WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological warfare general

  1. Biological and Chemical Warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and entrails over the walls to induce a plaque and defecate into wells and water supplies. The. Romans tilted ... modern military weapons, discussions of their characteristics and potential threat have to draw heavily upon .... poisoning of water in desert warfare is his- torical, having continued through the time of. World War II.

  2. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  3. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  4. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  6. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    WORLD ARMA - MENTS AND DISARMAMENT. SIPRI Yearbook 1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. (REF JX1974 S775 1990) Pp. 107-133: "Chemical and...Report. Norton D. Zinder, Chairman. Washington: National Academy Press, 1984. (UG447 N33 1984) LEGACY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICA !L WARFARE Some 20th

  7. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  8. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Martin; Galameau, Mike; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula

    2003-01-01

    ... to treat victims of biochemical agents on the battlefield. This study reviewed Marine Corps medical supply blocks for biological and chemical warfare casualties - Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 687 and 688...

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fluorescence and other Optical Properties of Biological Particles for Biological Warfare Agent Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden; Optics of Biological Particles

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  11. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  13. Homeland Biological Warfare Consequence Management: Capabilities and Needs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Improve Civilian Medical Response. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, 73-74 10 —Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for...www.who.int/aboutwho/en/mission.htm Notes 1 —Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response Recommendations of...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, Domestic Preparedness Office, September 12, 2000. —Biological and Chemical

  14. Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. In addition to the discussion on the validity of natural selection, modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related to the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown that constitute the major planet's gene pool. They play a fundamental role in evolution since their sequences are capable of integrating into the genomes in an “infective” way and become an essential part of multicellular organisms. They have content with “biological sense” i.e., they appear as part of normal life processes and have a serious role as carrier elements of complex genetic information. Antibiotics are cell signals with main effects on general metabolism and transcription on bacterial cells and communities. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes (parasites, mutualists, synergists, amensalists) as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that are normally understood as parasites are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drive the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is the result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of

  15. Superheroes in autoimmune warfare: Biologic therapies in current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biologic drugs targeting immune cells or cytokines underlying systemic inflammation have dramatically improved outcomes in patients with rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Nine biologic drugs are currently available in South Africa (SA) – all showing good efficacy and safety profiles. Their high cost and potential ...

  16. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  17. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  18. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  19. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-07-15

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  20. Reactions of psychiatric inpatients to the threat of biological and chemical warfare in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Ofir, Dana; Brodsky, Ori; Yakirevitch, Janna; Drannikov, Angela; Navo, Nadav; Kotler, Moshe

    2004-04-01

    In the months before the Second Gulf War, the threat of biological and chemical warfare led many Israelis to experience significant stress and mood changes. In this study, we investigated whether this threat affected the subjective mood and behavior of inpatients with schizophrenia and compared the results with effects noted in their clinical staff. Subjects were evaluated at two points in time-2 months before the war and on day 1 of the war-with a specially designed questionnaire and with the Spielberger Scale for Trait Anxiety. Although the responses of the two groups did not differ radically before the war, on the first day of war, significant differences were noted, with patients demonstrating increases in anxiety and level of concern. Both groups reported similar effects on their mood. Patients were more concerned about the potential for the outbreak of World War III, whereas staff were more concerned about economic effects. Female subjects in both groups demonstrated greater anxiety and mood changes after the outbreak of war compared with before the war. Effects observed on the patients may be related to the decreased coping threshold resulting from their illness, which renders psychotic patients more vulnerable to any acute stressor; however, effects on the staff members should not be ignored.

  1. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  2. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-11-01

    263 Pathogenicity 266 Defensive Research 269 IX BRUCELLOSIS 276 General 276 Selection of Strain 277 Simulant.. m ^ -78 Nutrition ; 2S0...Safety Precautions *. sg^, Production of Inactivated Bovine Tissue Vaccines... 362 Production of Inactivated Egg-Cultivated Virus 365...Serrisc M » C •« e li t\\ a .. 0LU21L. liar Research Service Project # 3 Subject for Research: Brucellosis (Code "US") Location

  3. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  4. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  5. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  6. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...

  7. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Information Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Darczewska, Jolanta; Żochowski, Piotr; Orttung, Robert W.; Laruelle, Marlene; Pörzgen, Gemma

    2017-01-01

    This edition addresses information warfare. Firstly, Jolanta Darczewska and Piotr Żochowski examine the use of “active measures” by Russian special services in support of Russian foreign policy. Secondly, Robert W. Orttung argues that Russia has sought to use various information warfare techniques to sow division and chaos in the U.S., but it remains unclear to what extent Russian actions had an impact on the thinking or behavior of American citizens. Thirdly, Marlene Laruelle considers the t...

  9. Guerra biológica, bioterrorismo e saúde pública Biological warfare, bioterrorism and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de agentes biológicos como arma não é novidade para a humanidade. Durante séculos, até a atualidade, a guerra biológica tem sido objeto de muita pesquisa e especulação, mas de pouca ação. O medo de efeitos contrários e dúvidas sobre sua eficiência como armas devem ter limitado seu uso. Recentemente, se verificou uma nova forma de terrorismo, empregando agentes infecciosos, devagar e sem muito alarde, até as ocorrências recentes com o Bacillus anthracis nos Estados Unidos. A varíola é possivelmente o mais devastador desses agentes. Menos de 25 anos passados desde sua erradicação, a saúde pública tem que lidar com a possibilidade de sua re-introdução. O cenário da re-introdução da varíola no Brasil é discutido.Biological agents as weapons are not new to mankind. For centuries and into the present, biological warfare has been the subject of much research and speculation, but little action. Their limited use has probably been due to fear of unexpected counter-effects and doubts about their efficiency as weapons. Recently a new form of terrorism employing infectious agents has emerged slowly and without much fanfare, until the recent events with Bacillus anthracis in the United States. Smallpox is potentially the most devastating of these agents. Less than 25 years after the eradication of smallpox, the public health field is now forced to deal with the possibility of its re-introduction. The author discusses the scenario of smallpox re-introduction into Brazil.

  10. Superheroes in autoimmune warfare: biologic therapies in current South African practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, G; Hodkinson, B; Reuter, H

    2014-11-01

    Biologic drugs targeting immune cells or cytokines underlying systemic inflammation have dramatically improved outcomes in patients with rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Nine biologic drugs are currently available in South Africa (SA)--all showing good efficacy and safety profiles. Their high cost and potential adverse events preclude them from being used as first-line agents. They are therefore indicated for severe disease refractory to standard therapies, and their use must be initiated by a specialist. The most important adverse effect of this class of drugs is infection and, in SA, tuberculosis is of particular concern. As new targets in the immune system are identified, new biologics will be developed. The current challenges are to optimise standard care for all patients with autoimmune diseases, and to offer the appropriate biologic to patients with refractory disease.

  11. Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    mediate many biological functions such as reproduction, metabolism, growth , temperature , heart rate, behavior, memory and emotional state. Examples...large-scale fermentation . More recently, entire metabolic pathways, albeit of limited complexity, have been engineered into organisms, for example...for the production of artemisinin in yeast .2 In addition to such metabolic engineering projects, whole genomes are being sequenced, leading to the

  12. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  13. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  14. Is the U.S. Navy Prepared to Counter Biological Warfare Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    on deterrence and deniability and is based on the fear that biological agents could create large numbers of casualties. The question is, what...others are aimed at generating fear to extract a political concession.86 B. U.S. NAVY BW EXECUTIVE AGENT Realization that BW threats to U.S. NSF exist...as “another version of getting slimed , only worse,” when in fact the modes and effects of BW use are likely to be distinctive. BW defense is

  15. Medical management of biological warfare and bioterrorism: place of the immunoprevention and the immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Patrice; Attre, Olivier; Boutin, Jean Paul; Cavallo, Jean Didier; Debord, Thierry; Jouan, Alain; Vidal, Dominique

    2003-10-01

    Biological weapons are considered as mass destruction and terror weapons. Terrorism including bioterrorism is the major threat in the future conflicts for our nations. The aim of bioterrorism is more related to the potential disorganisation of the society than to the lethal effects of the agents used. The dramatic consequences cannot be discarded, especially if contagious agents such viral are used. The preparation of specific defence measures is a major challenge for our countries. The knowledge acquired from the struggle against natural infectious diseases and recent events are essential to improve behaviours to face the biological weapon threats. The defence attitude is based on the anticipation of the threat, the management of the victims, and the restoration of the operational capabilities. This global defence attitude implies six important functions: (i) alert, (ii) detection and diagnosis, (iii) availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures such as vaccine, sera and anti-infectious medicine and products, (iv) medical management of victims, (v) training and information, (vi) research and development. Passive and active immunoprevention and immuntherapy belong to the approaches discussed in the context of bioterrorism countermeasures. Further researches might be focused on these topics.

  16. Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Zurlo, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The desire to develop and evaluate drugs as potential countermeasures for biological and chemical threats requires test systems that can also substitute for the clinical trials normally crucial for drug development. Animal models have limited predictivity for drug efficacy, as is well known from many disappointments in clinical trials. Traditional in vitro and in silico approaches are not really game changers here, but the substantial investment into novel tools now underway might bring about a second generation of alternative approaches. The avenue pursued focuses primarily on the development of a Human on a Chip, i.e., the combination of different three-dimensional (stem) cell-based organ equivalents combined with microfluidics. The prospects of such approaches, their impact on the field of alternative approaches, and necessary complementary activities are discussed. The need to adapt quality assurance measures and experiences from validation is stressed.

  17. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...marked by periods of crescendo, air warfare will consist of a succession of actions of great violence , with periods of almost complete calm between...influence of time, if it should require fif- teen seconds for each airplane to take off, and one minute to land, the commander of a group of 100 airplanes

  18. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Office, Title 10, U.S. Code ; Act of 5 May 1960. 3. 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 2010, 8. 4. Hybrid Warfare, Global Accountability...Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Proceedings 132 (November 2005); William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid War- fare (master’s thesis, U.S...William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work on the subject, in which the emergence of devolved hybrid societies gives rise to hybrid

  19. A new General Purpose Decontamination System for Chemical and Biological Warfare and Terrorism Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khetan, Sushil; Banerjee, xdDeboshri; Chanda, Arani; Collins, Terry

    2003-01-01

    ...,Optimization of Reaction Conditions,Use of Cationic Surfactant, Time Dependence of Spore Kill,Enhanced Spore Mortality, Oxidative Detoxification of Organophosphorus Triesters and Dialkyl sulfides,TAML...

  20. Biological markers of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Eduard; Nutt, David

    2017-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and highly disabling mental health condition; however, there is still much to learn with regard to pertinent biomarkers, as well as diagnosis, made more difficult by the marked and common overlap of GAD with affective and anxiety disorders. Recently, intensive research efforts have focused on GAD, applying neuroimaging, genetic, and blood-based approaches toward discovery of pathogenetic and treatment-related biomarkers. In this paper, we review the large amount of available data, and we focus in particular on evidence from neuroimaging, genetic, and neurochemical measurements in GAD in order to better understand potential biomarkers involved in its etiology and treatment. Overall, the majority of these studies have produced results that are solitary findings, sometimes inconsistent and not clearly replicable. For these reasons, they have not yet been translated into clinical practice. Therefore, further research efforts are needed to distinguish GAD from other mental disorders and to provide new biological insights into its pathogenesis and treatment.

  1. 9 CFR 381.80 - General; biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General; biological residues. 381.80... Carcasses and Parts § 381.80 General; biological residues. (a) The carcasses or parts of carcasses of all... sound statistical sample that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  2. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  4. Drone warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusterson, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  5. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    The development of "information warfare" presents international legal issues that will complicate nations' efforts both to execute and to respond to certain information warfare attacks, specifically...

  6. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    information needed to carry out biological processes and construct other biomolecules, such as messenger RNA and proteins. The reader already familiar ...for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Cuba: Institute de Medicina ...Hospital de Bellvitge, Universidad de Barcelona • Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid

  7. Hybrid Warfare and Lawfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...

  8. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  9. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  10. Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaly, Pascal E.; Barlaz, Morton A.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Yersinia pestis (plague), respectively. The targets for SYBR green Q-PCR assays were the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and recA gene for B. atrophaeus and the gyrB, wzm, and recA genes for S. marcescens. All assays showed high specificity when tested against 5 ng of closely related Bacillus and Serratia nontarget DNA from 21 organisms. Several spore lysis methods that include a combination of one or more of freeze-thaw cycles, chemical lysis, hot detergent treatment, bead beat homogenization, and sonication were evaluated. All methods tested showed similar threshold cycle values. The limit of detection of the developed Q-PCR assays was determined using DNA extracted from a pure bacterial culture and DNA extracted from sterile water, leachate, and SBD samples spiked with increasing quantities of surrogates. The limit of detection for B. atrophaeus genomic DNA using the ITS and B. atrophaeus recA Q-PCR assays was 7.5 fg per PCR. The limits of detection of S. marcescens genomic DNA using the gyrB, wzm, and S. marcescens recA Q-PCR assays were 7.5 fg, 75 fg, and 7.5 fg per PCR, respectively. Quantification of B. atrophaeus vegetative cells and spores was linear (R2 > 0.98) over a 7-log-unit dynamic range down to 101 B. atrophaeus cells or spores. Quantification of S. marcescens (R2 > 0.98) was linear over a 6-log-unit dynamic range down to 102 S. marcescens cells. The developed Q-PCR assays are highly specific and sensitive and can

  11. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  12. Comparison of agriculture biology and general biology testing outcomes in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despain, Deric Walter

    Agriculture education can take scientific topics to higher levels, emphasize scientific concepts, involve hands-on learning, and develop interrelationships with the other sciences, thus making the living and non-living world around them relevant for students. Prior to 1996, agriculture education was not considered adequate to prepare Utah high school students to meet state biology requirements. The appropriateness of making that equalizing decision in 1996 was not tested until this 2014 study, comparing student test scores on the state biology test for general biology and agriculture biology students. The 2008-2012 data were collected from the Utah Department of Education Data and Statistics, utilizing a descriptive comparative post-test only analysis. As seen in this study, not only did B/AS students tend to score lower than their General Biology counterparts, in multiple cases this difference was significant (p ≤ .05). This contrary finding challenges the theoretical foundation of this study. As a result of this study three implications were made; (a) the Utah CRT-Biology test is not a reliable gauge of academic achievement in agriculture biology, (b) agriculture students in the sample population have not been taught with rigorous biology standards, and (c) biology standards taught in agricultural biology classes are not aligned with content tested by the biology portion of the Utah CRT-Biology test standards. The results of this study indicate to stakeholders that there is a gap occurring within the B/AS education, and the need to reevaluate the biology curriculum delivery to its population may possibly be in need of immediate action.

  13. General Crook and Counterinsurgency Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    civilian agent John Clum. The overcrowding on the San Carlos reservation and the vacillation within the government over the policy towards the Apache...police, with the objective of turning over mundane policing duties to the Apache inhabitants. To relieve the 80 overcrowding on the main populated...Geronimo’s band to a remote portion of San Carlos at a location called Turkey Creek. This would lessen the pressure of overpopulation among the

  14. Gray Zone Warfare: German and Russian Political Warfare, 1935-1939, and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    separated periods. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Political Warfare, Psychological Warfare, Unconventional Warfare, Hybrid Warfare, Asymmetrical Warfare, Gray Zone...Russia ............................................................................................................................ 56 Psychological ...the waging of psychological and economic warfare to the furtherance of war aims and the organization of the fighting strength of the nation to the

  15. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... of a larger hybrid campaign...

  16. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    the service placed two vastly different career fields into a single training pipeline? Does radar jamming belong to the same class of warfare as...patch newly discovered flaws, and private antivirus companies that develop signatures to inoculate systems to new mal- ware.21 Meanwhile, highly

  17. General introduction into the Ebola virus biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilińska, Barbara; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever which appeared in the countries of West Africa in 2014, is the largest outbreak which occurred so far. The virus causing this epidemic, Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV), along with four other species of Ebolaviruses is classified to the genus Ebolavirus in the family Filoviridae. ZEBOV is one of the most virulent pathogens among the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and case fatality rates up to 90% have been reported. Mortality is the result of multi-organ failure and severe bleeding complications. The aim of this review is to present the general characteristics of the virus and its biological properties, pathogenicity and epidemiology, with a focus on laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of these infections.

  18. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  19. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  20. Equivalency of general biology (for majors) across a state-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. A survey of U.S. college biology faculty was conducted and revealed that more 4-year faculty do not believe that all general biology courses are equivalent. An evaluation of course grades in two upper division biology courses at University of Colorado Denver (N = 2129) based upon course grades in general biology and the type of institution where general biology was taken (2-year school, 4-year, in-residence at UCD, AP credit, CLEP credit, or IB credit) was conducted. Students who transferred general biology credit received lower grades in upper division biology courses and withdrew from upper division biology courses more frequently. Syllabi from a small sample (N = 9) of general biology courses offered at Colorado 2- and 4-year schools show variation in course design. Only 30% of the courses had detailed learning objectives. Sample exams reveal a range in variation between 3-69% of questions requiring higher-order thinking according to Bloom's Taxonomy. Increasing communication between high school, 2-year and 4-year biology faculty is necessary if consistency is to be gained. Professional development for faculty to increase awareness about exam development, curriculum alignment, and curriculum mapping may reduce the disparities between the preparation of students in biology. Transfer student grade outcomes should be further investigated across the state.

  1. The evolution of human warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution.

  2. Attrition in Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erbetta, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Information warfare means that positive attacks on systems themselves compound the problem. Emerging technologies applicable to NCW as a force multiplier need to be recognized as counter to the impediments to progress...

  3. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  4. Cancer and Aging: General Principles, Biology, and Geriatric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daneng; de Glas, Nienke A; Hurria, Arti

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is a disease of aging as older adults are much more likely to develop cancer compared with their younger counterparts. Understanding the biology of cancer and aging remains complex, and numerous theories regarding the relationship between the two have been proposed. Cancer treatment decisions in older patients are particularly challenging, because the evidence is scarce and the risk of toxicity increases with age. Determination of biologic age is essential due to heterogeneity of functional status, comorbidity, and physiologic reserves between patients of the same chronologic age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Air Power and Maneuver Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    way to integrate air power on the one hand with maneuver warfare on the other. While American commanders such as Robert E. Lee and George S. Patton...MANEUVER WARFARE years .’ Nevertheless, it should not be forgotten that few commanders of any time or place have fought as many great battles- batailles ...the process to a boxer who uses one arm to parry his opponent’s punches and draw his attention while striking with the other. Gen George S. Patton

  6. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  7. Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of Crimean annexation. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with Russian actions in Crimea has been an intensely debated concept. There is an ongoing debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the concept, its existence and employment by the Russian Federation. This paper showed that the article of Valeriy Gerasimov – the incumbent Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation-invoked a new warfare strategy for the Russian Federation which was consequently for the very first time in its full spectre and effectivity employed on case of Crimean annexation in March 2014. Observing the application of the hybrid warfare in practice serves the purposes of countering its further potential application in post-Soviet space and Russian ‘near abroad’.

  8. General approach to the biological analysis of complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilly, W G; Longwell, J; Andon, B M

    1983-02-01

    The study of potential health effects of combustion effluents involves identifying the substances present and estimating the probable health hazards of each. Unfortunately, this second step cannot be done by using present techniques. Approximations of health hazards by bacterial and human cell assays are being used to set priorities for further biological studies and to suggest needs for modifications of combustion systems. The assumptions underlying this approximation are discussed, and several examples of combustion effluents are reviewed.

  9. Intelligence Strategy for Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Edward P

    2006-01-01

    ...." They have named this new era of war "fourth generation warfare." Currently the Department of Defense's intelligence strategy is designed to defeat conventional adversaries vise a fourth generation warfare opponent...

  10. The Army Ground Forces Training for Mountain and Winter Warfare - Study No. 23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govan, Thomas

    1946-01-01

    This general study of the experiments in mountain and winter warfare training from 1940 to 1944 is designed as an introduction to the histories of the Mountain Training Center and The 10th Mountain...

  11. Evaluation Report on Management Controls at the Disbursing Office, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    On September 19, 1996, the Defense Criminal Investigative Service requested assistance from the Assistant Inspector General for Auditing, DoD, in an investigation at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia...

  12. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues, tha...

  13. Generalized anxiety disorder: comorbidity, comparative biology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Ballenger, James C; Sheehan, David; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a severe and chronic anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable worrying and somatic anxiety (tension, insomnia and hypervigilance). It is a common condition, with lifetime prevalence rates for DSM-IV GAD in the general population of approx. 5-6% being reported. In addition, like other anxiety disorders, GAD also shows comorbidity with depression and most of the other anxiety disorders. This article reviews data on the prevalence of GAD, its comorbidity with depression, and its social and economic impact. Proposed neurobiological mechanisms for GAD are discussed, since an understanding of these may help in the development of future therapies. Finally, current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for GAD are reviewed, with particular attention being paid to published clinical-trial data.

