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Sample records for biological warfare agents

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  3. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  4. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposur...

  5. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  6. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  7. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.556

  8. Biological toxin warfare: threat, proliferation, and the effects of neutron energy on BTW agents

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Jeffrey R.

    1995-01-01

    The threat of biological weapons presents a special military challenge. Biological toxin warfare (BTW) agents are more potent than chemical warfare agents. Depending on the yield of the nuclear weapon, a biological weapon also can have a higher lethality than nuclear weapons. This thesis examines existing international restricions on the proliferation of BTW technology and identifies their shortcomings. These loopholes contribute to the eay availability of the technology necessary to examine ...

  9. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  10. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  11. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  12. Terahertz signatures of biological-warfare-agent simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Woolard, Dwight L.; Khromova, Tatyana; Partasarathy, Ramakrishnan; Majewski, Alexander; Abreu, Rene; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Pan, Shing-Kuo; Ediss, Geoff

    2004-09-01

    This work presents spectroscopic characterization results for biological simulant materials measured in the terahertz gap. Signature data have been collected between 3 cm-1 and 10 cm-1 for toxin Ovalbumin, bacteria Erwinia herbicola, Bacillus Subtilis lyophilized cells and RNA MS2 phage, BioGene. Measurements were conducted on a modified Bruker FTIR spectrometer equipped with the noise source developed in the NRAL. The noise source provides two orders of magnitude higher power in comparison with a conventional mercury lamp. Photometric characterization of the instrument performance demonstrates that the expected error for sample characterization inside the interval from 3 to 9.5 cm-1 is less then 1%.

  13. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Matatagui; José Luis Fontecha; María Jesús Fernández; Isabel Gràcia; Carles Cané; José Pedro Santos; María Carmen Horrillo

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentr...

  14. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  15. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  16. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  17. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  18. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 μg/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, KD (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  20. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  1. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  2. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

  3. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  4. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  5. Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal E. Saikaly; Barlaz, Morton A.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus...

  6. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.; Townsley, C.

    1995-04-01

    DRE Suffield has initiated a research program to develop methods and equipment for field detection and laboratory identification of mid-spectrum agents, molecules of biological origin such as proteins, peptides and toxins. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defence interest: bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P,ARG8-vasopressin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, and oxytocin. Using a 50 micrometer x 47 cm capillary column, 22.5 kV separation voltage and a 100 mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer, all nine peptide could separated in under 10 minutes. Three strategies, which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system, were demonstrated for the identification of unknown peptides: comparison of migration times, comparison of electrophoretic mobilities, and co-injection of multiple reference standards. These experiments demonstrate that a separation based analytical method such as capillary electrophoresis could form the basis of a generic detection system for mid-spectrum protein and peptide toxins.

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. PMID:24894605

  11. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  12. Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents (CWA pose inevitable threat, both to soldiers and civilians. Risk on contact with these deadly agents can be avoided by neutralisation of their toxic effects. A suitable media with essential physico-chemical properties is required for this purpose. Considerable efforts have been made to develop several decontamination media suitable for neutralisation of highly toxic CWAs. This paper reviews history and details of recent technological advancements in the development of versatile, broad spectrum decontamination formulations against CWAs, as also nanosized metal oxides as CWA decontaminants.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.428-441, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.487

  13. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  14. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  15. Development of a Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Burkholderia mallei, a Potent Biological Warfare Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Pal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is the etiological agent of glanders, primarily a disease of equines. B. mallei is closely related to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Therefore, detection of B. mallei and its differentiation from B. pseudomallei, has always been troublesome. In present investigation, a B. mallei specific DNA sequence was identified by performing BLASTn search using ~3000 ORFs of B. mallei NCTC 10229. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay with internal amplification control (IAC was developed for detection of B. mallei and its differentiation from B. pseudomallei. The PCR assay could amplify a specific 224-bp fragment from all the six B. mallei strains used in the study, whereas other closely related organisms were tested negative. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 10 pg of purified DNA of B. mallei. Incorporation of IAC in the assay makes the results reliable as false negative results which may arise due to presence of PCR inhibitors, can be avoided. For validation, the assay was tested on tap water, Bengal gram and grass artificially spiked with B. mallei. The developed assay can be used as a simple and rapid tool for detection of B. mallei.

  16. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agen

  17. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  18. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

    2000-04-01

    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  19. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. A short history of biological warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Biological weapons have been used in war from the start of recorded history. This article reviews the history of the subject, including the outbreak of the Black Death and the use of smallpox against American Indians. The new science of microbiology was misused from soon after its start and, despite the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the Japanese experimented extensively on prisoners in China. The Allies carried out extensive research during the Second World War, notably the United Kingdom into anthrax on Gruinard Island and the United States into a variety of agents. Despite the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), a major programme continued in the former Soviet Union (leading to an accidental outbreak of anthrax). Most recently Iraq was revealed as having an extensive programme, with weaponization of large amounts of various agents, and several terrorists groups have attempted to use biological agents as weapons. Modern developments in biotechnology could lead to even more serious developments, and effective preventive measures, including strengthening of the BWC, are imperative. PMID:12201085

  3. A short history of biological warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Biological weapons have been used in war from the start of recorded history. This article reviews the history of the subject, including the outbreak of the Black Death and the use of smallpox against American Indians. The new science of microbiology was misused from soon after its start and, despite the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the Japanese experimented extensively on prisoners in China. The Allies carried out extensive research during the Second World War, notably the United Kingdom into anthrax on Gruinard Island and the United States into a variety of agents. Despite the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), a major programme continued in the former Soviet Union (leading to an accidental outbreak of anthrax). Most recently Iraq was revealed as having an extensive programme, with weaponization of large amounts of various agents, and several terrorists groups have attempted to use biological agents as weapons. Modern developments in biotechnology could lead to even more serious developments, and effective preventive measures, including strengthening of the BWC, are imperative.

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF WATER BASIN CLEANING FROM CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Tiavlovskaya; V. F. Tamelo

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of reasons that explain pollution of World Ocean waters by chemical warfare agents and ecological dangers which can arise due to their emission. Possible methods for liquidation of chemical warfare agents and water basin cleaning from them have been considered in the paper.

  6. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  7. Refocusing NATO's intelligence outlook towards biological warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Claro William.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Today, we are attempting to manage chaos. With the end of the Cold War, a number of troubling developments in the world have been unleashed, especially the proliferation of WMD. Biological weapons are an increasing threat to world security. Nations and non-state actors are willing to sell or buy the necessary technologies for the production of biological weapons which can have disastrous effects on a military, an economy, and the envir...

  8. [Biological warfare and terror: prevention and countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John-Erik Stig

    2010-01-11

    Biological weapons are the most commonly used weapons of mass destruction. Serious international concerns exist about their use by non-state actors, and such use is facilitated by developments in biotechnology. In Denmark, counter-proliferation is served by a new biosecurity act and the establishment of a new biosecurity authority. Aspects of biopreparedness have also been strengthened. International collaboration is necessary in order to enhance both the security measures aimed at avoiding the misuse of science but also to enhance societal resilience if potentially devastating biological attacks should occur. PMID:20074489

  9. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  10. Platform-level Distributed Warfare Model-based on Multi-Agent System Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-agent paradigm has become a useful tool in solving military problems. However, one of key challenges in multi-agent model for distributed warfare could be how to describe the microcosmic  tactical warfare platforms actions. In this paper, a platform-level distributed warfare model based on multi-agent system framework is designed to tackle this challenge. The basic ideas include:  Establishing multi-agent model by mapping from tactical warfare system’s members, i.e., warfare platforms, to respective agents; performing task decomposition and task allocation by using task-tree decomposition method and improved contract net protocol model technique; and implementing simulation by presenting battlefield terrain environment analysis algorithm based on grid approach. The  simulation demonstration results show that our model provides a feasible and effective approach to supporting the abstraction and representation of microcosmic tactical actions for complex warfare system.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.180-186, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.964

  11. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Albino Giusti; Vanderlei Gageiro Machado

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, feat...

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  15. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  16. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  17. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hurst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons is a matter of conjecture. The unpredictable and indiscriminate devastation caused by natural epidemics and hazardous chemicals during wartime without medical treatment should warn humans of the dangers of employing them as weapons. This study argues rapid detection techniques may dissuade future use. Many agents are far less toxic to treatment. A quick response time to most attacks will decrease the chances of serious health issues. The agent will be less effective and discourage the attacker from using the weapon. Fortunately, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (CWCIBWC allows defensive work in the area of biological and chemical weapons. Consequently, the review will discuss history, delivery/dispersal systems and specific agents of the warfare. The study presents current developments in biosensors for toxic materials of defense interest. It concludes with future directions for biosensor development.

  18. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused b

  2. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  3. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  4. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  5. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  6. Stem-loop oligonucleotide beacons as switches for amplifying-fluorescent-polymer-based biological warfare sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R.; Moon, Joong Ho; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2003-09-01

    Sensors that are exceptionally sensitive with real-time outputs and minimal consumption of reagents are needed to continuously monitor air and water against bioterrorist incidents. Amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) provide exceptionally sensitive real-time reagentless sensor platforms as applied to detection of nitroaromatic explosives. This platform technology has the potential to be adapted to detect biological warfare (BW) agents by covalently attaching the 5" end of stem-loop molecular beacons to AFP as DNA hybridization signal transduction switches. Molecular beacons with loop sequences specific for sequence signatures of a target BW agent are configured with a quencher on the end of the 3" arm of the stem-loop. The AFP is quenched in the absence of target DNA, but upon hybridization with target the stem is melted, the duplex loop extended, and the AFP dequenched. This signal transduction is reversible upon removal of the target sequence with the molecular beacon reforming the stem-loop conformation. Proof-of-concept research has demonstrated that molecular beacons for signature sequences of Francisella tularensis result in correct identification of the presence of this agent in samples, but no false positives were seen with Escherichia coli.

  7. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  8. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  9. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  10. Toxin warfare agents:recognition molecules and drugs for control%生物毒素战剂:检测识别分子与防治药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景林

    2011-01-01

    There are various types of toxins in nature. However, these toxins. which are characterized by the ready availability, easy production and high toxicity, are likely biological warfare agents. Toxin warfare agents are different from traditional bacterial and viral agents or from chemical warfare agents in that they pose a great threat because of their diverse potency and the lack of efficacious drugs. Therefore, it is quite important to develop specific. sensitive recognition molecules for detection of toxins and drugs against intoxication caused by toxin agents. This review focuses on advances in recognition molecules of toxins and some drugs used as prevention and treatment hased on the characteristics of toxin warfare agents .%自然界中存在着种类繁多的毒素物质,但最有可能用作战剂的是那些获取方便、制备容易、毒性强、施放后可致人死亡或失能的毒素.毒素战剂既不同于传统的细菌、病毒战剂,也不同于化学毒剂,其最大的威胁来自它的高毒性及缺乏有效的治疗手段.因此,发展毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物就显得尤为重要.本文讨论了生物毒素战剂相关概念、特征,重点综述了毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物研究进展.

  11. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  12. [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavi, Ofer; Aizenstien, Orna; Katz, Lior H; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-05-01

    Infection with Burkholderia mallei (formerly Pseudomonas mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as Glanders. It is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules. In humans, Glanders can produce four types of disease: localized form, pulmonary form, septicemia, and chronic form. Necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree and pustular skin lesions characterize acute infection with B. mallei. Other symptoms include febrile pneumonia, if the organism was inhaled, or signs of sepsis and multiple abscesses, if the skin was the port of entry. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. Glanders has low contiguous potential, but because of the efficacy of aerosolized dissemination and the lethal nature of the disease, B. mallei was considered a candidate for biological warfare. During World War I, Glanders was believed to have been spread to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the Eastern front. The Japanese infected horses, civilians and prisoners of war during World War II. The USA and the Soviet Union have shown interest in B. mallei in their biological warfare program. The treatment is empiric and includes mono or poly-therapy with Ceftazidime, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazol, Gentamicin, Imipenem etc. Aggressive control measures essentially eliminated Glanders from the west. However, with the resurgent concern about biological warfare, B. mallei is now being studied in a few laboratories worldwide. This review provides an overview of the disease and presents the only case reported in the western world since 1949.

  13. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  14. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.;

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  15. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  16. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  17. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  18. Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. In addition to the discussion on the validity of natural selection, modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related to the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown that constitute the major planet's gene pool. They play a fundamental role in evolution since their sequences are capable of integrating into the genomes in an "infective" way and become an essential part of multicellular organisms. They have content with "biological sense" i.e., they appear as part of normal life processes and have a serious role as carrier elements of complex genetic information. Antibiotics are cell signals with main effects on general metabolism and transcription on bacterial cells and communities. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes (parasites, mutualists, synergists, amensalists) as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that are normally understood as parasites are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drive the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is the result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial

  19. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Qiang Han; Shuya Cao; Feng Huang; Molin Qin; Chenghai Guo; Mingyu Ding

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical an...

  20. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  1. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  2. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  3. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  4. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  5. A review of research on common biological agents and their impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological agents are unique class of microorganisms which can be used to produce the disease in large populations of humans, animals and plants. If used for hostile purposes, any disease-causing microorganism could be considered a weapon. The use of biological agents is not a new concept and history is replete with examples of biological weapon use. Before the twenty century, biological warfare took on three main forms by deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and use of biologically inoculated fabrics. Four kinds of biological warfare agents are bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi. These are distinguished by being living organisms, that reproduce within their host victims, who then become contagious with a deadly multiplier effect, bacteria, viruses, or fungi or toxin found in nature can be used to kill or injure people. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands. These biological agents represent a dangerous military threat because they are alive, and are therefore unpredictable and uncontrollable once released. The act of bioterrorism can range from a simple hoax to the actual use of biological weapons. Biological agents have the potential to make an environment more dangerous over time. If the environment is contaminated, a long-term threat to the population could be created. This paper discusses common biological agents, their mode of action in living organisms and possible impact on the environment. (author)

  6. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  8. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10−2 s−1) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10−8–10−6 s−1). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  9. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  11. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  12. Secondary ionization of chemical warfare agent simulants: atmospheric pressure ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Wes E; Clowers, Brian H; Haigh, Paul E; Hill, Herbert H

    2003-11-15

    For the first time, the use of a traditional ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (radioactive nickel ((63)Ni) beta emission ionization) and three alternative ionization sources (electrospray ionization (ESI), secondary electrospray ionization (SESI), and electrical discharge (corona) ionization (CI)) were employed with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS) to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants from both aqueous- and gas-phase samples. For liquid-phase samples, ESI was used as the sample introduction and ionization method. For the secondary ionization (SESI, CI, and traditional (63)Ni ionization) of vapor-phase samples, two modes of sample volatilization (heated capillary and thermal desorption chamber) were investigated. Simulant reference materials, which closely mimic the characteristic chemical structures of CWA as defined and described by Schedule 1, 2, or 3 of the Chemical Warfare Convention treaty verification, were used in this study. A mixture of four G/V-type nerve simulants (dimethyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and 2-(butylamino)ethanethiol) and one S-type vesicant simulant (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide) were found in each case (sample ionization and introduction methods) to be clearly resolved using the IM(tof)MS method. In many cases, reduced mobility constants (K(o)) were determined for the first time. Ion mobility drift times, flight times, relative signal intensities, and fragmentation product signatures for each of the CWA simulants are reported for each of the methods investigated. PMID:14615983

  13. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic. PMID:27385368

  14. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  15. A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

  16. Semi-continuous high speed gas analysis of generated vapors of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and satin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a 'standard length' column, the system can either b

  17. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  18. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  19. Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R

    2013-11-15

    For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning. PMID:24140529

  20. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  1. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  2. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...... to be illuminated in which this study hopefully will contribute to. Especially, chronic toxicity needs to be described as this mimics a more environmentally realistic situation. One or two compounds will be accessed based upon various factors such as detection frequencies, found concentrations in both sediment...... to the commercially important cod (Gadus morrhua). The cod migrates down to the seafloor – even crossing the oxycline - where the CWA munitions were dumped. To sum up, this study will obtain novel ecotoxicity data on recently discovered degradation products and assess the potential threat to the commercially...

  3. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  4. Chemical Warfare Agents Analyzer Based on Low Cost, Room Temperature, and Infrared Microbolometer Smart Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced IR emitters and sensors are under development for high detection probability, low false alarm rate, and identification capability of toxic gases. One of the most reliable techniques to identify the gas species is absorption spectroscopy, especially in the medium infrared spectral range, where most of existing toxic compounds exhibit their strongest rotovibrational absorption bands. Following the results obtained from simulations and analysis of expected absorption spectra, a compact nondispersive infrared multispectral system has been designed and developed for security applications. It utilizes a few square millimeters thermal source, a novel design multipass cell, and a smart architecture microbolometric sensor array coupled to a linear variable spectral filter to perform toxic gases detection and identification. This is done by means of differential absorption spectroscopic measurements in the spectral range of the midinfrared. Experimental tests for sensitivity and selectivity have been done with various chemical agents (CAs gases and a multiplicity of vapour organic compounds (VOCs. Detection capability down to ppm has been demonstrated.

  5. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-03-20

    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  6. Computational Investigations of Potential Energy Function Development for Metal--Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, and Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioce, Christian R.

    sigma donates, and subsequent back-bonding occurs into a pi* antibonding orbital. This is a different type of interaction not seen in the three existing classes of metal-carbene complexes, namely Fischer, Schrock, and Grubbs. Finally, the virtual engineering of enhanced chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection systems is discussed. As part of a U.S. Department of Defense supported research project, in silico chemical modifications to a previously synthesized zinc-porphyrin, ZnCS1, were made to attempt to achieve preferential binding of the nerve agent sarin versus its simulant, DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Upon modification, a combination of steric effects and induced hydrogen bonding allowed for the selective binding of sarin. The success of this work demonstrates the role that high performance computing can play in national security research, without the associated costs and high security required for experimentation.

  7. Establishment of Exposure to Organophosphorus Warfare Agents by Means of SPME-GSMS Analysis of Bodily Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable chemical analytical procedures for revealing an exposure to toxic chemicals, identifying the active substance, and assessing the degree of exposure are necessary as a component of medical and forensic activities in cases of the possible use of highly toxic chemicals in war conflicts and terrorism acts, as well as emergency situations in chemical industry, specifically at chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities. According to Chemical Weapons Convention, Part XI, Appendix 4, e-17, 'samples of importance in the investigation of alleged use include biomedical samples from human or animal sources (blood, urine, excreta, tissue etc.)'. Urinary metabolites, O-alkyl esters of methylphosphic acid, offer one of the simplest means of confirming an exposure to organophosphorus warfare agents (OPWA). Urine, unlike blood or tissues, does not require invasive collection demanding in terms of sterility. Excretion with urine is the major route of elimination of OPWA from an organism. According to published data, 90% of OPWA metabolites are excreted within 48-72 h after intoxication. We developed an SPME-GCMS procedure for the determination of O-alkyl esters methylphosphonic acid in urine, with the following detection limits,: isopropyl and isobutyl esters 5 ng/ml and pinacolyl ester 1 ng/ml. The procedure involves derivatization of the target compounds directly on the microfiber. The total analysis time is 1-1.5 h. In animal experiments in vivo we could establish the exposure to OPWA at a half-LD50 level within no less than 48 h after intoxication. In principle, OPWA metabolites could be detected in urine within two weeks after intoxication but at higher doses. Retrospective analysis of urinary metabolites in cases of the exposure to low doses of OPWA requires lower detection limits (0.1-1 ng/ml). Optimal objects for the retrospective analysis of OPWA in an organism are long-lived blood protein adducts. We developed a procedure for revealing an exposure to

  8. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  9. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  10. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

  11. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

  12. Interpretation of a New Found Japanese Biological Warfare File%对一份新发现日本细菌战档案的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫文婧

    2016-01-01

    Unit 731 focused on the research of Biological Warfare theory in the plan of biological warfare , But be-cause? of lack of evidence chain , this research is relatively backward .Entry Hojo who was the core member of Unit 731 , his speech draft On Biological Warfareis the recently found materials and evidences , has great academic research value.Through the interpretation of the Biological Warfare , analyzing the biological warfare is the vital criterion to e-valuate the research level and research competence , which is also an effective supplement to the evidences for the Jap-anese biological warfare war of aggression against China .%七三一部队在细菌战谋划中注重对细菌战理论的研究,但囿于相关证据链的缺失,致使此项研究相对滞后。七三一部队核心成员北条圆了的演讲稿《关于细菌战》作为新资料、新证据,具有重大的学术研究价值,是对国内所藏相关资料的重要补充,有助于丰富学术界对于日本细菌战理论问题的认知。《关于细菌战》是北条圆了在长期实践基础上积累形成的细菌战理论,可以在一定程度上还原战时日本细菌战的研究情况。通过对北条圆了其人及《关于细菌战》的梳理和解读,进而剖析日本细菌战理论是评估二战时期日本细菌战研究水平和研究能力的重要尺度,也是对日本侵华细菌战证据链的有效补充。

  13. Biological agents targeting beyond TNF-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological agents represent an important addition to the therapies for immuno-inflammatory conditions and have a great impact on the disease course and quality of life of these patients. However, recent reports of serious infections like tuberculosis, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases, pancytopenia, cardiovascular diseases, etc. after anti-TNF therapy raised questions on their safety. Hence, focus is shifted towards drugs targeting cytokine checkpoints in the inflammatory cascades beyond TNF-a. Existing therapeutic targets include the biological agents acting as antagonists of various inflammatory cytokines (Anakinra, Tocilizumab, Atlizumab and modulators of CD80 or CD86-CD28 co-stimulatory signal (Abatacept, CD2 receptors on T-cells (Alefacept, CD11a, subunit of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (Efalizumab, vitronectin receptor and CD20 antigen on pre-B, immature and mature B cells (Rituximab. With the introduction of these novel molecules the future for immunomodulatory intervention in rheumatology, asthma, crohn′s disease, septic shock etc. looks very promising. These novel therapeutic agents could truly give a new hope to the clinician to modify the disease and achieve tangible improvements in the lives of the patients.

  14. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  15. Distinct human antibody response to the biological warfare agent Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, John J; Vigil, Adam; DeShazer, David; Waag, David M; Felgner, Philip; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-10-01

    The genetic similarity between Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) had led to the general assumption that pathogenesis of each bacterium would be similar. In 2000, the first human case of glanders in North America since 1945 was reported in a microbiology laboratory worker. Leveraging the availability of pre-exposure sera for this individual and employing the same well-characterized protein array platform that has been previously used to study a large cohort of melioidosis patients in southeast Asia, we describe the antibody response in a human with glanders. Analysis of 156 peptides present on the array revealed antibodies against 17 peptides with a > 2-fold increase in this infection. Unexpectedly, when the glanders data were compared with a previous data set from B. pseudomallei infections, there were only two highly increased antibodies shared between these two infections. These findings have implications in the diagnosis and treatment of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei infections.

  16. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyman, O.; Kaegi, C.; Akdis, M.; Bavbek, S.; Bossios, A.; Chatzipetrou, A.; Eiwegger, T.; Firinu, D.; Harr, T.; Knol, E.; Matucci, A.; Palomares, O.; Schmidt-Weber, C.; Simon, H. U.; Steiner, U. C.; Vultaggio, A.; Akdis, C. A.; Spertini, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several immune-

  17. Biological agents in management of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with an imbalance between formation and resorption, leading to net loss of bone mass, loss of bone microarchitecture, and development of fractures. Bone resorption is primarily due to an activation of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression, a cytokine involved in the final pathway of the osteoclast cycle.Recent studies of genetic diseases led to the discovery of the wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway that plays a major role in bone formation. Further work showed that sclerostin produced by osteocytes and the Dickkopf (DKK1) protein secreted in bone were negative regulators of the Wnt signaling bone formation pathway that act directly by binding to the co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 of WnT and thereby inhibiting the anabolic Wnt pathway. This understanding of the bone remodeling led to the discovery of new biological drugs that target these pathways and have been evaluated in clinical trials.The current article discusses the role of these newer "biological" agents in management of osteoporosis. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds RANKL, blocks the binding of RANK to its ligand markedly reducing bone resorption, increases bone density, and reduces fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 (teriparatide) stimulates bone formation through inhibition of sclerostin, DKK1, and frizzled protein; increases BMD; improves microarchitecture; and decreases fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. The anti-sclerostin antibodies (romosozumab, blosozumab) increase bone mass by neutralizing the negative effects of sclerostin on the Wnt signaling pathway. These biologics are being evaluated now in a clinical trial and early data looks promising. Cathepsin K is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades bone matrix and inhibitors such as odanacatib show increasing bone density and perhaps decreased fractures. The

  18. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. PMID

  19. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  20. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO. PMID:26653465

  1. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF ENZYMATIC TEST KITS FOR WARFARE AGENTS AND PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic test kits, generally designed to be handheld and portable, detect the presence of chemical agents, carbamate pesticides, and/or organophosphate pesticides by relying on the reaction of the cholinesterase enzyme. Under normal conditions, the enzyme reacts as expected wi...

  2. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  3. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  4. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  5. Effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents mediated by trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Alcaraz, Armando

    2016-08-24

    The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1)). Due to its insolubility in methylene chloride, TMO·BF4 conveniently settles to the bottom during the reaction and does not produce additional interfering by-products that may further complicate the GC-MS analysis. The method was demonstrated to successfully methylate a variety of Schedule 2 phosphonic acids, including their half esters, resulting in derivatives that were readily detected and identified using the instrument's spectral library. Most importantly, the method was shown to simultaneously methylate a mixture of the organophosphorus-based nerve agent hydrolysis products: pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), cyclohexyl methylphosphonate (CyMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA) (at a 10 μg mL(-1) concentration each) in a fatty acid ester-rich organic matrix (OPCW-PT-O3) featured in the 38th Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test. In addition, the protocol was found to effectively methylate N,N-diethylamino ethanesulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropylamino ethanesulfonic acid that are products arising from the oxidative degradation of the V-series agents VR and VX respectively. The

  6. 电子对抗作战仿真分层半自治Agent系统框架设计%Design of Electronic Warfare Simulation System Framework Based on Semi-autonomous Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成晓鹏; 齐锋; 王枭

    2016-01-01

    In order to redisplay the process of real combat in the electronic warfare simulation system, it designs a layered semi⁃autonomous Agent system framework. Beginning with the point of devising the electronic warfare simulation entity, a new manner of creating entity Agent based on the BDI framework was built and the advantage of semi⁃autonomous Agent was probed. Not only the way how to design Agent became clear, but also the layered semi⁃autonomous Agent structure based on the sort of entities was established. It displays how to use the semi⁃Agent technique in electronic warfare simulation and is re⁃ally significant.%为了在电子对抗作战仿真系统中真实地复现现实作战过程,设计了基于分层半自治Agent的系统框架。从设计电子对抗作战仿真实体Agent的现实意义出发,提出了基于BDI框架的仿真实体Agent设计方法,着重探讨了半自治Agent技术应用于作战仿真领域的巨大优势,明确了个体Agent的设计方法。根据电子对抗作战仿真系统的实体分类结果提出了一种基于分层半自治Agent的系统结构,并分析了不同层次的Agent的功能,为半自治Agent技术应用于电子对抗作战仿真领域提供了思路,具有一定的借鉴意义。

  7. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP)

  8. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  9. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  10. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  11. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  12. Rapid - PCR ( LightCycler ) in diagnosis of biological agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Hadfield, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Although the historic use of biological weapons has been infrequent, a belief that state sponsored armies or terrorist organizations will use this type of weapon has never been greater which demands a capability for rapid medical response and early intervention. Molecular diagnostic methods, based on DNA amplification known as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are promising tools in fast and specific detection and identification of biological agent(s). The R.A.P.I.D.TM - PCR ( Ruggedized Adv...

