at reducing the volume and the chemical diversity of medium activity waste, and are based on incineration-vitrification. Conditioning techniques call for high performance matrices and standardized containers, the latter keeping an ability to contain bulk waste. (author)

  5. Trickling filter for urea and bio-waste processing - dynamic modelling of nitrogen cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Anton; Hauslage, Jens; Tertilt, Gerin; Bornemann, Gerhild

    Mankind’s exploration of the solar system requires reliable Life Support Systems (LSS) enabling long duration manned space missions. In the absence of frequent resupply missions, closure of the LSS will play a very important role and its maximisation will to a large extent drive the selection of appropriate LSS architectures. One of the significant issues on the way to full closure is to effectively utilise biological wastes such as urine, inedible biomass etc. A very promising concept of biological waste reprocessing is the use of trickling filters which are currently being developed and investigated by DLR, Cologne, Germany. The concept is called Combined Regenerative Organic-Food Production (C.R.O.P.) and is based on the microbiological treatment of biological wastes and reprocessing them into aqueous fertilizer which can directly be used in a greenhouse for food production. Numerous experiments have been and are being conducted by DLR in order to fully understand and characterize the process. The human space exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) in cooperation with DLR has started to establish a dynamic model of the trickling filter system to be able to assess its performance on the LSS level. In the first development stage the model covers the nitrogen cycle enabling to simulate urine processing. This paper describes briefly the C.R.O.P. concept and the status of the trickling filter model development. The model is based on enzyme-catalyzed reaction kinetics for the fundamental microbiological reaction chain and is created in MATLAB. Verification and correlation of the developed model with experiment results has been performed. Several predictive studies for batch sequencing behavior have been performed, demonstrating a good capability of C.R.O.P. concept to be used in closed LSS. Achieved results are critically discussed and way forward is presented.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER MICROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE USING KINETIC MIXER PROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAGERAAEN, P.R.; KALB, P.D.; MILIAN, L.W.; ADAMS, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Thermokinetic mixing was investigated as an alternative processing method for polyethylene microencapsulation, a technology well demonstrated for treatment of hazardous, low-level radioactive and low-level mixed wastes. Polyethylene encapsulation by extrusion has been previously shown to be applicable to a wide range of waste types but often pretreatment of the wastes is necessary due to process limitations regarding the maximum waste moisture content and particle size distribution. Development testing was conducted with kinetic mixing in order to demonstrate technology viability and show improved process applicability in these areas. Testing to establish process capabilities and relevant operating parameters was performed with waste surrogates including an aqueous evaporator concentrate and soil. Using a pilot-scale kinetic mixer which was installed and modified for this program, the maximum waste moisture content and particle size was determined. Following process development with surrogate wastes, the technology was successfully demonstrated at BNL using actual mixed waste

  7. MANAGEMENT OF PROCESSING AND RECOVERY OF LEATHER WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAN Ovidiu Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The leather and leather goods industry development is conditioned by the development of the supply of raw materials - animal husbandry and chemical industries, sectors that tend to develop intensive on vertical - which causes a shortage of raw materials in relation with the market demand for quality products. The leather is the basic raw material of the leather and leather goods industry, this raw material is the most substantial contribution to downstream sectors, giving them a competitive advantage and it is known that the leather has the greatest potential to add value to the products in which it is incorporated. The advantages of using leather are many, the most important qualities are its hygienic properties, flexibility and adaptability to a wide variety of applications. Leather is manufactured on demand for each type of application, such as shoes, clothes, gloves, handbags, furniture upholstery or car interiors, yachts and planes. It requires better use of raw materials by using new technologies and manufacturing processes based on non-invasive methods on the environment leading to increase the product life cycle. The leather and leather goods industry is a supplier of large amounts of waste from the production cycle, waste that has the same properties and qualities as raw material used in the base product. Leather waste represents a loss for the companies, an additional cost related to storage and environmental protection.

  8. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  9. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  10. Development of new treatment process for low level radioactive waste at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Kenichi; Sugaya, Atsushi; Saito, Yasuo; Tanaka, Kenji; Akutsu, Shigeru; Hirata, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    The Low-level radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LWTF) was constructed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and cold testing has been carried out since 2006. The waste which will be treated in the LWTF is combustible/incombustible solid waste and liquid waste. In the LWTF, the combustible/incombustible solid waste will be incinerated. The liquid waste will be treated by a radio-nuclides removal process and subsequently solidified in cement. This report describes the essential technologies of the LWTF and results of R and D work for the nitrate-ion decomposition technology for the liquid waste. (author)

  11. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Gazso, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  12. Valorization of Tomato Processing Waste for Lycopene Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Driouich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenching agents. It has been found to be of great medical importance with various anti cancer effects, cardiovascular diseases effective agent and with its ability to be an important carotenoid in preventive medicine. In Tunisia, we note a real consumption of tomato paste. With 28 production units for double and triple concentrated tomato, noting a significant production of waste (approximately 30000 Tonne/year consisting of skins pulp and seeds, which could be an important source of lycopene. Our study is concerned with three solid-phase extraction process: assisted by ultrasonic, by microwave and by homogenizer heating at moderate temperature. Their efficiency for the extraction of lycopene contained in the tomato waste was elaborated. The effect of the main process variables (including solvent polarity, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature and time on lycopene recovery have been investigated. The yield of the isolated lycopene was determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-DAD quantification methods. Lycopene-rich extract was obtained from the dried and milled tomatoes waste using ethanol as a food grade extraction solvent and employing microwave assisted extraction process. The optimum conditions were 30 min total extraction time at 50°C temperature and 1bar pressure. The degradation of extracted lycopene through air oxidation and day light effect were also tested. Lycopene is stable when mixed with olive oil as a natural antioxidant. Up to 80% of lycopene degradated when exposed for one month to day light at 25°C.