  14. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  15. Special Warfare: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Digest, Vol. 18, January 1963, pp. 36-41. 313. Van de Velde , R. W. "the Neglected Deterrent (Guerrilla Warfare)." Military Review, Vol. 38, August...34Principles of Modern Chinese Strategy." NATO’s Fifteen Nations, Vol. 8, June-July 1963, pp. 44-49. 255. Purcell, Henry . "Night Patrolling and District...September 1970, pp. 2-8. 331. Whittier, Henry S. "Soviet Special Operations/Partisan Warfare: Implications for Today." Military Review, Vol. 59, January 1979

  16. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  17. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  18. Cognitive systems in electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Szczepankiewicz, Michał; Żywek, Marcin; Malanowski, Mateusz; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Samczyński, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Electronic warfare (EW) techniques were invented 70 years ago and are still being developed, all the time with a key role played by their operators. However, a human operator responds far too slowly for the on-going needs since to be adequate to current threats the EW system reaction should be within 1 ms or less. Too slow reaction defers an achievement of the objectives, and generally may lead to disclosure of the applied strategy and to waste of resources. Developing the adequate response to the threat is a multifaceted matter that requires considerable experience and knowledge on the one hand, and thorough observation of outcomes of the applied strategy on the other hand. Such action requires the use of not only intelligence but also more complex algorithms for automatic control than the classical ones, and it heavily builds on the experience. It is therefore a cognitive task in its nature, and a human operator acts naturally this way. Consequently, a proper training and experience gained are what really matters. As a result of tests and actions in EW the operator builds his own knowledge base, thus, gains a capability of responding to the known threats in a balanced way. New threats, however, are much more challenging since they should be handled as fast as possible but in a fresh and creative manner. To this end, adapting the algorithms of radar jamming protection for the new conditions of the battlefield is an example of such challenging tasks. At present, such adjustments are done in a long feedback loop when the operator, after recognizing the problem, notifies the equipment manufacturers, and then, their engineers work on required solutions accordingly. Thus, the reaction time is counted in years, not a single milliseconds or seconds. Speeding up the response time is therefore the key issue, and a solution to it would be feasible only when cognitive systems were used. A concept of such cognitive system is presented in this paper.

  19. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  20. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  1. Laboratory Aspects of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    acid in bacterial spores using pyrolysis /mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 10:455-458. 5. Beverly MB, Voorhees KJ, Hadfield TL. 1999...Africa. In 2000, cases were confirmed in Saudi Arabi and Yemen, making the first occurrence outside of Africa. Tospovirus; type species: Tomato ...spotted wilt virus The genus takes its name from the discovery of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Australia in 1915. Not further discussed

  2. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Manageable Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahoo, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ... (Desert Storm 1991 and Desert Storm 2003). The intent is to provide combat forces with a logical and realistic framework to accurately assess the CB threat enabling a proper balance of force protection and mission accomplishment...

  3. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  4. Information and Knowledge Centric Warfare: The Next Steps in the Evolution of Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phister, Jr., Paul W; Plonisch, Igor G

    2004-01-01

    ...: transitioning from network-centric/information-centric to knowledge-centric warfare. Network-centric warfare is built around human and organizational behavior a new way of thinking in terms of linkages...

  5. Correlation between MCAT Biology Content Specifications and Topic Scope and Sequence of General Education College Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for “nonmajors,” GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of “their” majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools’ GE curricula. PMID:24006392

  6. Correlation between MCAT biology content specifications and topic scope and sequence of general education college biology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for "nonmajors," GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of "their" majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools' GE curricula.

  7. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available will be determined by arguing their application to Network Warfare A. Consideration of Network Warfare Attributes Network Warfare can be seen as taking place over Information and Communication Technology (ICT) networks to affect information processing... the works of Theohandou, Tipton and Sowa, the following information security techniques emerge: Risk Analysis, Physical Security, Incident Response, Disaster Recovery Planning, Security Awareness, Legal, Regulations and Compliance [15] [16] [17...

  8. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  9. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  10. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman

    2005-01-01

    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  11. Diploid biological evolution models with general smooth fitness landscapes and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B; Kirakosyan, Zara; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2008-06-01

    Using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation approach, we obtain analytic equations for steady-state population distributions and mean fitness functions for Crow-Kimura and Eigen-type diploid biological evolution models with general smooth hypergeometric fitness landscapes. Our numerical solutions of diploid biological evolution models confirm the analytic equations obtained. We also study the parallel diploid model for the simple case of recombination and calculate the variance of distribution, which is consistent with numerical results.

  12. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  13. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  14. A Task-Centered Approach to Freshman-Level General Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Greg; Bybee, David; Wolfersberger, Mark; Mendenhall, Anne; Merrill, M. David

    2009-01-01

    Many new instructional theories advocate centering instruction around a set of authentic tasks to improve application and transfer of knowledge and help students take more responsibility for their own learning. At BYU-Hawaii, a general education biology course was redesigned to follow this task-centered approach and then taught to two groups of…

  15. Parallel optical sorting of biological cells using the generalized phase contrast method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars; Bu, Minqiang; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Optical forces are used to fixate biological cells with optical tweezers where numerous biological parameters and phenomena can be studied. Optical beams carry a small momentum which generates a weak optical force, but on a cellular level this force is strong enough to allow for manipulation...... of biological cells in microfluidic systems exclusively using light. We demonstrate an optical cell sorter that uses simultaneous manipulation by multiple laser beams using the Generalized Phase Contrast method (GPC). The basic principle in an optical sorter is that the radiation force of the optical beam can...... push the biological cell from one microfluidic sheath flow to another. By incorporating a spatial light modulator the manipulation can be made parallel with multiple laser beams. We claim advantages over the serial optical sorters with only a single laser beam that has been demonstrated by others....

  16. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  17. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  18. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  19. Biological dosimetry laboratory of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon. A review of cases investigated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Espi, M.; Herranz, R.; Olivares, P.; Orera, M.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989, in part because of our initiatory, and due in part to the support of the 'Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear', the biological dosimetry laboratory of the 'Hospital General Gregorio Maranon' is attending the individuals that are sent to the level I and II Radiopathology and Radioprotection Center with a suspicion of ionizing radiation overexposure. We have performed chromosomal aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes in 31 cases (June 1991). We present here the first biological dosimetry analysis performed in our Country, to demonstrate the usefulness of a technique that is commonly used outside our Country. (author)

  20. WARFARE IN THE INFORMATION AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian GHERMAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.

  1. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  2. Analytic tools for information warfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  3. Development of a General Modeling Framework for Investigating Complex Interactions among Biological and Physical Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C.; Poole, G. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J. A.; O'Daniel, S. J.; Mertes, L. A.

    2005-05-01

    Historically, physical scientists have developed models with highly accurate governing equations, while biologists have excelled at abstraction (the strategic simplification of system complexity). These different modeling paradigms yield biological (e.g. food web) and physical (e.g. hydrologic) models that can be difficult to integrate. Complex biological dynamics may be impossible to represent with governing equations. Conversely, physical processes may be oversimplified in biological models. Using agent-based modeling, a technique applied widely in social sciences and economics, we are developing a general modeling system to integrate accurate representations of physical dynamics such as water and heat flux with abstracted biological processes such as nutrient transformations. The modeling system represents an ecosystem as a complex integrated network of intelligent physical and biological "agents" that store, transform, and trade ecosystem resources (e.g., water, heat, nutrients, carbon) using equations that describe either abstracted concepts and/or physical laws. The modular design of the system allows resource submodels to be developed independently and installed into the simulation architecture. The modeling system provides a useful heuristic tool to support integrated physical and biological research topics, such as the influence of hydrologic dynamics and spatio-temporal physical heterogeneity on trophic (food web) dynamics and/or nutrient cycling.

  4. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  5. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  6. Generalized Beer-Lambert model for near-infrared light propagation in thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Ayyalasomayajula, Kalyan R.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation of near-infrared (NIR) light intensity as it propagates in a turbid medium like biological tissue is described by modified the Beer-Lambert law (MBLL). The MBLL is generally used to quantify the changes in tissue chromophore concentrations for NIR spectroscopic data analysis. Even though MBLL is effective in terms of providing qualitative comparison, it suffers from its applicability across tissue types and tissue dimensions. In this work, we introduce Lambert-W function-based modeling for light propagation in biological tissues, which is a generalized version of the Beer-Lambert model. The proposed modeling provides parametrization of tissue properties, which includes two attenuation coefficients μ0 and η. We validated our model against the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the gold standard for modeling NIR light propagation in biological tissue. We included numerous human and animal tissues to validate the proposed empirical model, including an inhomogeneous adult human head model. The proposed model, which has a closed form (analytical), is first of its kind in providing accurate modeling of NIR light propagation in biological tissues.

  7. Generalized lattice graphs for 2D-visualization of biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, H; Pérez-Montoto, L G; Duardo-Sanchez, A; Paniagua, E; Vázquez-Prieto, S; Vilas, R; Dea-Ayuela, M A; Bolas-Fernández, F; Munteanu, C R; Dorado, J; Costas, J; Ubeira, F M

    2009-11-07

    Several graph representations have been introduced for different data in theoretical biology. For instance, complex networks based on Graph theory are used to represent the structure and/or dynamics of different large biological systems such as protein-protein interaction networks. In addition, Randic, Liao, Nandy, Basak, and many others developed some special types of graph-based representations. This special type of graph includes geometrical constrains to node positioning in space and adopts final geometrical shapes that resemble lattice-like patterns. Lattice networks have been used to visually depict DNA and protein sequences but they are very flexible. However, despite the proved efficacy of new lattice-like graph/networks to represent diverse systems, most works focus on only one specific type of biological data. This work proposes a generalized type of lattice and illustrates how to use it in order to represent and compare biological data from different sources. We exemplify the following cases: protein sequence; mass spectra (MS) of protein peptide mass fingerprints (PMF); molecular dynamic trajectory (MDTs) from structural studies; mRNA microarray data; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 1D or 2D-Electrophoresis study of protein polymorphisms and protein-research patent and/or copyright information. We used data available from public sources for some examples but for other, we used experimental results reported herein for the first time. This work may break new ground for the application of Graph theory in theoretical biology and other areas of biomedical sciences.

  8. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teo, Cheng H

    2008-01-01

    .... The insurgency attributes that have characterized many wars since World War II suggest that the objective of warfare has shifted from the kinetic destruction of military forces to the nonkinetic...

  9. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...

  10. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  11. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  12. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  13. Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference (22nd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Session: Expeditionary Logistics Integration & Expeditionary Medicine Session Co-Chair: Mr. Tom Wetherald, Director Business Development and Strategic...Forces Special Operations Component Command. Mr. thomas Dee, Performing the Duties of the Under secretary of the navy On Feb. 17, 2017, Mr. Tom Dee was...1990) • Col Chip Gregson, “Keeping Up With Navy Doctrine.” MC Gazette, (December 1990) • Maj Tom Waldhauser, “Composite Warfare/Amphibious Warfare

  14. Special Warfare: Restructuring for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institution, 2002, 1-9. Hoffman , Frank. “Hybrid Warfare and Challenges.” Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 52, 1st Quarter...20 Robert Helvey. On Strategic Nonviolence Conflict: Thinking About the Fundamentals. Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institution, 2002, 2-3...important as the future of warfare becomes increasingly “characterized by uncertainty.”28 As Frank Hoffman has commented, success in hybrid wars will

  15. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...

  16. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  17. General Chemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology: An Experiment in Curricular Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman Schwartz, A.; Serie, Jan

    2001-11-01

    During the 1998-99 academic year, with the support of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we co-taught integrated courses in general chemistry and cell biology to 23 first-year students. The double course was organized around six units: I. Energetics: Harvesting (Bio)Chemical Energy; II. The Regulation of Biological Processes: Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium; III. Membranes and Electrochemical Gradients; IV. Acids and Bases and the Regulation of pH; V. Intracellular Compartments and Transport; and VI. Cellular Communication. The chemistry and biology were both taught in a manner meant to enhance understanding of these major themes and to emphasize the relationships between the two disciplines. Both of us were present for all class sessions and shared teaching responsibilities. The examinations, which corresponded to the units, also stressed the interdependence of biology and chemistry. The laboratory components were not integrated; rather the students were dispersed among laboratory sections shared with students from more traditional lecture sections. The paper reports on this experiment in curricular symbiosis, which proved to be a challenging and rewarding learning experience for both the students and us.

  18. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  19. Generalized Fokker-Planck theory for electron and photon transport in biological tissues: application to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrant, Edgar; Frank, Martin

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we study a deterministic method for particle transport in biological tissues. The method is specifically developed for dose calculations in cancer therapy and for radiological imaging. Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory [Leakeas and Larsen, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 137 (2001), pp. 236-250] has been developed to improve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation in cases where scattering is forward-peaked and where there is a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering. We compare grid-based numerical solutions to FP and GFP in realistic medical applications. First, electron dose calculations in heterogeneous parts of the human body are performed. Therefore, accurate electron scattering cross sections are included and their incorporation into our model is extensively described. Second, we solve GFP approximations of the radiative transport equation to investigate reflectance and transmittance of light in biological tissues. All results are compared with either Monte Carlo or discrete-ordinates transport solutions.

  20. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...

  1. Academic beliefs and behaviors in on-campus and online General Education biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because the growing impact of the expansion of online education on undergraduate success, particularly in science courses, has not been fully studied. The specific questions guiding the study examined: whether course delivery mode impacted individual interest in biology; whether course delivery mode impacted help-seeking beliefs and behaviors; and whether course delivery mode, individual interest, and academic self-efficacy predicted academic performance in the course. Participants (N = 183) were enrolled in either online or on-campus sections of a biology course at a large public university in California. Quantitative data for the study were collected through two online surveys in a pre- and post-test design and analyzed via Chi-square, t-tests, and regression analysis using SPSS. The findings of this study indicate that course delivery mode does not impact individual interest in biology. The data further indicate that academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors vary by course delivery mode. This study also finds that while neither self-efficacy nor individual interest predict performance in the course, course delivery mode is shown to impact performance, although the reasons for this difference are unclear. The results of the study will be useful to course designers and administrators of online education as they seek to maximize the experiences of online students.

  2. Environment and biology of the Kara Sea: a general view for contamination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J C

    2001-01-01

    The recent revelation that over the past 30 years there has been a history of dumping waste including high-level radioactive wastes in the shallow Kara Sea has caused wide-spread concern. The potential impact of these contaminants and other non-nuclear pollutants in the Arctic ecosystem and on human health need to be assessed and, thus, a better insight gained on radioecological processes in cold waters. The present paper proposes a general view on the biology and the environment of the Kara Sea, as a basic tool for the experimental and modelling assessments of the impact of these contaminants.

  3. Periodicity computation of generalized mathematical biology problems involving delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Mohammed, M; Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a low initial population model. Our aim is to study the periodicity computation of this model by using neutral differential equations, which are recognized in various studies including biology. We generalize the neutral Rayleigh equation for the third-order by exploiting the model of fractional calculus, in particular the Riemann-Liouville differential operator. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a periodic computational outcome. The technique depends on the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory. Besides, an example is presented to demonstrate the finding.

  4. Towards a framework for a network warfare capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available by many, there is a need for a more structured approach to understanding the various techniques required for a network warfare capability. A conceptual framework describing the most important network warfare techniques and considerations is proposed...

  5. Learning to improve: using writing to increase critical thinking performance in general education biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens.

  6. The effect of graphic organizers on students' attitudes and academic performance in undergraduate general biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lacy

    High attrition among undergraduate Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors has led national and business leaders in the United States to call for both research and educational reform within the collegiate STEM classrooms. Included among suggestions for reform are ideas to improve retention of first-year students and to improve critical thinking and depth of knowledge, instead of covering large quantities of materials. Past research on graphic organizers suggest these tools assist students in learning information and facilitate conceptual and critical thinking. Despite their widespread use in high school science departments, collegiate humanities departments, and even medical schools, their use is considerably less prevalent in the undergraduate biology classroom. In addition to their lack of use, little research has been conducted on their academic benefits in the collegiate classroom. Based on national calls for improving retention among undergraduate STEM majors and research suggesting that academic success during an individual first major's related course highly determine if that individual will continue on in their intended major, the researcher of this dissertation chose to conduct research on an introductory general biology class. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the research in this dissertation examines the effectiveness of graphic organizers in promoting academic success and also examines their influence on student attitudes. This research is grounded in the theories of constructivism and cognitive load theory. Constructivism suggests that individuals must build their knowledge from their personal experiences, while the cognitive load theory recognizes the limited nature of one's working memory and suggests that instructional practices minimize cognitive overload. The results of this dissertation suggest that the use of graphic organizers in an undergraduate general biology classroom can increase students' academic

  7. A Proficiency-Based Cost Estimate of Surface Warfare Officer On-the-Job Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    for “better schooling, and a surface warfare pin equivalent to the dolphins worn by submariners or the wings by the aviators” (Robinson, 2008...Historical Perspective from World War II to 2008. Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Rocci, R. (2003). A Cognitive and

  8. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    using the methods of Mao Zedong , working at the individual village level to subvert central government authority, which effectively stopped at the...Nagl, ―Principles, Imperatives, and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency,‖ 50; Mao Tse-Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla Warfare, 215-216; Gray...outposts, 63 General (Ret.) William W. Momyer, Airpower in Three Wars ( WWII , Korea, Vietnam

  9. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  10. The impact of warfare on the soil environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  11. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  12. A generalized Born formalism for heterogeneous dielectric environments: application to the implicit modeling of biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Feig, Michael

    2005-03-22

    Reliable computer simulations of complex biological environments such as integral membrane proteins with explicit water and lipid molecules remain a challenging task. We propose a modification of the standard generalized Born theory of homogeneous solvent for modeling the heterogeneous dielectric environments such as lipid/water interfaces. Our model allows the representation of biological membranes in the form of multiple layered dielectric regions with dielectric constants that are different from the solute cavity. The proposed new formalism is shown to predict the electrostatic component of solvation free energy with a relative error of 0.17% compared to exact finite-difference solutions of the Poisson equation for a transmembrane helix test system. Molecular dynamics simulations of melittin and bacteriorhodopsin are carried out and performed over 10 ns and 7 ns of simulation time, respectively. The center of melittin along the membrane normal in these stable simulations is in excellent agreement with the relevant experimental data. Simulations of bacteriorhodopsin started from the experimental structure remained stable and in close agreement with experiment. We also examined the free energy profiles of water and amino acid side chain analogs upon membrane insertion. The results with our implicit membrane model agree well with the experimental transfer free energy data from cyclohexane to water as well as explicit solvent simulations of water and selected side chain analogs.