  13. Antidotal effects of varthemia persica DC extract in organophosphate poisoning or warfare agents by measuring whole blood acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphates (ORPs) or war fare agents toxicity results from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE). phosphylation of the active serin of AchE leads to accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts leading to generalized cholinergic over-stimulation. Standard treatment of ORP poisoning includes a muscarinic antagonist such as Atropine, and acetylcholinesterase reactivator (oxime). Presently, oximes like abidoxime and pralidoxime are approved as antidotes against ORP poisoning but are considered to be rather ineffective against certain ORP. Like Soman. In this study, the protective effect of Varthemia persica DC extract on acetylcholinesterase was examined in rats. Animals in weight range of 200-225 g were divided in 8 groups. The negative control group received only 0.4 ml normal saline, reference group, received ethylparaoxone in dose of 50 percent of LD50, positive control group, received ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) and one minute later 50 mol of pralidoxime. Test group 1: received ethylparaoxone and one minute later single dose of methanolic extract of Varthemia persica (250 mg/kg), Test Group 2: daily received methanolic extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg) in six days and one minute after last dose of extract, ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) were injected, Test Group 3: received ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) and then six doses of methanolic extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg) in six continuous days. Test Group 4: received ethylparaoxone and then single dose of dichloromethane extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg). Test Group 5: received ethylparaoxone and one minute later single high dose of methanolic extract of V.persica (1000 mg/kg). Then blood withdrawn and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured according to modified Ellman's method. Only in groups which received extract of V. persica before and after injection of ethylparaoxone, the mean of acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly different with reference group (p 0.05) but no significant difference with

  14. Differential detection of a surrogate biological threat agent (Bacillus globigii) with a portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adducci, Benjamin A; Gruszewski, Hope A; Khatibi, Piyum A; Schmale, David G

    2016-04-15

    New methods and technology are needed to quickly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents, such as Bacillus anthracis, causal agent of anthrax in humans and animals. Here, we report the detection of a simulant of B. anthracis (B. globigii) alone and in a mixture with a different species of Bacillus to test non-specific interference using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor (SPIRIT 4.0, Seattle Sensor Systems). Both direct capture and antibody amplification were used to determine the limit of detection for spores of B. globigii, and to detect spores of B. globigii in a mixed sample containing another Bacillus spp. Spores of B. globigii were detected by anti-B. globigii (anti-Bg) coated sensors by direct capture at a concentration of 10(7)spores/mL, and with a secondary antibody amplification at a concentration of 10(5)spores/mL. Spores of B. globigii were differentially detected in a 1:1 mixture with B. pumilus spores from equal concentrations (10(7)spores/mL) with a secondary antibody amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the differential detection of B. globigii with SPR in a mixed sample containing at least one additional Bacillus spp., highlighting the potential for SPR to detect any target bacterium in a mixed sample of closely related species. With the availability of portable instrumentation to accurately detect biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis, emergency responders can implement protocols in a timely fashion, limiting the amount of exposed individuals. PMID:26606307

  15. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  16. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:27113675

  17. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Tobón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of RA and the development of joint damage. These biological agents have been proven effective in RA patients with inadequate responses to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Preventing joint damage is now the primary goal of RA treatment, and guidelines exist for the follow-up of joint abnormalities. Most biologic agents produced high clinical and radiological response rates in patients with established or recent-onset RA. Thus, for the first time, obtaining a remission is a reasonable treatment goal in RA patients. Factors that are crucial to joint damage control are: early initiation of DMARDs, use of intensive treatments including biological agents, and close monitoring of clinical disease activity and radiographic progression. However, some patients remain unresponsive to all available treatments and continue to experience joint damage progression. A major objective now is to identify patients at high risk for severe joint damage, in order to tailor the treatment regimen to their specific needs.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, radiographic progression, biologics

  18. Current laboratory methods for biological threat agent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchal, E A; Teska, J D; Ludwig, G V; Shoemaker, D R; Ezzell, J W

    2001-09-01

    The authors present an integrated approach for the identification of biological threat agents. The methods used have been used extensively in field exercises and during response to incidents of biological terrorism. A diagnostic system, which integrates the clinical diagnosis or medical intelligence with immunodiagnostic tests, rapid gene amplification assays, and standard culture, provides results of the highest quality and confidence. In the future, selected reagents and technologies will be distributed through a network of civilian and military laboratories. PMID:11572145

  19. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  20. The Use of Biologic Agents in Athletes with Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Michaela; Bradley, James P

    2016-07-01

    Biologic agents are gaining popularity in the management of bony and soft tissue conditions about the knee. They are becoming the mainstay of nonoperative therapy in the high-demand athletic population. The most well-studied agents include platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells-both of which have shown promise in the treatment of various conditions. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated improved outcomes following PRP treatment in early osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in chronic patellar tendinopathy. Early clinical evidence also lends support for PRP in the augmentation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Research investigating the role of biologic agents in collateral ligament and meniscal injuries is ongoing. Studies assessing the utility of stem cells have shown encouraging results in the setting of osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, strict regulations by the FDA continue to restrict their application in clinical practice. A major limitation in the interpretation of current data is the significant variability in the harvesting and preparation of both PRP and stem cells. As the volume and quality of evidence continue to grow, biologic agents are poised to become an integral component of comprehensive patient care throughout all orthopedic specialties. PMID:27206071

  1. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  2. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Monje, Alberto; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Tang, ZhiHui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD), Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2), Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7), Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5). PMID:26509173

  3. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Suárez-López del Amo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB, Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD, Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF, Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2, Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7, Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5.

  4. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  5. Treatment of relapsing polychondritis in the era of biological agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Eoghan M

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder, often requiring high doses of immunosuppressive therapy to control its potentially life-threatening consequences. The advent of biological agents has added to the armamentarium available to treat RP, but the lack of controlled trials, along with the small numbers of patients and disease heterogeneity means that new therapies are prescribed without the benefits of rigorous clinical research. Thus, information on individual cases is of value in expanding our knowledge of the use of biologic agents in rare conditions. We report on the use of rituximab in a patient who subsequently developed catastrophic aortic incompetence, and we review the literature in relation to the use of this drug in RP.

  6. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontaminatio...

  7. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Devauchelle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogen...

  8. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs—namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauver...

  9. Biologic agents for anterior cruciate ligament healing: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Loibl, Markus; Andriolo, Luca; Filardo, Giuseppe; Zellner, Johannes; Koch, Matthias; Angele, Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIM To systematically review the currently available literature concerning the application of biologic agents such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells to promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of biologic agents (i.e., PRP or stem cells) to favor ACL healing during reconstruction or repair. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: Clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in English language, on the use of PRP or stem cells during ACL reconstruction/repair. Exclusion criteria were articles written in other languages, reviews, or studies analyzing other applications of PRP/stem cells in knee surgery not related to promoting ACL healing. RESULTS The database search identified 394 records that were screened. A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis: In one paper stem cells were applied for ACL healing, in one paper there was a concomitant application of PRP and stem cells, whereas in the remaining 21 papers PRP was used. Based on the ACL injury pattern, two papers investigated biologic agents in ACL partial tears whereas 21 papers in ACL reconstruction. Looking at the quality of the available literature, 17 out of 21 studies dealing with ACL reconstruction were randomized controlled trials. Both studies on ACL repair were case series. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the role of stem cells in promoting ACL healing both in case of partial and complete tears. The role of PRP is still controversial and the only advantage emerging from the literature is related to a better graft maturation over time, without documenting beneficial effects in terms of clinical outcome, bone-graft integration and prevention of bony tunnel enlargement. PMID:27672573

  10. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  11. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyman, O; Kaegi, C; Akdis, M; Bavbek, S; Bossios, A; Chatzipetrou, A; Eiwegger, T; Firinu, D; Harr, T; Knol, E; Matucci, A; Palomares, O; Schmidt-Weber, C; Simon, H-U; Steiner, U C; Vultaggio, A; Akdis, C A; Spertini, F

    2015-07-01

    Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several immune-mediated disorders. Biologicals have also been tested in allergic disorders. These include agents targeting IgE; T helper 2 (Th2)-type and Th2-promoting cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-31, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP); pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); chemokine receptor CCR4; and lymphocyte surface and adhesion molecules, including CD2, CD11a, CD20, CD25, CD52, and OX40 ligand. In this task force paper of the Interest Group on Biologicals of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, we review biologicals that are currently available or tested for the use in various allergic and urticarial pathologies, by providing an overview on their state of development, area of use, adverse events, and future research directions. PMID:25819018

  12. Effectiveness Analysis Method Research of Formation Cooperative Anti-submarine Warfare Based on Multi-agent Simulation%基于多Agent仿真的编队协同反潜作战效能分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆铭华; 吴金平; 董汉权

    2011-01-01

    编队协同反潜作战是一个复杂系统,能不能形成清晰的反潜效能分析思路,建立合适的反潜效能指标体系,并进一步确定合理的效能分析方法,成为编队协同反潜作战效能分析最为关键的环节.在给出编队协同反潜作战领域Agent定义及单个反潜兵力Agent形式化描述的基础上,提出了基于多Agent系统仿真(MASBS)的复杂系统效能分析法(MASBS-CSEA),给出了其定义,提取了三种作战任务模式下的效能分析指标,并基于HLA技术构建了MASBS仿真的联邦体系结构.%Conceiving legible anti-submarine effectiveness analysis ideas and designing appropriate anti-submarine effectiveness indexes system as well as determining reasonable effectiveness analysis method have been the most important aspects of effectiveness analysis in the field of formation cooperative anti-submarine warfare which is a complex system. On the basis of presenting the definition of agent and the formalization description of single anti-submarine force in the field of formation cooperative anti-submarine warfare, MAS-based simulation complex system effectiveness analysis (MASBS- CSEA) method was brought forward including presenting its definition and picking-up effectiveness analysis indexes in three combat task models as well as structuring the federation architecture of MASBS simulation based on HLA.

  13. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J., E-mail: jiri.dammer@lf1.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F. [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Benes, J. [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Sopko, V. [Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Gelbic, I. [Biology Centre, AS CR, Institute of Entomology, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  14. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system

  15. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  16. The use of contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J; Sopko, V; Jakubek, J [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F, E-mail: jiri.dammer@utef.cvut.cz [Biological center of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    The technique of X-ray transmission imaging has been available for over a century and is still among the fastest and easiest approaches to the studies of internal structure of biological samples. Recent advances in semiconductor technology have led to the development of new types of X-ray detectors with direct conversion of interacting X-ray photon to an electric signal. Semiconductor pixel detectors seem to be specially promising; compared to the film technique, they provide single-quantum and real-time digital information about the objects being studied. We describe the recently developed radiographic apparatus, equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by an X-ray tube (micro- or nano-focus FeinFocus). Thanks to the wide dynamic range of the Medipix2 detector and its high spatial resolution better than 1{mu}m, the setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in-vivo observations with contrast agent (Optiray). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of the use iodine contrast agent as a tracer in various insects as model organisms. The motivation of our work is to develop our imaging techniques as non-destructive and non-invasive. Microradiographic imaging helps detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize the internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

  17. High-throughput assay for optimising microbial biological control agent production and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of technologies to produce and deliver effective biological control agents (BCAs) is a major barrier to their commercialization. A myriad of variables associated with BCA cultivation, formulation, drying, storage, and reconstitution processes complicates agent quality maximization. An efficie...

  18. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  19. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  20. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  1. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  2. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  3. A computational study of detoxification of lewisite warfare agents by British anti-lewisite: catalytic effects of water and ammonia on reaction mechanism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Chandan; Pakhira, Srimanta; Sen, Kaushik; Das, Abhijit K

    2013-04-25

    trans-2-Chlorovinyldichloroarsine (lewisite, L agent, Lew-I) acts as a blistering agents. British anti-lewisite (BAL, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) has long been used as an L-agent antidote. The main reaction channels for the detoxification proceed via breaking of As-Cl bonds and formation of As-S bonds, producing stable, nontoxic ring product [(2-methyl-1,3,2-dithiarsolan-4-yl)methanol]. M06-2X/GENECP calculations have been carried out to establish the enhanced rate of detoxification mechanism in the presence of NH3 and H2O catalysts in both gas and solvent phases, which has been modeled by use of the polarized continuum model (PCM). In addition, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis have been performed to characterize the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the transition states. Transition-state theory (TST) calculation establishes that the rates of NH3-catalyzed (2.88 × 10(-11) s(-1)) and H2O-catalyzed (2.42 × 10(-11) s(-1)) reactions are reasonably faster than the uncatalyzed detoxification (5.44 × 10(-13) s(-1)). The results obtained by these techniques give new insight into the mechanism of the detoxification process, identification and thermodynamic characterization of the relevant stationary species, the proposal of alternative paths on modeled potential energy surfaces for uncatalyzed reaction, and the rationalization of the mechanistic role played by catalysts and solvents. PMID:23540856

  4. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  5. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  6. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.). The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds. We are...

  7. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  8. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  10. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  11. Nondestructive inspection of chemical warfare based on API-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Real-time, fast, accurate, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and quantitative analysis for chemical warfare are very imperative for chemical defense, anti-terror and nation security. Purpose: Associated Particles Technique (APT)/Neutron Time of Flight (TOF) has been developed for non-invasive inspection of sealed containers with chemical warfare agents. Methods: A prototype equipment for chemical warfare is consisted of an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, the shielding protection of neutron and gamma-ray, arrayed NaI(Tl)-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis, decision-making software, support platform and remote control system. Inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra of sarin, VX, mustard gas and adamsite induced by 14-MeV neutron are measured. The energies of these gamma rays are used to identify the inelastic scattering elements, and the intensities of the peaks at these energies are used to reveal their concentrations. Results: The characteristic peaks of inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra show that the prototype equipment can fast and accurately inspect chemical warfare. Conclusion: The equipment can be used to detect not only chemical warfare agents but also other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic/drug materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials. (authors)

  12. An isomer-specific high-energy collision-induced dissociation MS/MS database for forensic applications: a proof-of-concept on chemical warfare agent markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Raja; Östin, Anders; Nygren, Yvonne; Juhlin, Lars; Nilsson, Calle; Åstot, Crister

    2011-09-01

    Spectra database search has become the most popular technique for the identification of unknown chemicals, minimizing the need for authentic reference chemicals. In the present study, an isomer-specific high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS spectra database of 12 isomeric O-hexyl methylphosphonic acids (degradation markers of nerve agents) was created. Phosphonate anions were produced by the electrospray ionization of phosphonic acids or negative-ion chemical ionization of their fluorinated derivatives and were analysed in a hybrid magnetic-sector-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer. A centre-of-mass energy (E(com)) of 65 eV led to an optimal sequential carbon-carbon bond breakage, which was interpreted in terms of charge remote fragmentation. The proposed mechanism is discussed in comparison with the routinely used low-energy CID MS/MS. Even-mass (odd-electron) charge remote fragmentation ion series were diagnostic of the O-alkyl chain structure and can be used to interpret unknown spectra. Together with the odd-mass ion series, they formed highly reproducible, isomer-specific spectra that gave significantly higher database matches and probability factors (by 1.5 times) than did the EI MS spectra of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the same isomers. In addition, ionization by negative-ion chemical ionization and electrospray ionization resulted in similar spectra, which further highlights the general potential of the high-energy CID MS/MS technique. PMID:21915956

  13. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  14. The evolution of human warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution. PMID:22081837

  15. Biological soil crusts: a fundamental organizing agent in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem function is profoundly affected by plant community composition, which is ultimately determined by factors that govern seed retention. Dryland ecosystems constitute ~35% of terrestrial surfaces, with most soils in these regions covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), a community whose autotrophs are dominated by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses. Studies at 550 sites revealed that plant community composition was controlled by the interaction among biocrust type, disturbance regime, and external morphology of seeds. In bare soils (due to disturbance), all seed types were present in the seedbank and plant community. As biocrusts became better developed (i.e., the cover of lichens and mosses increased), they more strongly filtered out seeds with appendages. Thus, soils under late successional biocrusts contained seedbanks dominated by smooth seeds and vascular plants growing in late successional biocrusts were dominated by those with smooth seeds. Therefore, the tension between the removal of biocrusts by soil surface disturbance and their recovery creates a shifting mosaic of plant patch types in both space and time. Because changes in vascular plant communities reverberate throughout both below ground and above ground food webs and thus affect multiple trophic levels, we propose that biocrusts are a fundamental organizing agent in drylands worldwide. Future increased demand for resources will intensify land use both temporally and spatially, resulting in an increased rate of biocrust loss across larger areas. As a result, we can expect shifts in the composition and distribution of plant communities, accompanied by concomitant changes in many aspects of dryland ecosystems. Conceptual model of shifting dryland plant mosaics through space and time. Within the large circles, soil surface type changes with time in the same space, going from bare uncrusted soil (B) to cyanobacterial biocrust (C) to lichen/moss (L/M) biocrust. Disturbance (D) drives the

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  17. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THE PRESENT CAPABILITIES OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THIS RESPECT

    OpenAIRE

    A.L.S. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons). This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare i...

  18. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  19. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  20. Treatment of psoriasis with biologic agents in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Liam; Boffa, Michael J.; Clark, Eileen; Scerri, Lawrence; Aquilina, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biologic therapy has revolutionalised the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis leading to improved clinical outcomes and quality of life scores. This study aims to determine current biologic use in psoriatic patients at our Dermatology department at Sir Paul Boffa hospital, Malta. Method: All patients who were administered biologic therapy for psoriasis in Malta until the end of 2014 were included. Data included demographic details, disease dur...

  1. Parasitoids as biological control agents of thrips pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Hymenoptera, Ceranisus menes, Ceranisus americensis, biological controlThe thesis presented here is the result of a joint European Research project "Biological Control of Thrips Pests". Specific aims of the project were to collect, evaluate, mass p

  2. Systems for Detection and Identification of Biological Aerosols (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Švabenska

    2012-01-01

    Easy and inexpensive manufacturing of biological weapons, their complicated detection, expensive protection, difficult treating of affected individuals, selective impact only for people, animals or plants, are all factors making an effective defense against biological warfare agents very difficult. The aim of this study is an introduction to the systems for the detection and identification of biological aerosols containing dangerous bioagents. The basic techniques used for detection and ident...

  3. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing for Biological Agent Detection and Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman; Jensen, James O; Schmera, Gabor; Smulko, Janusz; Gingl, Zoltan; Granqvist, Claes G

    2009-01-01

    We survey and show our earlier results about three different ways of fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bio agent, the phage-based method for bacterium detection published earlier; sensing and evaluating the bacterial odors; and spectral and amplitude distribution analysis of noise in light scattering to identify spores based on their diffusion coefficient.

  4. Iran and Cyberspace Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Kronenfeld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world decision makers and the general public have undoubtedly realized in recent years that cyberspace must be treated as a genuine realm of warfare. Since the the Stuxnet attack - one of the most destructive cyber attacks to date - Iran has been working hard to improve its cyberspace defenses on the one hand, while building up cyberspace intelligence gathering and offensive capabilities on the other. This article examines the current situation regarding various elements of Iran’s cyberspace development process. The first section analyzes the country’s cyberspace strategy, while the second section describes the organizational and operational response to the formulated strategy. This comprises three components: infrastructures for training and developing technological manpower for work in cyberspace; technological developments that have already been introduced; and the overall processes of cyberspace force construction. Finally, the article focuses on a number of cyberspace incidents attributed to Iran, attempts to gain some insight into the way Iran conducts its cyberspace activities, and examines implications for Israel and other Western nations.

  5. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control of... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. We...

  6. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... prepared an environmental assessment relative to the release of Symnus coniferarum to control hemlock... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to...

  7. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  8. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verschuere, L.; Rombaut, G.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W.

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustace...

  9. Combining biological agents and chemotherapy in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Jakobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    is not always possible. Chemotherapy is effective and the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine is considered a standard treatment of inoperable cholangiocarcinoma. Biological targeted treatment to date has minor effect when given as monotherapy, but some of the drugs hold promise as an adjunct...... to chemotherapy. It should, however, be noted that most of the trials are based on few patients, and thus far the literature does not allow for a conclusion as to the role of biological treatment on cholangiocarcinoma. This situation calls for well-designed randomized trials, and international cooperation as well...

  10. How Challenges of Warfare Influences the Laws of Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Benvenisti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The first challenge to laws of warfare comes from the realm of human rights, from the right to life. Today the situation is different. Laws of human rights have trickled into laws of warfare, even though they never mean to apply to them. In the process of formulating human rights laws there was never any intention that they be applied to a state of war. Their starting point was the power that a regime brings to bear on its citizens. This was not a case of horizontal warring - such as a duel or contest - but rather a hierarchy, a vertical relationship in which the one possessing public power controlled the citizen. This essay will deal with the challenges to the laws of warfare posed by fighting in urban zones, the consequent changes to these laws, and the problems these changes have aroused and responses to them.

  11. Biological agents and biosimilars: Essential information for the internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasina, Luca; Casadei, Gianluigi; Nobili, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Biologics embrace a wide range of substances synthesized by cells or living organisms by means of different biological processes, including recombinant DNA technology, controlled gene expression, or antibody technologies. A biosimilar establishes similarity to the reference medicinal product in terms of quality characteristics, biological activity, safety, and efficacy based on a comprehensive comparability exercise. Minimizing development costs and accelerating their market access create a convergence of interests between health services, worried about sustainability, and generic manufacturers. While the demonstration of bioequivalence is sufficient for small synthetic molecules, this approach is not scientifically applicable to a copy of biological drug constituted by large and complex molecules, which are similar but not identical to the originator and are also subject to different post-translational processes. Internists should be confident that the development process of biosimilars ensures a comparable risk-to-benefit balance with the originators. On the basis of available evidence and pharmacovigilance network, there are no grounds to believe that the use of a biosimilar carries more risks for the patient than the use of an originator. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in Europe in 2006, no clinical alerts have raised red flags about the established EMA biosimilar pathway. In this article, we discuss some of the most frequent concerns raised by clinicians about biosimilars and try to explains the scientific principles underlying the biosimilar concept established in the EU in order to license biosimilar drugs. PMID:27342030

  12. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  13. 美国在朝鲜战争中实施细菌战的证据%On Evidence of American Biological Warfare in the Korean War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2013-01-01

    The Investigation Report of American Biological War in North Korean and China by famous scien-tists from Sweden, France, England, Italia, Brazil, and Soviet Union is the core evidence of American biological war in the Korean War. Furthermore, there are at least six additional evidences:U.S.A. had the ability and desire to wage bi-ological war before and during the Korean War;it was reported by foreign newspapers that U.S.A. used Japanese bio-logical war troops to wage biological war;U.S.A. had biological war troops and bases in Japan;U.S.A. used the biolog-ical war technology and method of Japanese biological war troops;captive American pilots regretted their behaviors of waging biological war;the Chinese document of anti-biological war shows that the Chinese People’s Volunteers and the Chinese people in East Northern China were attacked by American biological war troops.%  60年前,由瑞典、法国、英国、意大利、巴西、苏联等6国知名科学家组团实地调查朝鲜战争中的细菌战后,向国际社会发表的《调查在朝鲜和中国的细菌战实事报告书及附件》,是美军在朝鲜战争中实施细菌战的核心证据。围绕这一核心证据,至少还有6个方面的旁系证据:美国在朝鲜战争前夕和期间具备实施细菌战的能力,并有着实施细菌战的强烈欲望;许多外媒报道,美国利用日本原细菌战人员,协助美军实施细菌战;朝鲜战争前夕和期间,美国在日本拥有细菌战部队和基地;朝鲜战争中实施的细菌战,明显袭用了“二战”期间日本细菌战技术和方法;被俘的美国飞行员对他们的细菌战行径表示忏悔,并写出供词;现存中国反细菌战档案表明,中国人民志愿军和东北人民确实受到美国细菌战攻击,中国由此展开了大规模的反细菌战运动。

  14. Agent-based Models in Synthetic Biology: Tools for Simulation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.Krishnamurthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiset of agents based modeling and simulation paradigm for synthetic biology. The multiset of agents –based programming paradigm, can be interpreted as the outcome arising out of deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic interaction among elements in a multiset object space, that includes the environment. These interactions are like chemical reactions and the evolution of the multiset can emulate the system biological functions. Since the reaction rules are inherently parallel, any number of actions can be performed cooperatively or competitively among the subsets of elements, so that the elements evolve toward equilibrium or emergent state. Practical realization of this paradigm for system biological simulation is achieved through the concept of transactional style programming with agents, as well as soft computing (neural- network principles. Also we briefly describe currently available tools for agent-based-modeling, simulation and animation.

  15. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  16. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - VII. Biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gatto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of biological agents has been a major turning-point in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis. This review describes the principle milestones that have led, through the knowledge of the structure and functions of nucleic acids, to the development of production techniques of the three major families of biological agents: proteins, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. A brief history has also been traced of the cytokines most involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IL-1 and TNF and the steps which have led to the use of the main biological drugs in rheumatology: anakinra, infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept and rituximab.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Hydrazone Derivatives as Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna B. Casanova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging yeasts are among the most prevalent causes of systemic infections with high mortality rates and there is an urgent need to develop specific, effective and non-toxic antifungal agents to respond to this issue. In this study 35 aldehydes, hydrazones and hydrazines were obtained and their antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida species (C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. lusitaneae and Trichosporon asahii, in an in vitro screening. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the active compounds in the screening was determined against 10 clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis and 10 of T. asahii. The compounds 4-pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde] (13a and tert-butyl-(2Z-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzylidinehydrazine carboxylate (7b showed the most promising MIC values in the range of 16–32 μg/mL and 8–16 μg/mL, respectively. The compounds’ action on the stability of the cell membrane and cell wall was evaluated, which suggested the action of the compounds on the fungal cell membrane. Cell viability of leukocytes and an alkaline comet assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Compound 13a was not cytotoxic at the active concentrations. These results support the discovery of promising candidates for the development of new antifungal agents.