  13. Waste Processing Cost Recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory-Analysis and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, St. R.

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is implementing full cost recovery for waste processing in fiscal year 2009 (FY2009), after a transition year in FY2008. Waste processing cost recovery has been implemented in various forms across the nuclear weapons complex and in corporate America. The fundamental reasoning of sending accurate price signals to waste generators is economically sound, and leads to waste minimization and reduced waste expense over time. However, Los Alamos faces significant implementation challenges because of its status as a government-owned, contractor-operated national scientific institution with a diverse suite of experimental and environmental cleanup activities, and the fact that this represents a fundamental change in how waste processing is viewed by the institution. This paper describes the issues involved during the transition to cost recovery and the ultimate selection of the business model. Of the six alternative cost recovery models evaluated, the business model chosen to be implemented in FY2009 is Recharge Plus Generators Pay Distributed Direct. Under this model, all generators who produce waste must pay a distributed direct share associated with their specific waste type to use a waste processing capability. This cost share is calculated using the distributed direct method on the fixed cost only, i.e., the fixed cost share is based on each program's forecast proportion of the total Los Alamos volume forecast of each waste type. (Fixed activities are those required to establish the waste processing capability, i.e., to make the process ready, permitted, certified, and prepared to handle the first unit of waste. Therefore, the fixed cost ends at the point just before waste begins to be processed. The activities to actually process the waste are considered variable.) The volume of waste actually sent for processing is charged a unit cost based solely on the variable cost of disposing of that waste. The total cost recovered each year is the

  14. An innovative treatment method for an aqueous waste from the enhanced oil recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimahmoodi, M.; Mulligan, C.N. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method that reduces the viscosity of oil. It is used in combination with large volumes of water that is injected under pressure into the crude oil zone to increase oil production. A large stream of waste water is generated which is contaminated primarily with dissolved CO{sub 2} and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons. CO{sub 2} is a significant greenhouse gas and the main cause of global warming. The presence of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the wastewater can contaminate ground and surface waters with dissolved hydrocarbons that can affect the human central nervous system, blood, immune system, lungs, skin, and eyes. Application of chemical or physiochemical treatment processes for aqueous waste streams containing dissolved gases such as CO{sub 2} has many operational or technical complications such as complexity of the process, application of complex chemicals such as patented solvents, and practical limitations of the methods. The key purpose of this study was to develop a new biological method based on the anaerobic approach to remove CO{sub 2} and TPH as the main contaminants of the aqueous waste stream resulting from crude oil extraction processes. The paper presented the materials and methods, with particular reference to the inoculum; basic elements and nutrients; materials used as electron donors; analytical methods; and experimental approach. It was concluded that the anaerobic approach could be applied efficiently for the treatment of the waste stream from an EOR process containing CO{sub 2} and TPH. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  16. Remote process connectors for the new waste calcining facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.T.; Carter, J.A.; Hohback, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    The remote process connectors developed, used, and tested at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility are described. These connectors, including the three-bolt kinematic-graphite flange and watertight electrical connectors, are assembled on master jigs (holding-welding fixture) to form interchangeable pump and valve loop assemblies. These assemblies, with their guide-in platforms, make possible a method of performing remote maintenance at the New Waste Calcining Facility which is a departure from methods that until now have been the standard of the industry

  17. Valorisation of agricultural waste with adsorption/nanofiltration hybrid process: from materials to sustainable process design

    OpenAIRE

    Didaskalou, Christos; Buyuktiryaki, Sibel; Kecili, Rustem; Pereira Da Fonte, Claudio; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-01-01

    Downstream processing is considered to be the bottleneck in pharmaceutical manufacturing because its development has not kept pace with upstream production. In some cases, the lack of efficient downstream processing capacity can seriously affect both the sustainability and profitability of a pharmaceutical product and even result in its failure. Process intensification through minimising solvent and raw material consumption, as well as utilising waste, can make a significant difference toward...

  18. Liquid waste processing from plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium (III) oxalate filtrates contain about 0.2M oxalic acid, 0.09M ascorbic acid, 0.05M hydrazine, 1M nitric acid and 20-100 mg/l of plutonium. The developed treatment of liquid wastes consist in two main steps: a) Distillation to reduce up to 10% of the initial volume and refluxing to destroy organic material. Then, the treated solution is suitable to adjust the plutonium at the tetravalent state by addition of hydrogen peroxide and the nitric molarity up to 8.6M. b) Recovery and purification of plutonium by anion exchange using two columns in series containing Dowex 1-X4 resin. With the proposed process, it is possible to transform 38 litres of filtrates with 40mg/l of Pu into 0.1 l of purified solution with 15-20g/l of Pu. This solution is suitable to be recycled in the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation process. This process has several potential advantages over similar liquid waste treatments. These include: 1) It does not increase the liquid volume. 2) It consumes only few reagents. 3) The operations involved are simple, requiring limited handling and they are feasible to automatization. 4) The Pu recovery factor is about 99%. (Author) [es

  19. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoyama, Koichi; Takaya, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either “on” or “off” and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from “on” to “off” or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes. PMID:26821940