  13. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A

  15. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  16. Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    NA% I PHISICAL READIiESS TEST (PRT QUEST1OthAIRE I. hE ARE CONDUCTI NG THESIS RESEAR H 0N HO- ELL THE PRT SUPPORT5 TNE R 0 T i E 0F St RF AC E ’ARAR...AD-A245 519 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC CTE.EC a% FEB071992 CI THESIS Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers...READINESS TESTING OF SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hatch, William D. II and Swinney, Lori D. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14

  17. Quantitative generalized ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy for turbid media based on probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Zeng-Ping, E-mail: zpchen2002@hotmail.com; Cui, Yin-Yin; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-05-19

    PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensor encapsulating an intensity-based fluorescence indicator and an inert reference fluorescence dye inside the pores of stable matrix can be used as a generalized wavelength-ratiometric probe. However, the lack of an efficient quantitative model render the choices of inert reference dyes and intensity-based fluorescence indicators used in PEBBLEs based generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes rather limited. In this contribution, an extended quantitative fluorescence model was derived specifically for generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes based on PEBBLE technique (QFM{sub GRP}) with a view to simplify the design of PEBBLEs and hence further extend their application potentials. The effectiveness of QFM{sub GRP} has been tested on the quantitative determination of free Ca{sup 2+} in both simulated and real turbid media using a Ca{sup 2+} sensitive PEBBLE nanosensor encapsulating Rhod-2 and eosin B inside the micropores of stable polyacrylamide matrix. Experimental results demonstrated that QFM{sub GRP} could realize precise and accurate quantification of free Ca{sup 2+} in turbid samples, even though there is serious overlapping between the fluorescence excitation peaks of eosin B and Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2. The average relative predictive error value of QFM{sub GRP} for the test simulated turbid samples was 5.9%, about 2–4 times lower than the corresponding values of partial least squares calibration model and the empirical ratiometric model based on the ratio of fluorescence intensities at the excitation peaks of Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2 and eosin B. The recovery rates of QFM{sub GRP} for the real and spiked turbid samples varied from 93.1% to 101%, comparable to the corresponding results of atomic absorption spectrometry. - Highlights: • An advanced model was derived for generalized wavelength-ratiometric PEBBLEs. • The model can simplify the design of generalized wavelength

  18. The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in general biology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Karen Marie

    The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in community college general biology courses was investigated in this study. The purposes of the study were to discover the students' perceptions of factors influencing their desire to study science, and to examine the use of learning communities as a method of enculturation into the field of science. The learning community in the CCD science courses involved an entry-level science course that was linked with a tutorial enrichment of the underlying principles in scientific research. The coordination between the class and the learning community involved an extensive research project that incorporated important scientific principles. The project goals for student research included an understanding of the scientific method, and an increased engagement in scientific inquiry. Collaboration and communication among students was an additional goal of the leaning communities. A quasi-experiment with pre- and post-measures of student attitudes and perceptions of success in first and second semester biology courses. A premeasure was followed by a quasi experiment in which entry level biology courses were conducted using either learning communities or traditional lecture. Results show the factors students perceived as important to their success in entry-level science courses included their professors and peers. Discriminant results revealed that the factors predicted completion of the courses 75% of the time. Qualitative tests reveal that students in learning communities show a slight increase in community interactions and willingness to explore the content material beyond the material needed for the class, however these results were not significantly higher than the control courses. Future studies include collecting data on the learning communities for longer than a one-year period. The incorporation of the research projects into the courses has lasting value in terms of encouraging new

  19. A Review of Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasures Against Chemical Warfare and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Biopreparat, the military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and civilian arm of the former Soviet Union’s biological weapons chemical terrorism . program...seamlessly transition to military force protection and civil defense against chemical terrorism . Terrorist threat agents include all classes of MTMC... chemical terrorism . Using MTMC to blunt pathological actions enteric mast cell granulation in acute soman intoxicated rats. Experimentia of chemical agents

  20. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  1. Warfare tourism experiences and national identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Joost; Ong, Chin Ee

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists’ motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of

  2. Mesoporous manganese oxide for warfare agents degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Králová, Daniela; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 156, JULY (2012), s. 224-232 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA MPO FI-IM5/231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : homogeneous hydrolysis * chloroacetamide * manganese(IV) oxide * warfare agents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.365, year: 2012

  3. A novel biological 'twin-father' temporal paradox of General Relativity in a Gödel universe - Where reproductive biology meets theoretical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2018-03-01

    Several temporal paradoxes exist in physics. These include General Relativity's grandfather and ontological paradoxes and Special Relativity's Langevin-Einstein twin-paradox. General relativity paradoxes can exist due to a Gödel universe that follows Gödel's closed timelike curves solution to Einstein's field equations. A novel biological temporal paradox of General Relativity is proposed based on reproductive biology's phenomenon of heteropaternal fecundation. Herein, dizygotic twins from two different fathers are the result of concomitant fertilization during one menstrual cycle. In this case an Oedipus-like individual exposed to a Gödel closed timelike curve would sire a child during his maternal fertilization cycle. As a consequence of heteropaternal superfecundation, he would father his own dizygotic twin and would therefore generate a new class of autofraternal superfecundation, and by doing so creating a 'twin-father' temporal paradox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Can a Diversified Instructional Approach Featuring Active Learning Improve Biology Students' Attitudes toward General Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Lampley, Sandra A.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to make our classes more engaging, we recently reorganized sections of our nonmajors biology course, using current issues in biology and society as a premise to promote coherence among course content and emphasize the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. A key aspect of the reorganization included the development and…

  5. Modeling fibrous biological tissues with a general invariant that excludes compressed fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kewei; Ogden, Ray W.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2018-01-01

    Dispersed collagen fibers in fibrous soft biological tissues have a significant effect on the overall mechanical behavior of the tissues. Constitutive modeling of the detailed structure obtained by using advanced imaging modalities has been investigated extensively in the last decade. In particular, our group has previously proposed a fiber dispersion model based on a generalized structure tensor. However, the fiber tension-compression switch described in that study is unable to exclude compressed fibers within a dispersion and the model requires modification so as to avoid some unphysical effects. In a recent paper we have proposed a method which avoids such problems, but in this present study we introduce an alternative approach by using a new general invariant that only depends on the fibers under tension so that compressed fibers within a dispersion do not contribute to the strain-energy function. We then provide expressions for the associated Cauchy stress and elasticity tensors in a decoupled form. We have also implemented the proposed model in a finite element analysis program and illustrated the implementation with three representative examples: simple tension and compression, simple shear, and unconfined compression on articular cartilage. We have obtained very good agreement with the analytical solutions that are available for the first two examples. The third example shows the efficacy of the fibrous tissue model in a larger scale simulation. For comparison we also provide results for the three examples with the compressed fibers included, and the results are completely different. If the distribution of collagen fibers is such that it is appropriate to exclude compressed fibers then such a model should be adopted.

  6. Evaluation of Littoral Combat Ships for Open-Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    submarines that were considered in detail for this report. Adapted from Michaele Lee Huygen, 2003, “Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries : A...development, architecture , capability, functional decomposition, modeling and simulation, ASW, LCS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...2015/05/revealed-chinas-new-carrier- killer-sub-simulator/. General Dynamics. 2015. “Combat Power for the 21st Century .” Sales brochure, General

  7. Community-based inquiry improves critical thinking in general education biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Faiola, Celia L; Johnson, James E; Kurtz, Martha J

    2008-01-01

    National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.

  8. Efficient reconstruction of biological networks via transitive reduction on general purpose graphics processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnački, Dragan; Odenbrett, Maximilian R; Wijs, Anton; Ligtenberg, Willem; Hilbers, Peter

    2012-10-30

    Techniques for reconstruction of biological networks which are based on perturbation experiments often predict direct interactions between nodes that do not exist. Transitive reduction removes such relations if they can be explained by an indirect path of influences. The existing algorithms for transitive reduction are sequential and might suffer from too long run times for large networks. They also exhibit the anomaly that some existing direct interactions are also removed. We develop efficient scalable parallel algorithms for transitive reduction on general purpose graphics processing units for both standard (unweighted) and weighted graphs. Edge weights are regarded as uncertainties of interactions. A direct interaction is removed only if there exists an indirect interaction path between the same nodes which is strictly more certain than the direct one. This is a refinement of the removal condition for the unweighted graphs and avoids to a great extent the erroneous elimination of direct edges. Parallel implementations of these algorithms can achieve speed-ups of two orders of magnitude compared to their sequential counterparts. Our experiments show that: i) taking into account the edge weights improves the reconstruction quality compared to the unweighted case; ii) it is advantageous not to distinguish between positive and negative interactions since this lowers the complexity of the algorithms from NP-complete to polynomial without loss of quality.

  9. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  10. Chemical Warfare Agent Decontaminant Solution Using Quaternary Ammonium Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-11

    warfare agents, which include a variety of organophosphorus and organosulfur compounds, are known in the art. 15 However, these known methods use...chemical warfare agents, and works particularly well for neutralization of organosulfur agents such as mustard gas (HD), and organophosphorus agents such...detoxifying/neutralizing a variety of chemical warfare agents, including organosulfur agents such as mustard gas (HD), and organophosphorus agents such as

  11. Containment 2.0: U.S. political warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Contemporary Russia has shown an increasing preference for using Cold War–era political warfare techniques, which are deeply rooted in its doctrine and foreign policies. To date, the U.S. response comprises the conventional military aspects of the Cold War–era deterrence and containment rather than political warfare strategies. Exploring previous U.S. experience in political warfare activities—under the broad categories of strategic in...

  12. General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent…

  13. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  14. Book Review: Composite warfare: the conduct of successful ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Composite warfare: the conduct of successful ground force operations in Africa. Book Author: Eeben Barlow. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761.

  15. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  16. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  17. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    government property.”12 Applying these standards to cyberspace is contentious in the international community since millions of cyber attacks transpire daily...forces and creating additional hostility. At its very nature cyber warfare can be both coercive and destructive. “At the strategic level, cyber attacks could...in the state is an armed attack.”42 Other interpretations require a higher threshold for invoking Article 51. “[O]nly large scale cyber attacks on

  18. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    CCM) PROVING GROUND TENIAS SAMJAM EIEM SPREAD SPECTRUM US ARMY ELECTRONIC FOREIGN SCIENCE & OFFICE OF MISSILE WARFARE LAB (EWL) TECHNOLOGY CENTER...IPAR MULTIRADAR SPREAD SPECTRUM ECMFUZ IRSS OTOALOC TAC ZINGERS EIEM ITF PATCOM TAM EOCM SIM FAC MGM-H4D RFSS TENIAS GTSF MG(-H4H ROLJAM ZAP I HMSM MSL...USAFAS TRASANA USAPAS TCF ASD WPAFU TENIAS ______ ___ ECAC _________ WAR EAGLE _________CATRADA WARRANT am________ 3DBDM ZAP 1 ____________ MEW EWL ZAP 2

  19. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    warfare domain in its own right. Ideally, it is to be employed as part of a whole of government effort, along with other, more traditional, weapons of...4 even days, be transformed into an arena of fierce armed conflict, become a victim of foreign intervention, and sink into a web of chaos...Russian military is a relative latecomer to the cyber arena. For many years, cyber was the exclusive domain of the state’s security services. The

  20. Recent Trends in Thinking about Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    as a pikeman), the flintlock, the iron ramrod, and mechanical production, coupled with the discovery of cheap sources of nitrates (which radically...to technologies that provide cheap WMD-like capabilities, and the vulnerabilities offered by physical, cultural, social, economic, and political...context in Peter P. Perla, Albert A. Nofi, and Michael C. Markowitz, Wargaming Fourth-Generation Warfare, Sep 2006 ( CRM D0014752.A2/Final). 83 Aryan

  1. Training Practices for Surface Warfare Junior Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    What some saw as spoon feeding , others saw as a lack of standards and goals. The issue is also worth considering in light of the changing values of the...NPS-GSBPP-12-004 NAVAL POSTGRADATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA Approved for public release; distribution is...unlimited Prepared for Naval Postgraduate School , Monterey, California 93943 TRAINING PRACTICES FOR SURFACE WARFARE JUNIOR OFFICERS by William R

  2. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    www.vox.com/a/barack-obama-interview-vox- conversation/obama-foreign-policy-transcript. Zedong , Mao . On Protracted War. Honolulu: University...warfare in Ukraine represents a threat to state sovereignty in Eastern Europe, where, like Ukraine, many states have large Russian minority populations ...adjust as well. Conventional and unconventional military actions, such as targeting military supply routes and protecting the population , must occur at

  3. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-20

    partisan forces. They also saw partisan warfare as more than a military tool. Its influence was potent for propaganda use and for assuring continued...corefully selected for political reliability and partisan bands themselves were subjected to intense pro-Soviet propaganda . The risks involved in...John Erickson. The Soviet High Command. A_____________________ Military- Politica ~l History. 1918-1941. Boulder, Colorado: * Westview Press, 1962, p. 6.i

  4. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    objective,” p.603 in Peter Paret and Michael Howard , eds., trans., Carl von Clausewitz, On War. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976...and Michael Howard , eds., trans., Carl von Clausewitz, On War. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976. Royal Canadian Navy, Horizon 2050: A...The Winograd Commission) (Government of Israel), Final Report, January 2008. Thornton, Rod, Asymmetric Warfare, Malden MA: 2007. Tse- Tung , Mao, On

  5. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    groups to endure great hardship and work toward a common goal of driving out the infidel to defend their faith. Insights for special warfare Nuclear... financing , and the International Military Education and Training program (IMET). These programs are typically authorized and funded by DoS and executed...Organizations at U.S. embassies. In par- allel, the Security Assistance Organizations also submit requests through the foreign military financing /IMET

  6. Torpedoes and Their Impact on Naval Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    torpedo shell, and, as it pumped the water out through a hole in the rear, thrust was produced. This was surely the first jet -propelled torpedo...reduced from 46 to 2 kilograms per torpedo. The amounts of copper and tin used were substantially reduced. The cost and labor hours were cut in...unrestricted warfare against merchant shipping to cut sea lines of communications forcefully demonstrated the strategic significance of the torpedo as

  7. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  8. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Grace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system's constituents (biological variability. This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand

  9. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies with Biological Treatment: A General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Momani; Shawaqfeh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been recently proposed as an important wastwater treatment option. This paper provides a broad overview of the use of AOPs alone or combind with a biological process for wastwater treatment and the current state of knowledge about water treatment options. The first part of the paper focuses on combination of AOP's with biological treatment of different kinds of contaminations. Then the review presents methods used to imorove wastwater biodegradability and toxicity measurements as related to coupling processes. The presented STUDIES conclude that the the use AOP'S as a pre-treatment for wastewater is recommended under specific conditions; 1) AOP's can be used efficiently to pre-treat recalcitrant componds, 2) AOP's can be used to enhance the biodegradability of aqueous solutions, 3) Toxic compounds can be converted to non-toxic compounds by means of AOP's 4) Coupling processes(AOP's + biological) give reasonable results in treating wastewater wiyh significant hydraulic retention time (HRT) (Author's) 58 refs

  10. Relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied ...

  11. Minimum Learning Essentials: Science. Chemistry, Earth Science, Biology, Physics, General Science. Experimental Edition 0/4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education, for science education in grades 9-12. Covered are: biology, physics, earth science, and chemistry. Work study skills for all subjects are given with content areas, performance objectives, and suggested classroom activities. (APM)

  12. German Views of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    General Staff experience, and Seebataillon (Marine) command. He had significant foreign-service stints, including service in the Boxer Rebellion in...Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck and Germany’s East African Empire (New York: Macmillan, 1981), 7. During the Boxer Rebellion, von Lettow, “was struck by ‘the

  13. Biological-inorganic hybrid systems as a generalized platform for chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangle, Shannon N; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-12-01

    An expanding renewable energy market to supplant petrochemicals has motivated synthesis technologies that use renewable feedstocks, such as CO 2 . Hybrid biological-inorganic systems provide a sustainable, efficient, versatile, and inexpensive chemical synthesis platform. These systems comprise biocompatible electrodes that transduce electrical energy either directly or indirectly into bioavailable energy, such as H 2 and NAD(P)H. In combination, specific bacteria use these energetic reducing equivalents to fix CO 2 into multi-carbon organic compounds. As hybrid biological-inorganic technologies have developed, the focus has shifted from phenomenological and proof-of-concept discovery towards enhanced energy efficiency, production rate, product scope, and industrial robustness. In this review, we highlight the progress and the state-of-the-art of this field and describe the advantages and challenges involved in designing bio- and chemo- compatible systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose). Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry), nuts (walnuts, almonds), and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral) activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  16. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540–01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2–89) Prescribed by ANSI...Convergence Zone DP Direct Path HVU High Value Unit MCM Mine Sweeper MIW Mine Warfare NMP Navy Mission Planner NOP Navy Operational Planner NOP–USW...Illustrated in Figure 1 is a piecewise linear from of the equation 1 tAchievement e   , where Achievement is the probability that a mine field

  17. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  18. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James

    2005-01-01

    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  19. Mine Warfare History and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    off, it released a spring-driven plunger which struck a " fulminating charge," thus exploding the mine. The discovery of fulminate of mercury (Hg(0NC...2> had been reported to the Royal Society in 1800 by Edward Charles Howard, FRS (brother of the 12th Duke of Norfolk). The use of fulminate of mer...generally a mixture of the two ( fulminate and potassium chlorate) in a small tube impacted at the closed end, the open end being in contact with

  20. Meteorological Integration for the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System: General Guidance for BWIC Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J.; Wang, Weiguo; Rutz, Frederick C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Xie, YuLong; Seiple, Timothy E.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2007-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for developing systems to detect the release of aerosolized bioagents in urban environments. The system that accomplishes this, known as BioWatch, is a robust first-generation monitoring system. In conjunction with the BioWatch detection network, DHS has also developed a software tool for cities to use to assist in their response when a bioagent is detected. This tool, the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System, will eventually be deployed to all BioWatch cities to aid in the interpretation of the public health significance of indicators from the BioWatch networks. BWIC consists of a set of integrated modules, including meteorological models, that estimate the effect of a biological agent on a city’s population once it has been detected. For the meteorological models in BWIC to successfully calculate the distribution of biological material, they must have as input accurate meteorological data, and wind fields in particular. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for cities to use in identifying sources of good-quality local meteorological data that BWIC needs to function properly. This process of finding sources of local meteorological data, evaluating the data quality and gaps in coverage, and getting the data into BWIC, referred to as meteorological integration, is described. The good news for many cities is that meteorological measurement networks are becoming increasingly common. Most of these networks allow their data to be distributed in real time via the internet. Thus, cities will often only need to evaluate the quality of available measurements and perhaps add a modest number of stations where coverage is poor.

  1. Runge-Kutta and Hermite Collocation for a biological invasion problem modeled by a generalized Fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasakis, I E; Papadopoulou, E P; Saridakis, Y G

    2014-01-01

    Fisher's equation has been widely used to model the biological invasion of single-species communities in homogeneous one dimensional habitats. In this study we develop high order numerical methods to accurately capture the spatiotemporal dynamics of the generalized Fisher equation, a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation characterized by density dependent non-linear diffusion. Working towards this direction we consider strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta (RK) temporal discretization schemes coupled with the Hermite cubic Collocation (HC) spatial discretization method. We investigate their convergence and stability properties to reveal efficient HC-RK pairs for the numerical treatment of the generalized Fisher equation. The Hadamard product is used to characterize the collocation discretized non linear equation terms as a first step for the treatment of generalized systems of relevant equations. Numerical experimentation is included to demonstrate the performance of the methods

  2. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  3. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  4. Selfishness, warfare and economics; or integration, cooperation and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jesus Salvucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. Modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related with the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: Viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown, that constitute the major planet's gene pool with a fundamental role in evolution. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that normally are understood as parasites, are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drives the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is a result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus and eukaryotic DNA and the interaction of its own genome with the genome of its microbiota resulting in an intertwined metabolism (a superorganism along evolution. These new interpretations are remarkable points to be considered in order to construct a solid theory adjusted to the facts and with less speculations and tortuous semantic traps.

  5. Optimization of Graphene Sensors to Detect Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    question or causes the sensor to transduce and send a false positive signal [25]. Both situations are bad and can task emergency management...22bp target aptamer response was a bit different. The outcome can be attributed to either bad data or possibly some other electrical/conformational...Microscale Biocomponents,” Nanoletters, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 4469–4476, 2008. [14] Y. Hu, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, F. Li, T. Wu, and L. Niu, “ Biomaterials

  6. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  7. Preparing for and implementing the UN secretary-general's mechanism on alleged use investigation for biological weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraatz-Wadsack, G.

    2009-01-01

    The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy was adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2006. Preventing and responding to attacks using WMD were identified amongst the key areas of activities covered by the strategy. The Secretary-General's mechanism to carry out prompt investigations in response to allegations brought to his attention concerning the possible use of chemical and bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons was developed in the late 1980s. Triggered by a request from any member State, the Secretary-General is authorized to launch an investigation including dispatching a fact-finding team to the site of the alleged incident(s) and to report to all UN Member States. This is to ascertain in an objective and scientific manner facts of alleged violations of the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which bans the use of chemical and biological weapons. Member States encouraged the Secretary-General in September 2006 to update the roster of experts and laboratories, as well as the technical guidelines and procedures, available to him for the timely and efficient investigation of alleged use. The roster of experts and laboratories and the guidelines and procedures constitute the key elements of the special mechanism available to the Secretary-General for investigation of reports by Member States of alleged use of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. The Office for Disarmament Affairs has been working with Member States since March 2007 to update the roster of experts and laboratories and the technical appendices of the guidelines and procedures so that they fully correspond with the rapid and substantial developments that have occurred in the biological area since the 1980s and also to take into account the fact that an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has since been established. Currently, the roster of experts and laboratories has been updated and includes experts from more than 50 countries. The information available in

  8. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this testing was to evaluate the ability of currently available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) biological indicator tests and immunoassays to detect Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores and ricin. In general, immunoassays provide more specific identification of biological threats as compared to indicator tests [3]. Many of these detection products are widely used by first responders and other end users. In most cases, performance data for these instruments are supplied directly from the manufacturer, but have not been verified by an external, independent assessment [1]. Our test plan modules included assessments of inclusivity (ability to generate true positive results), commonly encountered hoax powders (which can cause potential interferences or false positives), and estimation of limit of detection (LOD) (sensitivity) testing.

  9. War and Medicine in a Culture of Peace. 2. Synopsis of Biological Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Pierard, Gérald

    2001-01-01

    Biological warfare has a long history. Despite the 1972 international convention and several attempts at biological weapon eradication, some countries and non governmental groups still retain some of these agents. According to their potential use, they belong to bioterrorism or to massive destruction weapons. Any biological warfare put the civilian medical and paramedical assets at the frontline and at high risk for being rapidly contaminated. The prompt recognition of a bioterrorist attack a...

  10. DATE analysis: A general theory of biological change applied to microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnick, David

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to conventional data mining, which searches for specific subsets of genes (extensive variables) to correlate with specific phenotypes, DATE analysis correlates intensive state variables calculated from the same datasets. At the heart of DATE analysis are two biological equations of state not dependent on genetic pathways. This result distinguishes DATE analysis from other bioinformatics approaches. The dimensionless state variable F quantifies the relative overall cellular activity of test cells compared to well-chosen reference cells. The variable pi(i) is the fold-change in the expression of the ith gene of test cells relative to reference. It is the fraction phi of the genome undergoing differential expression-not the magnitude pi-that controls biological change. The state variable phi is equivalent to the control strength of metabolic control analysis. For tractability, DATE analysis assumes a linear system of enzyme-connected networks and exploits the small average contribution of each cellular component. This approach was validated by reproducible values of the state variables F, RNA index, and phi calculated from random subsets of transcript microarray data. Using published microarray data, F, RNA index, and phi were correlated with: (1) the blood-feeding cycle of the malaria parasite, (2) embryonic development of the fruit fly, (3) temperature adaptation of Killifish, (4) exponential growth of cultured S. pneumoniae, and (5) human cancers. DATE analysis was applied to aCGH data from the great apes. A good example of the power of DATE analysis is its application to genomically unstable cancers, which have been refractory to data mining strategies. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol.