  18. Naphthoflavones as Antiproliferative Agents: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Onkar; Nepali, Kunal; Bedi, Pms; Qayum, Arem; Singh, Shashank; Jain, Subheet K

    2016-01-01

    The present study involves the design and synthesis of naphthoflavones as antiproliferative agents. The strategy presents naphthoflavones as hybrids of naphthyl based chalcones and flavones. A panel of human cancer cell lines were employed for the cytotoxicity studies. DK-13 exhibited significant cytoxicity against MiaPaCa-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 1.93 μM and 5.63 μM against MCF-7 cell lines. The compound DK-13 was found to induce apoptosis evidenced through phase contrast microscopy, DAPI staining, and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. The cell phase distribution studies indicated an increase from 11.26 % (control sample) to 55.19 % (sample treated with 20 μM compound DK-13) in the apoptotic population. PMID:26845133

  19. Integrative biological studies of anti-tumour agents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    3, 11-difluoro-6, 8, 13-trimethyl-8H- quino [4, 3, 2-kl] acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) is a member of a series of pentacyclic acridines developed at the University of Nottingham, which bind to, and stabilise the structure of G-quadruplex DNA and inhibit the action of telomerase at sub-micromolar concentrations in the cell free TRAP assay and limit cancer cell growth therefore leading to the conclusion that RHPS4 has potential anti-tumour activity. Previous biological studies, however, have...

  20. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  1. A Bayesian Dose-finding Design for Oncology Clinical Trials of Combinational Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Treating patients with novel biological agents is becoming a leading trend in oncology. Unlike cytotoxic agents, for which efficacy and toxicity monotonically increase with dose, biological agents may exhibit non-monotonic patterns in their dose-response relationships. Using a trial with two biological agents as an example, we propose a dose-finding design to identify the biologically optimal dose combination (BODC), which is defined as the dose combination of the two agents with the highest efficacy and tolerable toxicity. A change-point model is used to reflect the fact that the dose-toxicity surface of the combinational agents may plateau at higher dose levels, and a flexible logistic model is proposed to accommodate the possible non-monotonic pattern for the dose-efficacy relationship. During the trial, we continuously update the posterior estimates of toxicity and efficacy and assign patients to the most appropriate dose combination. We propose a novel dose-finding algorithm to encourage sufficient exploration of untried dose combinations in the two-dimensional space. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics in identifying the BODC under various patterns of dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy relationships. PMID:24511160

  2. Multiscale modeling of nerve agent hydrolysis mechanisms: a tale of two Nobel Prizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy W.

    2014-10-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems, whereas the 2013 Peace Prize was given to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for their efforts to eliminate chemical warfare agents. This review relates the two by introducing the field of multiscale modeling and highlighting its application to the study of the biological mechanisms by which selected chemical weapon agents exert their effects at an atomic level.

  3. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Pedersen, Kenneth

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  4. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  5. Control of Lymantria dispar L. by biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuo-cai; WANGYue-jie; YANGXiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The experiment on control of Lymantria dispar L by using different kinds of biological measures, including nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of Lymantria dispar L., BtMP-342, sex-attractant as well as botanical insecticide, was carried out in the forest regions of Inner Mongolia in 2003. Two concentrations (2.632×106 PIB·ml-1 and 2.632×107 PIB·ml-1) of Lymantria dispar L. NPV were sprayed on the 2rd-instar-larvae of L. dispar and 70% and 77.8% control effect were obtained respectively. BtMP0-342 was applied to the 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae and the control effect was around 80%. The sex-attractant provided by Canada Pacific Forestry Research Center also showed a good result in trapping L. dispar adults. The self-produced botanical insecticide, which was extracted from a kind of poisonous plant distributed in Daxing'an Mountains, China, exhibited a good control result in controlling the larvae of L. dispar, and 82% mortality was observed when spraying primary liquid of the botanical insecticide on the 3rd-5th-instar-larvae in lab.

  6. Agentes Biológicos en el tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide Biological Agents in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz-Coto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El mayor conocimiento inmuno-patológico de la artritis reumatoide permitió mediante una sofisticada tecnología molecular elaborar antagonistas contra blancos específicos en diversos pasos de la inmuno patogenia de la enfermedad. Existe una amplia evidencia sobre la eficacia, tolerabilidad y seguridad de estos agentes en diferentes escenarios clínicos de la artritis reumatoide. La introducción de estos agentes biológicos en el arsenal terapéutico de la artritis reumatoide ha marcado un hito en su evolución y pronóstico artritis reumatoide.A better understanding of the immuno-pathological rheumatoid arthritis enabled by sophisticated molecular technology to develop antagonists against specific targets in various steps of the immune pathogenesis of the disease. There is ample evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of these agents in different clinical scenarios of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of biological agents in the armamentarium of rheumatoid arthritis has marked a milestone in its evolution and prognosis rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Efficacy and safety of biological agents for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Amarilyo, Gil; Foeldvari, Ivan;

    2016-01-01

    % improvement according to the modified American College of Rheumatology Paediatric 30 response criteria (JIA ACR30). The primary safety outcome was defined as serious adverse events (SAEs). Outcomes were analysed by pairwise and network meta-analyses. The quality of evidence between biologic agents......% CI 0.03, 0.44), P = 0.001]. Risks of SAEs were similar among the biologic agents (supported by very low-quality evidence) and not different from placebo. CONCLUSION: Despite heterogeneous eligibility criteria and study designs across the five studies and different modified JIA ACR30 criteria...

  8. Biological agents for whitefly control in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Manca, L; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of alternative options for biocontrol of whiteflies in greenhouse tomatoes, an experiment was carried out during the cropping season 2005-2006 in one of Sardinia's major horticultural districts (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). Twelve long-cycle and 17 short-cycle tomato crops (8 autumn and 9 spring crops) were surveyed. All of them were treated for insect pest control at the beginning of the growing season, but in 19 out of 29 cases whitefly natural enemies were also released (BCA greenhouses), at least four weeks after the last treatment. The following release programmes were tested: on autumn crops, 1 Macrolophus caliginosus and 12 Eretmocerus mundus/m2; on long-cycle crops, 1 M. caliginosus (released in autumn or spring) and 24 Encarsia formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2; on spring crops, 1 M. caliginosus and 24 E. formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2. The cost of each option was fixed at approximately 0.25 Euros/m2. The remaining greenhouses were maintained as controls (no BCA greenhouses). While whitefly and mirid populations were monitored monthly, whitefly species composition and mortality of immature stages were estimated at least twice during the growing season. On short-cycle autumn crops, the release of M. caliginosus and E. mundus produced negligible results in terms of Bemisia tabaci control. On long-cycle and spring crops, even though in June mortality rates in BCA greenhouses were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher than in no-BCA greenhouses, Trialeurodes vaporariorum population growth was not significantly affected by natural enemies. Among the beneficials tested, E. formosa proved to be the most effective; E. mundus and M. caliginosus did not establish well, probably owing to the persistence of insecticide residues, scarce prey availability and intense plant de-leafing. The presence of indigenous natural enemies of whiteflies was observed in most sites, but in general they contributed little to biological control. The

  9. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99mTc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99mTc and the biological distribution of 99mTc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  10. Update on the use of systemic biologic agents in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasadhika S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirichai Pasadhika,1 James T Rosenbaum2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Southern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Legacy Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Noninfectious uveitis may be associated with other systemic conditions, such as human leukocyte antigen B27-related spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation or prevent non-ophthalmic complications in refractory patients. Off-label use of biologic response modifiers has been studied as primary and secondary therapeutic agents. They are very useful when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed or has been poorly tolerated, or to treat concomitant ophthalmic and systemic inflammation that might benefit from these medications. Biologic therapy, primarily infliximab, and adalimumab, have been shown to be rapidly effective for the treatment of various subtypes of refractory uveitis and retinal vasculitis, especially Behçet's disease-related eye conditions and the uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Other agents such as golimumab, abatacept, canakinumab, gevokizumab, tocilizumab, and alemtuzumab may have great future promise for the treatment of uveitis. It has been shown that with proper monitoring, biologic therapy can significantly improve quality of life in patients with uveitis, particularly those with concurrent systemic symptoms. However, given high cost as well as the limited long-term safety data, we do not routinely recommend biologics as first-line therapy for noninfectious uveitis in most patients. These agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present

  11. Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents by Differential Mobility Spectrometry and Drift-time Ion Mobility Spectrometry Hybrid Technology%差分离子迁移谱和迁移时间离子迁移谱联用技术检测化学战剂模拟物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程沙沙; 陈创; 王卫国; 李海洋

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel hybrid technology combined differential ion mobility spectrometry ( DMS) with drift time ion mobility spectrometry DMS-IMS2 , we detected the typical chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl methylphosphonate ( DMMP ) and methyl salicylate ( MS) . With carrier gas 800 mL/min and DMS RF voltage 1100 V, the chemical warfare agents DMMP and MS could be detected and characterized by DMS-IMS2 under DIMS mode. In addition, DMS-IMS2 is capable to monitor positive and negative ions of DMMP and MS simultaneously, and provides the two-dimensional separation parameters DMS compensation voltage ( CV) and IMS drift time ( Td ) , which provides more information for the identification of two chemical warfare agents. DMS-IMS2 has potential application in on-site detection and instrument miniaturization due to its advantages including small size, low power consumption and rapid response time.%采用平板式差分离子迁移谱( DMS)和迁移时间离子迁移谱( DTIMS)联用技术( DMS-IMS2)对典型化学战剂模拟物甲基膦酸二甲酯(DMMP)和水杨酸甲酯(MS)进行测定。实验结果表明,在载气800 mL/min, DMS射频电压1100 V条件下,DMS-IMS2在DIMS模式能够实现DMMP和MS两种化学战剂模拟物的有效识别和检测。另外,DMS-IMS2能够实现DMMP和MS正、负离子的同时检测,同时获得DMMP和MS的DMS补偿电压( CV)和IMS迁移时间( Td )的二维分离信息,为两种化学战剂模拟物的准确鉴定提供更多的信息。DMS-IMS2具有二维分析能力、可同时分析正负离子、响应速度快、体积小、功耗低等优点,在现场检测中具有广阔的应用前景。

  12. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  13. Host range of the inadvertent biological control agent Caloptilia triadicae: an invasive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inadvertent biological control agent of the invasive weed Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera) first appeared in North America in 2004. Identified as a Caloptilia triadicae, this leaf miner was found damaging T. sebifera saplings. In Gainesville, FL we exposed naturalized populations of C. tria...

  14. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  15. Is 'class effect' relevant when assessing the benefit/risk profile of a biologic agent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterry, W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically predisposed skin disorder, characterised by thickened scaly plaques. Although no therapy is recognised as curative, therapies aimed at symptom control include biologic agents that are generally designed to block molecular activation of cellular pathways of a patho

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  19. From Here to Autonomicity: Self-Managing Agents and the Biological Metaphors that Inspire Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    We seek inspiration for self-managing systems from (obviously, pre-existing) biological mechanisms. Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward for integrating and designing reliable systems, while agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems. This paper looks at other biological metaphors such as reflex and healing, heart- beat monitors, pulse monitors and apoptosis for assisting in the realization of autonomicity.

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  1. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  2. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odes S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing role in altering the natural history of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and is improving patient prognosis. However, indications for treatment and issues with drug costs and value for money remain unclear. Also, when to perform early intervention with biologic agents is at present unclear. We performed an extensive literature search and review to address these issues. The biologics provide better care for many patients. The choice of biologic agent, the indications for its use, the switch between agents, and the considerations of cost are outlined, with a view to guiding the treating physician in managing these cases. Outstanding issues and anticipated future developments are defined.Keywords: biologic therapy, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cost-effectiveness

  3. Implications of Rheumatic Disease and Biological Response-Modifying Agents in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, David M; Borah, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    The preoperative evaluation for any reconstructive or aesthetic procedure requires a detailed history of existing medical conditions and current home medications. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and psoriasis is high, but the impact of these chronic illnesses on surgical outcome and the side effects of the powerful medications used for treatment are often underappreciated. In this review, the authors highlight key perioperative considerations specific to rheumatologic diseases and their associated pharmacologic therapies. In particular, the authors discuss the perioperative management of biological response-modifying agents, which have largely become the new standard of therapy for many rheumatic diseases. The literature reveals three key perioperative concerns with biological therapy for rheumatic disease: infection, wound healing delays, and disease flare. However, data on specific perioperative complications are lacking, and it remains controversial whether withholding biological therapy before surgery is of benefit. The risk of these adverse events is influenced by several factors: age, sex, class of biological agent, duration of exposure, dosage, onset and severity of disease, and type of surgical procedure. Overall, it remains best to develop an individualized plan. In younger patients with recent onset of biological therapy, it is reasonable to withhold therapy based on 3 to 5 half-lives of the specific agent. In older patients with a substantial history of rheumatic disease, the decision to discontinue therapy must be weighed and decided carefully in conjunction with the rheumatologist. PMID:26595025

  4. Role of Smokes in Warfare .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mishra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The role smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types os smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modern opto-electronics including infrared (IR/millimetre wave (MMW guidance and thermal imager are described. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned.

  5. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  6. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LABOR UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety & Health Administration About OSHA A to Z Index Contact Us ... OF LABOR Career & Internships | Contact Us Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  7. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  8. Environmental distribution and population biology of Candidatus Accumulibacter, a primary agent of Biological Phosphorus Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, S. Brook; Warnecke, Falk; Madejska, Julita; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Members of the uncultured bacterial genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are capable of intracellular accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but were also recently shown to inhabit freshwater and estuarine sediments. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing of two bioreactor cultures enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter, but housed on separate continents, revealed the potential for glob...

  9. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  10. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  11. nab-Paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for early and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerdichian, Christine; Olimpiadi, Yuliya; Hurvitz, Sara A

    2014-06-01

    Taxanes are highly active chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer. Novel formulations have been developed to improve efficacy and decrease toxicity associated with these cytotoxic agents. nab-Paclitaxel is a biologically interactive, solvent-free, 130-nm-sized albumin-bound paclitaxel, developed to avoid the Cremophor vehicle used in solvent-based paclitaxel. Based on a pivotal phase 3 study, nab-paclitaxel was shown to be safely infused at a significantly higher dose of paclitaxel than the doses used with standard paclitaxel therapy, and had a shorter infusion time, no premedication, and higher response rates. It is now approved in the United States for treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant therapy, and has demonstrated promising efficacy and favorable tolerability. Recently, several phase 2 and 3 studies have suggested a role for nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for the treatment of early- and late-stage breast cancer. This review will discuss the findings of clinical trials evaluating nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted therapeutic agents for breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. PMID:24560997

  12. Information management and the biological warfare threat

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis explores the implications of information management of government-funded projects on national security objectives. A case study of the Human Genome Project is used to illustrate the risk of information transfer between government sources and private industry and the implications posed to the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. The issue of risk in information management is approached by developing three theoretica...

  13. Medical applications of nanoparticles in biological imaging, cell labeling, antimicrobial agents, and anticancer nanodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravina; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2011-08-01

    This article reviews the applications of nanotechnology in the fields of medical and life sciences. Nanoparticles have shown promising applications from diagnosis to treatment of various types of diseases including cancer. In this review, we discuss the applications of nanostructured materials such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, nanowires, and carbon nanotubes in diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labeling, contrast agents for biological imaging, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery systems, and anticancer nanodrugs for treatment of cancer and other infectious diseases. The adverse affects of nanoparticles on human skin from daily use in cosmetics and general toxicology of nanoscale materials are also reviewed. PMID:21870454

  14. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population

  15. Persistence with biologic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, Jörg; Sruamsiri, Rosarin

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess persistence rates of biologic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Methods Based on Japanese claims data of 16,214 patients between 2012 and 2014, 6-, 12-, and 18-month persistence rates of different biologic agents were calculated. Determinants of persistence were assessed by means of a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was performed with different definitions of persistence and parametric survival analysis. Results Overall persistence rates in Japan are high and reach 86% after 1 year in the entire sample. The persistence rate for the biologic-naïve subpopulation is above 95%. Persistence is higher for older patients (hazard ratio 0.60 [95% confidence interval 0.40–0.91] for >75 years compared to ≤60 years) and lower for patients with a high comorbidity score (hazard ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.70 for Charlson Comorbidity Index score 3–5 compared to ≤2). We found a high variation of persistence between different drugs. Conclusion Japanese rheumatoid arthritis patients have a high persistence rate of biologic treatments. However, multiple factors affect the persistence rate of Japanese patients, including age, comorbidities, and patient type. Naïve patients tend to have a higher persistence rate than continuing biologic patients. PMID:27540283

  16. A revised timeline for biological agents: revisiting the early years of the germ theory of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutecki, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    An agreed upon timeline for the initial, scientifically-informed use of biological agents typically begins with the Japanese Army in Manchuria and China prior to the generalized outbreak of World War II (1932 until 1945). The process included human experimentation with multiple biological agents followed by their release in combat (e.g. the plague bacillus) targeting military personnel and civilians. Two postulates are used support these dates. First, allegations of earlier bacteriological weapon experimentation and/or use represented the accidental, small scale, and sporadic dispersion of infectious agents preceding the Germ Theory of Disease. Therefore, attempts prior to the Twentieth Century were uninformed scientifically and are not considered representative. Later, as the Germ Theory was maturing, the hypothetical timeline was derived, in part retrospectively, from reputable historical sources (the Trillat Report and The League of Nations) published immediately upon the conclusion of World War I. These documents explicitly testified to the total absence of bacteriological weapons in any form (experimentation or battlefield application) directed at human subjects-in stark contrast to the utilization of chemical agents-during the course of that war. Therefore the Japanese Army in Manchuria became time zero. Recently, evidence previously hidden from outside study has surfaced demonstrating that a small group of Turkish physicians injected typhus-contaminated serum into Armenian civilians during WWI. Although controversy persists regarding primary intent-immunization, experimentation on human subjects, or the introduction of a crude biological weapon-the discovery might suggest a revision to the accepted timeline. The primitive efforts with contaminated serum that occurred during the First World War may seem trivial, especially when compared to overall fatalities during that conflict, but they did include the informed and fatal application of microbial agents

  17. Differential orientation effect in the neural response to interacting biological motion of two agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakigi Ryusuke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent behavioral study demonstrated that the meaningful interaction of two agents enhances the detection sensitivity of biological motion (BM, however, it remains unclear when and how the 'interaction' information of two agents is represented in our neural system. To clarify this point, we used magnetoencephalography and introduced a novel experimental technique to extract a neuromagnetic response relating to two-agent BM perception. We then investigated how this response was modulated by the interaction of two agents. In the present experiment, we presented two kinds of visual stimuli (interacting and non-interacting BM with two orientations (upright and inverted. Results We found a neuromagnetic response in the bilateral occipitotemporal region, on average 300 – 400 ms after the onset of a two-agent BM stimulus. This result showed that interhemispheric differences were apparent for the peak amplitudes. For the left hemisphere, the orientation effect was manifest when the two agents were made to interact, and the interaction effect was manifest when the stimulus was inverted. In the right hemisphere, the main effects of both orientation and interaction were significant, suggesting that the peak amplitude was attenuated when the visual stimulus was inverted or made to interact. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the 'interaction' information of two agents can affect the neural activities in the bilateral occipitotemporal region, on average 300 – 400 ms after the onset of a two-agent BM stimulus, however, the modulation was different between hemispheres: the left hemisphere is more concerned with dynamics, whereas the right hemisphere is more concerned with form information.

  18. Chromatographic immunoassays: strategies and recent developments in the analysis of drugs and biological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryan; Rodriguez, Elliott; Suresh, Doddavenkatanna; Hage, David S

    2015-01-01

    A chromatographic immunoassay is a technique in which an antibody or antibody-related agent is used as part of a chromatographic system for the isolation or measurement of a specific target. Various binding agents, detection methods, supports and assay formats have been developed for this group of methods, and applications have been reported that range from drugs, hormones and herbicides to peptides, proteins and bacteria. This review discusses the general principles and applications of chromatographic immunoassays, with an emphasis being given to methods and formats that have been developed for the analysis of drugs and biological agents. The relative advantages or limitations of each format are discussed. Recent developments and research in this field, as well as possible future directions, are also considered.

  19. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  20. The Next Wave of Biological Agents for the Treatment of IBD: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Reena; Chande, Nilesh; Vermeire, Séverine; Sandborn, William J; Parker, Claire E; Feagan, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Multiple new biological treatments for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are becoming available. Specifically, vedolizumab and ustekinumab are monoclonal antibodies that target molecular pathways relevant to disease pathogenesis. What can Cochrane reviews tell us about the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of these new agents? A Cochrane inflammatory bowel disease group symposium held at the 2015 Digestive Diseases Week annual meeting addressed these questions. This article reviews the data presented at that session. PMID:27306074

  1. Variability of Botrytis cinerea sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by biological control agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajouz, Sakhr; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fabre, Frédéric; Leroux, Pierre; Nicot, Philippe; Bardin, Marc

    2011-01-01

    To establish a baseline sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by several biological control agents, 204 isolates were tested for sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin using a spore germination assay. The results showed that the isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, with an 8.4-fold difference in EC50 (effective concentration to reduce spore germination by 50% comparing to the control) values between the least and the most sensitive isolates. T...

  2. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Ronseaux; Essaid Ait Barka; Christophe Clément

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16) in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditio...

  3. Analytic tools for information warfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  4. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  5. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  6. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  7. Undersea Warfare Academic Group Home Page

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Collected from the Internet Archive "Wayback machine". The Undersea Warfare Curriculum educates officers in the engineering fundamentals, physical principles and analytical concepts that govern operational employment of undersea warfare (USW) sensors and weapons systems. Program is interdisciplinary and integrates; mathematics, physics, acoustics, electrical engineering, oceanography, operations analysis, human factors, computer science and meteorology.

  8. A review of the use of biological agents for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick

    2013-03-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a group of idiopathic, acquired, immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. A majority of patients with CIDP respond to "first-line" treatment with IVIG, plasmapheresis and/or corticosteroids. There exists insufficient evidence to ascertain the benefit of treatment with "conventional" immunosuppressive drugs. The inconsistent efficacy, long-term financial burden and health risks of non-specific immune altering therapy have drawn recurrent attention to the possible usefulness of a variety of biological agents that target key aspects in the CIDP immunopathogenic pathways. This review aims to give an updated account of the scientific rationale and potential use of biological therapeutics in patients with CIDP. No specific treatment recommendations are given. The discovery, development and application of biological markers by modern molecular diagnostic techniques may help identify drug-naïve or treatment-resistant CIDP patients most likely to respond to targeted immunotherapy.

  9. Advanced Algorithms for Rapidly Reconstructing Clandestine Releases of Biological Agents in Urban Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.

    2000-02-25

    As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.

  10. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  11. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration. PMID:27234148

  12. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration.

  13. Grid architecture model of network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tihua; Wang Baoshu

    2006-01-01

    NCW(network centric warfare) is an information warfare concentrating on network. A global network-centric warfare architecture with OGSA grid technology is put forward, which is a four levels system including the user level, the application level, the grid middleware layer and the resource level. In grid middleware layer, based on virtual hosting environment, a BEPL4WS grid service composition method is introduced. In addition, the NCW grid service model is built with the help of Eclipse-SDK-3.0.1 and Bpws4j.

  14. Opportunities for improving risk communication during the permitting process for entomophagous biological control agents: A review of current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns about potentially irreversible non-target impacts from the importation and release of entomophagous biological control agents (BCAs) have resulted in increasingly stringent import requirements by National Plant Protection Organizations. Despite numerous scientific publications on the poten...

  15. Determination of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in biological and environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, Lena [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis (EVISA), Münster (Germany); Karst, Uwe, E-mail: uk@uni-muenster.de [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► All major methods for the analysis of Gd-based MRI contrast agents are discussed. ► Biological and environmental samples are covered. ► Pharmacokinetics and species transformation can be investigated. ► The figures of merit as limit of detection and analysis time are described. -- Abstract: The development of analytical methods and strategies to determine gadolinium and its complexes in biological and environmental matrices is evaluated in this review. Gadolinium (Gd) chelates are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since the 1980s. In general they were considered as safe and well-tolerated, when in 2006, the disease nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was connected to the administration of MRI contrast agents based on Gd. Pathogenesis and etiology of NSF are yet unclear and called for the development of several analytical methods to obtain elucidation in this field. Determination of Gd complex stability in vitro and in vivo, as well as the quantification of Gd in body fluids like blood and urine was carried out. Separation of the Gd chelates was achieved with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). For detection, various methods were employed, including UV–vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A second challenge for analysts was the discovery of high concentrations of anthropogenic Gd in surface waters draining populated areas. The source could soon be determined to be the increasing administration of Gd complexes during MRI examinations. Identification and quantification of the contrast agents was carried out in various surface and groundwater samples to determine the behavior and fate of the Gd chelates in the environment. The improvement of limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) was and still is the goal of past and ongoing

  16. Use of Biologic Agents in Combination with Other Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cather, Jennifer C.; Crowley, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which is associated with a significant negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. Traditional therapies for psoriasis are often not able to meet desired treatment goals, and high-dose and/or long-term use is associated with toxicities that can result in end-organ damage. An improved understanding of the involvement of cytokines in the etiology of psoriasis has led to the development of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF...

  17. Biological agents: investigation into leprosy and other infectious diseases before indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, João Roberto; Soubhia, Rosa Maria Cordeiro; Paschoal, Vania Del Arco; Amarante, Carolina Forte; Travolo, Ana Regina Franchi

    2013-01-01

    Biological agents are widely used for various immune-mediated diseases, with remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease. However, attention needs to be drawn to the adverse effects of these therapies and the risk of reactivating underlying granulomatous infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, leishmaniasis, among others. The objective of this paper is to describe a case of leprosy in a patient with RA using anti-TNF alfa, demonstrating the need for systematic investigation of skin lesions suggestive of leprosy in patients who require rheumatoid arthritis therapeutic treatment, especially in endemic regions like Brazil. PMID:24346871

  18. Lepidopterans as potential agents for the biological control of the invasive plant, Miconia calvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Elisangela G F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Semeão, Altair A; Barreto, Robert W; Rosado, Jander F; Martins, Julio C

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated eight species of Lepidoptera associated with Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Brazil, including six defoliators, Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Druentia inscita Schaus (Mimallonidae), Antiblemma leucocyma Hampson (Noctuidae), three Limacodidae species, a fruit borer Carposina cardinata Meyrick (Carposinidae), and a damager of flowers Pleuroprucha rudimentaria Guenée (Geometridae). Based on host specificity and the damage caused to plants, S. lotanalis and D. inscita are the most promising species for biological control of M. calvescens. Furthermore, if C. cardinata and P. rudimentaria have host specificity in future tests, these caterpillars could also be considered as appropriate biocontrol agents. PMID:22938203

  19. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Biological Agents by Multiplexed Immunoassay with PCR Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Setlur, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Nasarabadi, S L; Venkateswaran, K S; Farrow, S W; Colston, Jr., B W; Dzenitis, J M

    2004-05-27

    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody and DNA based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low.

  20. Automated multi-objective calibration of biological agent-based simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark N; Alden, Kieran; Rose, Louis M; Timmis, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Computational agent-based simulation (ABS) is increasingly used to complement laboratory techniques in advancing our understanding of biological systems. Calibration, the identification of parameter values that align simulation with biological behaviours, becomes challenging as increasingly complex biological domains are simulated. Complex domains cannot be characterized by single metrics alone, rendering simulation calibration a fundamentally multi-metric optimization problem that typical calibration techniques cannot handle. Yet calibration is an essential activity in simulation-based science; the baseline calibration forms a control for subsequent experimentation and hence is fundamental in the interpretation of results. Here, we develop and showcase a method, built around multi-objective optimization, for calibrating ABSs against complex target behaviours requiring several metrics (termed objectives) to characterize. Multi-objective calibration (MOC) delivers those sets of parameter values representing optimal trade-offs in simulation performance against each metric, in the form of a Pareto front. We use MOC to calibrate a well-understood immunological simulation against both established a priori and previously unestablished target behaviours. Furthermore, we show that simulation-borne conclusions are broadly, but not entirely, robust to adopting baseline parameter values from different extremes of the Pareto front, highlighting the importance of MOC's identification of numerous calibration solutions. We devise a method for detecting overfitting in a multi-objective context, not previously possible, used to save computational effort by terminating MOC when no improved solutions will be found. MOC can significantly impact biological simulation, adding rigour to and speeding up an otherwise time-consuming calibration process and highlighting inappropriate biological capture by simulations that cannot be well calibrated. As such, it produces more accurate

  1. Automated multi-objective calibration of biological agent-based simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark N; Alden, Kieran; Rose, Louis M; Timmis, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Computational agent-based simulation (ABS) is increasingly used to complement laboratory techniques in advancing our understanding of biological systems. Calibration, the identification of parameter values that align simulation with biological behaviours, becomes challenging as increasingly complex biological domains are simulated. Complex domains cannot be characterized by single metrics alone, rendering simulation calibration a fundamentally multi-metric optimization problem that typical calibration techniques cannot handle. Yet calibration is an essential activity in simulation-based science; the baseline calibration forms a control for subsequent experimentation and hence is fundamental in the interpretation of results. Here, we develop and showcase a method, built around multi-objective optimization, for calibrating ABSs against complex target behaviours requiring several metrics (termed objectives) to characterize. Multi-objective calibration (MOC) delivers those sets of parameter values representing optimal trade-offs in simulation performance against each metric, in the form of a Pareto front. We use MOC to calibrate a well-understood immunological simulation against both established a priori and previously unestablished target behaviours. Furthermore, we show that simulation-borne conclusions are broadly, but not entirely, robust to adopting baseline parameter values from different extremes of the Pareto front, highlighting the importance of MOC's identification of numerous calibration solutions. We devise a method for detecting overfitting in a multi-objective context, not previously possible, used to save computational effort by terminating MOC when no improved solutions will be found. MOC can significantly impact biological simulation, adding rigour to and speeding up an otherwise time-consuming calibration process and highlighting inappropriate biological capture by simulations that cannot be well calibrated. As such, it produces more accurate

  2. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  3. Retention of junior Naval Special Warfare officers

    OpenAIRE

    Davids, Keith B.

    1998-01-01

    The Commander of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) has identified junior officer retention within the Naval Special Warfare community as a significant problem. In 1997, the community experienced the highest number of resignations on record, and this trend has continued in 1998. NSWC has taken several steps to identify the cause of recent retention trends, one of which was to provide support for this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that lead to resignation o...

  4. The Effects of Biological Agents on Melanocytic Nevi: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurşah Doğan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of the melanocytic nevi during the biological agent therapy. Methods: For this purpose, 40 index nevi of 25 adult patients who were treated with infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept or rituximab were included in this study. All of the patients underwent clinical and dermoscopic evaluation before the beginning of the treatment, 6 months and 1 year after the beginning of the treatment. Among dermoscopic examination methods, pattern analysis, ABCD score system and three-point checklist were performed. Results: In terms of the diameter of the index nevi, there was no statistically significant difference between the first examination and that of the sixth month, but differences was observed between the first examination and that of the twelfth month. There was also no statistically significant difference in total dermoscopy scores calculated by ABCD score system application on 31 nevi at the times of assessment. At the end of the study, we detected 24 new nevi formation in 7 patients, whom all of were over 35 years of age, however no eruptive nevi or melanoma formation were observed. Conclusion: An increase in the diameters of the present nevi and formation of new nevi may be seen with biological agent therapy in one-year-follow-up.

  5. Phenotypic charactheristics of fluorescent pseudomonss, biological control agent of lincat disease of temanggung tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINING NURUL AZIZAH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.

  6. Degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment: implications for terrorism response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Amy L; Wilkening, Dean A

    2005-04-15

    We investigate the impact on effective terrorism response of the viability degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment. We briefly review the scientific understanding and modeling of agent environmental viability degradation. In general, agent susceptibility to viability loss is greatest for vegetative bacteria, intermediate for viruses, and least for bacterial spores. Survival is greatest in soil and progressively decreases in the following environments: textiles, water, hard surfaces, and air. There is little detailed understanding of loss mechanisms. We analyze the time behavior and sensitivity of four mathematical models that are used to represent environmental viability degradation (the exponential, probability, and first- and second-order catastrophic decay models). The models behave similarly at short times (representation of the hazard. For longer time phenomena, including decontamination, the current model capabilities are likely insufficient. Finally, we implement each model in a simple numerical integration of anthrax dispersion, viability degradation, and dose response. Decay models spanning the current knowledge of airborne degradation result in vastly different predicted hazard areas. This confounds attempts to determine necessary medical and decontamination measures. Hence,the current level of understanding and representation of environmental viability degradation in response models is inadequate to inform appropriate emergency response measures. PMID:15884371

  7. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  8. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the p

  9. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  10. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THE PRESENT CAPABILITIES OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THIS RESPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Hudson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons. This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare is a field. Another reason for this interest is the employment, on a limited scale, of such weapons in certain conflicts over this period.

  11. The influence of the workplace-related biological agents on the immune systems of emergency medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Depczyńska, Daria; Borecka, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services workers' (EMSWs) acute exposures to many biological agents are frequent and well recognised in their workplaces, as well as occupational diseases resulting from some of these exposures. At the same time, there is only scant information on the adverse effects of chronic exposure to biological hazard factors on the immune systems of EMSWs. In the Polish legislation system, the Ordinance of the Minister of Health about harmful biological agents in the workplace and ways of protecting workers from exposure to those agents is an implement of Directive 2000/54/EC, which deals thoroughly with those issues in European Union Countries. Emergency medical services workers play an essential role as primary providers of pre-hospital emergency medical care, and they are part of the integral components of disaster response. Traumatic experiences can affect emergency medical staff immune systems negatively, by functioning as a chronic stressor. Conscious use of biological agents in workplaces such as microbial laboratories can be easily controlled and monitored. However, risk assessment is more difficult for workers when they are exposed unintentionally to biological agents. Exposure to bio-aerosols is considered especially harmful. This review summarises available information about biological risk factors for emergency medical services workers, and some information about the influence of these factors on their immune systems.

  12. The influence of the workplace-related biological agents on the immune systems of emergency medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Depczyńska, Daria; Borecka, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services workers' (EMSWs) acute exposures to many biological agents are frequent and well recognised in their workplaces, as well as occupational diseases resulting from some of these exposures. At the same time, there is only scant information on the adverse effects of chronic exposure to biological hazard factors on the immune systems of EMSWs. In the Polish legislation system, the Ordinance of the Minister of Health about harmful biological agents in the workplace and ways of protecting workers from exposure to those agents is an implement of Directive 2000/54/EC, which deals thoroughly with those issues in European Union Countries. Emergency medical services workers play an essential role as primary providers of pre-hospital emergency medical care, and they are part of the integral components of disaster response. Traumatic experiences can affect emergency medical staff immune systems negatively, by functioning as a chronic stressor. Conscious use of biological agents in workplaces such as microbial laboratories can be easily controlled and monitored. However, risk assessment is more difficult for workers when they are exposed unintentionally to biological agents. Exposure to bio-aerosols is considered especially harmful. This review summarises available information about biological risk factors for emergency medical services workers, and some information about the influence of these factors on their immune systems. PMID:26557040

  13. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and antidiabetic activity against α-amylase enzyme found to be exhibited highest by ZnO-PEG nanoparticles.

  14. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  15. Future of radiation therapy for malignant melanoma in an era of newer, more effective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad K Khan1, Niloufer Khan2, Alex Almasan1,2, Roger Macklis11Taussig Cancer Institute, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The incidence of melanoma is rising. The primary initial treatment for melanoma continues to be wide local excision of the primary tumor and affected lymph nodes. Exceptions to wide local excision include cases where surgical excision may be cosmetically disfiguring or associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy has largely been relegated to palliative measures because melanoma has been viewed as a prototypical radiotherapy-resistant cancer. However, the emerging clinical and radiobiological data summarized here suggests that many types of effective radiation therapy, such as radiosurgery for melanoma brain metastases, plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma, intensity modulated radiotherapy for melanoma of the head and neck, and adjuvant radiotherapy for selected high-risk, node-positive patients can improve outcomes. Similarly, although certain chemotherapeutic agents and biologics have shown limited responses, long-term control for unresectable tumors or disseminated metastatic disease has been rather disappointing. Recently, several powerful new biologics and treatment combinations have yielded new hope for this patient group. The recent identification of several clinically linked melanoma gene mutations involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway such as BRAF, NRAS, and cKIT has breathed new life into the drive to develop more effective therapies. Some of these new therapeutic approaches relate to DNA damage repair inhibitors, cellular immune system activation, and pharmacological cell cycle checkpoint manipulation. Others relate to the investigation of more effective targeting and dosing schedules for underutilized therapeutics, such as

  16. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  17. A systematic screen of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of biological threat agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Madrid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses.

  18. Mass spectrometry for the detection of bioterrorism agents: from environmental to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Elodie; Armengaud, Jean; Fenaille, François; Ezan, Eric

    2016-03-01

    In the current context of international conflicts and localized terrorist actions, there is unfortunately a permanent threat of attacks with unconventional warfare agents. Among these, biological agents such as toxins, microorganisms, and viruses deserve particular attention owing to their ease of production and dissemination. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for the detection and quantification of biological agents have a decisive role to play for countermeasures in a scenario of biological attacks. The application of MS to every field of both organic and macromolecular species has in recent years been revolutionized by the development of soft ionization techniques (MALDI and ESI), and by the continuous development of MS technologies (high resolution, accurate mass HR/AM instruments, novel analyzers, hybrid configurations). New possibilities have emerged for exquisite specific and sensitive detection of biological warfare agents. MS-based strategies for clinical application can now address a wide range of analytical questions mainly including issues related to the complexity of biological samples and their available volume. Multiplexed toxin detection, discovery of new markers through omics approaches, and identification of untargeted microbiological or of novel molecular targets are examples of applications. In this paper, we will present these technological advances along with the novel perspectives offered by omics approaches to clinical detection and follow-up. PMID:26956386

  19. Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and Biological Evaluation of Peptide LIKKPF Functionalized with HYNIC as Apoptosis Imaging Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Sepideh; Beiki, Davood; Geramifar, Parham; Kobarfard, Farzad; Sabzevari, Omid; Amini, Mohsen; Mehrnejad, Faramarz; Shahhosseini, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    A noninvasive method of detecting exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the external surface of the plasma membrane such as nuclear imaging could assist the diagnosis and therapy of apoptosis related pathologies. The most studied imaging agent for apoptosis is Annexin V so far. Because of limitations of Annexin V other agents have been introduced such as small peptides and molecules. Radiopeptides that have affinity and bind to PS are good candidates for noninvasive imaging of apoptosis. The LIKKPF, introduced by Burtea et al, with nanomolar affinity for PS, was used as templete. The biological properties of LIKKPF radiolabeled with Tc-99 m was assessed in-vitro using apoptotic Jurkat cells and in-vivo using mouse model of liver apoptosis. The radiolabeled LIKKPF with (99m)Tc was stable in human serum at 37˚C for at least 2 h. Results showed that the radiolabeled LIKKPF has less affinity to PS compare to original phage peptide, but high enough for specific binding to apoptotic cells in-vitro and in-vivo. It is concluded that the less affinity of radiolabeled LIKKPF might be attributed to hydrophobicity of peptide. The future peptides should be more hydrophobic compare to LIKKPF. PMID:27642312

  20. Bioluminescent bioreporter assays for targeted detection of chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Pat; Johnson, Courtney; Moser, Scott; Islam, Syed; Sayler, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Bioluminescent bioreporters carrying the bacterial lux gene cassette have been well established for the sensing and monitoring of select chemical agents. Their ability to generate target specific visible light signals with no requirement for extraneous additions of substrate or other hands-on manipulations affords a real-time, repetitive assaying technique that is remarkable in its simplicity and accuracy. Although the predominant application of lux-based bioluminescent bioreporters has been towards chemical compound detection, novel genetic engineering schemes are yielding a variety of new bioreporter systems that extend the lux sensing mechanism beyond mere analyte discrimination. For example, the unique specificity of bacteriophage (bacterial viruses) has been exploited in lux bioluminescent assays for specific identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. With the concurrent ability to interface bioluminescent bioreporter assays onto integrated circuit microluminometers (BBICs; bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits), the potential exists for the development of sentinel microchips that can function as environmental monitors for multiplexed recognition of chemical and biological agents in air, food, and water. The size and portability of BBIC biosensors may ultimately provide a deployable, interactive network sensing technology adaptable towards chem/bio defense.

  1. Gluconic acid: an antifungal agent produced by Pseudomonas species in biological control of take-all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajvinder; Macleod, John; Foley, William; Nayudu, Murali

    2006-03-01

    Pseudomonas strain AN5 (Ps. str. AN5), a non-fluorescent Australian bacterial isolate, is an effective biological control (biocontrol) agent of the take-all disease of wheat caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). Ps. str. AN5 controls Ggt by producing an antifungal compound which was purified by thin layer and column chromatography, and identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis to be d-gluconic acid. Commercially bought pure gluconic acid strongly inhibited Ggt. Two different transposon mutants of Ps. str. AN5 which had lost take-all biocontrol did not produce d-gluconic acid. Gluconic acid production was restored, along with take-all biocontrol, when one of these transposon mutants was complemented with the corresponding open reading frame from wild-type genomic DNA. Gluconic acid was detected in the rhizosphere of wheat roots treated with the wild-type Ps. str. AN5, but not in untreated wheat or wheat treated with a transposon mutant strain which had lost biocontrol. The antifungal compounds phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, produced by other Pseudomonads and previously shown to be effective in suppressing the take-all disease, were not detected in Ps. str. AN5 extracts. These results suggest that d-gluconic acid is the most significant antifungal agent produced by Ps. str. AN5 in biocontrol of take-all on wheat roots.

  2. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Malausa

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  3. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  4. Fusion of chemical, biological, and meteorological observations for agent source term estimation and hazard refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Sykes, Ian; Hurst, Jonathan; Vandenberghe, Francois; Weil, Jeffrey; Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Parker, Steve; Cabell, Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and biological (CB) agent detection and effective use of these observations in hazard assessment models are key elements of our nation's CB defense program that seeks to ensure that Department of Defense (DoD) operations are minimally affected by a CB attack. Accurate hazard assessments rely heavily on the source term parameters necessary to characterize the release in the transport and dispersion (T&D) simulation. Unfortunately, these source parameters are often not known and based on rudimentary assumptions. In this presentation we describe an algorithm that utilizes variational data assimilation techniques to fuse CB and meteorological observations to characterize agent release source parameters and provide a refined hazard assessment. The underlying algorithm consists of a combination of modeling systems, including the Second order Closure Integrated PUFF model (SCIPUFF), its corresponding Source Term Estimation (STE) model, a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Plume Model (LEPM), its formal adjoint, and the software infrastructure necessary to link them. SCIPUFF and its STE model are used to calculate a "first guess" source estimate. The LEPM and corresponding adjoint are then used to iteratively refine this release source estimate using variational data assimilation techniques. This algorithm has undergone preliminary testing using virtual "single realization" plume release data sets from the Virtual THreat Response Emulation and Analysis Testbed (VTHREAT) and data from the FUSION Field Trials 2007 (FFT07). The end-to-end prototype of this system that has been developed to illustrate its use within the United States (US) Joint Effects Model (JEM) will be demonstrated.

  5. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5% antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7% of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  6. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E; Matyjaszkiewicz, Antoni; Todd, Thomas; Oak, Neeraj; Kowalska, Kira; Reid, Stephen; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira T; Savery, Nigel J; Grierson, Claire S; di Bernardo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI) recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher. PMID:22936991

  7. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Gorochowski

    Full Text Available Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher.

  8. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Fride Tvete

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores. The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, tocilizumab, anakinra/rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept [corrected]. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs.

  9. The potential of TaqMan Array Cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time PCR.

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    Phillip A Rachwal

    Full Text Available The TaqMan Array Card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time PCR. Ten PCR assays targeting five biological agents (Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis were incorporated onto Array Cards. A comparison of PCR performance of each PCR in Array Card and singleplex format was conducted using DNA extracted from pure bacterial cultures. When 100 fg of agent DNA was added to Array Card channels the following levels of agent detection (where at least one agent PCR replicate returned a positive result were observed: Y. pestis 100%, B. mallei & F. tularensis 93%; B. anthracis 71%; B. pseudomallei 43%. For B. mallei & pseudomallei detection the BPM2 PCR, which detects both species, outperformed PCR assays specific to each organism indicating identification of the respective species would not be reproducible at the 100 fg level. Near 100% levels of detection were observed when 100 fg of DNA was added to each PCR in singleplex format with singleplex PCRs also returning sporadic positives at the 10 fg per PCR level. Before evaluating the use of Array Cards for the testing of environmental and clinical sample types, with potential levels of background DNA and PCR inhibitors, users would therefore have to accept a 10-fold reduction in sensitivity of PCR assays on the Array Card format, in order to benefit for the capacity to test multiple samples for multiple agents. A two PCR per agent strategy would allow the testing of 7 samples for the presence of 11 biological agents or 3 samples for 23 biological agents per card (with negative control channels.

  10. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  11. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Mehmet Seyfettin; Şafak OĞUZ

    2015-01-01

    Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main ...

  12. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhanshan [University of Idaho; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Krings, Axel [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic

  13. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  14. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Li; Xiaoling Tan; Nicolas Desneux; Giovanni Benelli; Jing Zhao; Xinhai Li; Fan Zhang; Xiwu Gao; Su Wang

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anth...

  15. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed.

  16. Terapia com agentes biológicos na criança e no adolescente Treatment with biologic agents in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Maisse Suehiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos e novos alvos terapêuticos, os agentes biológicos disponíveis, principais indicações e a evidência científica atual para o uso de terapias biológicas na população pediátrica. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa na base de dados Medline e SciELO, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa, entre 2000 e 2009. As palavras-chave usadas foram "agentes biológicos", "crianças" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os agentes biológicos são uma importante opção terapêutica para tratar as doenças autoimunes refratárias às terapias convencionais na infância e na adolescência. Com exceção da artrite idiopática juvenil, a maioria dos estudos em outras doenças autoimunes não é controlada. CONCLUSÕES: Os agentes biológicos têm demonstrado eficácia no tratamento de doenças autoimunes pediátricas como artrite idiopática juvenil, miopatias idiopáticas inflamatórias, lúpus eritematoso juvenil, vasculites, uveítes crônicas, doenças inflamatórias intestinais e púrpura trombocitopênica imune crônica, assim como no linfoma não-Hodgkin. Considerando-se o custo elevado e os potenciais eventos adversos, o uso desses agentes deve ser individualizado e acompanhado por especialista.OBJECTIVE: To review the physiopathology and new therapeutical targets, the available biologic agents, the main indications and the current scientific evidence for the use of biological therapies in the pediatric population. DATA SOURCES: A bibliographical search was obtained from Medline and SciELO databases in English and Portuguese from 2000 to 2009. The key-words included were "biologic agent", "children" and "adolescent". DATA SYNTHESIS: Biologic agents are important therapeutic options to treat refractory autoimmune diseases to conventional therapies in childhood and adolescence. Excluding juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the majority of studies in other autoimmune diseases are uncontrolled trials. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Purpureocillium lilacinum, potential agent for biological control of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffré, D; Folgarait, P J

    2015-09-01

    Many leaf-cutter ant species are well known pests in Latin America, including species of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta. An environmentally friendly strategy to reduce the number of leafcutter ants and avoid indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides is biological control. In this work we evaluated the effectiveness of a strain of the entomopathogen Purpureocillium lilacinum, against worker ants from six Acromyrmex lundii field colonies, after immersions in pure suspensions at a concentration of 1×10(6)conidiaml(-1). Survival of ants treated with P. lilacinum was significantly lower than that recorded in controls, and median lethal time (LT50) was 6-7days. P. lilacinum was responsible for 85.6% (80.6-89.7) of the mortality in inoculated ants, in which we found that the percentage of other entomopathogens that naturally infected ants decreased also, suggesting a good competitive capability of the fungus. Horizontal transmission to non-inoculated ants was also evidenced, given that 58.5% (41.9-64.2) of them died because of P. lilacinum. Moreover, we tested pathogenicity for three concentrations of this strain (1.0×10(4), 10(6) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1)) and found a significantly faster mortality of ants and greater median percentage of infection at 10(8)conidiaml(-1) of P. lilacinum. CL50 value was 2.8×10(5)conidiaml(-1). We thus propose the use of P. lilacinum as a biological control agent of leafcutter ants in crops and plantations. PMID:26205173

  18. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  19. Life history and host range of Oxydia vesulia transpeneus, an unsuitable biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suitability of Oxydia vesulia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was assessed as a potential biological control agent of the invasive weed Brazilian Peppertree Schinus terebinthifolia. Larvae were collected in Brazil feeding on the plant in its native range and colonized in quarantine where lif...

  20. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas graminis Strain UASWS1507, a Potential Biological Control Agent and Biofertilizer Isolated in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovadore, Julien; Calmin, Gautier; Chablais, Romain; Cochard, Bastien; Schulz, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain UASWS1507 of the species Pseudomonas graminis, isolated in Switzerland from an apple tree. This is the first genome registered for this species, which is considered as a potential and valuable resource of biological control agents and biofertilizers for agriculture.

  1. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  3. Are three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent for Lygodium microphyllum, the same host biotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum, were barcoded using the D2 expansion domain, to determine which of two biotypes they represented. The first colony, collected in 2005 & 2007, was used for the initial host range testing. Colon...

  4. Phenology and temperature-dependent development of Ceutorhynchus assimilis, a potential biological control agent for Lepidium draba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart-podded hoary cress (Lepidium draba) is an alien weed that has invaded rangeland in the northwestern USA. A host race (i;e; host-specific biotype) of the weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis, is being evaluated as a prospective biological control agent. This biotype is only known from southern Eur...

  5. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  6. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo...

  7. Identification and Characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a Biological Control Agent Against Some Fungal Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Guo-liang; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2009-01-01

    Strain OH11, a Gram-negative, nonspore forming, rod-shaped bacterium with powerful antagonistic activity, was isolated from rhizosphere of green pepper in Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences of China and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OH11 belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and had the highest degree of sequence similarity to Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 (AY074793) (99%), Lysobacter enzyrnogenes strain N4-7 (U89965) (99%), Lysobacter antibioticus strain (AB019582) (97%), and Lysobacter gummosus strain (AB16136) (97%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain OH11 possesses a quinine system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and C15:0 iso,C17:1 iso w9c as the predominant iso-branched fatty acids,all of which corroborated the assignment of strain OH11 to the genus Lysobacter. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly showed that strain OH11 was classified as Lysobacter enzymogenes. Strain OH11 could produce protease, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase. It showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia scletotiorum, and several other phytopathogenic fungi. This is the first report of identification and characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a biological control agent of plant diseases in China.

  8. Biological evaluation of Phellinus linteus-fermented broths as anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chao-Lu; Liu, Jau-Jin; Chang, Yun-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Phellinus linteus and its constituent hispolon induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. Efficient production of the effective constituent and the biological function of P. linteus in the regulation of innate sensing have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to efficiently manufacture P. linteus-fermented broth containing the effective constituent, hispolon, and evaluate its immunoregulatory functions in macrophages. Four distinct fermented broths (PL1-4) and the medium dialyzate (MD) were prepared to screen suitable culture conditions for the mycelial growth of P. linteus. The P. linteus-fermented broth exhibited a dose-responsive inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production by murine macrophages. In addition, the P. linteus-fermented broths suppressed macrophage LPS-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Among the tested samples from P. linteus, PL4 contained vast amounts of hispolon and showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity in both the RAW264.7 cells and murine primary peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). This study demonstrates that the purification of the effective constituent from P. linteus-fermented broth may enable the production of a potent therapeutic agent for anti-inflammation in macrophages. PMID:24503424

  9. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  10. Proceedings First Workshop on Applications of Membrane computing, Concurrency and Agent-based modelling in POPulation biology

    CERN Document Server

    Milazzo, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.33

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the first International Workshop on Applications of Membrane Computing, Concurrency and Agent-based Modelling in Population Biology (AMCA-POP 2010) held in Jena, Germany on August 25th, 2010 as a satellite event of the 11th Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). The aim of the workshop is to investigate whether formal modelling and analysis techniques could be applied with profit to systems of interest for population biology and ecology. The considered modelling notations include membrane systems, Petri nets, agent-based notations, process calculi, automata-based notations, rewriting systems and cellular automata. Such notations enable the application of analysis techniques such as simulation, model checking, abstract interpretation and type systems to study systems of interest in disciplines such as population biology, ecosystem science, epidemiology, genetics, sustainability science, evolution and other disciplines in which population dynamics and interactions...