  11. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 2. Operations Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-23

    40mm 500* - Band towels 2* Soap, cleansing 20 bars* Nail brush , surgeons 1* Treatment cards with plastic envelopes 10,000* Plastic envelopes for...obstacle development, depending on their pre-D-day efforts and ability to reinforce SYN City in the face of heavy interdiction commencing on D-day. (1...Metal syringes for ear washing 90m1 1 Tongue depressor, metal 1 Nasogastric tubes size Ch. 5 (premature), polyethylene 5* Nasogastric tubes size Ch. 8

  12. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 1. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-23

    IN HST TOTAL SUBORDINATE TO OLT 1 1 FM MED ON S LIAISON SECTION "LkMENT " NORMA , -,ST A HST T _ " _ ’ " ______ __-. _,__ H& LS CC b Com ?2 14 i ...4 * I...0. 63 FOR 4 D Sr, TOTLS- 82 88 82 80 18576. 47 ..415. 71 A-45 9; ,; ; -.. .. .- . . . ... . . LO’ATION INDLITRIRL APA Off PA)IIUl OF RCTION= 45 N

  13. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 4. Operational Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-23

    messenger service will be established to minimize radio transmissions. (4) Commanders holding crypto material will provide physical safeguards and will...requested from this headquarters (Attn: ACofS, G-2). Specify type currency , amount, purpose and expected results. d. Subordinate commanders will identify...e). b. Specific Guidance (1) Currency and Credit Controls. Controlled and coordinated by CINCPAC. (2) Pay Functions. Conducted in accordance with

  14. A general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies for structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pardon, Els; Laeremans, Toon; Triest, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in using antibodies as auxiliary tools to crystallize proteins. Here we describe a general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies to be used as crystallization chaperones for the structural investigation of diverse conformational states of flexible (membrane) proteins...... display of in vivo-matured Nanobodies that bind conformational epitopes of functional proteins. Three representative examples illustrate that the outlined procedures are robust, making it possible to solve by Nanobody-assisted X-ray crystallography in a time span of 6-12 months....

  15. Managing the Double Edged Sword of Network-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, David

    2003-01-01

    Network Centric Warfare can tend to collapse the operational level war by allowing information to flow around or past hierarchical staff structures and directly between tactical and strategic level decision makers...

  16. Mine Warfare - The Joint Force Commander's Achilles Heel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    ... Countermeasures systems resident within Strike Groups to counter enemy mine laying activities. Additionally, the Navy needs to transform its culture and mainstream the full spectrum of MIW to include naval mining and countermine warfare capabilities...

  17. Echoes of Chechnya Warfare Resound in Moscow, Quantico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... thinking about urban warfare. After suffering stunning public defeats just a few years ago, Russian forces applied painful lessons learned then to drive Chechen forces out of their capital city, Grozny, this year...

  18. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Kenneth J

    2007-01-01

    ... operations in 21st-century irregular environments. The author argues that Infantry Brigade Combat Teams would be better optimized for the challenges of irregular warfare through structural changes that decentralize resources...

  19. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G

    2006-01-01

    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  20. Design and implementation of intelligent electronic warfare decision making algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Kuo; Hsueh, Chi-Shun

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetic signals and the requirements of timely response have been a rapid growth in modern electronic warfare. Although jammers are limited resources, it is possible to achieve the best electronic warfare efficiency by tactical decisions. This paper proposes the intelligent electronic warfare decision support system. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid algorithm, Digital Pheromone Particle Swarm Optimization, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). We use PSO to solve the problem and combine the concept of pheromones in ACO to accumulate more useful information in spatial solving process and speed up finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution in reasonable computation time by using the method of matrix conversion in SFLA. The results indicated that jammer allocation was more effective. The system based on the hybrid algorithm provides electronic warfare commanders with critical information to assist commanders in effectively managing the complex electromagnetic battlefield.

  1. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D

    2008-01-01

    .... A definition of Fourth Generation Warfare is developed, based on Col. Thomas X. Hammes' writings. The definition is further developed to show relevance and applicability to current operations in the Long War on Terrorism...

  2. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  3. The Role of Airpower in Urban Warfare. An Airman's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saffold, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... This emphasis on surface force employment stifles innovative thought as to how military forces can achieve operational and strategic effects by employing airpower as the key instrument of force in urban warfare...

  4. State of the Art Report on Drone-Based Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Morrison, Lila

    2014-01-01

    State of the art report on the latest cultural discourse and debate over contemporary forms of drone based warfare. primarily resulting from the disciplines of Law, Political Science, and Geography. 2014.

  5. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D

    2008-01-01

    ... to defeat its enemies in the Long War on Terrorism. The method used to resolve this issue was to frame the scope of the current operating environment in the context of Fourth Generation Warfare...

  6. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H

    2008-01-01

    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  7. A Proposed Framework for Network-Centric Maritime Warfare Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klingbeil, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    .... In addition, this report demonstrates how the functions of many of the independent and dependent variables and associated warfare metrics can be translated into the characteristics and metrics of queues.

  8. Development of the FISH technique for biological dosimetry applications in the Gregorio Maranon General University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Jesus Prieto, M.; Olivares, P.; Gomez, M.; Herranz, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989 cytogenetic analysis for dose estimation has been regularly used In the Gregorio Maranon General University Hospital (HGUGM) of Madrid on individuals suspected of having accidentally been exposed to ionizing radiation. The method used is the study of chromosomal aberrations found in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. The technique recommended by the IAEA in 1986 permits to establish a dicentrics/dose ratio through an effective dose calibration curve prepared in-vitro. This methodology of dose estimation presents serious limitations which can partially be eliminated by means of new molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as chromosomal painting through in-situ hybridization with fluorescence (FISH). At HGUGM, research work has been finished for standardization of the above mentioned technique including effective dose calibration curves, the utilization of adequate aberrations and the intercomparision of the results with other centres

  9. Design of a generalized predictive controller for a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghassadi, M; Macnab, C J B; Westwick, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized predictive control (GPC) technique to regulate the activated sludge process found in a bioreactor used in wastewater treatment. The control strategy can track dissolved oxygen setpoint changes quickly, adapting to the system uncertainties and disturbances. Tests occur on an Activated Sludge Model No. 1 benchmark of an activated sludge process. A T filter added to the GPC framework results in an effective control strategy in the presence of coloured measurement noise. This work also suggests how a constraint on the measured variable can be added as a penalty term to the GPC framework which leads to improved control of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the presence of dynamic input disturbance.

  10. General existence principles for Stieltjes differential equations with applications to mathematical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pouso, Rodrigo; Márquez Albés, Ignacio

    2018-04-01

    Stieltjes differential equations, which contain equations with impulses and equations on time scales as particular cases, simply consist on replacing usual derivatives by derivatives with respect to a nondecreasing function. In this paper we prove new existence results for functional and discontinuous Stieltjes differential equations and we show that such general results have real world applications. Specifically, we show that Stieltjes differential equations are specially suitable to study populations which exhibit dormant states and/or very short (impulsive) periods of reproduction. In particular, we construct two mathematical models for the evolution of a silkworm population. Our first model can be explicitly solved, as it consists on a linear Stieltjes equation. Our second model, more realistic, is nonlinear, discontinuous and functional, and we deduce the existence of solutions by means of a result proven in this paper.

  11. A general framework of persistence strategies for biological systems helps explain domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila S Yafremava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism's environmental niche: scope, umwelt and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism's perception of these events. The gap is the organism's blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call a persistence triangle. Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback

  12. Motivation and requirements for determining a Network Warfare Capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available , whereas in the latter, an assessment is given of the current state of Network Warfare skills. This assessment can involve expert opinion, controls and guidelines. According to Bragg et al, an assessment is not an audit, which is used to test compliance... approach to ensure conformance to established guidelines. The difference between network security auditing and determining a Network Warfare Capability is that network security auditing evaluates compliance with controls in a very detailed manner...

  13. The theory of unconventional warfare win, lose, and draw

    OpenAIRE

    DeFeyter, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    Clausewitz states that "The defensive form of warfare is intrinsically stronger than the offense" and to defeat 'the stronger form of warfare' "an army's best weapon is superior numbers." Given these two facts, how do special operations forces defeat numerically superior forces fighting in the defense? William H. McRaven's book, Spec Ops, lays out a theory of special operations and six principles that are "applicable across the spectrum of special operations" (McRaven, 1995, p. 3). McRav...

  14. Cyberspace Warfare: A New DoD Core Mission Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Joint Forces Staff College REPORT NUMBER Joint Advanced Warfighting...According to Andrew F. Krepinevich cyberspace warfare is defined as: The actions by nation-states and non-state actors to penetrate computers or... actors conducting cyberspace operations in, through, and from cyberspace as a 1 Andrew F. Krepinevich, “Cyber Warfare: A Nuclear Option,” Center for

  15. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    sustained British security discipline, support for the main PIRA dirty fighting weapon (unannounced bombings) began to turn against them. This was... DIRTY FIGHTING: HOW TO COUNTER TOTAL WARFARE MENTALITY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and... Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major

  16. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  17. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  18. Fish biological effect monitoring of chemical stressors using a generalized linear model in South Sea, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Seung Bae; Hong, Sang Hee; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; Kim, Dae Jung; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the health status at six different study areas, we used the generalized linear model approach with selected biochemical markers in resident fish from uncontaminated and contaminated sites. We also confirmed the independence between the biochemical indices and the morphometric indices including the hepato-somatic index (HSI), gonado-somatic index (GSI), and condition factor (CF) in fish from the sampling areas. The effect of area on the presence of biotransformation markers (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) was significantly high in Masan Bay. The area with the greatest effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was Jindong Bay, while there was no significant effect of GSI, HSI, CF, and sex in the EROD model and HSI, CF and sex in the AChE model. These results clarify that fish from Masan, Gwangyang and Jindong Bay were affected by pollutant stress, and the analysis of sensitive biochemical responses allowed for an improved interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane for Inactivation of Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, William H; Bushway, Karen E; Miller, Susan D; Delcomyn, Carrie A; Renard, Jean J; Henley, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    ...) at neutral pH, was investigated for inactivation of biological warfare agent simulants. The DMDO solution inactivated bacterial spores, fungal spores, vegetative bacterial cells, viruses, and protein by 7 orders of magnitude in less than 10 min...

  20. The Impact of Different Instructional Strategies on Students' Understanding about the Cell Cycle in a General Education Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sanjana

    This study investigated the impact of different instructional strategies on students' understanding about the cell cycle in a general education biology course. Although several studies have documented gains in students' cell cycle understanding after instruction, these studies generally use only one instructional method, often without a comparison group. The goal of this study was to learn more about students' misconceptions about the cell cycle and how those ideas change after three different evidence-based learning experiences in undergraduate general education. Undergraduate students in six laboratory sections (n = 24; N = 144) in a large public institution in the western United States were surveyed pre- and post-instruction using a 14-item valid and reliable survey of cell cycle knowledge. Cronbach's alpha for the standard scoring convention was 0.264 and for the alternate scoring convention was 0.360, documenting serious problems with inconsistent validity and reliability of the survey. Operating as though the findings are at least a proxy for actual cell cycle knowledge, score comparisons by groups of interest were explored, including pre- and post-instruction differences among demographic groups of interest and three instructional settings: a bead modeling activity, a role-playing game, and 5E instructional strategy. No significant differences were found across groups of interest or by strategy, but some significant item-level differences were found. Implications and discussion of these shifts is noted in lieu of the literature.

  1. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  2. High-fidelity de novo synthesis of pathways using microchip-synthesized oligonucleotides and general molecular biology equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wen; Lu, Min; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2017-07-21

    Engineering and evaluation of synthetic routes for generating valuable compounds require accurate and cost-effective de novo synthesis of genetic pathways. Here, we present an economical and streamlined de novo DNA synthesis approach for engineering a synthetic pathway with microchip-synthesized oligonucleotides (oligo). The process integrates entire oligo pool amplification, error-removal, and assembly of long DNA molecules. We utilized this method to construct a functional lycopene biosynthetic pathway (11.9 kb encoding 10 genes) in Escherichia coli using a highly error-prone microchip-synthesized oligo pool (479 oligos) without pre-purification, and the error-frequency was reduced from 14.25/kb to 0.53/kb. This low-equipment-dependent and cost-effective method can be widely applied for rapid synthesis of biosynthetic pathways in general molecular biology laboratories.

  3. Understanding the elementary considerations in a network warfare environment: an introductory framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available by many, there is a need for a more structured approach to understanding the various techniques required for a network warfare capability. A conceptual framework describing the most important network warfare techniques and considerations is proposed...

  4. Special Operations Forces in the People’s Liberation Army and the Development of an Integral Unconventional Warfare Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Yahuda , Michael . The International Politics of the Asia-Pacific, 1945-1995 (New York; Routledge, 1996). Yang, Andrew N.D. and Liao, Milton Wen...Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare (Portland: Frank Cass Press, 2001), 3-4. 9. Michael J.Strack, “China: Special Operations Forces of...weapons/scud.html; Internet; accessed 21 March 2005. 59. Michael B. Gordon and General Bernard E. Trainor, “ The General’s War: The Inside Story of

  5. The 2006 Lebanon Campaign and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ground, see, e.g., Mao Tse-Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, Samuel B. Griffith, trans., Mineola, NY: Dover, 2005, pp. 52, 97, 102; Ernesto Guevara...Guerrilla Warfare, Old Chelsea, NY: Ocean Press, 2006, pp. 20, 22, 26; Ian F.W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies, New York...Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, pp. 689-690, 696, 712, 757-759). 15. See, e.g., Mao, On Guerrilla Warfare, pp. 55-57, 113; Beckett , Modern

  6. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution.

  7. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  8. Nuclear radiation in warfare. A SIPRI publication. Strahlungswirkungen beim Einsatz von Kernwaffen. Eine SIPRI-Publikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion.

  9. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  10. The role of domain-general cognitive resources in children's construction of a vitalist theory of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascandziev, Igor; Tardiff, Nathan; Zaitchik, Deborah; Carey, Susan

    2018-03-24

    Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment). We asked whether different domain-general cognitive resources support these two types of knowledge acquisition (conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment that supports fast mapping) by testing 82 6-year-olds in a pre-training/training/post-training study. We measured children's improvement in an episode involving theory construction (the beginning steps of acquisition of the framework theory of vitalist biology, which requires conceptual change) and in an episode involving knowledge enrichment alone (acquisition of little known facts about animals, such as the location of crickets' ears and the color of octopus blood). In addition, we measured children's executive functions and receptive vocabulary to directly compare the resources drawn upon in the two episodes of learning. We replicated and extended previous findings highlighting the differences between conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment, and we found that Executive Functions predict improvement on the Vitalism battery but not on the Fun Facts battery and that Receptive Vocabulary predicts improvement the Fun Facts battery but not on the Vitalism battery. This double dissociation provides new evidence for the distinction between the two types of knowledge acquisition, and bears on the nature of the learning mechanisms involved in each. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  12. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm

    2016-01-01

    The abstract has the title: “The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model” The Cycle of Warfare is an analytical model designed to illustrate the coherence between the organization, doctrine and technology of a military entity and the influence of the surrounding society as expressed...... both retrospectively and predictively. As a tool for historians the model can help to identify decisive factors in developments and outcomes. As a tool for intelligence analysts, it can be used predictively to identify likely possible outcomes or unknown elements in analysed entities....

  13. Enabling Technologies for Point and Remote Sensing of Chemical and Biological Agents Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    chemicals: brilliant cresyl blue ( BCB ; Sigma), phenylalanine (PHE; Sigma), diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP; Sigma), dimethyl methylphosphonate...microscopy BCB brilliant cresyl blue CBW Chemical and biological warfare CCD charged coupled device COTS commercial-off-the-shelf CT charge transfer

  14. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  15. Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Reduced Graphene Oxide as a General Platform for Rapid and Sensitive Fluorescent Detection of Biological Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Song, Liping; Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Zhidong; Guo, Yuguo; Cao, Feifei

    2016-05-11

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) codoped reduced graphene oxide (N,S-rGO) was synthesized through a facile solvothermal process. The introduction of N and S heteroatoms into GO effectively activated the sp(2)-hybridized carbon lattice and made the material an ideal electron/energy acceptor. Such unique properties enable this material to perform as a general platform for rapid and sensitive detection of various biological species through simple fluorescence quenching and recovering. When quantum dot (QD)-labeled HBV (human being disease-related gene hepatitis B virus DNA) and HIV (human being disease-related gene human immunodeficiency virus DNA) molecular beacon probes were mixed with N,S-rGO, QD fluorescence was quenched; when target HBV and HIV DNA were added, QD fluorescence was recovered. By the recovered fluorescence intensity, the target virus DNA detection limits were reduced to 2.4 nM for HBV and 3.0 nM for HIV with detection time of less than 5 min. It must be stressed out that different viruses in the same homogeneous aqueous media could be discriminated and quantified simultaneously through choosing diverse QD probes with different colors. Moreover, even one mismatched target DNA could be distinguished using this method. When altering the molecular beacon loop domain to protein aptamers, this sensing strategy was also able to detect thrombin and IgE in 5 min with detection limits of 0.17 ng mL(-1) and 0.19 ng mL(-1), respectively, which was far more rapid and sensitive than bare GO-based fluorescence detection strategy.

  16. Media Technologies and Their Role in the Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Федоров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the new role of the mass media in the modern information space, the basic techniques and technologies of focused preparation, semantic distortion and emotional coloring of the transmitted information. The value of the mass media is estimated as the main weapon of the information warfare in the modern geopolitical space. Specific examples and techniques for manipulating information.

  17. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  18. Influence Operations in Insurgencies: Identifying Framing Strategies for Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Military Information Support Operations MAR Minorities at Risk MAROB Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior POQC Psychological Operations...and others use religious violence as a form of cleansing to eradicate “ infidels .”16 While individuals who are motivated by visions of the...indigenous personnel for Special Warfare through psychological and cognitive means. The Military Information Support Operations Command (MISOC) mission

  19. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der

    2011-01-01

    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  20. The Ottawa Treaty and Coalition Warfare: An Unholy Alliance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weddle, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    ...) on our ability to execute successful coalition warfare. This paper describes the serious implications for NATO and Coalition operations in view of the bulk of our Allies signing the Ottawa Treaty banning the use of all anti-personnel landmines (APLs...

  1. The political economy of warfare in nineteeth century Benin kingdom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines how the interactions of politics and economy influenced the changing perspective on warfare in nineteenth century Benin Kingdom. The study investigates how the combined political and economic behaviour of Benin affected the rebuilding of military power as instrument of political policy in furtherance ...

  2. blitzkrieg to desert storm: the evolution of operational warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a_nabb

    disease of stalemates infecting militaries before the Second World War. The invasion did not change the world; instead, it brought about an increased awareness of the importance of the operational level of war, a dimension of warfare previously neglected. The German operational effectiveness represented an evolution ...

  3. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface-chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  4. relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    not be applicable to every possible scenario; however, the intention is to illustrate their relevance in many .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, intersections for routers or ..... wireless channel, and negatively impact on the systems that rely on that channel. Electronic warfare.

  5. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  6. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this article explored the nexus between military theory and history. Military theory attempts to quantify, qualify and illuminate the often unpredictable phenomenon of war. The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in ...

  7. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  8. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  9. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  10. Nabarlek evaporation and storage ponds: possible role of biological activity in the escape of toxic substances to the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinick, W.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine whether or not game birds might become contaminated with radionuclides while visiting the evaporating ponds at the Nabarlek uranium mine. The level of biological community development in the ponds and water bird activity were low. It is concluded that at present escape of radionuclides or toxic elements from the ponds as a result of biological activity is not a problem

  11. Xenograft biologic mesh in parietal and general surgery: Technical assessment and review of clinical effectiveness and safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainfort, A; Denis Hallouard, I; Hartmann, D; Aulagner, G; Francois, Y; Tiffet, O; Barabino, G; Nuiry, O; Armoiry, X

    2016-12-01

    To describe the main technical characteristics of biologic prostheses used for parietal reinforcement and to present the state of the art on their risk/benefit ratio. We conducted a technical analysis of manufacturer specifications of the biologic prostheses that are currently available in France accompanied by a literature review by selecting meta-analyses and systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and publications of health technology rating agencies. Biological implants for parietal reinforcement are mainly intended for use in a contaminated environment where the use of synthetic prostheses is contra-indicated. We identified fourteen systematic reviews and meta-analyses and one randomized controlled trial. Six ongoing clinical trials were identified as well as two clinical trials that had been interrupted. In the current state of knowledge, there are no high-level evidence data on the therapeutic contribution of biologic prostheses that allow prioritization of the various biologic prostheses according to their characteristics or their different manufacturing processes. Pending the results of current randomized controlled trials to validate the indications and an eventual specific reimbursement, indications for the use of biologic parietal reinforcement prostheses seems to be limited to rare clinical situations and only after collegial discussion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates during Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER AD-A271 748 THE BATTLE FOR HUE: CASUALTY AND DISEASE RATES DURING URBAN WARFARE C. G. Blood M. E. Anderson DTIC...prior to the first casualties being sustained. 2 The Battle for Flue: Casualty and Disease Rates During Urban Warfare Renewed nationalism with the ending...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates Program Element: 63706N During Urban Warfare Work Unit Number: 6

  13. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  14. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    White Phosphorus Injury, Skin Exposure B-1 APPENDIX B NBC Tasks and Supplies First Responder B-2 Appendix B NBC Tasks and...6630015008737 Analyzer Blood Hand-Held 1 EA 6550015008742 Cartridge Analyzer Blood Cc Combo 25S 1 EA 599 SERUM CREATININE 6630014151593 Analyzer...Hospital Field 1 EA 6530000756636 Specimen Kit Urine 500S 1 EA 7520002815895 Stapler Paper Fastening Office Desk Gray 1 EA 7510002729662

  15. Modeling Nitrous Oxide Production during Biological Nitrogen Removal via Nitrification and Denitrification: Extensions to the General ASM Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N2O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N2O...