  11. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    pepton agar, the composts and their water extracts were checked towards their ability to inhibit growth of F. oxysporum. It was shown that three composts - CD, FPM and RD - possessed suppressiveness towards the model phytopathogen. From these three wastes, 28 bacterial and fungal strains were isolated and, in their turn, checked towards their ability to inhibit F. oxysporum. It was demonstrated that five of the isolated strains are highly suppressive to model test-object (the growth area of F. oxysporum did not exceed 30%), six of the stains were moderate suppressive (the growth area of F. oxysporum ranged from 35% to 60%), and other strains did not cause negative effects for the model phytopathogen. Further, we will check the composts and the isolated strains using the model system "soil - tomato plant - phytopathogen". As a result, effective composts and strains will be recommended as agents for biological control of fungal diseases in the region. Besides, the structure of bacterial and fungal community of the composts with suppressive properties will be assessed using 454-pyrosequencing.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  13. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  14. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  15. Measurement of 100 B. anthracis Ames spores within 15 minutes by SERS at the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Ctr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Huang, Hermes; Sperry, Jay; Sickler, Todd; Prugh, Amber; Guicheteau, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Since the distribution of Bacillus anthracis-Ames spores through the US Postal System, there has been a persistent fear that biological warfare agents will be used by terrorists against our military abroad and our civilians at home. While there has been substantial effort since the anthrax attack of 2001 to develop analyzers to detect this and other biological warfare agents, the analyzers remain either too slow, lack sensitivity, produce high false-positive rates, or cannot be fielded. In an effort to overcome these limitations we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy system. Here we describe the use of silver nanoparticles functionalized with a short peptide to selectively capture Bacillus anthracis spores and produce SER scattering. Specifically, measurements of 100 B. anthracis-Ames spores/mL in ~25 minutes performed at the US Army's Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are presented. The measurements provide a basis for the development of systems that can detect spores collected from the air or water supplies with the potential of saving lives during a biological warfare attack.

  16. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  17. Animal plant warfare and secondary metabolite evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wöll, Steffen; Kim, Sun Hee; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The long-lasting discussion, why plants produce secondary metabolites, which are pharmacologically and toxicologically active towards mammals traces back to the eminent role of medicinal plants in the millennia-old history of manhood. In recent years, the concept of an animal plant warfare emerged, which focused on the co-evolution between plants and herbivores. As a reaction to herbivory, plants developed mechanical defenses such as thorns and hard shells, which paved the way for ad...

  18. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    OpenAIRE

    L. Drazan; R. Vrana

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM) is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered b...

  19. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations ...

  20. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    OpenAIRE

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena; Damszel Marta Maria; Głosek-Sobieraj Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009). The experiment involved the following treatments: 1) biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. in...

  1. Corner capping of silsesquioxane cages by chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-McPherson, Melinda K; Low, Emily R; Esker, Alan R; Morris, John R

    2005-11-22

    The room-temperature uptake and reactivity of gas-phase methyl dichlorophosphate (MDCP) and trichlorophosphate (TCP) within trisilanolphenyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) Langmuir-Blodgett films are investigated. The halogenated phosphate molecules are found to readily diffuse into and react with the hybrid inorganic-organic silicon-oxide films under ambient conditions. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) measurements suggest that the chlorophosphates undergo hydrolysis with the silanol groups of the POSS LB-film. Substitution and elimination reactions appear to cap the corner of the POSS molecules, leaving a surface-bound phosphoryl group and a resulting structure that is highly stable at elevated temperatures. PMID:16285795

  2. Radiochemical and biological evaluation of a new brain serotonin1A receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical and biological evaluations are made of a new bidentate radioligand as a potential brain serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor imaging agent. The bidentate part of the complex was a derivative of the well known serotonin1A receptor antagonist molecule, namely WAY 100635; the monodentate parts were thiocresol, thiosalicylic acid and thio-2-naphthol. The labelling procedure was performed through the 99mTc(V)-glucoheptonate precursor. The bidentate + monodentate complex formed during the reaction in the case of thiocresol was identified as 99TcO(o-CH3-C6H4-N(CH2-CH2)2N-CH2CH2S)( p-C6H4CH3)2 (99mTc-1). Its labelling efficiency and stability were determined by thin layer chromatography, the organic solvent extraction method and high performance liquid chromagraphy. The biodistribution of the labelled compound was found by using male Wistar rats. On the basis of these data, kinetic curves were constructed for different organs and the dosimetry for humans was calculated. The brain uptake and pharmacokinetics were followed by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in rats. Average brain count density was calculated and different regional count densities (counts/gram tissue) were obtained for the hippocampus and other receptor-rich regions. A detailed SPECT study was carried out after administration of 99mTc-1 to a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca cynomolgus). The results found show that, of three investigated aromatic thiol compounds, the labelling efficiency was the highest in the case of thiocresol as the monodentate part. Therefore all further studies were carried out using thiocresol. The labelling efficiency of this bidentate complex was about 80%, and the molecule was stable for up to one hour. The biodistribution data show that more than 0.1% of the injected dose is present in the rat brains a few minutes after administration, and the metabolic pathway is through the hepatobiliary system. From the results obtained with the study of the

  3. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Mehmet Seyfettin; Şafak OĞUZ

    2015-01-01

    Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main ...

  4. Comparison of long-term drug survival and safety of biologic agents in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    zbr735, zbr735; Bang, B; Bryld, L E;

    2015-01-01

    and to analyse the factors that influence drug survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the prospective registry DERMBIO covering all patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with biologic agents in the academic centres in Denmark. Drug survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method......BACKGROUND: Drug survival (time to drug discontinuation) has recently emerged as an important parameter reflecting the long-term therapeutic performance in a real-life setting. Biologic drug survival in psoriasis is mainly limited by a gradual loss of efficacy over time. Previous studies have been...... limited by small patient population size and short observation times and yielded discrepant survival times for different biologics. OBJECTIVES: To calculate the long-term drug survival for adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab in a large cohort of real-life patients with psoriasis vulgaris...

  5. Agents, assemblers, and ANTS: scheduling assembly with market and biological software mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Fejel, Tihamer T.

    2000-06-01

    Nanoscale assemblers will need robust, scalable, flexible, and well-understood mechanisms such as software agents to control them. This paper discusses assemblers and agents, and proposes a taxonomy of their possible interaction. Molecular assembly is seen as a special case of general assembly, subject to many of the same issues, such as the advantages of convergent assembly, and the problem of scheduling. This paper discusses the contract net architecture of ANTS, an agent-based scheduling application under development. It also describes an algorithm for least commitment scheduling, which uses probabilistic committed capacity profiles of resources over time, along with realistic costs, to provide an abstract search space over which the agents can wander to quickly find optimal solutions.

  6. Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkaer, M.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Van Hoof, C.; Theuwissen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The navigational strategies of insects using skylight polarization are interesting for applications in autonomous agent navigation because they rely on very little information for navigation. A polarization navigation sensor using the Stokes parameters to determine the orientation is presented. The

  7. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  8. Practical guidance on immunogenicity to biologic agents used in the treatment of psoriasis: What can be learnt from other diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jo; Nast, Alexander; Nestle, Frank O; Prinz, Jörg C

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of biologic agents for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis is well proven in clinical studies, but patients may lose response over time. Loss of response may be due to immunogenicity and the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). Although data on the immunogenicity of drugs used to treat psoriasis are now emerging, more information on the impact of factors, such as dosing regimens and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy is needed. Exploring research from other disease areas where immunogenicity has long been recognised as a significant clinical issue may help in developing future strategies for using drug level and ADA measurements to help tailor biologic therapy to meet individual needs. To this end, we analyse what is known about biologics and immunogenicity in psoriasis. In order to learn from other indications, we then address the issue of immunogenicity for three different types of biologic treatments. First, factor VIII-substitution in haemophilia, where the immune system is newly exposed to a physiologic but formerly absent protein. Second, the use of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease, where similar treatment challenges apply as observed in psoriasis. Third, immunogenicity in multiple sclerosis caused by therapeutic antibodies or interferons. Immunogenicity strategies used in other disease areas will need to be tested in psoriasis before they can be widely adopted in routine clinical practice.

  9. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: mary.sorensen@ucr.edu; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata.

  10. Substituted 3-Benzylcoumarins as Allosteric MEK1 Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Antiviral Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel antiviral agents, a series of allosteric MEK1 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Based on docking results, multiple optimizations were made on the coumarin scaffold. Some of the derivatives showed excellent MEK1 binding affinity in the appropriate enzymatic assays and displayed obvious inhibitory effects on the ERK pathway in a cellular assay. These compounds also significantly inhibited virus (EV71 replication in HEK293 and RD cells. Several compounds showed potential as agents for the treatment of viral infective diseases, with the most potent compound 18 showing an IC50 value of 54.57 nM in the MEK1 binding assay.

  11. [Practical guide for the use of biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis - December 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Ana Filipa; Fonseca, João Eurico; Canhão, Helena; Santos, Maria José; Bernardo, Alexandra; Cordeiro, Ana; Cravo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Ana; Teixeira, Ana; Barcelos, Anabela; Malcata, Armando; Faustino, Augusto; Duarte, Cátia; Ribeiro, Célia; Nour, Dolores; Araújo, Domingos; Sousa, Elsa; Mariz, Eva; Ramos, Filipa; Vinagre, Filipe; Ventura, Francisco Simões; Sequeira, Graça; Santos, Helena; Branco, Jaime Cunha; Gomes, J A; Silva, J A; Ramos, João; Santo, Jorge Espírito; Costa, José António; Silva, J A; Ribeiro, José Saraiva; Inês, Luís; Miranda, Luís; Sampaio, Luzia; Costa, Maria Lúcia; Rodrigues, Mário; Afonso, Maria Carmo; Cunha, Maria Inês; Saavedra, Maria João; Queiroz, Mário Viana; Couto, Maura; Bernardes, Miguel; Bogas, Mónica; Pinto, Patrícia; Valente, Paula; Coelho, Paulo; Abreu, Pedro; Cortes, Sara; Pimenta, Sofia; Ramiro, Sofia; Figueira, Ricardo; Nóvoa, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the practical aspects of biological therapy use for rheumatoid arthritis patients, commenting safety issues before and after treatment initiation and the best treatment strategies to optimize efficacy. PMID:22472930

  12. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: 1. A Primer on Bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of and describes what biology educators should know about the topic of bioterrorism. Suggests materials that can be used to communicate more effectively with students and the community and prepare a classroom discussion on bioterrorism. (KHR)

  13. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  14. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James

    2005-01-01

    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  15. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  16. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  17. Biological evaluation of 99mTc-Voriconazole as a potential agent for diagnosis of fungal infections by gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spread of HIV has led to an increase of fungal infections such as candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Several types of antifungals are used to treat them and some of them can be radiolabeled with a gamma emitting agent to allow detection by scintigraphy of foci of infection. Voriconazole is a triazole agent, suitable for the synthesis of a complex linked with the precursor [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+. The aim of his work was to label and determine the physicochemical and biological characteristics of voriconazole with 99mTc for the early detection of fungal infections. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and the complex remained stable during at least 120 min. In vivo studies in rats bearing either sterile inflammation, infection with C. Albicans or A. Niger showed differentiation of the processes not only in biodistribution but also in scintigraphic images

  18. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato... severity of air potato infestations. We are making the EA available to the public for review and...

  19. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Attorney General to implement the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 and the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002. (b) ``Select Agent Regulations'' (SAR... representatives from the following, who may consult with additional experts from their department or agency...

  20. 78 FR 7674 - Foreign Quarantine; Import Regulations for Infectious Biological Agents, Infectious Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... to contain a pathogen:--a microorganism (including bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi) or other... microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions..., we published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 63891) to clarify regulatory...

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of andrographolide derivatives as potent anti-HIV agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Jing Li; Wen Long Huang; Hui Bin Zhang; Hai Qian; Yong Tang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A series of Andro derivatives were described and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in vitro. Compound 10 and 16b, of which TI were >10, had some anti-HTV-1 activity in vitro. Therein, compound 10 which was the best potent compound, could serve as a new lead for further development of anti-AIDS agents.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel gigantol derivatives as potential agents in prevention of diabetic cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a continuation of our efforts directed towards the development of natural anti-diabetic cataract agents, gigantol was isolated from Herba dendrobii and was found to inhibit both aldose reductase (AR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, which play a significant role in the develop...

  3. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  4. Differences in seasonal variation between two biotypes of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent for Eichhornia crassipes in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate matching between the native and adventive ranges of insects used for biological control is a generally accepted strategy for both increasing the likelihood of establishing an agent, as well as improving its overall performance, thereby maximizing the potential utility of an agent across the...

  5. Feasibility Study of Using Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (SWIR-CRDS) for Biological Agent Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, Pam M.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Williams, Richard M.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2007-10-01

    This project focused on determining the feasibility of using short wave infrared (SWIR) cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) as a means for real-time detection of biological aerosols. The first part of the project involved identifying biological agent signatures that could be detected with SWIR CRDS. After an exhaustive search of the open literature it was determined that whole biological spores and/or cells would not be good candidates for direct SWIR CRDS probing because they have no unique SWIR signatures. It was postulated that while whole cells or spores are not good candidates for SWIR CRDS detection, their pyrolysis break-down products might be. A literature search was then conducted to find biological pyrolysis products with low molecular weights and high symmetry since these species most likely would have overtone and combination vibrational bands that can be detected in the SWIR. It was determined that pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide were good candidates for evaluation. These molecules are formed when proteins and porphyrins, proteins and dipicolinic acid, and dipicolinic acid are pyrolyzed, respectively. The second part of the project involved measuring quantitative SWIR spectra of pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide in PNNL’s FTIR Spectroscopy Laboratory. Spectral information about these molecules, in the vapor phase is sparse – there were only a few prior studies that measured line positions and no information on absorption cross sections. Absorption cross sections are needed in order to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity, and line position determines what type of laser will be needed for the sensor. The results of the spectroscopy studies allowed us to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity for pyrrole to be 3 x 1012 molec cm-3 or 0.1 ppmv, and for pyridine it was 1.5 x 1015 molec cm-3 or 0.6 ppmv. These detection sensitivity limits are close what we have measured for ammonia. Given these detection limits we then estimated the

  6. Association Between Changes in Coronary Artery Disease Progression and Treatment With Biologic Agents for Severe Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bøttcher, Morten; Vestergaard, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    , controlled, observer-blinded clinical study at a tertiary dermatology university hospital clinic enrolled patients with severe psoriasis initiating biological therapy and matched controls not receiving systemic therapy from April 11, 2011, through June 30, 2014. Interventions: Biological therapy approved for...... index remained unchanged from baseline to follow-up in the intervention group (mean [SD] baseline, 7.1 [1.5], follow-up, 7.1 [1.7]; P = .91), while controls demonstrated statistically nonsignificant progression (baseline, 8.3 [1.6], follow-up, 8.9 [2.2]; P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinically...

  7. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  8. Evaluation of the biological and scanning distribution of hydroxyapatite-153Sm radiotherapeutic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixation of 153Sm labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in the synovial capsule and extra articular localization were evaluated by means of biological distribution tests and gamma scanning studies. These were carried out using HA-153Sm with particle size ranging between 5 and μm, and radiochemical purity above 99%. Animal models used were wistar rats and new zealand rabbits. Rabbits were injected with 7,4 MBq of HA-153Sm while rats received between 1,85 and 92,6 MBq of HA-153Sm. In both cases injection was given in the intra articular area. After injection, scanning images were obtained in rabbits on the 1st, 3rd and 7st day and in rats on the 2nd and 7th day. Biological distribution studies are conducted in the 2 hours to 9 days range in rats and one the 7th day in rabbits. No extra articular localization of HA-153Sm was found in scanning conducted on rabbits by the 1st, 3rd and 7st day after injection, neither on rats by the 2nd and 7th day. Biological distributions for rabbits and rats show localization above 99% in the intra articular area, during the evaluated periods of time. The evaluations of the biological distribution and the scintigraphic images show that fixation of HA-153Sm in the synovial capsule up to the 9th day is very high

  9. Does phylogeny explain the host choice behaviour of potential biological control agents for Brassicaceae weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four invasive Brassicaceae are currently being studied for biological control at the CABI Centre in Switzerland. A phylogenetic approach to host testing has so far been hampered by the fact that the evolutionary relationships of taxa within the Brassicaceae were unclear. Recently, a new phylogeny of...

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nitric oxide-releasing matrine derivatives as anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of furoxan-based nitric oxide-releasing matrine derivatives(10a-f) were synthesized.The biological evaluation showed that compounds 10a,10b,10e and 10f had stronger cytotoxic activities than 5-fluorouracil against human hepatoma cells(HepG2) in vitro.

  11. Metabolic behavior of bacterial biological control agents in soil and plant rhizospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control provides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for the control of plant diseases. To date, however, few biocontrol products have been developed successfully at the commercial level. This stems largely from variability in disease control performance that is often obser...

  12. Translational systems biology using an agent-based approach for dynamic knowledge representation: An evolutionary paradigm for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary C

    2010-01-01

    The greatest challenge facing the biomedical research community is the effective translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into clinically effective therapeutics. This challenge is most evident in attempts to understand and modulate "systems" processes/disorders, such as sepsis, cancer, and wound healing. Formulating an investigatory strategy for these issues requires the recognition that these are dynamic processes. Representation of the dynamic behavior of biological systems can aid in the investigation of complex pathophysiological processes by augmenting existing discovery procedures by integrating disparate information sources and knowledge. This approach is termed Translational Systems Biology. Focusing on the development of computational models capturing the behavior of mechanistic hypotheses provides a tool that bridges gaps in the understanding of a disease process by visualizing "thought experiments" to fill those gaps. Agent-based modeling is a computational method particularly well suited to the translation of mechanistic knowledge into a computational framework. Utilizing agent-based models as a means of dynamic hypothesis representation will be a vital means of describing, communicating, and integrating community-wide knowledge. The transparent representation of hypotheses in this dynamic fashion can form the basis of "knowledge ecologies," where selection between competing hypotheses will apply an evolutionary paradigm to the development of community knowledge.

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of trans-tiliroside derivatives as potent anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujin; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Yi; Chu, Hongwan; Duan, Hongquan

    2010-12-10

    A set of novel trans-tiliroside derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the derivatives were identified by their IR, 1H-NMR, and MS spectra analysis. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated on the insulin resistant (IR) HepG2 cell model. As a result, compounds 7a, 7c, 7h, and trans-tiliroside exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells compared with the positive control (metformin). This research provides useful clues for further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  14. Synthesis and Biological Activity of trans-Tiliroside Derivatives as Potent Anti-Diabetic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of novel trans-tiliroside derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the derivatives were identified by their IR, 1H-NMR, and MS spectra analysis. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated on the insulin resistant (IR HepG2 cell model. As a result, compounds 7a, 7c, 7h, and trans-tiliroside exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells compared with the positive control (metformin. This research provides useful clues for further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  15. Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology (441st Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, Wally (Ph.D., Biology Department)

    2008-10-15

    Vaccines are effective against viruses such as polio and measles, but vaccines against other important viruses, such as HIV and flu viruses, may be impossible to obtain. These viruses change their genetic makeup each time they replicate so that the immune system cannot recognize all their variations. Hence it is important to develop new antiviral agents that inhibit virus replication. During this lecture, Dr. Mangel will discuss his group's work with a model system, the human adenovirus, which causes, among other ailments, pink eye, blindness and obesity. Mangel's team has developed a promising drug candidate that works by inihibiting adenovirus proteinase, an enzyme necessary for viral replication.

  16. Characterization and mechanism of action of the biological control agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno González, M. del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    La soca EPS125 ha mostrat ser un efectiu agent de control biològic de diferents patògens fúngics de postcollita en diferents fruits. Degut a la seva elevada eficàcia, es va plantejar desenvolupar aquesta soca comercialment i per aquest motiu en el present treball es plantejà complementar la informació necessària pel seu registre. D'acord amb els resultats obtinguts mitjançant proves fenotípiques i genotípiques, la soca EPS125 queda inclosa dins l'espècie Pantoea agglomerans (Enterobacter aggl...

  17. Synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR studies of benzimidazole derivatives as H1-antihistamine agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jian Wang; Mei Yang Xi; Ji Hua Fu; Fu Rong Zhang; Gui Fang Cheng; Da Li Yin; Qi Dong You

    2012-01-01

    A series of benzimidazole derivatives have been designed,synthesized and evaluated for H1 antihtistamine activity.Six compounds have showed potent antihistamine H1 activity.The primary SAR analysis indicated that benzyl or benzylidinyl substituted on the exo-nitrogen atom and C2 of the benzimidazole were significant.Further experiments indicated that compound 17d displayed excellent activity to reduce mast cell degranulation,moderate anti-PAF activity and decreased potency on hERG compared to astermizole.Hence compound 17d could serve as anti-altergic agent for further development.

  18. Synthesis of structurally diverse benzosuberene analogues and their biological evaluation as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpure, Rajendra P; George, Clinton S; Strecker, Tracy E; Devkota, Laxman; Tidmore, Justin K; Lin, Chen-Ming; Herdman, Christine A; Macdonough, Matthew T; Sriram, Madhavi; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2013-12-15

    Diversely functionalized, fused aryl-alkyl ring systems hold a prominent position as well-established molecular frameworks for a variety of anti-cancer agents. The benzosuberene (6,7 fused, also referred to as dihydro-5H-benzo[7]annulene and benzocycloheptene) ring system has emerged as a valuable molecular core component for the development of inhibitors of tubulin assembly, which function as antiproliferative anti-cancer agents and, in certain cases, as vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). Both a phenolic-based analogue (known as KGP18, compound 39) and its corresponding amine-based congener (referred to as KGP156, compound 45), which demonstrate strong inhibition of tubulin assembly (low micromolar range) and potent cytotoxicity (picomolar range for KGP18 and nanomolar range for KGP156) are noteworthy examples of such benzosuberene-based compounds. In order to extend the structure-activity relationship (SAR) knowledge base related to benzosuberene anti-cancer agents, a series of eleven analogues (including KGP18) were prepared in which the methoxylation pattern on the pendant aryl ring as well as functional group incorporation on the fused aryl ring were varied. The synthetic approach to these compounds featured a sequential Wittig olefination, reduction, Eaton's reagent-mediated cyclization strategy to achieve the core benzosuberone intermediate, and represented a higher-yielding synthesis of KGP18 (which we prepared previously through a ring-expansion strategy). Incorporation of a fluorine or chlorine atom at the 1-position of the fused aryl ring or replacement of one of the methoxy groups with hydrogen (on the pendant aryl ring of KGP18) led to benzosuberene analogues that were both strongly inhibitory against tubulin assembly (IC50 approximately 1.0 μM) and strongly cytotoxic against selected human cancer cell lines (for example, GI50=5.47 nM against NCI-H460 cells with fluoro-benzosuberene analogue 37). A water-soluble phosphate prodrug salt of KGP18

  19. STUDY OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF FUNGAL COMMUNITIES FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND PHYLOSPHERE OF STRAWBERRY TREATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi-Mirela Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of long term utilization of pesticides on yields quality, as well as on the human health made scientific community to seek new ways, less expensive and environmental friendly for protecting cultivated plants against pathogens. Biological control agents of microbial origin represented by living selected strains or their metabolites are more and more frequently utilized for protecting horticultural plants intensely consumed by European population, such as strawberry. A green house experiment was designed to compare the structure of rhizospheric and phylospheric microflora of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana, sensible to Botrytis cinerea (the agent of grey mould treated with systemic and contact fungicides, as well as with four biological control preparations of microbial origin administrated on plant leaves or in the soil. The structure of fungal communities in rhizosphere and phylosphere of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana varied as a function of the nature of control agent and the method of administration. Non significant influence on soil fungal community diversity index and species number was registered after the treatment with chemical and biological control agents, but significant increments were induced in time by control agents as compared with both non-treated control and chemical pesticides. Fungal community structure from strawberry leaves was not significantly influenced by chemical and biological control agents. The most favourable influence on fungal communities registered for bio-control agents E1 and E2 due to

  20. [Brazilian legislation and the international recommendations related to the occupational exposure to biologic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galon, Tanyse; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; de Souza, Wecksley Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Bibliographic review with the objective to identify the Brazilian legislation related to occupational exposure of health workers to biological material and compare it with the main recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The information was searched by access to the websites of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labor and Employment, ILO and CDC. The data collected were categorized into five themes for better understanding and analysis. We find that the Brazilian legislation covers most of the international recommendations, but the obligation of providing safety devices was later included in the legislation. It is concluded that workers need information about their rights and duties before the exposure to biological hazards. PMID:21468504

  1. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of dithiocarbamates as novel antitubulin agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong; Ma, Gao-Yuan; Yang, Ying; Cheng, Kui; Zheng, Qing-Zhong; Mao, Wen-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-06-15

    A series of novel dithiocarbamate compounds with the chalcone scaffold have been designed and synthesized, and their biological activities were also evaluated as potential antiproliferation and antitubulin polymerization inhibitors. Compound 2n showed the most potent biological activity in vitro, which inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells with IC(50) of 0.04+/-0.01 microM and the polymerization of tubulin with IC(50) of 6.8+/-0.6 microM. To understand the tubulin-inhibitor interaction and the selectivity of the most active compound towards tubulin, molecular modeling studies were performed to dock compound 2n into the colchicine binding site, which suggested probable inhibition mechanism. PMID:20493717

  2. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species.

  3. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species. PMID:25376303

  4. Commercial Biological Control Agents Targeted Against Plant-Parasitic Root-knot Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stéphane Tranier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated with bacteria, viruses or with filamentous fungi, which can destroy and feed on phytoparasitic nematodes. To be used by the farmers, biopesticides must be legalized by the states, which has led to the establishment of a legal framework for their use, devised by various governmental organizations.

  5. The Use and Exchange of Biological Control Agents for Food and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.van; Lenteren; M.J.W.Cock; J.Brodeur; B.Barratt; F.Bigler; K.Bolckmans; F.Haas; P.G.Mason; J.R.P.Parra

    2010-01-01

    The report sets out to summarize the past and current situation regarding the practice of biologicalcontrol inrelationtothe use and exchange of genetic resources relevant for BCAs.It considers the twomain categories of biological control:classical and augmentative.Allowing access to BCAs for use inanother country imposes no risk of liability to the source country.Local scientific knowledge abouthabitats,fauna andflora,can be helpful

  6. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Odes S; Greenberg D

    2014-01-01

    Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing ...