  16. Containment 2.0: U.S. Political Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    and was intended to ensure the heritage , culture , and languages of ethnic minorities in the Soviet Union were maintained. The secondary objective was...http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/News-Article-View/Article/643108/unconventional- warfare-in-the-gray-zone/. 4 radio messaging, and cultural ...staging a communist coup in Czechoslovakia in early 1948.28 Furthermore, each of these events started with the sponsorship of pro-communist movements

  17. Handbook on Ground Forces Attrition in Modern Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Dupuy d ELECTE John R. Brinkerhoff 0 APR 2 81994 C. Curtiss Johnson Peter J. Clark A Division of: DATA MEMORY SYSTEMS, INC. 10332 Democracy Lane Thi...Evaluation and Fe.earch Organization A Division of Data Memory Systems.. Inc. 10392 Democracy Lcne * Fairfax, Virginia 22030 Tel,: (703) 591-36ඒ The...data base touching a variety of aspects of warfare and analyzed it using techniques of the social and behavioral sciences. The work considers

  18. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    non-lethal in equal measure. In many ways, Germany’s Bundeswehr (military) construct and participation in various conflicts mirror contemporary just...war theory and postmodern warfare, while its military concept lacks the necessary postmodern balance. The Bundeswehr stands in stark contrast to...the United States. The Bundeswehr is only employed for the purposes of defending German citizens where the United States military can be employed to

  19. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Employing U.S. Information Operations Against...hostile computer code through internet infrastructure in multiple countries en route to the target) have enormous legal ramifications. Even within the...59 145 William J. Nemeth , Future War And Chechnya: A Case For Hybrid Warfare, (Monterey CA: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2002), 74. 146 U.S

  20. Information Warfare and Information Operations: Protecting The Global Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-06

    findings in a November 1996 report described by the Wall Street Journal as "unusually strident.൮ It made 13 recommendations, including one for...Funds Moved Around World", The Wall Street Journal , September 12, 1995, p 1. 21 Data Provided By Member of the President’s Commission on Critical...U.S. Department of Defense, April 1997, 230. 38 Thomas E. Ricks, "Information Warfare Defense is Urged", Wall Street Journal , 6 January 1997, Section

  1. Wrestling the Bear: The Rise of Russian Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    search.proguest.com.nduezproxy.idm.oclc.orgldocview/1 545535275?accountid.:: J2686. (accessed on 4 December 2014). 14 Reuters, " Malaysia : Dutch...with subversive efforts. The aggressor often resorts to clandestine actions, to avoid attribution or retribution. Without a credible smoking gun, NATO...2015. Accessed December 27, 2014. http://www .nato.int/docu/review/20 14/ Also-in-20 14/Deterring-hybrid- warfare/EN/index .htm. Reuters,. ’ Malaysia

  2. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    that spin highly toxic, corrosive , and radioactive uranium gas (Uranium Hexafluoride) at over 100,000...Policy for Information Warfare,” Intellibriefs, http://intellibriefs.blogspot.com/2009_03_22_archive.html (accessed February 11, 2012). 81 Marina ...commentary_battlefield_on_your_desktop/2345202.html (accessed December 13, 2011). Myakisheva, Marina . “What is Russia’s Answer to Cyber Threats?” CNews.ru

  3. Enterprises as Inquiring Systems with Implications for Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    applying C. West Churchman’s characterization of Western epistemology , which was born in the tradition of the philosophy of science, in the business... epistemology they most closely resemble. 2.1 Lockian Model The Lockian model bases reasoning on experiment and consensus. Empirical information is gathered...defined as the “integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military

  4. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  5. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  6. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  7. Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

    2011-09-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements.

  8. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... establishing a new security zone at the Naval Mine and Anti-Submarine Warfare Command to protect the relocated... Commander of Naval Base Point Loma, the Commander of the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, and the...

  9. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  10. 78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Forest Service Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center... order authorizing the transfer of administrative jurisdiction from the Department of Agriculture to the..., lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center and the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest...

  11. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  12. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion...Fighting The US military gains a disproportionate advantage over potential adversaries by exploiting space capabilities. Satellites provide an

  13. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  14. Application of non-quantitative modelling in the analysis of a network warfare environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Network warfare is an emerging concept that focuses on the network and computer based forms through which information is attacked and defended. Various computer and network security concepts thus play a role in network warfare. Due the intricacy...

  15. [Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects. An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Benintende, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological pesticide used to control insects that affect agriculture and forestry and which transmit human and animal pathogens. During the past decades B. thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of their pesticidal crystal proteins. As a result, a coherent picture of these relationships has emerged. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins and their performance in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  16. Encircled Forces: The Neglected Phenomenon of Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Command and General Staff College, 1984. Wray, Timothy A. "Standing Fast: German Defensive Doctrine On the Russian Front During the Second World War... Raney , George H. "Tank and Anti-Tank Activities of the German Army." Infantry Journal 31 (February 1927), 151-8. Record, Jeffrey. "Implications of a

  17. Globalization and Asymmetrical Warfare: Operation Athena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clep

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, Operation Athena represents Canada’s contribution to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF in Afghanistan. This article explains the Canadian role as an international security provider in general and a closer look on the background, the rationale and the structure of Operation Athena - how it supports the Canadian priorities and objectives in Afghanistan toward 2011.

  18. 2007 Expeditionary Warfare Conference (12th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-25

    Panama Peru Uruguay EUCOM Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Denmark Estonia Finland Czech Rep. France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary...UPS 1911/14/2007 2:17 PM Lockheed Martin Team Lockheed Martin Gibbs & Cox Marinette Marine Bollinger Shipyards General Dynamics Bath Iron Works

  19. Summary of Research 1995, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups (Command, Control & Communications Academic Group, Electronic Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Undersea Warfare Academic Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Academic Groups

    1995-01-01

    The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. This report contains information of research projects in the four interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control & Communications Academic Group, Electronic Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Undersea Warfare Academic Group, which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research...

  20. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  1. Generalization of Figure-Ground Segmentation from Binocular to Monocular Vision in an Embodied Biological Brain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    figure and ground the luminance cue breaks down and gestalt contours can fail to pop out. In this case we rely on color, which, having weak stereopsis...have very poor visual acuity, while human vision is rather sharp. This is potentially due, in part, to the longer learning curve human vision...physically changed by conceptual knowledge, allowing us to make certain conceptual generalizations at the speed of visual object recognition [1]. The

  2. Tribal Warfare: The Society of Modern Airmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air University Press, 1998), 235–38. See also Janowitz, Professional Soldier, 150–51. 8. Charles C. Moskos, David R . Segal, and John Allen Williams...social Darwinism to accept the notion that 86 | Air & Space Power Journal a certain amount of organizational strife keeps everybody on his or her toes...York: Free Press, 1971), 54–75. 7. Michael R . Worden, Rise of the Fighter Generals: The Problem of Air Force Leadership, 1945–1982 (Maxwell AFB, AL

  3. Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    aircraft or motor vehicle being fueled or on an adjacent aircraft or vehicle. • Do not make or break any electrical, ground wire, or tie down...typically are of the Stirling cycle design and utilize the expansion of a gas (helium) to cool a cold finger attached to the detector. These generally...10-1.20 NUTATOR - A motor -driven rotating antenna feed used to produce a conical scan for a tracking radar. See also Antenna, Nutating. Also

  4. Black Jack Pershing: Partnerships in Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    withdrawn to American territory as soon as the de facto government of Mexico is able to relieve them of this work.”38 The Carranza government of Mexico...roadless deserts and rugged mountains stretching some five hundred miles into the heart of Mexico.40 The Carranza government refused to allow the...through which we have operated.”44 By May 4, 1916, the Carranza government was opening calling for the immediate withdrawal of US troops.45 General

  5. Women and Warfare in Pre-Colonial Akokoland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Faboyede

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In pre-colonial Akokoland, the most conspicuous fact about its political economy and peace was security challenges and mismanagement through internal and external manipulation. This paper analyses the role of women in warfare in pre-colonial Akokoland as a potential to integrate Akokoland, a multi-cultural community for productive and sustained effort to promote economic development in the region. Thus, the paper is conceptualised on historical objectivity. The paper argues that one of the ways of dealing with the scale of insecurity in the society is to assimilate historical thinking into the intention of the security agents (women warriors.

  6. Russian Military Thinking – A New Generation of Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Peter A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with how Russian warfighting is described and discussed in contemporary Russian military theory. The approach has been studies, analyses and interpretations of primarily Russian sources as prominent Russian journals, but also Western analyses and interpretations of contemporary Russian warfighting discussions. Theoretical considerations are limited to the period from the 1980s to the present day - 2014. Mainly Russian experts on military theory (Bogdanov, Chekinov, Gareev, Kiselyov, Kuralenko, Morozov, Slipchenko, Vinogradov, Vladimirov, Vorobyov have been studied, but also sources from some prominent Western experts on Russian warfare (FitzGerald, Gileotti, Kipp, McDermott.

  7. Lawfare in Hybrid Wars: The 21st Century Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik

    2016-01-01

    In the context of ‘Hybrid Warfare’ as 21st Century’s threat to peace and security, this paper intends to address the role of Lawfare. The use of law as a weapon, Lawfare,1can have a tangible impact on democratic States when their adversaries use it in an exploitative way. Lawfare can be used in the context of Hybrid War.2 Examples of Hybrid Warfare as witnessed in the Russian/Ukrainian conflict of 2014/2015 and the ongoing conflict with Daesh are particularly sensitive to Lawfare due to an ap...

  8. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  9. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code ) (U) (U) (U) (U) 100 (913)758-3300 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 i...William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid Warfare (master’s thesis, US Naval Postgraduate School, 2002); Erin M. Simpson...2005). Unpublished papers pre-dating Hoffman’s effort include a 2002 Master’s thesis by William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work

  10. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Bolivarian Socialism, and Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    lead to a better life for all. Finally, taken all together, this is “war as a whole,” or what Chávez calls “ Guerra de todo el pueblo...VENEZUELA’S HUGO CHÁVEZ, BOLIVARIAN SOCIALISM, AND ASYMMETRIC WARFARE Beginning with the election of Lieutenant Colonel Hugo Chávez Frias as President...financial, material, and political-military support of people’s movements.31 This takes us to the notion of “ Guerra de todo el pueblo” (war of all

  11. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  12. Brave New Warfare: Autonomy in Lethal UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Executions,” United Nations General Assembly, May 28, 2010, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/ bodies /hrcouncil/docs/14session/A.HRC.14.24.Add6.pdf. 34 Rique...capability 40 The Army’s Future Combat Sytems (FCS) program was canceled in May 2009 as part of... bodies /hrcouncil/docs/14session/A.HRC.14.24.Ad d6.pdf. Arkin, Ronald. Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2009. doi

  13. Biological chromodynamics: a general method for measuring protein occupancy across the genome by calibrating ChIP-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Petela, Naomi; Kurze, Alexander; Chan, Kok-Lung; Chapard, Christophe; Nasmyth, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing DNA fragments associated with proteins following in vivo cross-linking with formaldehyde (known as ChIP-seq) has been used extensively to describe the distribution of proteins across genomes. It is not widely appreciated that this method merely estimates a protein's distribution and cannot reveal changes in occupancy between samples. To do this, we tagged with the same epitope orthologous proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata, whose sequences have diverged to a degree that most DNA fragments longer than 50 bp are unique to just one species. By mixing defined numbers of C. glabrata cells (the calibration genome) with S. cerevisiae samples (the experimental genomes) prior to chromatin fragmentation and immunoprecipitation, it is possible to derive a quantitative measure of occupancy (the occupancy ratio – OR) that enables a comparison of occupancies not only within but also between genomes. We demonstrate for the first time that this ‘internal standard’ calibration method satisfies the sine qua non for quantifying ChIP-seq profiles, namely linearity over a wide range. Crucially, by employing functional tagged proteins, our calibration process describes a method that distinguishes genuine association within ChIP-seq profiles from background noise. Our method is applicable to any protein, not merely highly conserved ones, and obviates the need for the time consuming, expensive, and technically demanding quantification of ChIP using qPCR, which can only be performed on individual loci. As we demonstrate for the first time in this paper, calibrated ChIP-seq represents a major step towards documenting the quantitative distributions of proteins along chromosomes in different cell states, which we term biological chromodynamics. PMID:26130708

  14. [Toxicological analysis of biological material originating from the body of general Władysław Sikorski for organic poisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Toxicological analyses performed in individuals who died in unclear circumstances constitute a key element of research aiming at providing a complete explanation of cause of death. The entire panel of examinations of the corpse of general Sikorski also included toxicological analyses for drugs and organic poisons of synthetic and natural origin. Attention was focused on fast-acting and potent poisons known and used in the forties of the century. The internal organs (stomach, liver, lung, brain) and hair, as well as other materials collected from the body and found in the coffin were analyzed. The classic method of sample preparation, i.e. homogenization, deproteinization, headspace and liquid-liquid extraction were applied. Hyphenated methods, mainly chromatographic with mass spectrometry were used for identification of the analytes. Organic poisons were not identified in the material as a result of the research.

  15. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  16. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  17. Challenges of Military Health Service Support in Mountain Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Raimund; Küpper, Thomas; Tannheimer, Markus

    2018-03-16

    History is full of examples of the influence of the mountain environment on warfare. The aim of this article is to identify the main environmental hazards and summarize countermeasures to mitigate the impact of this unique environment. A selective PubMed and Internet search was conducted. Additionally, we searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and included the recommendations of the leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies. A definition of mountain warfare mainly derived from environmental influences on body functions is introduced to help identify the main environmental hazards. Cold, rugged terrain, hypoxic exposure, and often a combination and mutual aggravation of these factors are the most important environmental factors of mountain environment. Underestimating this environmental influence has decreased combat strength and caused thousands of casualties during past conflicts. Some marked differences between military and civilian mountaineering further complicate mission planning and operational sustainability. To overcome the restrictions of mountain environments, proper planning and preparation, including sustained mountain mobility training, in-depth mountain medicine training with a special emphasize on prolonged field care, knowledge of acclimatization strategies, adapted time calculations, mountain-specific equipment, air rescue strategies and makeshift evacuation strategies, and thorough personnel selection, are vital to guarantee the best possible medical support. The specifics of managing risks in mountain environments are also critical for civilian rescue missions and humanitarian aid. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  19. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E

    1999-12-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.

  20. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  1. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : keynote speech from Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Professor in the Molecular Biology at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, Former Director-General of UNESCO

    CERN Multimedia

    Blanc

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : keynote speech from Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Professor in the Molecular Biology at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, Former Director-General of UNESCO

  2. Increasing URM Undergraduate Student Success through Assessment-Driven Interventions: A Multiyear Study Using Freshman-Level General Biology as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Mary C.; St. Clair, Candace; Edwards, Andrea M.; Barrett, Peter; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Awad, Mohamed; Kundu, Anup; Ireland, Shubha Kale

    2016-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana leads the nation in awarding BS degrees in the biological sciences to African-American students. In this multiyear study with ∼5500 participants, data-driven interventions were adopted to improve student academic performance in a freshman-level general biology course. The three hour-long exams were common and administered concurrently to all students. New exam questions were developed using Bloom’s taxonomy, and exam results were analyzed statistically with validated assessment tools. All but the comprehensive final exam were returned to students for self-evaluation and remediation. Among other approaches, course rigor was monitored by using an identical set of 60 questions on the final exam across 10 semesters. Analysis of the identical sets of 60 final exam questions revealed that overall averages increased from 72.9% (2010) to 83.5% (2015). Regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between high-risk students and their averages on the 60 questions. Additional analysis demonstrated statistically significant improvements for at least one letter grade from midterm to final and a 20% increase in the course pass rates over time, also for the high-risk population. These results support the hypothesis that our data-driven interventions and assessment techniques are successful in improving student retention, particularly for our academically at-risk students. PMID:27543637

  3. Integrated Swarming Operations for Air Base Defense: Applications in Irregular Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Ron

    2006-01-01

    .... However, in low-intensity conflicts (LICs) or irregular warfare (IW) campaigns, U.S. forces are faced with an irregular enemy, one that does not choose to fight its forces directly, but rather through unconventional or indirect methods...

  4. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  5. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Budget Data for the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ... and realignment military construction projects. This report provides the results of the audit related to the realignment of Naval Surface Warfare Centers elements in White Oak, Maryland, and Panama City, Florida, to Dahlgren, Virginia...

  6. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  7. Interoperability and Network-Centric Warfare: US Army Future Force and German Army in 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alme, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    .... Special consideration is given to technical and behavioral interoperability. The monograph also assesses the projected capabilities of the German Bundeswehr in the year 2015 with regard to Network-Centric Warfare (NCW...

  8. Analysis of Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals for the Proposed Undersea Warfare Training Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jette, Steven D; Cembrola, Joan M; Mitchell, Glenn H; Fetherston, Thomas N

    2005-01-01

    ...) for the proposed Undersea Warfare Training Range (USWTR). The DEIS includes an assessment of the effects of Navy sonars on marine mammals during exercises to occur on the range as required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA...

  9. Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Analysis of Individual Ready Reserve Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoker, Carol; Crawford, Alice

    2008-01-01

    ... (including morale and lack of mentoring), push both men and women out of the Navy. Nonetheless, the Navy s primary effort to improve retention has been to introduce the Surface Warfare Officer Continuation Pay (SWOCP...

  10. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noort, D

    2006-01-01

    This report is an update of TNO report PML 2003-A63. In this report an overview is presented of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e...

  11. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek

    2002-01-01

    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  12. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  13. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  14. Damn! The Torpedoes: Coping with Mine Warfare in the Joint Maritime Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahr, James D

    2007-01-01

    ... and the attainment of joint operational maneuver. The potential exists for non-state actors to acquire sea mines and subsequently employ mine warfare as a means of crippling the Navy throughout its range of military operations...

  15. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  16. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  17. Guerrilla Warfare: Cause and Conflict (A 21st Century Success Story?),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    and low intensity warfare is the means, both qualitative and quantitative, employed to achieve the intended goal. Both types of war require analysis ...administration.’ 9 If despair and aggravation become the mortar and pestle of future guerrilla warfare, then weapons availability and population growth might be... Thailand , and the Philippines. 55 Every time you ask, "Where are they going to get the money to pay," everybody falls silent. Brazil alone owes $55

  18. Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    September–October 2015 | 85 Views Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War Strategic Agility Maj Michael W. Benitez, USAF America’s... gap between the dynamic 21st-century environment and our 20th-century bureaucracy. Their initiative and perse- verance allow us to succeed in our...SUBTITLE Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. Detachment 101 and North Burma: Historical Conditions for Future Unconventional Warfare Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    of 1941 (1990; repr., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2011), 42. 24 Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition...Warfare: 1941­ 1942 (1953 repr., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1999), 120. 25 Maurice Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare...opportunity for DET 101 to improve its relationships with the Kachin people. 99War Report: OSS, Volume 2, 383. 100 Richard Dunlop, Behind Japanese Lines with

  20. Irregular Warfare as a National Military Strategy Approach for Small States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of these “pods”: the question of homogeneity or heterogeneity. There 216 Oliker, Russia´s Chechen Wars...Ronfeldt regarding the degree of homogeneity of the teams should also be evaluated. In some cases, there might be a higher degree of specialization in...prerequisites. A. IRREGULAR WARFARE – A DIRTY WAR? Based on the last decades of conflicts, the tactics used in irregular warfare have left a bad taste in the

  1. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Chemical Warfare Agent Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    GB], Franke, S., Manual of Military Chemistry , Volume 1. Chemistry of Chemical Warfare Agents, Deutscher Militîrverlag: Berlin (East), 1967... Chemistry , Volume 1. Chemistry of Chemical Warfare Agents, Deutscher Militîrverlag: Berlin (East), 1967. Translated from German by U.S. Department of...Response and Recovery Phases A common misconception is that recovery begins after the response phase. Recovery, however, actually begins during

  2. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...called cllMotorBasic. This module can be used separately if one is developing other software that needs to control the motors . The front panel of this

  3. Welcome to the Naval Postgraduate School Center on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, Webpage

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare

    2013-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 1998, The Center on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare produces timely, innovative, interdisciplinary analysis relevant to policy and operations. In studying terrorism and irregular warfare, the Center focuses the research capabilities of its staff and the Naval Postgraduate School on an area of critical importance to the national security of the United States.

  4. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    W., & Scheaffer, R. L. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 118 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT

  5. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  6. Information Warfare on Social Media: A Brand Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpokas Ignas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.

  7. RELATIONAL APPROACHES REGARDING FOCUSED LOGISTICS IN MODERN WARFARE JOINT OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The military joint operations of the future are characterized by large concentrations of forces and conventional means on the directions that permit the exploitation of the technological superiority and the manifestation of the offensive spirit of the commanders of the joint operation force groups. Having in mind the fact that the relation between the combatant forces and the logistic ones will shift more and more in favour of the latter, the aforementioned operations will be usually supported by modern flexible logistic structures. The constituted force groups will have a significant joint force character, ensuring superior quality of the troops’ combat training, both at individual level and collective level of units and large units. The current article presents innovative aspects of focused logistics, adapted for the modern warfare, which should be designed and achieved in order to increase the operational potential of the joint force groups.

  8. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review

  9. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare Based Approach to HLA Federate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSeo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of electronic warfare models are developed in the Electronic Warfare Research Center. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare (OAFEw has been developed for reusability of various object models participating in the electronic warfare simulation and for extensibility of the electronic warfare simulator. OAFEw is a kind of component-based software (SW lifecycle management support framework. This OAFEw is defined by six components and ten rules. The purpose of this study is to construct a Distributed Simulation Interface Model, according to the rules of OAFEw, and create Use Case Model of OAFEw Reference Conceptual Model version 1.0. This is embodied in the OAFEw-FOM (Federate Object Model for High-Level Architecture (HLA based distributed simulation. Therefore, we design and implement EW real-time distributed simulation that can work with a model in C++ and MATLAB API (Application Programming Interface. In addition, OAFEw-FOM, electronic component model, and scenario of the electronic warfare domain were designed through simple scenarios for verification, and real-time distributed simulation between C++ and MATLAB was performed through OAFEw-Distributed Simulation Interface.

  10. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  11. Chamber lidar measurements of biological aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David M; Thrush, Evan; Thomas, Michael E

    2011-02-10

    In order to determine the performance of standoff sensors against agents, there is a need to develop methods to characterize the optical properties of biological warfare agents. The goal of this work is to develop a methodology that would allow the characterization of agent optical cross sections from the UV to the longwave IR. The present work demonstrates an optical measurement architecture based on lidar technology, allowing the measurement of backscatter and depolarization ratio from biological aerosols (either simulants or agents) released in a refereed, 1m3 chamber. Measured results on simulant materials are calibrated and compared to theoretical simulations of the cross sections.

  12. [Principles of management in biological infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of the management in respiratory infection is depending on the nature of the biological pathogen and the immune status of the patient. For this reason, providing assistance to victims the organ function support, similarly as defining the pathogen and targeted antibiotic therapy should be applied. Available diagnostic tests provide rapid ability to identify the pathogen and antibiotics are able to control infection. Lack of efficacy of treatment may indicate the diversity of the pathogen than previously known and raises suspicion of biological warfare pathogen.

  13. Virtual Warfare: Masculinity, Sexuality, and Propaganda in the Russo-Ukrainian War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Romanets

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the intersection of sexual and political discourses as a particular aspect of the body politics that Russia has employed, among other strategies, in its massive propaganda offensive during the hybrid warfare against Ukraine.While recognizing sexuality as one of the mainstream concepts in political analysis, the paper draws on sexually explicit imagery and idiom used in Russian social media, and public discursive space in general, as propaganda techniques, and maps their “genealogy” within wider sociocultural and political contexts. Being conceptualized in terms of Russian hegemonic masculinity in relation to subordinated femininity and non-hegemonic masculinities of its adversarial others, these setups reveal how sexuality constitutes uneven and contradictory nexuses of power once being co-opted by Putin’s propaganda machine. It is noteworthy that Russia’s neo-imperial discursive tactics of homologizing sexual and political dominance—when supplemented with the official rhetoric of restituting Russia as a great power, Orthodox Christian fundamentalism as an integral part of Russian unique “state-civilization,” state-sanctioned homophobia, and traditional macho gender ideology—contribute quite effectively to sustaining public support in Russia for aggression against Ukraine in the process of Russian reimperialization of the former Soviet space.

  14. Guerra e desenvolvimento biológico: o caso da biotecnologia e da genômica na segunda metade do século XX Warfare and biological development: the case of biotechnology and genomics during the second half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eneida de Almeida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde a década de 1980, a Biotecnologia vem assumindo um papel cada vez mais importante dentro do planejamento estratégico das Grandes Potências, como elemento central para um novo tipo de arma ofensiva de destruição em massa e como paradigma para o planejamento de defesa e proteção de suas populações nacionais. Para defender esta tese, nosso estudo se orientou exatamente na história do deslocamento da Biologia para o centro do planejamento de defesa americano. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a existência de uma estreita relação entre o Desenvolvimento Biotecnológico, da ciência Genômica em particular, e a questão da guerra. Nossa hipótese é que a Biotecnologia se afirmou no campo da guerra, quando foram atingidos um ponto de condensação de fatos políticos e uma confluência de possibilidades biotécnicas que estimularam acentuadamente o interesse político-militar. A metodologia para a investigação desta conexão deu-se por dois caminhos: uma análise teórica, onde encontramos as origens e o mecanismo da Big Science desde a II Guerra Mundial, quando a Física assumiu o eixo central da ciência de ponta na era atômica, e desde a década de 1980, quando a Biologia passou a ocupar um lugar central; e uma análise historiográfica, acompanhando duas trajetórias convergentes que, para a nossa tese, formam o nervo central do Desenvolvimento Biotecnológico, da Guerra Biológica e do Projeto Genoma Humano.Since the 1980's, biotechnology has played an increasingly predominant role in the strategic planning of the super-powers, as the central element of a new type of mass destruction weapon as well as a model for defense planning and protection of their national populations. This study aims to demonstrate the path taken by Biology towards the core of American defense planning and also to investigate the close relationship between biotechnological development, in particular that of Genome Science and war. The specific hypothesis

  15. [Analysis of biological material originating from the body of general Władysław Sikorski for inorganic poisons and diatoms presence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlik, Józefa Krystyna; Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-01

    Results of the analysis of biological materials originating from the body of general Sikorski are presented in the paper. Samples of the liver, kidney, intestine and lung were analysed for metals and As content, and samples of the lung, liver, kidney, stomach, intestine and bone marrow--for diatoms presence. The analysis for metals and As was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Before the analysis, the samples were wet digested by the classic and microwave assisted method. The analysis did not result in detecting the presence of As, Co, Ni, and Tl in any of the studied materials, while Hg was not revealed in the liver, intestines and lung and Pb in the intestines and lung. The content of Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn in all the studied materials, Hg in the kidney, and Pb in the liver and kidney did not indicate poisoning by the above-mentioned metals or arsenic. No diatoms were found in the studied materials.

  16. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  17. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... Anti-Submarine Warfare Command to protect the relocated marine mammal program. These security zone... the Port, The Commander of Naval Base Point Loma, the Commander of the Naval Mine Anti Submarine...

  18. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshiri Mohammd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organophosphorous (OP Nerve agents (NAs are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I AChE activity measurement, (II Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning.

  19. [Biogeography: geography or biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafanov, A I

    2009-01-01

    General biogeography is an interdisciplinary science, which combines geographic and biological aspects constituting two distinct research fields: biological geography and geographic biology. These fields differ in the nature of their objects of study, employ different methods and represent Earth sciences and biological sciences, respectively. It is suggested therefore that the classification codes for research fields and the state professional education standard should be revised.

  20. Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T Y; Seet, M B; Ang, C L

    1997-01-01

    With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50-80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and injuries associated with intraocular foreign bodies pose special diagnostic and management problems. Injuries are bilateral in 15-25% of cases. Injuries associated with chemical, nuclear, and laser weapons have distinct characteristics and epidemiology. Enucleation was commonly performed at the turn of the century, but incidence has declined with better understanding of the pathophysiology of ocular trauma, improved surgical techniques and sepsis control with antibiotics. Sympathetic ophthalmia appears to be uncommon and earlier fears of this complication seem to have been exaggerated. Timely evacuation to a surgical facility is important for a good visual prognosis and preservation of the globe. However, prevention of injuries with eye armor is ultimately the best management, and the need for a comprehensive eye protection program in the military cannot be overemphasized, especially since eye injuries pose important socioeconomic, as well as medical, problems.

  1. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour

    2017-01-01

    Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to 'morally disengage' from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top 'looking down', or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521) and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354) during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a) community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable) levels of blatant dehumanization, (b) blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c) the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict.

  2. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  3. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  4. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  5. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  6. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  7. THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  8. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  10. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-01-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  12. Evaluation of Nipah Virus as a Human and Animal Biological Terrorism and Warfare Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Molecular analyses have confirmed that Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related, but different viruses . The N, C, P. V, M, F and G genes of Nipah...encephalitis and 106 of them have died. The Nipah virus outbreak also devastated Malaysia’s pig-farming industry. The Nipah virus or so-called Hendra ...Nipah virus belongs to the Paramnyxoviirit strain, which shows similarities to the Hendra virus , which was discovered in Australia in 1994

  13. Biological Warfare Improved Response Program (BW-IRP) CDC/DoD Smallpox Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    HIV) positive patients but also those who are taking steroid drugs, are transplant recipients, or have end-stage renal disease. Medical practitioners...are pregnant • Patients who are immunosuppressed, including those patients who are HIV-positive, are taking steroid drugs, are transplant recipients...recommended against assembling any of the suspected smallpox cases in a single area such as a school gym , warehouse, or even a hospital. The rationale

  14. Chicken cathelicidin-2-derived peptides with enhanced immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities against biological warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.; Dijk, A. van; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Boele, L.C.L.; Kaman-van Zanten, W.E.; Haagsman, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Host defence peptides (HDPs) are considered to be excellent candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Recently, it was demonstrated that the peptide C1-15, an N-terminal segment of chicken HDP cathelicidin-2, exhibits potent antibacterial activity while lacking cytotoxicity towards

  15. Reduced weight decontamination formulation for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2014-06-03

    A reduced weight DF-200 decontamination formulation that is stable under high temperature storage conditions. The formulation can be pre-packed as an all-dry (i.e., no water) or nearly-dry (i.e., minimal water) three-part kit, with make-up water (the fourth part) being added later in the field at the point of use.

  16. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schuetze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O 2 /H 2 O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O 2 * , He * ) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Identification of Biological Warfare (BW) Threat Agents Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Microarrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaudies, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    ...) antibiotic resistance genes, 4) virulence plasmid sequences and 5) ribosomal genes, we are in a unique position to develop a novel method for the identification and characterization of microorganism...

  18. Integrated Biological Warfare Technology Platform (IBWTP). Intelligent Software Supporting Situation Awareness, Response, and Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbott, Frank T; Johnson, Apperson H; Prior, Stephen D; Steiner, Donald D

    2007-01-01

    .... This report provides an overview of the challenges QLI faced, the approach it took to creating the technologies, and some of the specific technological solutions in the areas of Situational Awareness...

  19. In Situ Methylene Capping: A General Strategy for Efficient Stereoretentive Catalytic Olefin Metathesis. The Concept, Methodological Implications, and Applications to Synthesis of Biologically Active Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofan; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2017-08-09

    In situ methylene capping is introduced as a practical and broadly applicable strategy that can expand the scope of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis considerably. By incorporation of commercially available Z-butene together with robust and readily accessible Ru-based dithiolate catalysts developed in these laboratories, a large variety of transformations can be made to proceed with terminal alkenes, without the need for a priori synthesis of a stereochemically defined disubstituted olefin. Reactions thus proceed with significantly higher efficiency and Z selectivity as compared to when other Ru-, Mo-, or W-based complexes are utilized. Cross-metathesis with olefins that contain a carboxylic acid, an aldehyde, an allylic alcohol, an aryl olefin, an α substituent, or amino acid residues was carried out to generate the desired products in 47-88% yield and 90:10 to >98:2 Z:E selectivity. Transformations were equally efficient and stereoselective with a ∼70:30 Z-:E-butene mixture, which is a byproduct of crude oil cracking. The in situ methylene capping strategy was used with the same Ru catechothiolate complex (no catalyst modification necessary) to perform ring-closing metathesis reactions, generating 14- to 21-membered ring macrocyclic alkenes in 40-70% yield and 96:4-98:2 Z:E selectivity; here too, reactions were more efficient and Z-selective than when the other catalyst classes are employed. The utility of the approach is highlighted by applications to efficient and stereoselective syntheses of several biologically active molecules. This includes a platelet aggregate inhibitor and two members of the prostaglandin family of compounds by catalytic cross-metathesis reactions, and a strained 14-membered ring stapled peptide by means of macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis. The approach presented herein is likely to have a notable effect on broadening the scope of olefin metathesis, as the stability of methylidene complexes is a generally

  20. From Salerno to Rome: General Mark W. Clark and the Challenges of Coalition Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    that would facilitate shore operations, and coastal defenses consisting of mainly fieldworks. There were disadvantages in choosing this location...The New Zealand Soldier in World War II. Auckland : Octopus Publishing Group, 1986. Parker, Matthew. Monte Cassino. New York: Doubleday, 2004

  1. General Alphonse Juin: A Case Study in Leadership and Coalition Warfare (Italy 1943-1944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    oftheir commitment from de Gaulle’s hands. Juin thus. found himself in a paradoxical situation. The equipment and training program boosted the morale of...two weeks before his eighty-eighth birthday . Sources: • Mark Blumenson, Mark Clark, the Last of the Great World War II Commanders. • Britannica

  2. General George Crooks Development as a Practitioner of Irregular Warfare During the Indian Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    campaigns he participated in, most notably the work of Crook’s adjutant, Captain John Bourke, provide valuable insight into Crook’s actions. Additional... John C. Bonnycastle headed the main body, and Captain Greiger and his volunteers comprised the rear guard. Captain Judah planned to move between... buried the bodies the best way they could and set out for the cave the next morning. Once they found the cave, they stopped short by about 150

  3. Rebalancing General Purpose Forces to Meet Expanding Worldwide Irregular Warfare Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    develop a comprehensive understanding of the complex character of a conflict, of its social, political, historical, cultural, and economic contexts...to train and develop adaptive leaders and units that can operate effectively in today’s complex environments, more jointly and at lower levels.77 To...in conjunction with the brigade intelligence officer and is complemented by a Military Intelligence Company ( MICO ), with substantial access to

  4. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and

  5. 75 FR 69032 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Warfare Center, Dahlgren's patrol boats. Oystering and fishing boats or other craft may cross the river in... energy technology, and manned or unmanned water craft operations; (2) change the latitude and longitude... shoreline for commercial fishing and waterfowl hunting blinds under existing Navy and state regulations. The...

  6. The Evolution of Naval Warfare Technology and the Impact of Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    or Greek fire. Larger missile devices such as the trebuchet were commonly used in land warfare, particularly in siege operations. However, the...were being used more widely in the Mediterranean. Mangonels and trebuchets were used to heave a variety of projectiles. Their adaptation for use on

  7. Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy and Organizational Considerations for Assurance. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-04

    2-19 2-2-1 State Com puter Crim e Statutes ....................................................................... 2-44...2-2-2 Com puter Crim e Jurisdiction .......................................................................... 2-45 2-4-1 Information Warfare Policy...infrastructures from physical and cyber threats. * Propose statutory and regulatory changes. The Infrastructure Protection Task Force (IPTF): * Increase

  8. Ge 4+ doped TiO 2 for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 227, AUGUST (2012), s. 62-67 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : germanium * homogeneous hydrolysis * titania * urea * warfare agent degradation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.925, year: 2012

  9. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...

  10. Urban Warfare at the Operational Level: Identifying Centers of Gravity and Key Nodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward

    1999-01-01

    .... The intent of this paper is to focus the reader on the operational level of urban warfare. A key task for the Joint Force Commander and his staff will be to identify the targets against which he will employ his component forces...

  11. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  12. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    1991. Protection by butyrylcholinesterase against organophosphorus poisoning in nonhuman primates. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 259(2): 633-638. Costa...Employee Health), Stephen McCurdy (UCD Epidemiology ), Stephanie Padilla (US EPA), Matthew Keifer (U. Washington) and CA and Utah clinical laboratories...the cholinergic function of the nervous system (Wilson, 2001). Organophosphorus ester pesticides and chem- ical warfare agents disrupt cholinergic

  13. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Baltic states should adopt the self-defence pinpricks doctrine: the “accumulation of events” threshold as a deterrent to Russian hybrid warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Philippe Bou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a key legal debate that the Baltic NATO members ought to engage in: what constitutes an “armed attack” and what interpretation should be made of this concept in order to deter recent Russian hybrid warfare strategies. These questions are considered in connection with a more general issue regarding the law of self-defence: the question of what constitutes an armed attack in international law. This article will try to present a broad definition and context of Russian hybrid warfare and how it is challenging traditional jus ad bellum paradigms. Too few policy-makers have paid detailed attention to the new Russian “lawfare” in Ukraine, using specific military and non-military tactics in order to blur the lines between “armed attack” and mere political intervention. Meanwhile, legal scholars detach their analysis from actual policy-serving considerations and tend to acquiesce to some very restrictive theories of the use force in self-defence. For some countries, like the Baltic ones, facing strategic exposure – because of both threatening neighbours and low military capacities – the jus ad bellum paradigm should not be construed as another layer of obstacle.

  15. Relatoría general de relación entre historia, epistemología y enseñanza de la biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús David Perilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El equipo conformado por Maira Zulied Andrade Otálora, Luz Edith Narváez Chamorro, Glidian Carolina Dussan Petevi, Elkin Aguilar Fonseca, Santiago Guevara Garzón, Jesús David Perilla Nieves y Alix Dayanna Quiroga León, trabajó en la temática “relación entre historia, epistemología y enseñanza de la biología” durante los tres días, del III congreso nacional de investigación en enseñanza de la biología – VIII encuentro nacional de experiencias en enseñanza de la biología y de la educación ambiental.

  16. Relatoría general de relación entre historia, epistemología y enseñanza de la biología

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús David Perilla

    2015-01-01

    El equipo conformado por Maira Zulied Andrade Otálora, Luz Edith Narváez Chamorro, Glidian Carolina Dussan Petevi, Elkin Aguilar Fonseca, Santiago Guevara Garzón, Jesús David Perilla Nieves y Alix Dayanna Quiroga León, trabajó en la temática “relación entre historia, epistemología y enseñanza de la biología” durante los tres días, del III congreso nacional de investigación en enseñanza de la biología – VIII encuentro nacional de experiencias en enseñanza de la biología y de la educación ambie...

  17. Evolution of war and cyber attacks in the concept of conventional warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.

  18. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  19. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I. Gibson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that

  20. An On-Campus Botanical Tour to Promote Student Satisfaction and Learning in a University Level Biodiversity or General Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayaka, Harish H.

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor, hands-on and experiential learning, as opposed to instruction-based learning in classroom, increases student satisfaction and motivation leading to a deeper understanding of the subject. However, the use of outdoor exercises in undergraduate biology courses is declining due to a variety of constraints. Thus, the goal of this paper is to…

  1. Extraordinary Adaptive Plasticity of Colorado Potato Beetle: “Ten-Striped Spearman” in the Era of Biotechnological Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cingel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding from remote areas of Mexico to a worldwide scale, the ten-striped insect, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, has risen from being an innocuous beetle to a prominent global pest. A diverse life cycle, phenotypic plasticity, adaptation to adverse conditions, and capability to detoxify or tolerate toxins make this insect appear to be virtually “indestructible”. With increasing advances in molecular biology, tools of biotechnological warfare were deployed to combat CPB. In the last three decades, genetically modified potato has created a new challenge for the beetle. After reviewing hundreds of scientific papers dealing with CPB control, it became clear that even biotechnological means of control, if used alone, would not defeat the Colorado potato beetle. This control measure once again appears to be provoking the potato beetle to exhibit its remarkable adaptability. Nonetheless, the potential for adaptation to these techniques has increased our knowledge of this pest and thus opened possibilities for devising more sustainable CPB management programs.

  2. Difficulties associated with the development and licensing of vaccines for protection against bio-warfare and bio-terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, M J; Myers, R C

    2002-01-01

    Today there is an increasing need to license vaccines for the protection of individuals against bio-warfare and bio-terrorism. While the need is apparent, the actual road to developing, producing and licensing such vaccines successfully is as yet undefined. Bio-defence vaccine candidates may come from several sources. They may come from vaccines that were previously licensed but are no longer in production, vaccines that are currently in an IND status, vaccines currently licensed in foreign countries, and newer vaccines currently under development. The issues that apply to the development and licensing of these vaccines can be defined by currently accepted standards for manufacture, and the requirement to demonstrate safety and efficacy to a level that gives the scientific and medical community, regulatory agencies, users and the public at large confidence. Requirements for manufacturing and demonstration of safety will be consistent with vaccines being developed for traditional purposes. However, demonstration of efficacy will be more difficult. Because field trials for these vaccines are generally not feasible and the conduct of human challenge studies is generally considered unethical, the demonstration of efficacy will need to be based on existing efficacy data, a thorough understanding of both the disease's pathogenesis and mechanism of protection, the ability to identify surrogate markers for efficacy, and the use of the proposed FDA "animal rule".