  7. Chemical and biological metal nanoparticles as antimycobacterial agents: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman U; Arkile, Manisha; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-08-01

    Resistance among mycobacteria leading to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. However, nanotechnology has provided new insights in drug delivery and medicine development. This is the first comparative report to determine the activity of chemically and biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mycobacteria. Screening data revealed the high mycobactericidal efficiency of AgNPs, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  8. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising tempe...

  9. Establishing a new marketplace for biologic therapy with biosimilar agents: importance of extrapolation of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressler B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Bressler,1 Theo Dingermann2 1St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Despite their enormous value for our health care system, biopharmaceuticals have become a serious threat to the system itself due to their high cost. Costs may be warranted if the medicine is new and innovative; however, it is no longer an innovation when its patent protection expires. As patents and exclusivities expire on biological drugs, biosimilar products defined as highly similar to reference biologics are being marketed. The goal of biosimilar development is to establish a high degree of biosimilarity, not to reestablish clinical efficacy and safety. Current sophisticated analytical methods allow the detection of even small changes in quality attributes and can therefore enable sensitive monitoring of the batch-to-batch consistency and variability of the manufacturing process. The European Medicines Agency (EMA, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and Health Canada have determined that a reduced number of nonclinical and clinical comparative studies can be sufficient for approval with clinical data from the most sensitive indication extrapolated to other indications. Extrapolation of data is a scientifically based principle, guided by specific criteria, and if approved by the EMA, FDA, and/or Health Canada is appropriate. Enablement of extrapolation of data is a core principle of biosimilar development, based on principles of comparability and necessary to fully realize cost savings for these drugs. Keywords: biosimilars, Inflectra, infliximab, pharmacoeconomics, Canada, Europe 

  10. Preliminary experiment of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography to detect dual agents for biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Takeda, T; Yuasa, T; Hasegawa, Y; Wu, J; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Hyodo, K; Dilmanian, F A; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T

    2001-05-01

    The simultaneous observation of various information, such as blood flow, tissue metabolism and distribution of receptors, is quite important in order to understand the functional state of biomedical objects. The simultaneous detectability of contrast agents by fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) with synchrotron radiation is examined in this study. The system consisted of a silicon (111) double-crystal monochromator, an X-ray slit system, a scanning table, a PIN diode, a highly purified germanium detector and an X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The monochromatic X-ray beam energy was adjusted to 37.0 keV and collimated into a pencil beam of 1 x 1 mm. The fluorescent spectra of the K alpha lines for iodine and xenon were detected simultaneously. FXCT could image the distribution of both iodine and xenon agents in a phantom clearly and the contrast ratio was significantly better than that of transmission X-ray computed tomography images. PMID:11486409

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of oxindole linked indolyl-pyrimidine derivatives as potential cytotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapti, Santosh Kumar; Nagarsenkar, Atulya; Guggilapu, Sravanthi Devi; Gupta, Keshav Kumar; Allakonda, Lingesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Naidu, V G M; Babu, Bathini Nagendra

    2016-07-01

    In our endeavor towards the development of effective cytotoxic agents, a series of oxindole linked indolyl-pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral analysis. All the newly synthesized target compounds were assessed against PA-1 (ovarian), U-87MG (glioblastoma), LnCaP (prostate), and MCF-7 (Breast) cancer cell lines for their cytotoxic potential, with majority of them showing inhibitory activity at low micro-molar concentrations. Significantly, compound 8e was found to be most potent amongst all the tested compounds with an IC50 value of (2.43±0.29μM) on PA-1 cells. The influence of the most active cytotoxic compound 8e on the cell cycle distribution was assessed on the PA-1 cell line, exhibiting a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and annexin V binding assay confirmed that compound 8e can induce cell apoptosis in PA-1 cells. These preliminary results persuade further investigation on the synthesized compounds aiming to the development of potential cytotoxic agents.

  12. Role of chemotherapy and novel biological agents in the treatment of elderly patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerardo Rosati; Domenico Bilancia

    2008-01-01

    Patients older than 65 years are the fastest growing segment of the cancer population. It is estimated that within 20 years over 75% of cases and 85% of deaths from colorectal cancer (CRC) will be in this setting. Concerns about cancer treatment in the elderly relate to comorbidities, which increase proportionally with age, physiological changes associated with aging which may influence drug metabolism and toxicity, and diminishing life expectancy, which particularly impacts decisions surrounding the benefits of adjuvant therapies. Over the last 10 years, significant improvements in the treatment of advanced CRC with combination therapy have been made. The randomized trials which have defined these improvements did not exclude elderly patients. However, the median age of patients in these trials has generally been approximately 60 years. Thus, it appears that some degree of selection is involved with younger and presumably fitter patients being the subjects in most of the pivotal trials. The availability of new molecularly targeted agents and newly improved existing agents has expanded the range of treatment options available. This variety gives greater flexibility in dealing with different subsets of patients, such as the elderly. However, some fit elderly patients seem to tolerate combination therapy reasonably well, while studies on unfit elderly subjects are needed.

  13. Nuclear, biological, and chemical combined injuries and countermeasures on the battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Gregory B; Elliott, Thomas B; Brook, Itzhak; Shoemaker, Michael O; Pastel, Ross H; Lowy, Robert J; King, Gregory L; Herzig, Thomas C; Landauer, Michael R; Wilson, Scott A; Peacock, Susan J; Bouhaouala, S Samy; Jackson, William E; Ledney, G David

    2002-02-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute (AFRRI) has developed a research program to determine the major health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in combination with biological and chemical warfare agents and to assess the extent to which exposure to ionizing radiation compromises the effectiveness of protective drugs, vaccines, and other biological and chemical warfare prophylactic and treatment strategies. AFRRI's Defense Technology Objective MD22 supports the development of treatment modalities and studies to assess the mortality rates for combined injuries from exposure to ionizing radiation and Bacillus anthracis, and research to provide data for casualty prediction models that assess the health consequences of combined exposures. In conjunction with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, our research data are contributing to the development of casualty prediction models that estimate mortality and incapacitation in an environment of radiation exposure plus other weapons of mass destruction. Specifically, the AFFRI research program assesses the effects of ionizing radiation exposure in combination with B. anthracis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Shigella sonnei, nerve agents, and mustard as well as their associated treatments and vaccines. In addition, the long-term psychological effects of radiation combined with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) injuries are being evaluated. We are also assessing the effectiveness of gamma photons and high-speed neutrons and electrons for neutralizing biological and chemical warfare agents. New protocols based on our NBC bioeffects experiments will enable U.S. armed forces to accomplish military operations in NBC environments while optimizing both survival and military performance. Preserving combatants' health in an NBC environment will improve warfighting operations and mission capabilities.

  14. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  15. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs. PMID:26235136

  16. Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşdemir, Demet; Karaküçük-İyidoğan, Ayşegül; Ulaşli, Mustafa; Taşkin-Tok, Tuğba; Oruç-Emre, Emİne Elçİn; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    A series of new chiral thiosemicarbazones derived from homochiral amines in both enantiomeric forms were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A549 (human alveolar adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and HGC-27 (human stomach carcinoma) cell lines. Some of compounds showed inhibitory activities on the growth of cancer cell lines. Especially, compound exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 4.6 μM) against HGC-27 as compared with the reference compound, sindaxel (IC50 10.3 μM), and could be used as a lead compound to search new chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as antiproliferative agents. PMID:25399965

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel quinoxaline derivatives as anticonvulsant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelby, Abdelghany Aly; Ayyad, Rezk Rezk; Zayed, Mohamed Fathalla

    2011-01-01

    In view of their expected anticonvulsant activity, some new derivatives of quinonxaline (V1-7) were designed and synthesized by condensation of different aromatic aldehydes with 2-(2-oxo-3-phenylquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetohydrazide (IV). All synthesized compounds were isolated and confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, MS, elemental analysis and then tested as anticonvulsant agents. Compound V3 and V1 showed the highest anticonvulsant effect with anticonvulsant potency relative to phenobarbital sodium of 0.8 and 0.75 whereas compound V5 exhibited the lowest relative potency of 0.09. The other compounds showed variable activity between these values as follows: V2 = 0.19, V4 = 0.41, V6 = 0.1 and V7 = 0.15. All compounds showed less activity than the reference compound phenobarbital. But the compounds provided a basis for further optimization.

  18. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:24310522

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel trichodermin derivatives as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Yao, Ting-Ting; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Cheng, Jing-Li; Zhao, Jin-Hao; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2014-08-01

    To discover more potential antifungal agents, 17 novel trichodermin derivatives were designed and synthesized by modification of 3 and 4a. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by (1)H NMR, ESI-MS and HRMS. Their antifungal activities against Ustilaginoidea oryzae and Pyricularia oryzae were evaluated. Most of the target compounds showed potent inhibitory activity, in which 4g showed superior inhibitory effects than 4a and commercial fungicide prochloraz. Furthermore, 4h demonstrated comparable inhibitory activity to 4a. Moreover, 4i and 4l exhibited excellent inhibitory activity for Pyricularia oryzae. Additionally, compound 9 was found to be more active against all tested fungal strains than 3, with EC50 values of 0.47 and 3.71 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:24908609

  20. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new rhodacyanine analogues as potential antitumor agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiong Li; Xin Zhai; Wei Ke Liao; Wu Fu Zhu; Ying He; Ping Gong

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to develop potent antitumor agents,new rhodacyanine analogues containing the pyridinium ring (5a-5h),the isoquinolinium ring (6a-6c) and the quinolinium ring (7a-7e) linked to the rhodanine ring via N-N covalent bond were designed,synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human lung cancer cell line (H460) by MTT assay in vitro.Most of the tested compounds showed enhanced antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.006 to 9.2 μmol/L as compared to the lead compound MKT-077.Among them,the most promising compound 7d (IC50 =0.006 μmol/L) was 216.7 times more active than MKT-077 (IC50 =1.3 μmol/L).The preliminary structure-activity relationship of the target compounds was discussed.

  1. Semisynthetic analogues of the microtubule-stabilizing agent discodermolide: preparation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Longley, Ross E; Isbrucker, Richard A

    2002-12-01

    A series of 12 semisynthetic discodermolide analogues, 2-13, have been prepared using natural (+)-discodermolide (1) and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against cultured murine P-388 leukemia and A-549 human adenocarcinoma cells. These semisynthetic analogues showed a significant variation of cytotoxicity and confirmed the importance of the C-7 through C-19 molecular fragment for potency. Specifically, these analogues suggested the importance of the C-11 and C-17 hydroxyl groups and the C-13 double bond for the potency of discodermolide. The preparation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of these new analogues are described.

  2. What Lies behind Chinese Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years China has been developing operational capabilities in the field of cyberspace warfare. A cyber attack may be defined as the unauthorized penetration of computer and communications systems belonging to individuals or organizations for the purpose of espionage and information theft, in order thereby to damage or disrupt the functioning of these systems or to damage other systems dependent on them, even to a point of causing actual physical damage. Despite denials by the Chinese government, researchers posit that China is behind a string of cyber attacks against the United States, Japan, France, Australia, and other Western nations. This essay argues that an analysis of the publicly available information about the more recent attacks makes it possible to establish that China does in fact stand behind these attacks and also makes it possible to identify the link between China’s cyberspace warfare strategy and its choice of targets. The analysis includes an examination of the companies attacked to identify possible motives for the attacks. The motives for these attacks are presumably to steal capabilities and conduct industrial espionage against nations and commercial competitors. Attacking companies and organizations in the financial and even political sectors allows access to valuable intelligence in these fields. By contrast, the intelligence value for immediate use in attacking companies providing critical infrastructures and communications services is usually relatively low. Rather, gaining access, if only to some providers of communications and internet services in the West and the United States, is liable to give attackers the ability to damage these services.

  3. Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Ching-Jung [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Yang, Pei-Ying [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Chao, Tsi-Chian, E-mail: chaot@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Tu, Shu-Ju, E-mail: sjtu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    In the treatment planning of radiation therapy, patients may be administrated with contrast media in CT scanning to assist physicians for accurate delineation of the target or organs. However, contrast media are not used in patients during the treatment delivery. In particular, contrast media contain materials with high atomic numbers and dosimetric variations may occur between scenarios where contrast media are present in treatment planning and absent in treatment delivery. In this study we evaluate the effect of contrast media on the dosimetry and biological consequence. An analytical phantom based on AAPM TG 119 and five sets of CT images from clinical patients are included. Different techniques of treatment planning are considered, including 1-field AP, 2-field AP+PA, 4-field box, 7-field IMRT, and RapidArc. RapidArc is a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy and is used in our study of contrast media in clinical scenarios. The effect of RapidArc on dosimetry and biological consequence for administration of contrast media in radiotherapy is not discussed previously in literature. It is shown that dose difference is reduced as the number of external beams is increased, suggesting RapidArc may be favored to be used in the treatment planning enhanced by contrast media. Linear trend lines are fitted for assessment of percent dose differences in the planning target volume versus concentrations of contrast media between plans where contrast media are present and absent, respectively.

  4. The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of a new nitric oxide donor agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Profire Lenuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new xanthine nitric oxide donor (TSP-81 has been discussed. The designed compound includes two structural moieties - theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine and acetaminophen (4-hydroxyacetanilide linked by the nitric oxide donor alkyl chain as a spacer. The compound has been characterized by microanalysis (CHN, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, TG and DTG. The thermal behaviour showed that TSP-81 melts with decomposition, in four steps, the most important ones being the 2nd one (the registered weight loss being 17.6 % and the 3rd one (with a registered weight loss of 30.4 %. The toxicity degree, the anti-inflammatory effect and the ability of releasing nitric oxide of the TSP-81 have also been evaluated. The biological assays established that TSP-81 exhibits enhanced biological properties such as lower toxicity and higher anti-inflammatory effect in reference with theophylline and acetaminophen, the drugs used as parents molecules. The TSP-81 is approximately 2 times more active than theophylline and 4 times more active than acetaminophen in reducing cotton pellet-granuloma formation. Furthermore, the release of nitric oxide (NO appears to have an important contribution to enhancing the anti-inflammatory effect.

  5. Biologic agents for the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruy; Smith, Judith A; Lovell, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Biologic therapies, primarily anticytokine therapies, are being increasingly used in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Levels of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to be elevated in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid and tissue in children with JRA. In a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in children with severe, long-standing, polyarticular-course JRA not responsive to standard therapies, etanercept showed a statistically significantly greater response rate than placebo. Approximately 75% of these children responded to etanercept. Etanercept has been efficacious in 50-60% of children with active systemic JRA in open clinical trials with acceptable tolerance. Adverse events seen in children treated with etanercept have been similar in type and frequency to those reported in adults. Infliximab has been studied in several open clinical trials in both polyarticular and systemic JRA and found to, overall, have demonstrated efficacy in approximately 60% of patients. Approximately 3-5% of patients have demonstrated infusion reactions or frank allergic reactions and 9% developed new autoantibodies. Anakinra has been studied in children with polyarticular JRA. Approximately 65% of patients developed injection-site reactions and 68% demonstrated a response to the medication. Anakinra may have increased efficacy in systemic JRA. Interleukin (IL)-6 is highly related to the systemic disease manifestations in systemic JRA and two patients treated with a monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor have demonstrated significant improvement with prolonged clinical control with continued treatment. A particular pediatric concern is the effect of immunosuppressive biologics in children who are exposed to or develop varicella. These children should be treated, both in terms of prophylaxis and aggressive antivaricella treatment, as for other immunosuppressed children. Anticytokine biologics have demonstrated great promise in the treatment of

  6. 银屑病治疗的生物制剂与抗药物抗体%Biological agents and antidrug antibodies in the treatment of psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 赵恬; 罗权; 张三泉; 张锡宝

    2015-01-01

    Targeted biological agents have shown favorable therapeutic effects and safety in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis.However,the immunogenicity of biological agents can result in the production of antidrug antibodies,which may lead to a decrease in the efficacy and safety of biological agents to different extents.The production of antidrug antibodies is related to the molecular structure of drugs,immune status or genetic background of patients,type of biological agents,route of administration,and so on.Some methods can be used to reduce the immunogenicity of biological agents so as to improve their efficacy,including transformation of molecular structure,optimization of technological design,alteration of dosage forms of biological agents,or combination with immunosuppressant agents.%靶向生物制剂在中重度银屑病治疗中显示了良好的疗效和安全性,但生物制剂的免疫原性可导致抗药物抗体的产生,并引起不同程度的临床疗效下降及安全隐患.抗药物抗体的产生与药物分子结构、患者免疫状态或遗传背景以及生物制剂类型和给药方式等多种因素相关.通过改造分子结构、优化工艺设计、更换生物制剂类型或联合免疫抑制剂治疗等方法,可降低生物制剂的免疫原性以提高临床疗效.

  7. Synthetic analogues of the microtubule-stabilizing agent (+)-discodermolide: preparation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Mickel, Stuart J; Daeffler, Robert; Niederer, Daniel; Wright, Amy E; Linley, Patricia; Pitts, Tara

    2004-05-01

    A series of seven synthetic discodermolide analogues 2-8, which are minor side products generated during the final stages in the synthesis of (+)-discodermolide (1), have been purified and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against A549, P388, MFC-7, NCI/ADR, PANC-1, and VERO cell lines. These synthetic analogues showed a significant variation of cytotoxicity and confirmed the importance of the C-7 hydroxy through C-17 hydroxy molecular fragment for potency. Specifically, these analogues suggested the relevance of the C-11 hydroxyl group, the C-13 double bond, and the C-16 (S) stereochemistry for the potency of (+)-discodermolide. The preparation, purification, structure elucidation, and biological activity of these new analogues are described.

  8. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  9. Radioiodination and biological evaluation of Cladribine as potential agent for tumor imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumi, Noha Anwer; Amin, Abeer M.; El-Kolaly, Mohamed T. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab Center; Ismail, Nasser S.M.; Abouzid, Khaled A.M. [Ain-Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept.

    2015-07-01

    Cladribine, a purine analogue antimetabolite, was radioiodinated with {sup 125}I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction. The maximum radiochemical yield (92.5 ± 0.8%) was obtained when the reaction was done at ambient temperature for 30 min using 100 μg of Cladribine and 10 μg N-chlorosuccinamide (NCS) in 150 μL of 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7. In vitro stability studies of HPLC purified {sup 125}I-Cladribine sample dissolved in 0.5 ml of 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7 at ambient temperature showed that {sup 125}I-Cladribine is stable up to 12 h post labeling. Biodistribution results revealed excretion of {sup 125}I-Cladribine mainly by kidneys. The uptake of {sup 125}I-Cladribine in the induced Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma was 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g at 1 h post injection with maximum tumor/muscle ratio of 5.5. The good uptake of {sup 125}I-Cladribine confirms the molecular docking studies results which indicate that iodinated Cladribine binds with polymerase enzyme with a good-CDOCKER energy. As a result, radioiodinated Cladribine may be used as a valuable agent for tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new naphthalene substituted thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent antifungal and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntop, Mehlika Dilek; Atlı, Özlem; Ilgın, Sinem; Demirel, Rasime; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2016-01-27

    New thiosemicarbazone derivatives (1-10) were obtained via the reaction of 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiosemicarbazide with fluoro-substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal effects against pathogenic yeasts and molds using broth microdilution assay. Ames and umuC assays were carried out to determine the genotoxicity of the most effective antifungal derivatives. Furthermore, all compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma and NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines using XTT test. Among these derivatives, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,3-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (1) and 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,5-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (3) can be identified as the most promising antifungal derivatives due to their notable inhibitory effects on Candida species and no cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. According to Ames and umuC assays, compounds 1 and 3 were classified as non-mutagenic compounds. On the other hand, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,4-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (2) can be considered as the most promising anticancer agent against A549 cell line owing to its notable inhibitory effect on A549 cells with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL when compared with cisplatin (IC50 = 16.28 μg/mL) and no cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:26706351

  11. Preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of 99Tcm-TADP as bone imaging agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiaohong; LUO Shineng; NIU Guosai; YE Wanzhong; YANG Min; WANG Hongyong; XIA Yongmei

    2008-01-01

    TADP, 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, was synthesized by three step reactions from the raw material 1H-1,2,4-triazole. 99Tcm-TADP was prepared with 5 mg TADP at Ph 7.0 by joining 99TcmO4 with SnCl2·2H2O in aqueous solution for 10 min at room temperature. Both labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-TADP were more than 95%. The biodistribution in rats and bone scan in rabbits were also studied. The uptake of organ was expressed as %ID/g. The results showed that the bone uptake is up to 17.17%ID/g which is the maximum of bone uptake at 30 min after injection of 99Tcm-TADP in rats, bone-to-muscle and bone-to-blood uptake ratios were 61.32 and 13.21, respectively. The clear bone image of rabbit was obtained at 120 min after injection of 99Tcm-TADP and clearance in soft tissue was visible. The preparation of 99Tcm-TADP was convenient and 99Tcm-TADP exhibited high uptake in bone, and it would be a potential new bone imaging agent.

  12. ADVANCED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF BIOPOLYMERS FOR TRANSMUCOSAL AND INTRACELLULAR DELIVERY OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS AND BIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, William B.; Caldorera-Moore, Mary; Phillips, Margaret A.; Schoener, Cody; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels have been instrumental in the development of polymeric systems for controlled release of therapeutic agents. These materials are attractive for transmucosal and intracellular drug delivery because of their facile synthesis, inherent biocompatibility, tunable physicochemical properties, and capacity to respond to various physiological stimuli. In this contribution, we outline a multifaceted hydrogel-based approach for expanding the range of therapeutics in oral formulations from classical small-molecule drugs to include proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Through judicious materials selection and careful design of copolymer composition and molecular architecture, we can engineer systems capable of responding to distinct physiological cues, with tunable physicochemical properties that are optimized to load, protect, and deliver valuable macromolecular payloads to their intended site of action. These hydrogel carriers, including complexation hydrogels, tethered hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, nanoscale hydrogels, and hydrogels with decorated structures are investigated for their ability respond to changes in pH, to load and release insulin and fluorescein, and remain non-toxic to Caco-2 cells. Our results suggest these novel hydrogel networks have great potential for controlled delivery of proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. PMID:21699934

  13. Use of the Crohn's disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn's disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals.

  14. Synthesis, Molecular docking and Biological evaluation of 4-Cycloalkylidineamino 1, 2-Naphthoquinone Semicarbazones as Anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubhanjali Shukla; Radhey Shyam Srivastava; Sushant Kumar Shrivastava; Ajit Sodhi; Pankaj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to etablish new candidates with improved antineoplastic activity, 4-cycloalkylidineamino 1,2-naphthoquinone semicarbazones were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for anticancer activity. Method: The desired compounds were synthesized by condensation of 4- amino1, 2-naphthoquinone with cyclic ketones and further subsequent reaction of this product with semicarbazide hydrochloride. Compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and screened for antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MG-63 and MCF-7) by MTT assay using doxorubicin as standard. Docking was performed by using the Glide 5.7 integrated with Maestro 9.2 (Schrödinger, LLC, 2011) to understand the binding preference of synthesized compounds with target enzyme topoisomerase-II. Results: 4-(cyclohexylideneamino) [1, 2] naphthoquinone 2-semicarbazone was found to be most active cytotoxic agent against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 5.58–6.31 µM. Results of molecular docking were also well correlated in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Insilico ADME studies revealed the drug likeliness of compounds. Conclusions: The synthesized compounds were found to have significant anticancer activity and able to enter in higher phases of the drug development process due to favorable pharmacokinetic properties.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Liguzinediol Mono- and Dual Ester Prodrugs as Promising Inotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potent positive inotropic effect, together with the relatively low safety risk of liguzinediol (LZDO, relative to currently available inotropic drugs, has prompted us to intensively research and develop LZDO as a potent positive inotropic agent. In this study, to obtain LZDO alternatives for oral chronic administration, a series of long-chain fatty carboxylic mono- and dual-esters of LZDO were synthesized, and preliminarily evaluated for physicochemical properties and bioconversion. Enhanced lipophilic properties and decreased solubility of the prodrugs were observed as the side chain length increased. All esters showed conspicuous chemical stability in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Moreover, the enzymatic hydrolysis of esters in human plasma and human liver microsomes confirmed that the majority of esters were converted to LZDO, with release profiles that varied due to the size and structure of the side chain. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of monopivaloyl (M5, monodecyl (M10 and monododecyl (M12 esters demonstrated the evidently extended half-lives relative to LZDO dosed alone. In particular the monopivaloyl ester M5 exhibited an optimal pharmacokinetic profile with appropriate physiochemical characteristics.

  16. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestankova, Hana; Schirmer, Kristin; Escher, Beate I; von Gunten, Urs; Canonica, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu(®)) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 10(5) and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. PMID:22230064

  17. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu®) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 105 and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 109 M−1 s−1 for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. - Highlights: ► Oseltamivir acid (OA) is oxidized by ozone and hydroxyl radical. ► Kinetics: We determined rate constants for the reaction with these oxidants. ► The specific activity of OA as neuraminidase inhibitor disappeared during oxidation. ► Ozonation and advanced oxidation can effectively remove OA from wastewaters. - Ozone and hydroxyl radical treatment processes can degrade aqueous oseltamivir acid and remove its antiviral activity.

  18. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  19. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  20. Anthropology, Culture, and COIN in a Hybrid Warfare World

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Anna

    2011-01-01

    in Paul Brister, William Natter, and Robert Tomes (eds.), Hybrid Warfare and Transnational Threats: Perspectives for an Era of Persistent Conflict. New York: Council for Emerging National Security Studies, 2011.

  1. Selfishness, warfare and economics; or integration, cooperation and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jesus Salvucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. Modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related with the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: Viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown, that constitute the major planet's gene pool with a fundamental role in evolution. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that normally are understood as parasites, are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drives the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is a result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus and eukaryotic DNA and the interaction of its own genome with the genome of its microbiota resulting in an intertwined metabolism (a superorganism along evolution. These new interpretations are remarkable points to be considered in order to construct a solid theory adjusted to the facts and with less speculations and tortuous semantic traps.

  2. Selfishness, warfare and economics; or integration, cooperation and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliano Jesus Salvucci

    2012-01-01

    The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are i...

  3. Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitte...

  4. Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-08-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents.