  3. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of the "Sea to SWOS" Training Initiative on the Surface Warfare Officer Qualification Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavino, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    ... (combat effectiveness) while the quantitative analysis shows additional costs to the Navy Personnel Command and savings in training costs for the Naval Education and Training Command and OPNAV N76, the Surface Warfare Resource Sponsor...

  5. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training for Newly Commissioned Surface Warfare Division Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, William R; Crawford, Alice M; Mehay, Stephen; Stoker, Carol; Paynter, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) on-board an officer's ship. The study relied on a variety of analytical techniques, including a literature review of CBT and OJT training, interviews and focus groups with junior and senior surface warfare officers...

  6. Characteristics of the Navy Laboratory Warfare Center Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-29

    0413 Toxicology 0415 Biochemists and Biophysicists Conservation Scientists Microbiologists Biological Scientists Physical Science (PS...4) Box showing Reagan and Bush administrations include years for which those presidents were in office during an entire federal budget cycle or a

  7. The German Military Entrepreneur Ernst von Mansfeld and His Conduct of Asymmetrical Warfare in the Thirty Years War

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, Olli

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation examines aspects of asymmetrical warfare in the war-making of the German military entrepreneur Ernst von Mansfeld during his involvement in the Thirty Years War. Due to the nature of the inquiry, which combines history with military-political theory, the methodological approach of the dissertation is interdisciplinary. The theoretical framework used is that of asymmetrical warfare. The primary sources used in the dissertation are mostly political pamphlets and newsl...

  8. [Biological function of trophology and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome--syndrome of overeating. Phylogenetically theory of general pathology, role of leptin and adiponectin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (overeating) is a phylogenetically-determined succession of symptoms with the same pathogenesis. There is only one etiological factor, namely, increased consumption of physiologically optimal food. Enterocytes and omental fat cells are a phylogenetically early paracrine-regulated cell community that realizes the biological reactions of exo- and endotrophy. Visceral obesity, high levels of unesterified fatty acids (FA), formation of a pool of micellar FA in the blood, integration of these FA into endothelial cell plasma membrane and enlargement of adipocytes are the causes of hydrodynamic pressure elevation. Toll-like receptors recognize the associates between albumin and greater than physiological number of FA as "foreing" and initiate inflammatory response. "Endoplasm stress" develops in lipid-overloaded cells, protein synthesis (folding) in them is impaired and apoptosis-like cell death is activated. Visceral fat is a phylogenetically early depot of FA to fulfill the biological function of homeostasis, trophology, endoecology and adaptation; it is regulated at the level of paracrine communities and is anatomically limited. The subcutaneous fat depot fulfills the phylogenetically late function of locomotion; the depot size is not anatomically limited. Visceral fat cells have no receptors for phylogenetically late insulin (INS); specialized adipocyes bearing INS and GLUT4 receptors are cells that form the subcutaneous depot. These cells are regulated by phylogenetically late humoral factors at the entire body level. Leptin is an initiator of humoral hypothalamic regulation of in vivo number of ontogenetically programmed number of visceral INS-insensitive fat cells. It prevents "endoplasm stress" and apoptosis, being designed to regulate the amount of consumed food. Leptin initiates storage of FA from visceral pool into subcutaneous pool. Adiponectin is a phylogenetically late humoral hypothalamic regulatory factor that controls optimal number of

  9. Anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin and their ecological significance: the Verdun Forest, NE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matos Machado, Rémi; Amat, Jean-Paul; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Bétard, François; Bilodeau, Clélia; Jacquemot, Stéphanie; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    By its unprecedented industrial character, the First World War marked landscapes like no other conflict in the world. As a result of artillery bombardment and building facilities, the relief suffered major disturbances giving rise to millions anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin on the Western front: shell craters, trenches, shelters and gun sites. This landscape made of bumps and holes that dominated the lands of West Flanders and North-eastern France during the four years of war took chaotic aspects on the great battle sites. In some areas, substrate crushing by repeated bombings resulted in a field lowering of several metres. Although these geomorphological legacies of war are still present on these scarred lands, their effects on local environment and on present-day biodiversity patterns are not fully understood. On the battlefield of Verdun, where a huge number and range of conflict-induced landforms may be observed, special attention is being paid to the ecological significance of these anthropogenic landforms in a current landscape matrix dominated by forest. In 2013, an airborne LiDAR mission conducted over the battlefield has brought to light the relief inherited from the fighting that was until now concealed by the Verdun forest planted in the 1930's. Through a digital terrain model (DTM) with centimetre level accuracy, it is now possible to observe the smallest traces of the fighting. A first programmatic mapping work allowed to inventory and to locate these reliefs on the whole 10,000 hectares covered by the DTM. Also, the calculation of their geometry enabled us to quantify the erosion rate due to the military activities on the battlefield. On the basis of these morphometric measurements, a typology was developed to better appreciate the morphological diversity of conflict-induced landforms. The results show that these anthropogenic landforms are generally hollow. Because of this particular morphology, the conflict-induced landforms provide

  10. How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bibighaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.

  11. Air University Research Paper: Asymmetric Warfare - Exposing America’s Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    AU/ACSC/ 03-1261R/2003-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PAPER ASYMMETRIC WARFARE - EXPOSING AMERICA’S...Air University Research Paper : Asymmetric Wafare - Exposing America’s Weaknesses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Std Z39-18 Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or

  12. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Figure 3). However, a 2016 Department of Defense (DoD) report explained that in 2013 “China launched an object into space on a ballistic trajectory with...well as other non-kinetic counter- space capabilities.42 The USCC report also provided detailed analysis of Chinese developments of co-orbital...Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the

  13. Equipping Network Warfare: Industrial-Era Bureaucracies for Information-Era Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    to operational shortfalls. Clearly, there are benefits in following known methods in organizing the cyberspace mission and its capabilities...sid26_gci853845,00.html (accessed 15 December 2008). 9 BX.com Terminology Reference, “Web Year,” http://www.bx.com/dictionary/ ecommerce /Web_year.cfm... benefits of the process, while amplifying the negative aspects of the bureaucracy. Network warfare capabilities are much more vulnerable to

  14. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, B.; Bednář, P.; Fryšová, I.; Stýskala, J.; Hlaváč, J.; Barták, P.; Ulrichová, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 12 (2007), s. 1550-1561 ISSN 1076-5174 Grant - others:The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(NL) L/ICA/ICB/84322/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : mass spectrometry * chemical warfare agent * high performance liquid chromatography * LC/MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2007

  15. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative anti-surface warfare platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Walter Mark.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) is performed for three alternative anti-surface warfare (ASUW) platforms that will conduct operations in multi-service regional scenarios. Estimated program costs, historical cost variances, and measures of operational effectiveness are determined for each COEA alternative, and service life extension effects are examined. The data is merged in a mixed-integer optimization model, MPA...

  16. The Equipment of Czech Firefighters for the Detection and Field Analyses of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krykorkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the requirements for the devices of detection, chemical reconnaissance and field analyses of chemical warfare agents (CWA and divides them into simple devices of detection, universal detectors, selective analyzers, multi-component analyzers and mobile laboratories. It also describes the devices of detection available within the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and compares them with some prospective trends of further development.

  17. Deterrence in the Human Domain: A COIN Framework to Deterring Unconventional Warfare in Shaping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    protecting ethnic Russians, providing stability to neighbors, defending “self- determination,” and protecting human rights . Protection of Russian...Deterrence in the Human Domain: A COIN Framework to Deterring Unconventional Warfare in Shaping Operations A Monograph by MAJ Matthew P...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of

  18. Cyberspace as a Complex Adaptive System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    accessed 13 February 2014). 66Teresa Degenhard “Between War and Crime: The Overlap between War and Crime: Unpacking Foucault and Agamben’s Studies...Article-2-Revision- for- Foucault -and-Agamben-Degenhardt-July-2013.pdf (accessed 5 April 2014). 26... Foucault and Agamben’s Studies within the Context of the War on Terror.”, 34. 68US Department of Defense, Electronic Warfare, Joint Publication 3-13, I-2

  19. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MCM-1) Operates off the Coast of Hawaii during Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ID: 040710-N-6551H-229. U.S. Navy, Arlington, VA...The Mine Countermeasure Ship USS Avenger (MCM-1) Operates off the Coast of Hawaii during Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ID: 040710-N... fire -scout-following-two-crashes/. Accessed December 5, 2016. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command. 2011. “Marine Mammal Program.” SSC Pacific

  20. Discrete Electronic Warfare Signal Processing using Compressed Sensing Based on Random Modulator Pre-Integrator

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sreenivasa Rao; Chandan C. Mishra; K. Krishna Naik; K. Maheshwara Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Electronic warfare receiver works in the wide electromagnetic spectrum in dense radar signal environment. Current trends in radar systems are ultra wideband and low probability of intercept radar technology. Detection of signals from various radar stations is a concern. Performance and probability of intercept are mainly dependent on high speed ADC technology. The sampling and reconstruction functions have to be optimized to capture incoming signals at the receiver to extract characteristics ...

  1. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    1985 workforce of 406,000 by two thirds. Volkswagen intends to reduce its present workforce by one third. Proctor and Gamble has rising sales, yet is...of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee , named “China, Russia, Libya, Iran, Iraq, and at least seven other countries... audit uses four recent Stanford Technology Law Journal articles not related to information warfare. Granted, hypothetical environments make certainty

  2. Lawfare and hybrid warfare-how Russia is using the law as a weapon

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik

    2015-01-01

    This short paper introduces the reader to the mutating military concept of hybrid warfare and one of its implementing methods, the use of law as a weapon. We aim to provide a current, comprehensive definition of the terms “hybrid warfare” and “lawfare”. This submission focuses on the following areas: where law has been/is being used as a method of war, namely the Jus ad bellum, the jus in bello and the law of treaties in international relations.

  3. Special Operations, Irregular Warfare, and Operational Art: A Theory of Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    modern militaries: Ian F. W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies (New York: Routledge, 2003), 213. 1...the dynamics that influence other coalition members. They do not have the 71Mao Zedong, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith (Breiningville...2004. Beckett , Ian F. W. Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies. New York: Routledge, 2003. Bergen, Peter. “Analysis: Bin Laden might find

  4. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    has faced with its GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema —(GLONASS) system, and introducing advanced digitized communications in the armed...of targeting data will be accomplished by organizing virtual channels for data transmission or via a web -portal. The successful function- ing of the...Operations: Tactical Web Takes Shape,” Signal, November 2003; Col. Alan D. Campen, USAF (Ret.), “Look Closely At Network-Centric Warfare: Technology Can

  5. Incorporating AFEWC IMOM as an instructional asset for NPS radar and electronic warfare curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Van Splinter, Gregg A.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, effort is made to incorporate the computer program, Improved Many(Jammers)-on-Many(Radars) (IMOM), into radar and electronic warfare curricula at the Naval Postgraduate School. The IMOM program is used operationally by the U.S. Air Force for electronic combat mission planning. IMOM allows the user to evaluate electronic combat effects through computer color graphics display of the electronic order of battle including ...

  6. Past and Potential Theory for Special Warfare Operational Art: People’s War and Contentious Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    the scientific method could be used to examine historical case studies.114 His examination of the English , American, French, and Russian Revolutions...its full evaluation as a grammar of revolutionary war. Finally, a translation of basic concepts from contentious politics into useful outlines and...be founded upon distinct and sound theories of war and warfare. This monograph argues that from 1952-1965, the US Army Special Forces developed two

  7. Puncturing the Counterinsurgency Myth: Britain and Irregular Warfare in the Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    FUTURE INTRODUCTION Britain’s irregular warfare experience in the post- World War II era presented the military with numer- ous insurgent challenges where...STRATEGICALLY PERCEPTIVE This myth points to a painful element of British COIN conduct, namely, the short -circuiting of con- text. The preference for...military to plan for long-term coalition commitments: “Increasing globalisation ties our security to that of our allies. . . . Therefore we must

  8. Evaluating Effectiveness of a Frigate in an Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    anti-air warfare (AAW) mission, weapons and radar systems influence each other and interact with the combat software system (Figure 1). Figure 1...similar to our approach include UAV contributions to expeditionary operations (Raffetto, 2004), counter- piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden (Tsilis...statistical discovery software offers both powerful statistics and dynamic graphics capabilities to its users. In the thesis, JMP statistical discovery

  9. Cyber crime and cyber warfare with international cyber collaboration for RSA – preparing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Warfare with International Cyber Collaboration for RSA ? Preparing Communities Dr Marthie Grobler, Joey Jansen van Vuuren', Dr Jannie Zaaiman? Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa1 University of Venda2 ABSTRACT... with the technological revolution is that cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations that are not well suited to any legal system. A further complication is the lack of comprehensive treaties facilitating international cooperation...

  10. Global Trends and Future Warfare (Strategic Insights. Special Issue, October 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Li Future Warfare and China regional and ethnic discrimination, and the spread of the internet and proliferation of sensational media. In a...communications, we have near-worldwide instant exchange of ideas and spread of ideas. Images and information of living standards, role models, and political...an unusually seductive form of military strength, in part because, like modern courtship, it appears to offer gratification without commitment.’15

  11. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent...agent from materials. The objective of this study was to provide a screening tool to identify decontamination chemistries and formulations that will...mitigation. The materials included a water-dispersible polyurethane (WDP) paint (MIL-DTL-53039) and an alkyd paint (MIL-PRF-24635). Two polymers were also

  12. Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    prisoners and forcing the British to reinforce and area they thought they controlled.65 These militia groups grew larger and more emboldened after...British prisoners , Washington told him that he could not “answer for the militia who are resorting to Arms in most parts of the State, and exceedingly...the tension between punishing the colonists and welcoming them back into British rule prevented him from solving the hybrid warfare dilemmas posed

  13. CYBER WARFARE GOVERNANCE: EVALUATION OF CURRENT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON THE OFFENSIVE USE OF CYBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    vulnerability in networks across the world as supervisory control and data acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, similar to the ones attacked in Iran, are...used worldwide to perform tasks such as traffic control, managing power grids and management of other utility systems. The heavy reliance on SCADA ...standpoint, this document will never become the agreed upon standard for today’s warfare, unless it is substantially updated . AU/ACSC/2015 28

  14. From the Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents to the Decontamination of Cytostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Mazanec, K.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.; Štenglová Netíková, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2018), s. 2114-2122 ISSN 0888-5885 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312804 - COUNTERFOG Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984599 Program:Science for Peace and Security Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical warfare agents * Degradation * Metal oxide sorbents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  15. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  16. An On-Campus Botanical Tour to Promote Student Satisfaction and Learning in a University Level Biodiversity or General Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish H. Ratnayaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor, hands-on and experiential learning, as opposed to instruction-based learning in classroom, increases student satisfaction and motivation leading to a deeper understanding of the subject. However, the use of outdoor exercises in undergraduate biology courses is declining due to a variety of constraints. Thus, the goal of this paper is to describe a convenient, no-cost and flexible exercise using an on-campus botanical tour for strengthening specific knowledge areas of major plant groups. Its assessment on conduct and coverage, and student-perceived and actual knowledge gain is also described. Data presented derived from traditional biology undergraduates in sophomore year over nine fall and three spring semesters. Conduct and coverage was assessed using a summative survey including open-ended questions administered to 198 students. A pre- and post-exercise survey addressing 10 knowledge categories was administered to 139 students to evaluate student-perceived knowledge gain. Quiz grades from the on-campus tour exercise were compared with average quiz grades from two in-class plant-related labs of 234 students to assess actual knowledge gain. Each student reporting on the conduct and coverage indicated either one or a combination of outcomes of the exercise as positive engagement, experiential learning, or of interest. Student-perceived improvement was evident in all ten knowledge categories with a greater improvement in categories learned anew during exercise compared to subjects reviewed. Quiz grades from the exercise were >11% greater than quiz grades from the two in-class plant-related labs. Active learning with interest likely contributed to the increased perceived and actual knowledge gains. Suggestions for adoption of the exercise in different settings are presented based on both student comments and instructor’s experience.

  17. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  18. Testing the coherence between occupational exposure limits for inhalation and their biological limit values with a generalized PBPK-model: the case of 2-propanol and acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Daan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van Rooij, Joost G M; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-08-01

    The coherence between occupational exposure limits (OELs) and their corresponding biological limit values (BLVs) was evaluated for 2-propanol and acetone. A generic human PBPK model was used to predict internal concentrations after inhalation exposure at the level of the OEL. The fraction of workers with predicted internal concentrations lower than the BLV, i.e. the 'false negatives', was taken as a measure for incoherence. The impact of variability and uncertainty in input parameters was separated by means of nested Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the exposure scenario considered, the median fraction of the population for which the limit values were incoherent ranged from 2% to 45%. Parameter importance analysis showed that body weight was the main factor contributing to interindividual variability in blood and urine concentrations and that the metabolic parameters Vmax and Km were the most important sources of uncertainty. This study demonstrates that the OELs and BLVs for 2-propanol and acetone are not fully coherent, i.e. enforcement of BLVs may result in OELs being violated. In order to assess the acceptability of this "incoherence", a maximum population fraction at risk of exceeding the OEL should be specified as well as a minimum level of certainty in predicting this fraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements and simulations of microscopic damage to DNA in water by 30 keV electrons: A general approach applicable to other radiation sources and biological targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Marc Benjamin; Meyer, Susann; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Solomun, Tihomir; Sturm, Heinz

    2017-05-01

    The determination of the microscopic dose-damage relationship for DNA in an aqueous environment is of a fundamental interest for dosimetry and applications in radiation therapy and protection. We combine geant4 particle-scattering simulations in water with calculations concerning the movement of biomolecules to obtain the energy deposit in the biologically relevant nanoscopic volume. We juxtaposition these results to the experimentally determined damage to obtain the dose-damage relationship at a molecular level. This approach is tested for an experimentally challenging system concerning the direct irradiation of plasmid DNA (pUC19) in water with electrons as primary particles. Here a microscopic target model for the plasmid DNA based on the relation of lineal energy and radiation quality is used to calculate the effective target volume. It was found that on average fewer than two ionizations within a 7.5-nm radius around the sugar-phosphate backbone are sufficient to cause a single strand break, with a corresponding median lethal energy deposit being E1 /2=6 ±4 eV. The presented method is applicable for ionizing radiation (e.g., γ rays, x rays, and electrons) and a variety of targets, such as DNA, proteins, or cells.

  20. Irregular Warfare in the Conventional Theater: An Operational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-14

    position. 19 Revisionist historians, such as Mack, Musa and Aldington, have a general tone of disrespect for Lawrence and the Arab effort in World War...and General Staff College, Academic Year 1989-1990), 1-13. 19 Sulayman Musa T.E. Lawrence. An Arab View ( London: Oxford University Press, 1966), John E...compiled from, Peter Young, ed., The Marha Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I (New York: Marshall Cavendish , 1984). See the

  1. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  2. [Improvement in quality of life and exercise capacity without muscular biology changes after general training in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Guardia, Sergio; Wodja, Emil; Gorostiza, Amaya; López de Santamaría, Elena; Gea, Joaquim; Gáldiz, Juan B; Sliwinski, Pawel; Barreiro, Esther

    2013-03-02

    Despite the beneficial effects of exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, several studies have revealed functional and biological abnormalities in their peripheral muscles. The objective was to determine whether exercise training of high intensity and long duration modifies oxidative stress levels and structure of respiratory and peripheral muscles of severe COPD patients, while also improving their exercise capacity and quality of life. Multicenter study (Warsaw and Barakaldo) in which 25 severe COPD out-patients were recruited from the COPD clinics. In all patients, lung and muscle functions, exercise capacity (walking test and cycloergometer) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed, and open muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and external intercostals (n=14) were obtained before and after an exercise training program of high intensity (respiratory rehabilitation area, 70% maximal tolerated load in a cycloergometer) and long duration (10 weeks). Oxidative stress and muscle structural modifications were evaluated in all muscle biopsies using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In all patients, after the training program, without any drop-outs, exercise capacity and QoL improved significantly, whereas oxidative stress, muscle damage and structure were not modified in their respiratory or limb muscles compared to baseline. In patients with severe COPD, exercise training of high intensity and long duration significantly improves their exercise capacity and QoL, without inducing significant modifications on oxidative stress levels or muscle structure in their respiratory or peripheral muscles. These results may have future clinical therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. The Covert Use of the Global Special Operations Network and the Militarization of Covert Action in Political Warfare and the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    84 Psychological Warfare Operations...Oxford University Press, 1971). 16 Charles Cruickshank,. The Fourth Arm: Psychological Warfare 1938-1945 (London, UK: Davis-Poynter, 1977), 69. 13...capability for clandestine intelligence collection and sabotage operations, in 1950, the Army only had about 20 personnel trained in psychological

  4. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application

  5. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  6. Getting the Next War Right: Beyond Population-centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    tion of the flawed American model of war. As stated flatly by General Carlos Ospina, a key !eld commander who rose to become head of the Colombian...Sayyid Qutb’s Milestones,20 for instance, one will use violence for redress of grievances. Likewise, if one believes Marx and Lenin, one will also use...violence to pur- sue totalitarian secular ends. Ironically, many of those we face in today’s challenge combine elements of Marx and Lenin with

  7. The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  8. U.S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume 1. Project Report, Appendix A. Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    10) "EXPLOSIVES DETECTING DOGS", Final Report. Krauss, flax , Bliological Sciences Branch. U. S. Ariqy Land Warfare Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving...Readei .•,al uat ed by Alaska Nau inl i 1 :uli d. IC SI’ID ret onilt dt’d yN, ( ;,Iaid, a l ,., by PISARAi.. ROC he inu, prteparted. I1 lt ninat ion 1...to UISARV. Ret : ansmission >;ystni Evaluation qty 0l 0 sup li,-d to I Ag\\’N and USAkV which rt-comin• l:dt-d I( \\’I I mod i f cat io. Riot Col: rol

  9. Destruction of chemical warfare agent simulants by air and moisture stable metal NHC complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, Catherine; Notman, Stuart; Arnold, Polly L

    2018-02-20

    The cooperative effect of both NHC and metal centre has been found to destroy chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Choice of both the metal and NHC is key to these transformations as simple, monodentate N-heterocyclic carbenes in combination with silver or vanadium can promote stoichiometric destruction, whilst bidentate, aryloxide-tethered NHC complexes of silver and alkali metals promote breakdown under mild heating. Iron-NHC complexes generated in situ are competent catalysts for the destruction of each of the three targetted CWA simulants.