  5. Novel Benzothiazole, Benzimidazole and Benzoxazole Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents: Synthesis and Preliminary in Vitro Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  6. Novel benzothiazole, benzimidazole and benzoxazole derivatives as potential antitumor agents: synthesis and preliminary in vitro biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Pu; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Liang; Sun, Chang-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Yang, Li

    2012-01-17

    In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  7. The Role of Biological Agents and Immunomodulators in Treatment Strategies for Thyroid Eye Disease: An Evidence-based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Anna; Migliori, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disease where circulating antibodies bind to the thyrotropin receptors on the thyroid gland. These bound antibodies mimic thyroid stimulating hormone without the normal feedback from the anterior pituitary, causing hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. These antibodies also interact with orbital tissues and cause the characteristic orbital findings of thyroid eye disease (TED). It is not clearly understood why anatomically and physiologically distinct tissues like the thyroid gland and orbit are affected selectively, or why the orbital disease tends to be self-limited. Identifying and understanding these processes is critical to targeting therapy. In the active phase of the disease patients may experience orbital inflammation, eyelid and conjunctiva edema (chemosis), eyelid retraction, proptosis, ocular motility restriction, and optic nerve compression. Current treatment strategies for the ocular symptoms have been predominantly directed at symptomatic relief. More recently, investigators have concentrated their efforts to better understanding the underlying pathophysiologic processes to direct therapy at these processes. This review examines the current literature exploring a variety of newer therapeutic alternatives, including immunomodulative and suppressive agents, targeted at strategic points of the active-phase TED pathophysiological pathways. Specifically, biological agents including rituximab, adalimumab, intravenous immunoglobulin and others are reviewed with considerations for pathophysiology, extent of literature support, and adverse effects. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-06.asp, free with no login].

  8. Biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis treatment%类风湿关节炎的生物制剂治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 袁国华

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disabling diease, seriously affecting the patients' quality of life. Traditional drugs treatment for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs,however,these drugs are often not satisfied to control the condition of refractory rheumatoid arthritis,and resulting in severe joint damage. Recently , the emergence of multiple biological agents brought hope to the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients These agents play an important role in the control of rheumatic conditions and the improvement of quality of life in PtA patients.%类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)是一种常见的致残性疾病,严重影响患者的生活质量.传统的RA药物治疗主要包括非甾体抗炎药、糖皮质激素以及慢作用药物,然而这些药物常常不能满意控制那些难治性RA患者的病情,最终导致关节进行性破坏.近年,由于多种生物制剂的出现,为治疗难治性RA带来了希望,这些生物制剂在控制风湿病情和改善生活质量方面发挥了重要作用.

  9. Active and Passive Precautions in Air and Missile Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoli, Marco; Quintin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Based upon state practice, customary international law, Protocol Additional I to the Geneva Conventions and the Harvard Manual on Air and Missile Warfare (which they critically review), the authors discuss the different precautionary measures for the benefit of the civilian population an attacker and a defender must take, in the conduct of hostilities in general, and specifically in air and missile warfare, including in attacks against aircraft.

  10. A new bone imaging agent, 99Tcm-BIPrDP, its preparation and biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of 99Tcm-1-hydroxy-3-(2-butyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) propane-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (BIPrDP) as a new bone imaging agent. Methods: BIPrDP was synthesized by three steps from the raw material 2-butyl-1H-imidazole. 99Tcm-BIPrDP were prepared with mixed BIPrDP (50 mg/ml, 100 μl) and freshly eluted Na99TcmO4 (37.0 MBq) in the presence of the reducing agent SnCl2 (1 rng/ml, 100 μl) at boiling temperature for 30 min. The labeling yield and stability of 99Tcm-BIPrDP were measured with TLC. Partition coefficient in octanol-water and plasma protein binding ratio to human heparin anticoagulation plasma of 99Tcm-BIPrDP was checked. ICR mice were sacrificed at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after tail vein injection of 0.2 ml (7.4 MBq) freshly prepared 99Tcm-BIPrDP.Samples of blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, bone, muscle, gonad, intestine, stomach and brain were taken, weighed and the gamma counts measured. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled compound in different organs was calculated and expressed as % ID/g. Bone-to-organ uptake ratios were calculated by the % ID/g values. The kinetics of blood clearance was calculated. Bone imaging was performed in New Zealand rabbit after intravenous injection of 99Tcm-BIPrDP. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the % ID/g at different times points. Results: Radiolabeling yield of 99Tcm-BIPrDP was more than 95% and the labeled complex was stable at least up to 6 h in vitro. The octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) for 99Tcm-BIPrDP were-2.396 ± 0.035 and-2.242 ± 0.025 at pH values of 7.0 and 7.4, respectively. The plasma protein binding rate of 99Tcm-BIPrDP was (47.07 ± 0.05)%. The bone uptake of 99Tcm-BIPrDP in mice reached a maximum of 19.20 % ID/g at 30 min after injection, and this high level of uptake persisted 4 h later at 18.98 % ID/g. Kidney uptake was highest among all the non-target organs,but decreased from 24.50 % ID/g at 5 min to 5.22 % ID/g at 4 h

  11. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  12. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:23419022

  13. Display technology on filamentous phage in the search for anti-infective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Santiago Vispo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex. The phage display technology has been used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and peptides directed against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Today, this technology is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits the phage display technology to discover new drugs against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies. Methods: Basic and recent literature review was made, mainly focused on general aspects of phage display technology and the application in the search of new peptides or antibodies of pharmaceutical use to combat the infectious diseases transmitted by bacteria and virus. Results: Updated information on the selected topics is shown, with a guiding and practical approach aimed at researchers in the field of molecular biology to continue deepening the technology with special emphasis in the applications that have been developed in Cuba. Conclusions: Advances in methods of screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies show that phage display technology can significantly contribute in the fight against clinically important pathogens.

  14. Donepezil-like multifunctional agents: Design, synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yu; Esteban, Gerard; Brogi, Simone; Shionoya, Masahi; Wang, Li; Campiani, Giuseppe; Unzeta, Mercedes; Inokuchi, Tsutomu; Butini, Stefania; Marco-Contelles, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Currently available drugs against Alzheimer's disease (AD) are only able to ameliorate the disease symptoms resulting in a moderate improvement in memory and cognitive function without any efficacy in preventing and inhibiting the progression of the pathology. In an effort to obtain disease-modifying anti-Alzheimer's drugs (DMAADs) following the multifactorial nature of AD, we have recently developed multifunctional compounds. We herein describe the design, synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of a new series of donepezil-related compounds possessing metal chelating properties, and being capable of targeting different enzymatic systems related to AD (cholinesterases, ChEs, and monoamine oxidase A, MAO-A). Among this set of analogues compound 5f showed excellent ChEs inhibition potency and a selective MAO-A inhibition (vs MAO-B) coupled to strong complexing properties for zinc and copper ions, both known to be involved in the progression of AD. Moreover, 5f exhibited moderate antioxidant properties as found by in vitro assessment. This compound represents a novel donepezil-hydroxyquinoline hybrid with DMAAD profile paving the way to the development of a novel class of drugs potentially able to treat AD.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel conjugates of camptothecin and 5-Flurouracil as cytotoxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: yqliu@lzu.edu.c [Lanzhou Jiaotong University (China). Environmental and Municipal Engineering School; Chun-Yan Zhaob; Ying-Qian Liu [Lanzhou University (China). School of Pharmacy

    2011-07-01

    A series of novel conjugates of camptothecin and 5-fluorouracil were first synthesized and their cytotoxic activities against two human tumor cell lines (SGC-7901 and A-549) as well as in vitro pharmacokinetic determination of lactone stability were studied. Among these compounds, most tested conjugates showed comparable or superior cytotoxic activities to 2, but less potent compared with 1. Particularly, conjugates 10b and 10d were highly active against A-549 with IC{sub 50} values of 0.45 and 0.38 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. Also, the in vitro pharmacokinetic determination of lactone levels of representative compound 10b showed that the biological life span of their lactone forms in human and mouse plasma significantly increased compared with their mother compound 1. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method was then applied for developing linear models to predict the cytotoxic activities of these derivatives that have not yet been synthesized or experimentally tested. In addition, molecular docking was used to clarify the binding mode of these derivatives to human DNA topoisomerase I. The important hydrogen-bonding interactions were observed between these derivatives and their receptor. The results from molecular modeling and QSAR study can guide the design of novel conjugates with higher antitumor activity. (author)

  16. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  17. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  18. P-solubilizing Fungi as Biological Control Agents to Increase Growth and Prevent Moler Disease on Red Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwiyono

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to obtain phosphate-solubilizing fungi have antagonistic ability to Fusarium oxysporum f. cepae, and increase soil available-P. The experiment was hold in April 2013 to February 2014. Antagonistic capability was observed in two stages i.e. in vitro test which was conducted in the Laboratory of Soil Biology and Biotechnology, while in vivo test in green house, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD. The treatment factors of in vitro test were kinds of phosphate solubilizing fungi and incubation time with Pikovkaya liquid medium, while the treatment factor of in vivo test was isolates combination of phosphate solubilizing fungi. Each treatment combination was repilcate three times. The observated variable included soil available phosphate, shallot height, shoot dry weight, moler disease intensity, infection rate, and area under the disease progress curve. The research obtained 3 isolates of fungi with high potential as inoculums of P-solubilizing biofertilizer and biological control agents against moler desease of red onion. The resullt showed that mix of JK12 isolate (isolated from Entisol of Bantul District and isolate of JK14 (from Andisol of Tawangmangu sub district demonstrated the highest ability in solubilizing phosphate and suppressing moler disease of red onion.

  19. Calcium phytate: A promising lung perfusion agent without risk of biological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lung ventilation and perfusion imaging has evolved over the years and its routine use has become widespread, where more than 70% of pulmonary thromboembolism can be diagnosed through the ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. This non-invasive diagnostic tool offers information on the lung functional vascular bed. Historically the human Albumin macroaggregates and/or microspheres have been the selection radiopharmaceuticals to carry out the lung perfusion studies, where different formulations for diagnostic kits have been developed. However, due to the potential danger that represents the use of haemoderivates in the transmission of viral illnesses, specifically the Hepatitis C and the VIH, our country suspended at the beginning of the last decade the import of these kits. As a result of this decision we tried to obtain a reagent kit based on non-derived blood particles that were big enough to be caught by pulmonary capillaries and to allow its use in the lung perfusion imaging. For this purpose was used phytate, because of the Inositol hexaphosphoric acid (phytic acid) forms complex with numerous cations, many of which show a markedly lower solubility to that of the sodium phytate in biological systems, being the chosen cation Ca2+. The experiments were carried out starting from a complete factorial design of the type 22, where the employed variables were: Ca2+ concentration varied ranging from 5 to 15 mg of Ca2+ for a Ca2+:Phytate molar ratio of 4.6:1 and 13.8:1, respectively. Addition order of reagents, pre-supposing that this last influenced in the size of the particles: Variant 1: Ca-Tc/Phytate; Variant 2: Tc-Phytate/Ca. (author)

  20. New developments in the treatment of osteoarthritis – focus on biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrero JI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jose Ignacio Torrero,1 Carlos Martínez2 1BioTrauma Centre, Escaldes, Principality of Andorra; 2University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common diseases around the world. Medical, social, and financial consequences oblige clinicians, surgeons, and researchers to focus on finding the best treatment option, to eradicate and stop this degenerative joint disease, in order to avoid surgical options which in many instances are over-indicated. Noninvasive treatments, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, orthotic devices, dietary supplements, have demonstrated lack of effectiveness. The possibility to perform intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid, corticosteroids, or the newest but criticized treatment based on platelet-rich plasma (PRP has changed the management of OA disease. The use of PRP has led to many differences in treatment since there is a lack of consensus about protocols, indications, number of doses, cost-effectiveness, and duration of the treatment. Many publications have suggested efficacy in tendon injuries, but when PRP has been indicated to treat cartilage injuries, things are more inconsistent. Some authors have reported their experience treating OA with PRP, and it seems that, if well indicated, it is an option as a supplementary therapy. Therefore, we need to understand that OA is a mechanical disease which not only produces changes in radiographs, but also affects the quality of life. Pathogenesis of OA has been well explained, providing us new knowledge and future possibilities to improve the clinical approach. From basic science to surgery, there is a great field we all need to contribute to, because the general population is aging and total joint replacements should not be the only solution for OA. So herein is an actual review of the developments for treating OA with biologics, intended to be useful for the population inside

  1. Conceptual Lanchester-type Decapitation Warfare Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-yeu Menq

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Decapitation operation has existed for a long time in military history; however, it was notuntil March 2003 'decapitation attack' became a well known term in the mass media. This paperis based on the connotation of decapitation based on historical study and refines the term intomilitary strategic concept of decapitation strategy. Ideas derived from detailed studies onLanchester-type combat models are used to describe the effectiveness of conventional regularforces under decapitation warfare, which includes asymmetric, nonlinear, stand-off and specialoperation forces (SOF operations. A conceptual model is presented to describe the effects ofthe decapitation strategy on the regular battlefield. With extensive coverage of operational factorssuch as robustness of forces, time difference between combats, undermining effects, breakpoints,attrition rates, total force level and force allocation, the model is suitable to analyse complexscenario with different types of military operations consisting of decapitation strategy. Anillustrative example is provided to demonstrate the application of the model. The conceptualmodel is built based on hypotheses, assumptions, and criteria. In the absence of historical data,no data analysis and parameter estimation are involved.

  2. V-type nerve agents phosphonylate ubiquitin at biologically relevant lysine residues and induce intramolecular cyclization by an isopeptide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Breyer, Felicitas; Blum, Marc-Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (e.g., pesticides and nerve agents) are known to react with nucleophilic side chains of different amino acids (phosphylation), thus forming adducts with endogenous proteins. Most often binding to serine, tyrosine, or threonine residues is described as being of relevance for toxicological effects (e.g., acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase) or as biomarkers for post-exposure analysis (verification, e.g., albumin and butyrylcholinesterase). Accordingly, identification of novel protein targets might be beneficial for a better understanding of the toxicology of these compounds, revealing new bioanalytical verification tools, and improving knowledge on chemical reactivity. In the present study, we investigated the reaction of ubiquitin (Ub) with the V-type nerve agents Chinese VX, Russian VX, and VX in vitro. Ub is a ubiquitous protein with a mass of 8564.8 Da present in the extra- and intracellular space that plays an important physiological role in several essential processes (e.g., proteasomal degradation, DNA repair, protein turnover, and endocytosis). Reaction products were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight- mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and μ-high-performance liquid chromatography online coupled to UV-detection and electrospray ionization MS (μHPLC-UV/ESI MS). Our results originally document that a complex mixture of at least mono-, di, and triphosphonylated Ub adducts was produced. Surprisingly, peptide mass fingerprint analysis in combination with MALDI and ESI MS/MS revealed that phosphonylation occurred with high selectivity in at least 6 of 7 surface-exposed lysine residues that are essential for the biological function of Ub. These reaction products were found not to age. In addition, we herein report for the first time that phosphonylation induced intramolecular cyclization by formation of an isopeptide bond between the ε-amino group of a formerly phosphonylated

  3. New testosterone derivatives as semi-synthetic anticancer agents against prostate cancer: synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nathalie; Bruneau, Julie; Fortin, Sebastien; Brasseur, Kevin; Leblanc, Valerie; Asselin, Eric; Berube, Gervais

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a major health issue in the world. Treatments of localized PC are quite efficient and usually involve surgery, radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Metastatic PC is however rarely curable to this day. Treatments of metastatic PC involve radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment such as orchiectomy, antiandrogens and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists. The suppression of tumor growth by hormonal treatment is efficient but overtime resistance still occurs and the disease progresses. Thus, more urgently than ever there is a need for discovery of new treatment options for castration-resistant PC (CRPC). Hence, we designed and tested a series of amide derivatives located at position 7α of testosterone as prospective "natural" or "semisynthetic" anticancer agents against CRPC with the goal of discovering therapeutic alternatives for the disease. This manuscript describes an efficient path towards the target molecules that are made in only 6 or 7 chemical steps from testosterone in good overall yields. This strategy can be used to make several compounds of interest that present higher biological activity than the classic antiandrogen; cyproterone acetate (3). The best testosterone-7α-amide was the N-2-pyridylethylamide (25) which was as active as the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (3) on androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and 2.7 times more active on androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results obtained show the synthetic feasibility and the potential for future development of this unique class of semi-synthetic anticancer agents that offer the premise of new treatment modalities for patients afflicted with CRPC. PMID:25675439

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzimidazole-2-substituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives as antitumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-tao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Jia-jia; Yi, Hong; Zhan, Yue-chen; Sha, Ming-quan; Wang, Zhen; Xue, Si-tu; Li, Zhuo-rong

    2016-05-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological activities of these derivatives were then evaluated as potential antitumour agents. These compounds were assayed for growth-inhibitory activity against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in vitro. The IC50 values of compounds A1 and A7 against the cancer cells were 0.06-3.64 μM and 0.04-9.80 μM, respectively. Their antiproliferative activities were significantly better than that of 5-Fluorouracil (IC50: 56.96-174.50 μM) and were close to that of Paclitaxel (IC50: 0.026-1.53 μM). The activity of these derivatives was over 100 times more effective than other reported structures of chalcone analogues (licochalcone A). A preliminary mechanistic study suggested that these compounds inhibit p53-MDM2 binding. Compounds A1, A7 and A9 effectively inhibited tumour growth in BALB/c mice with colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. The group administered 200 mg/kg of compound A7 showed a 74.6% tumour growth inhibition with no signs of toxicity at high doses that was similar to the inhibition achieved with the 12.5 mg/kg irinotecan positive control (70.2%). Therefore, this class of benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives represents a promising lead structure for the development of possible p53-MDM2 inhibitors as new antitumour agents. PMID:27017265

  5. Influence of Temperature, Humidity, and Plant Terpenoid Profiles on Life History Characteristics of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a Biological Control Agent of the Invasive Tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the introduced weed biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore is widely established among stands of its host Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtaceae) in south Florida, it’s population densities decline markedly during summer months. We investigated the hypothesis tha...

  6. The significance of ecology in the development of Verticillium chlamydosporium as a biological agent against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, de F.A.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions which occur between nematode parasites and nematode pests and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on these interactions, is essential in the development of biological control agents for nematodes. The aim of this study was to develop a particular

  7. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2,3-disubstituted quinoxaline derivatives as antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Juliana; Kaplum, Vanessa; Sangi, Diego Pereira; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Corrêa, Arlene Gonçalves; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2015-01-27

    Quinoxalines belong to the N-containing heterocyclic compounds that stand out as having promising biological activity due to their privileged scaffold. In this work, we report the synthesis, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal properties of 46 new 2,3-disubstituted quinoxaline and 40 previously reported derivatives. Among all of the compounds screened for in vitro activity against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis as well as mammalian toxicity on LLCMK2 cells and J774 macrophages, analogues from series 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 13 displayed high activity at micromolar IC50 and EC50 concentrations. Sixteen quinoxaline derivatives were selected and evaluated on T. cruzi and/or L. amazonensis amastigotes. The most active compounds were 6a-b and 7d-e, on all evolutive forms of L. amazonensis and T. cruzi evaluated with IC50 values 0.1-0.8 μM on promastigotes and epimastigotes 1.4-8.6 on amastigotes. Compounds 5k, 12b and 13a were the most selective (SI = 19.5-38.4) on amastigotes of T. cruzi. In general their activity was directly related to the methylsulfoxyl, methylsulfonyl, and amine groups as well as the presence of chorine or bromine in the molecules. The current results indicate that these quinoxaline derivatives are novel and promising agents for further development towards a treatment for Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis.

  9. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of novel benzofuran-pyrazole derivatives as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Karim, Somaia S; Anwar, Manal M; Mohamed, Neama A; Nasr, Tamer; Elseginy, Samia A

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with design and synthesis of novel benzofuran-pyrazole hybrids as anticancer agents. Eight compounds were chosen by National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA to evaluate their in vitro antiproliferative activity at 10(-5)M in full NCI 60 cell panel. The preliminary screening of the tested compounds showed promising broad-spectrum anticancer activity. Compound 4c was further assayed for five dose molar ranges in full NCI 60 cell panel and exhibited remarkable growth inhibitory activity pattern against Leukemia CCRF-CEM, MOLT-4, Lung Cancer HOP-92, Colon Cancer HCC-2998, CNS Cancer SNB-75, Melanoma SK-MEL-2, Ovarian Cancer IGROV1, Renal Cancer 786-0, RXF 393, Breast Cancer HS 578T and T-47D (GI50: 1.00-2.71μM). Moreover, enzyme assays were carried out to investigate the possible antiproliferative mechanism of action of compound 4c. The results revealed that compound 4c has good c-Src inhibitory activity at 10μM. In addition, molecular docking studies showed that 4c could bind to the ATP Src pocket sites. Fulfilling the Lipinskiís rule of five in addition to its ADME profile and the biological results, all strongly suggest that 4c is a promising Src kinase inhibitor.

  10. Efficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in the treatment of uveitis associated with rheumatic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Neroyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of incorporating genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs into a combination treatment regimen for rheumatic diseases (RD (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behcet's disease in relation to associated uveitis of varying severity was studied in 92 children aged 2 to 17 years. The follow-up lasted 1.5 to 49 months. Twenty-three patients took consecutively 2 to 5 GEBAs. When infliximab was used, remission of uveitis occurred in 21% of 38 children and the disease activity and/or recurrence rates reduced in an additional 21%. These were in 45 and 38.6% of 44 patients on adalimumab (ADA and in 27.8 and 27.8% of 18 patients on abatacept, respectively. There was an association of the efficiency of therapy with the severity of uveitis at the start of treatment. The use of ADA induced a steady remission of panuveitis resistant to therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclosporine in both patients with Behcet's disease. One of 4 rituximab-treated patients achieved a steady remission. Tocilizumab therapy caused an exacerbation of uveitis in 1 patient. The postoperative period showed no inflammatory complications in most cases (37 operations, 26 eyes, 20 patients. No local adverse reactions were seen; systemic reactions occurred in 14% of the patients, this caused GEBAs to be discontinued in 7%. There is evidence for a need for further investigations into the efficacy of GEBAs in RD-associated uveitis in children in order to define success criteria, differentiated indications, and therapy regimens.

  11. Biology and host preferences of Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a possible biocontrol agent for Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth; Johnson, M Tracy; Chacón, Eduardo; Anderson, Robert S; Wheeler, Terry A

    2010-12-01

    The introduced plant Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) poses a grave threat to Hawaii's native ecosystems and biodiversity. One potential candidate for classical biological control is Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae), a stem-boring weevil from Central and South America. This weevil feeds on M. calvescens in its native Costa Rica and has been successfully reared under greenhouse conditions. Comparison of its environmental conditions in Costa Rica with those in the Miconia infested areas of Hawaii indicates the latter is a suitable habitat for C. melastomae. C. melastomae has one or two generations per year. Adults feed on new stems, petioles, leaf buds, veins, and lamina, whereas larvae mine the stem until pupation. Adults appear to prefer saplings for oviposition and feeding. Under greenhouse conditions both adults and larvae can seriously damage and kill small M. calvescens. Preliminary host testing indicates that C. melastomae may be family specific on Melastomataceae. However, because Hawaii lacks native melastomes and has many other serious melastome weeds, a family specific insect may be suitable as a biocontrol agent in this case. PMID:22182550

  12. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided.

  13. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided. PMID:26176096

  14. 化学/生物战剂激光雷达探测技术%Lidar Detection Technology for Chemical/Biological Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振坤; 王秋华

    2011-01-01

    对化学生物战剂的危害与杀伤效能、传统侦检方法及战剂激光雷达探测机理、结构、性能、作用机制和相关技术进行了分析.探讨了生化战剂激光雷达技术的特点及优化设计、建立战剂探测技术模块.提出生化战剂激光雷达探测技术主要包括战剂侦察报警、采集检测、距离测定、测角定位、自动跟踪、扫描成像和生物芯片检测技术.指出激光雷达探测技术为生化战剂的侦检提供了有效技术途径.多功能多传感器集成的一体化探测技术将成为今后的发展趋势和研究重点.%Objective To research the lidar detection technologies for the chemical/biological agents based on the principles of lidar and harm of the chemical/biological agents. Methods The harm induced by chemical/biological agents, traditional detection methods for the agents, detection mechanism, structure, performance and correlative technologies of lidar were analyzed. The technology modules of the agents detection were designed and built up. Results The harm of chemical/ biological agents, the characteristics of lidar detection technologies and the research progress were described. The lidar detection technologies for the agents, including the ones for reconnaissance and warning, sampling and inspection, distance mensuration, angular orientation, automatic follow, scanning imaging and bio-chip detection, were proposed. Conclusion The lidar detection technologies are effective approaches for the scout and mensuration of the chemical/biological agents. The integrated detection technology with multi functions and multi sensors will be paid special attention to.

  15. Sweeping changes for mine warfare : controlling the mine threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cashman, T. Michael

    1994-01-01

    This thesis proposes that the U.S. Navy deter and, if necessary, combat potential minelayers by pursuing a pro-active' offensive mine warfare strategy. Central to this proposed strategy is the development, acquisition, and use of Remote Controlled (RECO) mines. It is argued that, given the historical problems the United States has had in the area of naval mine warfare, a strategy aimed at the aggressive deterrence of enemy mine laying be embraced so as to project forces ashore in future amphi...

  16. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  17. Possible reasons for the inefficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis and ways of its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs have held a firm place in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Patients are selected for this treatment in accordance with international and Russian guidelines. The question as to whether GEBAs should be added to therapy with disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs (DMAIDs is raised after there is an inadequate response to therapy with two DMAIDs, one of which should be methotrexate. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors as a first-line drug are indicated only in high RA activity. There are few predictors of the efficacy of GEBAs. It is noted that in accordance with the principles of the Treatment to Target program, RA is treated under control of monthly estimated scores in patients with high/moderate disease activity; if there is no remission (with low disease activity being an alternative aim after three months it is decided whether to correct therapy. In routine practice, when the effect of GEBAs, which is observed in many patients in the first week of treatment, appears, physicians often begin to discontinue symptomatic drugs and at times to decrease the dose or withdraw DMAIDs, which may result in the progression of symptoms of arthritis and which may be misinterpreted as the inadequate or none effect of GEBAs. There are objective reasons for the possible inefficacy of GEBAs. The valid predictor for a response to inhibitors of TNF-α is its baseline expression by synovial membrane cells. It is also important to take into account the nature of previous GEBA therapy. All GEBAs are noted to be highly effective when applying a weighed approach to selecting and managing patients; in so doing, rapid discontinuation of symptomatic therapy should be avoided.