  10. Total Control: How the Nazis Countered Unconventional Warfare in the Netherlands During World War Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    11:mrnn ’ cc11rit) pnlic) :.incc I >t66. l·Dlkm ing the (jcrman ’ ict ori1.:~ ~) f 1939- 19-10. I titler grantccl I limmlcr rrnthority over la" :md...better deterrent in the c;mall " Durch cnmmunity. the Scc11rit) :-1.:n ict ’’i pro’ idcd the names of death candidates 3nu c"<ccu tcd people tu thl...Total Control: I low the Nazis Countered Unconventional Warfare in the Netherlands During World War Two A Monograph by Major Jeroen F van

  11. Unconventional War and Warfare in the Gray Zone. The New Spectrum of Modern Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Banasik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of the last couple of years indicate that political objectives are increasingly achieved without official declarations of war. Armed forces are used in untraditional ways and the so-called substitute troops begin to play an increasingly bigger part. The article aims to characterize the conflicts of alternative nature below the level of open war that are on the border between war and peace. The content of the article presents the theory of unconventional warfare and its description, and familiarizes the reader with the concept of grey zone conflicts. It further shows the challenges linked to rivalry for influence zones and security provisions.

  12. Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    it best about learning from mistakes in life: “There is no wisdom in the second kick of a mule .” Although he did not have 21st-century warfare in...part of our military leadership—can we expect to avoid the “second kick of a mule .” xii BATTLE-WISE PREFACE xiii xiii Preface This book is an inquiry...recruiting meth - ods. Depending on work experience before joining the military, it may be possible actually to identify battle-wise traits in recruits. For

  13. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  14. Generalized anxiety disorder (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry about 2 or more life circumstances for a period of 6 months or longer. Biological and genetic factors may combine with stress to produce psychological symptoms.

  15. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  16. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  17. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  18. Information warfare as ICT influence on public consciousness and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Stadnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the key aspects of the merits and impact of information warfare on public consciousness and public opinion. In the article, we review the information war not as an auxiliary mechanism for real war, but as a mechanism of affecting the public opinion. The public opinion can not be formed completely (while there is information content, public opinion changes constantly because the information in the hands of the media acts as a real weapon aimed at the mass consciousness. The article discusses in detail the four main factors that determine the effectiveness of the impact of information: 1 information warfare agents that affect the population, mass consciousness, public opinion; 2 information weapon of war; 3 the content itself, the content that is broadcast during the information war; 4 the specifics of mass awareness in different countries, the formation and functioning of their public opinion. And how much information war characteristic of the crisis (as an example to Ukraine since the beginning of the Maidan in 2013, the presentation of information aimed at manipulating public consciousness and, accordingly, the public opinion as the outward expression of consciousness.

  19. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  20. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  1. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr 4+ dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr 4+ converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  2. The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Eisenkraft

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are used to stop organophosphate-induced seizures. Despite these approved drugs, efforts have been made to introduce other medical countermeasures in order to attenuate both the short-term and long-term clinical effects following exposure. Currently, there is no antidote against sulfur mustard poisoning. Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition. In recent years, efficacy of lipid emulsions has been shown in the treatment of poisoning by fat-soluble compounds in animal models as well as clinically in humans. In this review we discuss the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsions as an adjunct to the in-hospital treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning. Keywords: Intravenous lipid emulsion, Organophosphates, Sulfur mustard, Antidotes, Poisoning, Chemical Warfare agents

  3. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Academic Training Lectures | Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare | 13-14 January 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on 13 and 14 January 2016. The lectures will be given by Gian Piero Siroli (Università e INFN, Bologna (IT))   Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)​ on Wednesday, 13 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. http://indico.cern.ch/event/438525/ Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2) on Thursday, 14 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. http://indico.cern.ch/event/438526/ at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran&...

  5. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Warfare Center, Dahlgren's patrol boats. Oystering and fishing boats or other craft may cross the river in... bombing, directed energy technology, and manned or unmanned water craft operations; expand the Middle... manned or unmanned watercraft. (ii) When hazardous operations are in progress, no person, or fishing or...

  6. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  7. Warfare tourism experiences and national identity: The case of Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ in Oosterbeek, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists' motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of

  8. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’

  9. Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    72, 77-79], polymers [80], alkaloids on plant tissue [81], chemical warfare agents on solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers [60, 82], hydrolysis...situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization. Analyst, 130, 1624-1633. [82

  10. Trace Detection of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents in Wastewater and Plants by Luminescent UIO-67(Hf) and Evaluating the Bioaccumulation of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing

    2018-04-17

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OPCWAs) are a group of organic pollutants characterized by high toxicity and chemical stability, and they are very difficult to be degraded. The trace quality of OPCWAs in water and food will cause great harm to the human body. Therefore, the detection of OPCWAs is a difficult challenge, which has become the research hotspot over the world. In this work, a Hf-based luminescent metal-organic framework (Eu@1) is prepared, and the reactivity of Hf 12 results in a methanephosphonic acid (MPA)-induced luminescence quenching and the charge transfer from MPA to Hf(IV) and generated exciplexes which are responsible for this quenching effect. The excellent performance of Eu@1 in the detection of MPA, with its finer selectivity, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.4 ppm), and large linear range (10 -7 to 10 -3 M), is encouraging for application in wastewater detection. Importantly, MPA is a pollutant that can be absorbed by plants and causes the bioaccumulation effect, and thus, the detection of MPA in real plant samples is a purposeful topic. Eu@1 also achieved satisfactory results in actual plant sample testing, and the bioaccumulation of MPA in onions, turnips, and cabbages is determined via our sensor. This fabricated detector provides a feasible path for the detection of ppm-level OPCWAs in a complex environment, which will help humans to avoid OPCWA-contaminated foods.

  11. Warfare Ecology on an Underwater Demolition Range: Acoustic Observations of Marine Life and Shallow Water Detonations in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lee H.

    Most studies investigating the effects of military-associated anthropogenic noise concentrate on deep sea or open ocean propagation of sonar and its effect on marine mammals. In littoral waters, U.S. military special operations units regularly conduct shallow water explosives training, yet relatively little attention has been given to the potential impact on nearshore marine ecosystems from these underwater detonations. This dissertation research focused on the Pu'uloa Underwater Detonation Range off the coast of O`ahu, and examined multiple aspects of the surrounding marine ecosystem and the effects of detonations using acoustic monitoring techniques. The soundscape of a nearshore reef ecosystem adjacent to the UNDET range was characterized through analysis of passive acoustic recordings collected over the span of 6 years. Snapping shrimp were the predominant source of noise, and a diel pattern was present, with increased sound energy during the night hours. Results revealed a difference of up to 7dB between two Ecological Acoustic Recorder locations 2.5km apart along the 60ft isobath. Passive acoustic recording files were searched visually and aurally for odontocete whistles. Whistles were detected in only 0.6% of files analyzed, indicating this area is not frequently transited by coastal odontocete emitting social sounds. The study also opportunistically captured a humpback whale singing during a detonation event, during which the animal showed no obvious alteration of its singing behavior. Four separate underwater detonation events were recorded using a surface deployed F-42C transducer, and the resulting analysis showed no measurable drop in the biologically produced acoustic energy in reaction to the explosive events. Coral reef fishes were recorded visually and acoustically during detonation events at a known distance and bearing from a known explosive sound source. Individual fish behavioral responses to the explosion varied, and a sharp uptick in fish

  12. Domestic Preparedness Program: Evaluation of the Agilent Gas Chromatograph - Flame Photometric Detector/Mass Selective Detector (GC-FPD/MSD) System Against Chemical Warfare Agents Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longworth, Terri

    2003-01-01

    This report characterizes the chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection potential of the commercially available Agilent gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector/mass selective detector (GC-FPD/MSD...

  13. An Analysis of the Impact of Network-Centric Warfare on the Doctrine and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures of Intelligence at the Operational Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Charles

    1999-01-01

    This project sought to determine the impacts of network centric warfare (NCW) on the planning and direction of intelligence at the operational level, and what changes in joint intelligence doctrine (JID...

  14. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  15. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  16. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  17. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  18. Chemiresistor Devices for Chemical Warfare Agent Detection Based on Polymer Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John F.; Hamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yoon, Bora; Swager, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. We demonstrate that a pendant hexafluoroisopropanol group on the polymer that enhances sensitivity to a nerve agent mimic, dimethyl methylphosphonate, in both nitrogen and air environments to concentrations as low as 5 ppm and 11 ppm, respectively. Additionally, these PEDOT/SWCNT derivative sensor systems experience negligible device performance over the course of two weeks under ambient conditions. PMID:28452929

  19. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  20. Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated With Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garate, Eusebio

    1999-01-01

    ... based on the application of an atmospheric pressure plasma. We used both a DC corona and dielectric barrier discharge for the sterilization tests which were conducted on a variety of substrates including metals and chemically resistant fabrics...

  1. Reduced weight decontamination formulation utilizing a solid peracid compound for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A reduced weight decontamination formulation that utilizes a solid peracid compound (sodium borate peracetate) and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) that can be packaged with all water removed. This reduces the packaged weight of the decontamination formulation by .about.80% (as compared to the "all-liquid" DF-200 formulation) and significantly lowers the logistics burden on the warfighter. Water (freshwater or saltwater) is added to the new decontamination formulation at the time of use from a local source.

  2. A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 5. Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Augerson, William

    2000-01-01

    ..., chest pain, sleep disturbance, and hair loss. Surveys indicate that roughly 4 percent developed their symptoms before the war, 25 percent during the war, and 25 percent in the year following the war...

  3. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian, A.L.; Good, T.A.; Wang, S.-S.; Wild, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  4. Media Discourse in an Atmosphere of Information Warfare: From Manipulation to Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Иванович Озюменко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In todays atmosphere of information warfare the biased impact of the media has increased, pushing behind other functions, including the informative one. The forms of media influence have also changed: direct persuasion has been replaced by implicit manipulation, which develops into outright aggression. Since, in the media discourse aggression can be both verbal and non-verbal, we propose to use the term information (or media aggression , which is broader than verbal aggression . Media aggression can be considered as a binary process - in relation to the referent (affective aggression and in relation to the audience (cognitive aggression. As a result, the information under media aggression refers to the expression of open hostility and animosity towards the referent and meaningful impact on the consciousness of the recipient (the target audience to its ideological subordination. The purpose of this article is to justify the hypothesis that the growing media aggression is a feature of modern media discourse in the atmosphere of information warfare, and this function can be analysed within the framework of manipulative discourse as manipulative persuasion. The data has been taken from quality British and American newspapers, news websites of The BBC, The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and some others covering the relations between Russia and the USA, the situation in the Middle East, particularly in Syria. The the study was conducted using critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2001, Van Dijk 2006, 2009; Wodak 2007; Weiss, Wodak 2007 and the multimodal approach (Ivanova, Spodarets 2010; Ponton 2016, and reveals various strategies and means of linguistic manipulation and media aggression. It also shows that the main aim of linguistic manipulation accentuated by verbal and non-verbal aggression is to deliberately mislead the audience imposing on it the desired idea of ideological subordination. Therefore, a

  5. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  6. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  7. Millennial Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    www.psychologytoday.com/ blog / cutting-edge-leadership/201005/how-lead-the-millennial-generation. 8 Elizabeth Bodine-Barron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline...environment. ISIL has taken the message boards and blog post of the 1990s and jumped in with both feet to the modern digital environment. They push content...57 Riggio. 58 Stern and Berger, 81-84. 59 Anwar Alawlaki, “The State of Ummah,” Anwar Alawaki Blog , April 23, 2009, accessed March 15, 2017

  8. Nuclear warfare

    CERN Multimedia

    Broda

    1981-01-01

    Le Prof.Broda a étudié à Vienne et Berlin et a travaillé pendant la dernière guerre mondiale en Grande Bretagne pour le conseil de la recherche médicale, notamment sur la chimie de la vision. Il est maintenant Prof. de la chimie, physique et radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, où il concentre ses travaux sur les méchanisme de transport d'énergie à travers les cellules de membranes.

  9. Electronic Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    nuclear burst. A high-altitude electromagnetic pulse ( HEMP ) can generate significant disruptive field strengths over a continental-size area. The...portion of the EMS most affected by EMP and HEMP is the radio spectrum. Planning for communications system protection is significant when the potential...international law (e.g., Protocol IV of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons that prohibits the use of laser weapons with a combat function to

  10. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  11. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  12. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  13. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  14. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  15. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  16. Cryptochromes and Biological Clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Cryptochromes and Biological Clocks. V R Bhagwat. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 36-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/09/0036-0048. Keywords.

  17. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  18. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  19. Entropy in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy in Biology. Jayant B Udgaonkar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0061-0066. Author Affiliations.

  20. Models, Analysis, and Recommendations Pertaining to the Retention of Naval Special Warfare s Mid-Level Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    I would like to thank Sarah Ashby, an amazing human being and friend; you spent countless hours researching information that was absolutely critical...The Analytic Hierarch/Network Process,” in Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat (RACSAM), submitted by Francisco Javier Giron (Real Academia de Ciencias ...Academia de Ciencias : Spain. Scott, Nathan. Naval Special Warfare Officer Retention Survey. Monterey, CA: NPS Press, September 2013. Whittenberger

  1. Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-09

    resurgence of similar large scale hacker wars. Some groups, rallying around politically “safe” topics such as anti- Tibetan independence, however, still...also described Peng as an “experienced hacker” (see Figure 5).88 • Following this exposure on Henderson’s blog, the Coolswallow and Buddhist ...the Tibetan Government in Exile in India. The Canadian-based Information Warfare Monitor (IWM) notes the compromise of numerous government and

  2. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  3. Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to Compare Legacy and Future Forces in Mine Warfare (MIW) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    airborne mine neutralization system AoA analysis of alternatives API application programming interface ASuW anti-surface warfare ASW...upon stakeholder feedback, an operational scenario was developed and ACRS was selected as the primary MOE for comparison. Lifecycle cost and risks...MIW Team was unfamiliar with some of the more advanced features of ExtendSim, such as 3-D animation, application programming inter- faces ( APIs ) to

  4. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  5. Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    effect, it is a living document that is not intended to offer arguments or recommendations for programmatic investments or priorities. It touches on the ...reports might offer different projections or update those already discussed. In effect, it is a living document. It is also important to emphasize what...now and 2050; these are depicted by the stars inside the left circle. Most of them will not have a game-changing importance for ground warfare in

  6. Responding to a biological incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, P.R. [U.S. Environmental Response Team, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team (ERT) was established in October 1978 to provide technical assistance to a variety of governmental agencies in the area of environmental emergency issues such as chemical spills, uncontrolled hazardous waste site and terrorist incidents. This paper describes responses to a biological incident that occurred on July 29 2004, when the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) received an anonymous e-mail identifying 3 containers on board the M/V Rio Puelo, one of which was said to contain a harmful biological substance. The containers were part of a 5 container shipment of Argentinian lemons bound for Canada. The vessel had a total of 2204 containers, of which 260 were loaded at the same port as the lemons. The containers were to be off-loaded at the Port of Newark and transported via truck to Canada. The federal On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) was responsible for managing this incident, as well as assessing the creditability of the threat. In accordance with federal authorities under the Public Water Safety Act, the Captain of the Port of New York ordered the vessel to anchor off shore. A tactical security operations team was dispatched to assess vessel security. It was determined that none of the crew, who had been exposed to the potential agent 10 days earlier, had shown any symptoms of biological warfare agents. A multi-agency unified command was set up, consisting of state, federal and local agencies. Various options were evaluated, including treatment of the containers on board due to the possibility of a dispersal device which could cause wide-spread contamination; the off loading and disposal of the cargo into the sea; and off loading of containers on shore with subsequent treatment. The following safety precautions were taken: cooling units were shut off 48 hours before sailing; the vents were sealed and closed; and the drains were plugged. At the port, trained dogs were used, and

  7. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  8. The potential impact of developments in electronic technology on the future conduct of air warfare, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Advances in microelectronics have resulted in circuit densities many orders of magnitude greater than in current usage, making possible higher speed circuitry and greater storage capacity. RF techniques are also leading to monolithic microwave integrated circuits and microstrip antennas with corresponding reductions in size and weight. In addition, rapid advances are taking place in computer architecture and software that will provide improved information processing and control. This, coupled with progress in artificial intelligence and man-machine interface, offers promise of greatly improved battle management in the cockpit. The scale of changes is such that the nature of air warfare should be significantly affected over the next twenty years. This study examined the potential of electronic technology and potential benefits such as improvements in information processing, reduction in size and weight, increased reliability and maintainability; determined the applicability of such improvements to avionics and command and control systems and such functions as navigation and guidance, communications, surveillance, cockpit engineering and electronic warfare; and examined the impact on air warfare in the time period 2000 to 2010.

  9. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  10. The role of the sand in chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans: Al Eskan disease and "dirty dust".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korényi-Both, A L; Svéd, L; Korényi-Both, G E; Juncer, D J; Korényi-Both, A L; Székely, A

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between Al Eskan disease and the probable exposure to chemical warfare agents by Persian Gulf War veterans. Al Eskan disease, first reported in 1991, compromises the body's immunological defense and is a result of the pathogenic properties of the extremely fine, dusty sand located in the central and eastern region of the Arabian peninsula. The disease manifests with localized expression of multisystem disorder. Signs and symptoms of Al Eskan disease have been termed by the news media "Persian Gulf syndrome." The dust becomes a warfare agent when toxic chemicals are microimpregnated into inert particles. The "dirty dust" concept, that the toxicity of an agent could be enhanced by absorption into inactive particles, dates from World War I. A growing body of evidence shows that coalition forces have encountered Iraqi chemical warfare in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War to a much greater extent than early U.S. Department of Defense information had indicated. Veterans of that war were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the form of direct (deliberate) attacks by chemical weapons, such as missiles and mines, and indirect (accidental) contamination from demolished munition production plants and storage areas, or otherwise. We conclude that the microimpregnated sand particles in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War depleted the immune system and simultaneously acted as vehicles for low-intensity exposure to chemical warfare agents and had a modifying-intensifying effect on the toxicity of exposed individuals. We recommend recognition of a new term, "dirty sand," as a subcategory of dirty dust/dusty chemical warfare agents. Our ongoing research efforts to investigate the health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans suggest that Al Eskan disease is a plausible and preeminent explanation for the preponderance of Persian Gulf War illnesses.

  11. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  12. Biology of corals and coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A

    This chapter deals with biology of corals, coral reefs (in general) and coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. Biology of corals is lucidly dealt with, beginning from the clarification on hermatypic and ahermatypic forms. A complete account...

  13. Towards Logical Designs In Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Towards Logical Designs in Biology. Garima Agarwal. General Article Volume 12 Issue 2 February 2007 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/02/0029-0038. Keywords. Synthetic biology; logic gates; regulatory modules; gene circuits. Author Affiliations.

  14. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  15. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test... for administration to humans. The general safety test is required in addition to other specific tests...

  16. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the ‘myths’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eJefferson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology, a field that aims to ‘make biology easier to engineer’, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the ‘dual use’ threat, i.e. the potential for the same piece of scientific research to be ‘used’ for peaceful purposes or ‘misused’ for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the ‘de-skilling’ of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of DIY biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend towards greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify 5 ‘myths’ that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these ‘myths’ play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a ‘promissory’ field of research and as an ‘emerging technology’ in need of governance.

  17. Synthetic Biology and Biosecurity: Challenging the “Myths”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to “make biology easier to engineer,” is routinely described as leading to an increase in the “dual-use” threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be “used” for peaceful purposes or “misused” for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the “de-skilling” of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five “myths” that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these “myths” play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a “promissory” field of research and as an “emerging technology” in need of governance. PMID:25191649

  18. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  19. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraordinary Measures: Drone Warfare, Securitization, and the “War on Terror”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Scott Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US targeted killing (TK program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006, and Buzan and Wæver (2009 to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.