  18. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 Standard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces. The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will present

  19. Patients’ and rheumatologists’ preferences for the attributes of biological agents used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla, Joan M; Rodríguez, Manuel; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Raya, Enrique; Ibero, Isabel; Nocea, Gonzalo; Aragon, Belén; Lizán, Luis; Prades, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define importance values assigned to attributes of biological agents (BAs) by Spanish patients with rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis) and rheumatologists. Patients and methods This was an observational, cross-sectional design based upon a rank-based full-profile conjoint analysis. A literature review and four focus groups were undertaken to identify attributes and levels. An orthogonal matrix, combining the selected levels of attributes, was used to define scenarios. Participants ranked eight scenarios from 1 (most preferred) to 8 (least preferred). The relative importance (RI) of attributes was calculated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics that influenced the values of RI. A total of 488 patients (male 50.9%, mean age 50.6 [standard deviation {SD} 12.06] years, rheumatoid arthritis 33.8%, ankylosing spondylitis 32.4%, psoriatic arthritis 33.8%; mean time since diagnosis 12.6 [SD 8.2] years) and 136 rheumatologists (male 50.4%, mean age 46.4 [SD 9.1] years, mean time of practice 16.7 [SD 8.8] years) participated. Results The ideal BAs for patients and physicians, respectively, should allow pain relief and improvement of functional capacity (RI 39% and 44.7%), with low risk of adverse events (RI 24.9% and 30.5%), a long time prior to perceiving the need for a new dose (RI 16.4% and 12.4%), and self-administration at home (RI 19.7% and 12.5%), as identified through their preferences. Conclusion Although efficacy and safety are paramount for patients and rheumatologists to make a choice regarding BAs, the need for a low frequency of administration and the administration method also play a role as preference attributes for BAs. PMID:27382258

  20. Synthesis, uptake mechanism characterization and biological evaluation of {sup 18}F labeled fluoroalkyl phenylalanine analogs as potential PET imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Limin [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qu Wenchao; Lieberman, Brian P.; Ploessl, Karl [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Amino acids based tracers represent a promising class of tumor metabolic imaging agents with successful clinical applications. Two new phenylalanine derivatives, p-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-phenylalanine (FEP, [{sup 18}F]2) and p-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-L-phenylalanine (FPP, [{sup 18}F]3) were synthesized and evaluated in comparison to clinically utilized O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET, [{sup 18}F]1). Methods: FEP ([{sup 18}F]2) and FPP ([{sup 18}F]3) were successfully synthesized by a rapid and efficient two-step nucleophilic fluorination of tosylate precursors and deprotection reaction. In vitro cell uptake studies were carried out in 9L glioma cells. In vivo studies, 9L tumor xenografts were implanted in Fisher 344 rats. Results: FEP ([{sup 18}F]2) and FPP ([{sup 18}F]3) could be efficiently labeled within 90 min with good enantiomeric purity (>95%), good yield (11-37%) and high specific activity (21-69 GBq/{mu}mol). Cell uptake studies showed FEP had higher uptake than FPP as well as reference ligand FET ([{sup 18}F]1). Uptake mechanism studies suggested that FEP is a selective substrate for system L and prefers its subtype LAT1. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated FEP had specific accumulation in tumor cells and tumor to background ratio reached 1.45 at 60 min. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies showed FEP was comparable to FET for imaging rats bearing 9L tumor model. FEP had high uptake in 9L tumor compared to surrounding tissue and was quickly excreted through urinary tract. Conclusion: Biological evaluations indicate that FEP ([{sup 18}F]2) is a potential useful tracer for tumor imaging with PET.

  1. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Preferences of patients and health professionals for route and frequency of administration of biologic agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tuan Khai; Ostergaard, Ann; Egsmose, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the preferences of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and health professionals (HPs) for the route and frequency of administration of biologic drugs. METHODS: One hundred and seven RA patients treated with biological agents for intravenous or subcutaneous use, 35 biologic...... of a biologic corresponding to current available options, given that effects, adverse effects, and financial costs were identical for the different choices. The subjects were also asked to justify their preferences. The chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to examine the distributions over different......% of patients currently treated with SCH (Pbiologic-naïve patients (Pbiologic-naïve RA patients than for those currently on IVC (P

  3. A Triage Model for Chemical Warfare Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnevis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context The main objectives of triage are securing patient safety during the process of emergency diagnosis and treatment, and reduction of waiting time for medical services and transport. To date, there is no triage system for nerve agent victims. Evidence Acquisition This systematic review proposes a new triage system for patients exposed to nerve agents. Information regarding clinical signs and symptoms of intoxication with nerve agents, primary treatments, and classification of patients were extracted from the literature. All related articles were reviewed. Subsequently, specialists from different disciplines were invited to discuss and draft protocols. Results Finalized triage tables summarizing the classification methods and required protocols in the field were designed after several meetings. Conclusions The proposed triage protocol encompasses aspects from most of the existing triage systems to create a single overarching guide for unifying the triage process. The proposed protocol can serve as a base for the designing future guidelines.

  4. Biological management of gray mold in pot roses by co-inoculation of thebiocontrol agent Ulocladium atrum and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kaare; Kristensen, Kristian; Yohalem, David;

    2009-01-01

    In pursuit of a biological disease and stress management strategy for ornamentals, a three-factorial experiment was performed to examine the effects of plant darkness stress, Ulocladium atrum and Glomus mosseae on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea and plant vigour in potted roses. While darkness......, and increased plant top dry weight. However, G. mosseae had no effect on dry weight under stress conditions. G. mosseae root colonization increased significantly when U. atrum was applied, but only under normal light conditions. In conclusion, a biological approach combining a foliar biocontrol agent...

  5. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  6. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der

    2011-01-01

    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  7. Trends in underwater warfare : From an underwater acoustics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.M.; Driessen, F.P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Technological developments concerning underwater systems for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Mine Counter Measures (MCM) are directed at optimally countering the underwater threat in the near future. Countering the existing underwater threat is already extremely difficult, but there are several tre

  8. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with the use of biologic and other investigational agents: the importance of long-term post-marketing safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Allison; Borovicka, Judy H; West, Dennis P; Evens, Andrew M; Laumann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after receiving courses of two investigational biologic agents and cyclosporine followed by more than four years of subcutaneous efalizumab for the treatment of extensive chronic plaque psoriasis. Three years later, the patient remains free of lymphoma and his psoriasis is well controlled with thrice-weekly narrow-band ultraviolet phototherapy. This case emphasizes the importance of continued long-term post-marketing safety surveillance and the early reporting of all possible serious side effects, including cancers, related to the use of any newly available product. In particular, surveillance should focus on the immunomodulating biologic agents in order to identify possible dangerous sequelae.

  9. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  10. Distinct Regions of Right Temporal Cortex Are Associated with Biological and Human-Agent Motion: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Neuropsychological Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao; Chen, Jing; Chen, Quanjing; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In human lateral temporal cortex, some regions show specific sensitivity to human motion. Here we examine whether such effects reflect a general biological-nonbiological organizational principle or a process specific to human-agent processing by comparing processing of human, animal, and tool motion in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with healthy participants and a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) study of patients with brain damage (77 stroke patients). The...

  11. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Research Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Amarilyo; Daniel E Furst; Woo, Jennifer M P; Wen Li; Henning Bliddal; Robin Christensen; Simon Tarp

    2016-01-01

    Background Sponsors that seek to commercialize new drugs apply to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which independently analyzes the raw data and reports the results on its website. Objectives This study sought to determine if there are differences between the FDA assessments and journal reports on biologic agents developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Available data on FDA-approved drugs were extracted from the website, and a systematic literature search was conduc...

  12. Biological Agents Influencing Physical Process in a Stream: A Case Study in Response to Human-Induced Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondossi, H. A.; Bienz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a case study of the Upper Williamson River, a major tributary to Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), to demonstrate illustrate the importance of biophysical interactions. The Klamath River is called 'the upside-down river' by some, due to its peculiar longitudinal profile--low-gradient at the headwaters east of the Cascade Range and steeper close to the mouth as it crosses the Cascades. The Upper Williamson River, as with other tributaries of UKL, flows through highly erodible volcanic ash (pumice) deposits of the Mazama eruption ~7,000 years ago, which created Crater Lake. There is little or no gravel in the broad, shallow alluvial valley of the River. We make the case that in this particular setting, the role of biological agents (e.g., riparian vegetation) is even more prominent than in settings with normal silica-derived sediment. Therefore, typical agricultural practices (removal of woody riparian vegetation, livestock grazing and trampling, etc.) cause rapid and severe channel response and therefore habitat degradation. However, when appropriately restored the recovery is also rapid and drastic. This spring-fed stream with few tributaries in the study area conveys relatively stable discharge, and has good water quality particularly in the upper reaches. It historically supported a population of native redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii), and the candidate species (for listing under the Endangered Species Act) Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and countless other avian species. In the late 20th Century, after decades of heavy grazing and active removal of willows from the floodplain, the River banks were nearly bare and unstable. The channel was wide, shallow, and smooth. Consequently, poor water quality, particularly high temperature rendered the stream extremely poor habitat. With controlled grazing, re-establishment of willow galleries, and addition of large woody debris (LWD) the channel has recovered to a narrower, deeper cross-section, with

  13. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  14. Droplet Reaction and Evaporation of Agents Model (DREAM). Glass model results; Sand model plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, A.R.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Agent Fate Program is generating an extensive set of quality agent fate data which is being used to develop highly accurate secondary evaporation predictive models. Models are being developed that cover a wide range of traditional chemical warfare agents deposited onto surfaces routinely found o

  15. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  16. Risks and benefits of combining immunosuppressives and biological agents in inflammatory bowel disease: is the synergy worth the risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanauer, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Since the introduction of infliximab to treat Crohn's disease, combination therapy with immunosuppressants has reduced immunogenicity, without impacting efficacy. The availability of novel anti‐TNF agents and potential combined toxicities question the risk/benefit of combination therapies.

  17. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  18. Monitoring Drug and Antidrug Levels: A Rational Approach in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Biologic Agents Who Experience Inadequate Response While Being on a Stable Biologic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mazilu

    2014-01-01

    and ETN regarding EULAR response (P=0.002 and P=0.023, DAS28 score (P=0.002 and P=0.003, and SDAI score (P=0.001 and P=0.026. Detectable biologic drug levels correlated with a better clinical response in patients experiencing their first RA inadequate response while being on a stable biologic treatment with RTX, IFX, and ETN.

  19. Progress in the Application of Biological Agents in Inlfammatory Bowel Disease%炎症性肠病生物制剂应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in traditional medicine include aminosalicylic acid, hormone and immunosuppressive agents, For some refractory inflammatory bowel disease, biological agents have important application prospects. Biological agents IBD mainly include:tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha antagonists such as infliximab, adalimumab (Inlfiximab) (Adalimumab), race trastuzumab (Certolizumab), golimumab (Golimumab), integrin antagonists such as natalizumab (Natalizumab), Weiduozhu monoclonal antibody (Vedolizumab), tyrosine kinase (JAK) antagonist (Tofacitinib), interleukin (IL) antibody, monoclonal antibody (Ustekinumab). This paper brielfy introduces the therapeutic effect and side effects of the biological agents.%炎症性肠病(IBD)传统用药包括氨基水杨酸类、激素、免疫抑制剂,而对于一些难治性炎症性肠病,生物制剂有着重要应用前景。IBD的生物制剂主要包括:肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α拮抗剂如英夫利昔单抗(Infliximab)、阿达木单抗(Adalimumab)、赛妥珠单抗(Certolizumab)、戈利木单抗(Golimumab);整合素拮抗剂如那他珠单抗(Natalizumab)、维多珠单抗(Vedolizumab);酪氨酸激酶(JAK)拮抗剂托法替尼(Tofacitinib);白细胞介素(IL)抗体优斯它单抗(Ustekinumab)。本文就上述生物制剂疗效、副作用等做简要介绍。

  20. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  1. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  3. Annihilation Prediction for Lanchester-Type Models of Modern Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G G; Taylor, J.

    1983-01-01

    Operations Research, 31, p.752. This paper introduces important new functions for analytic solution of Launch-ester-type equations of modern warfare for combat between two homogeneous forces modeled by power attrtition-rate coefficients with "no offset". Tabulations of these Lanchester-Clifford-Schlatii (or LCS) functions allow one to study this particular variable-coefficient model almost as easily and thoroughly as Lanchester's classic constant-coefficient one. LCS functions allow one ...

  4. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors an...

  5. Factors affecting the retention decisions of female surface warfare officers

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis delineates factors affecting the retention decisions of female Surface Warfare Officers. The data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with 12 female senior officers and 15 female junior officers. The transcripts from the interviews revealed 19 general themes. Based on the research, the data regarding the decisions that female officers make to either stay in the Navy or leave leads to four broad categories: economic factors, Navy taste factors., leadership factor...

  6. Biological evaluation of 99mTC cis-Pt iminoacetic acid complexes as tumour imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodistributions of three new 99mTc labelled cis-platinum bifunctional tumour imaging agents were examined in mice bearing a certain type of sarcoma between 15 minutes and 24 hours post injection. The three complexes were excreted primarily via the renal pathway into the urine but at quite different rates. All complexes had some affinity for the tumour, but complexes III had the greatest, with tumour to blood and tumour to muscle rates at 24 hours in excess of 10:1 and 18:1. Biodistribution results were calculated using Tiscon Program. Suggesting that the three complexes may be useful as tumour imaging agents. (M.E.L.)

  7. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    .... ] ACP is of particular concern since it is a carrier of Huanglongbing disease (citrus greening), which is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a... Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  8. Simulation innovation in Naval Special Warfare by utilizing small working groups

    OpenAIRE

    Rainville, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Naval Special Warfare has produced successful innovation by using small working groups. Naval Special Warfare deems an innovation successful if it results in a more efficient, less risky, more cost effective method to conduct special operations. The Quantum Leap program is an example of successful innovation in Naval Special Warfare produced by a small working group. How have these small groups been able to produce successful innovations? Michael McCaskey's Theory offers an explanation of how...

  9. Do changes in prescription practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents affect treatment response and adherence to therapy? Results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M L; Lindegaard, H M; Hansen, A;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prescription practice for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors has changed towards treating patients with lower disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the trend in treatment response in cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who started TNFalpha inhibitor...... treatment between 2000 and 2005. METHODS: 1813 patients with RA starting treatment with biological agents in 2000-5 were registered prospectively in the nationwide DANBIO Registry. Baseline disease activity and 12 months' treatment responses were determined in cohorts based on start year (2000/1; 2002; 2003...

  10. Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Amides Bearing 2,3,4,5-Tetra-hydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocine Moieties and Their Biological Evaluation as Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wen Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of caffeic acid amides D1-D17 bearing 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-[b][1,4]dioxocine units has been synthesized and their biological activities evaluated for potential antiproliferative and EGFR inhibitory activity. Of all the compounds studied, compound D9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.79 μM for HepG2 and IC50 = 0.36 μM for EGFR. The structures of compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. Among all, the structure of compound D9 ((E-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocin-8-ylacrylamide was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound D9 was found to be a potential antitumor agent according to biological activity, molecular docking, apoptosis assay and inhibition of HepG2.

  11. Inhibitors of dihydroceramide desaturase 1: Therapeutic agents and pharmacological tools to decipher the role of dihydroceramides in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasampere, Mireia; Ordoñez, Yadira F; Pou, Ana; Casas, Josefina

    2016-05-01

    Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1) is the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramides (Cer). It catalyzes the insertion of a double bond into dihydroceramides (dhCer) to convert them to Cer, both of which are further metabolized to more complex (dihydro) sphingolipids. For many years dhCer have received poor attention, mainly due to their supposed lack of biological activity. It was not until about ten years ago that the concept that dhCer might have regulatory roles in biology emerged for the first time. Since then, multiple publications have established that dhCer are implicated in a wide spectrum of biological processes. Physiological and pathophysiological functions of dhCer have been recently reviewed. In this review we will focus on the biochemical features of Des1 and on its inhibition by different compounds with presumably different modes of action.

  12. Preparation and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA folate as Potential Folate Receptor Targeting Therapeutic Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kang-Hyuk; Hong, Young-Don; Pyun, Mi-Sun; Lee, So-Young; Felipe, Fenelope; Yoon, Sun-Ha; Choi, Sun-Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Folic Acid (FA) and FA derivatives are overexpressed on several tumor cells. The cell-membrane folic acid receptors are known to be responsible for the cellular accumulation of FA and FA analogs, such as methotrexate and folic acid. Folate has been characterized to have high affinity for the folate-receptor positive cells and tissues and considered to be useful as diagnostic imaging and therapeutic agent. In 1940s, Folate analogue, aminopterin, was first used for treatment of leukemia and recently, many folate derivatives were tried for cancer-treatment agent as well as visualization of folate receptor. Many researchers tried to conjugate folic acid with macromolecules or low molecular weight chelators through its alpha or gamma carboxylate. However, despite the reduced binding affinity, FAs are still recognized by the folate receptor. Therefore, we focused to develop folate-based radiopharmaceutical that has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. We report here the synthesis and the radiolabeling of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA as well as the biodistribution data of our developed compound.

  13. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laljer, Charles E.

    2003-08-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  14. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2013 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) assessment was developed to provide...... reconfirmed. The new notifications since the last QPS update were reviewed. Gluconobacter oxydans and Alphaflexiviridae were assessed for the first time and were recommended for the QPS list. The information of the previous opinion was updated for the taxonomic units on the QPS list. Qualifications...

  15. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2011 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    agents is reviewed and updated annually. Therefore, the only valid list is the one in the most recent scientific opinion. The 2011 update reviews microorganisms previously assessed including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and viruses used for plant protection purposes and confirms the previous...... recommendations. The anamorph yeast form Phaffia rhodozyma of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was included on the QPS list and to the qualification for yeasts ‘absence of resistance to antimycotics used for medical treatment of yeast infections’, the sentence was added that ‘in the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...... this qualification applies for yeast strains able to grow above 37 °C’. The body of knowledge of filamentous fungi and enterococci was updated and their ineligibility for the QPS list confirmed....

  16. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  17. Egg Parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest, Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly invasive pest stink bug, Bagrada hilaris, threatens the cole crop industry and certain ornamentals in the U.S. Without its co-evolved natural enemies, it is likely to spread from the Southwest U.S. to the east coast, requiring millions more dollars to control it. If key biological control ...

  18. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques in Support of the Production of Biological Control Agents of Insect Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear techniques could play a vital role in enabling cost-effective mass production of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control, surprisingly little use has been made of these techniques or ionizing radiation produced by other means (e.g., x-rays or electron beams from linear accelerators) for mass rearing beneficial insects. This technology has been available for quite some time, having been used to reproductively sterilize screwworm flies as early as 1951 (Bushland and Hopkins). Similarly, gamma radiation has been accepted internationally for human food preservation and disinfestation for many years (Anon., 1995). Quite a number of gamma radiation sources exist at or near USDA ARS and APHIS facilities throughout the U.S., as well as in many universities. Still, relatively little use has been made of this approach to assist in mass rearing of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control. As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there still is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Nuclear techniques should play an increasing role in the future, as the overall thrust of biological control moves more and more toward augmentative releases (Knipling, 1992). It is the intent of this presentation to review some of the existing and potential uses that can be made of nuclear techniques and other sources of ionizing radiation in support of the biological control of insect pests. (author)

  19. Development of Laser Warning and Detection Technology for Chemical/Biological Agents%生化战剂激光侦检技术的发展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧云; 孙振海; 黄志松; 生甡; 王华; 徐卸古

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical/biological agents in terrorism and unmilitary fields induce serious impact to the public safety. Principles of laser warning and detection technology for chemical/biological agents based on Mie scattering signals, Rayleigh scattering signals, Raman scattering signals, absorption signals and laser induced fluorescence signals are described. The key technologies in the laser warning and detection system are analyzed, the laser warning and detection technology development profiles in the United States, Russia, German and France are introduced.%生化战剂在恐怖主义活动和非军事领域的非法使用对社会公共安全造成了严重的威胁.分析了基于米氏散射、瑞利散射、拉曼散射、吸收光谱和诱导荧光光谱信号的生化战剂激光侦察报警和快速检测技术的基本原理,说明了生化战剂激光侦检系统的关键技术,回顾了美、俄、德、法等国生化战剂激光侦检技术的发展情况.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 18F-FB-NGA as a hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) is a hepatic membrane receptor that uniquely exists on the surface of mammalian hepatocytes, and has been used as target of liver functional imaging agents for many years. We labeled the Galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) with 18F to get a PET molecular probe 18F-FB-NGA and evaluated its ability as a liver functional PET imaging agent. The 18F-FB-NGA was prepared with NGA by conjugation with N- succinimidyl-4-18F-fluorobenzoate (18F-SFB) and purified with PD-10 desalting column. The radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purity of 18F-FB-NGA were determined by radio-HPLC. Starting with 18F-F-, the total time for '18F-FB -NGA was about 120±310 min. The decay-corrected radiochemical yield is about 25-30%. The radiochemical purity of purified 18F-FB-NGA was more than 98%. Labeled with 185-1850 MBq 18F-SFB, the specific activity of 18F-FB- NGA was estimated to be 7.83-78.3 TBq/mmol. Biodistribution of 18F-FB-NGA in normal mice was investigated after injection through the tail vein. The results showed that the liver accumulated 39.4 7±3.42 and 12.12±6.11% ID/g at 10 and 30 min after injection, respectively. Dynamic MicroPET images in mice were acquired with and without block after injection of the radiotracer, respectively. High liver activity accumulation was observed at 5 min after injection in normal group. On the contrary, the liver accumulation was significantly lower after block, indicating the specific binding to ASGP-R. 18F-FB-NGA is probably a potential PET liver imaging agent. (authors)

  1. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rende (Italy); Amantea, Diana [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmacobiology, Rende (Italy); Saturnino, Carmela [University of Salerno, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fisciano (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals. (orig.)

  2. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits. PMID:27364042

  3. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Palak K. Parikh; Hiren M. Marvaniya; Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

    2011-01-01

    1,3,4 oxadiazole derivatives are the heterocyclic compounds with very important biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, analgesic, antimycobacterial, antidepressant and antiamoebic. 1, 3, 4 oxadiazole was synthesized by condensation reaction between 2- hydroxybenzohydrazine and carbon disulfide. This derivative on treatment with different aromatic halides produced the desired final products. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of synthesized comp...

  4. Abatacept with methotrexate versus other biologic agents in treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyot, Patricia; Taylor, Peter; Christensen, Robin;

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy in terms of Health Assessment Questionnaire change from baseline (HAQ CFB), 50% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criterion (ACR-50) and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) defined remission (<2.6) between abatacept and othe...... biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR)....

  5. Virtual fetal pig dissection as an agent of knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change in female high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Rebecca Scudari

    One way to determine if all students can learn through the use of computers is to introduce a lesson taught completely via computers and compare the results with those gained when the same lesson is taught in a traditional manner. This study attempted to determine if a virtual fetal pig dissection can be used as a viable alternative for an actual dissection for females enrolled in high school biology classes by comparing the knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change between the experimental (virtual dissection) and control (actual dissection) groups. Two hundred and twenty-four students enrolled in biology classes in a suburban all-girl parochial high school participated in this study. Female students in an all-girl high school were chosen because research shows differences in science competency and computer usage between the genders that may mask the performance of females on computer-based tasks in a science laboratory exercise. Students who completed the virtual dissection scored significantly higher on practical test and objective tests that were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Attitudinal change was measured by examining the students' attitudes toward dissections, computer usage in the classroom, and toward biology both before and after the dissections using pre and post surveys. Significant results in positive gain scores were found in the virtual dissection group's attitude toward dissections, and their negative gain score toward virtual dissections. Attitudinal changes toward computers and biology were not significant. A purposefully selected sample of the students were interviewed, in addition to gathering a sample of the students' daily dissection journals, as data highlighting their thoughts and feelings about their dissection experience. Further research is suggested to determine if a virtual laboratory experience can be a substitute for actual dissections, or may serve as an enhancement to an actual dissection.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Quinoxaline Derivatives: A Promising and Potent New Class of Antitumor and Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhabi, Aisha R; Abbas, Hebat-Allah S; Ammar, Yousry A

    2015-11-03

    In continuation of our endeavor towards the development of potent and effective anticancer and antimicrobial agents; the present work deals with the synthesis of some novel tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxalines, N-pyrazoloquinoxalines, the corresponding Schiff bases, 1,2,4-triazinoquinoxalines and 1,2,4-triazoloquinoxalines. These compounds were synthesized via the reaction of the key intermediate hydrazinoquinoxalines with various reagents and evaluated for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. The results indicated that tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline derivatives showed the best result, with the highest inhibitory effects towards the three tested tumor cell lines, which were higher than that of the reference doxorubicin and these compounds were non-cytotoxic to normal cells (IC50 values > 100 μg/mL). Also, most of synthesized compounds exhibited the highest degrees of inhibition against the tested strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria, so tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline derivatives show dual activity as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Quinoxaline Derivatives: A Promising and Potent New Class of Antitumor and Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha R. Al-Marhabi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our endeavor towards the development of potent and effective anticancer and antimicrobial agents; the present work deals with the synthesis of some novel tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxalines, N-pyrazoloquinoxalines, the corresponding Schiff bases, 1,2,4-triazinoquinoxalines and 1,2,4-triazoloquinoxalines. These compounds were synthesized via the reaction of the key intermediate hydrazinoquinoxalines with various reagents and evaluated for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. The results indicated that tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline derivatives showed the best result, with the highest inhibitory effects towards the three tested tumor cell lines, which were higher than that of the reference doxorubicin and these compounds were non-cytotoxic to normal cells (IC50 values > 100 μg/mL. Also, most of synthesized compounds exhibited the highest degrees of inhibition against the tested strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria, so tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline derivatives show dual activity as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  8. Real-Time Agent-Based Modeling Simulation with in-situ Visualization of Complex Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekhao, Nuttiiya; Shung, Caroline; JaJa, Joseph; Mongeau, Luc; Li-Jessen, Nicole Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present an efficient and scalable scheme for implementing agent-based modeling (ABM) simulation with In Situ visualization of large complex systems on heterogeneous computing platforms. The scheme is designed to make optimal use of the resources available on a heterogeneous platform consisting of a multicore CPU and a GPU, resulting in minimal to no resource idle time. Furthermore, the scheme was implemented under a client-server paradigm that enables remote users to visualize and analyze simulation data as it is being generated at each time step of the model. Performance of a simulation case study of vocal fold inflammation and wound healing with 3.8 million agents shows 35× and 7× speedup in execution time over single-core and multi-core CPU respectively. Each iteration of the model took less than 200 ms to simulate, visualize and send the results to the client. This enables users to monitor the simulation in real-time and modify its course as needed. PMID:27547508

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of scutellarein carbamate derivatives as potential multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Zhi-Pei; Qiang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Yan; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Deng, Yong

    2015-11-01

    A series of scutellarein carbamate derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the multitarget-directed drug design strategy for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, antioxidant activities, metals chelation, and neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced PC12 cell injury were evaluated in vitro. The preliminary results indicated that compound 7b exhibited good inhibitory potency toward AChE and BuChE with IC50 values of 1.2 ± 0.03 μm and 22.1 ± 0.15 μm, respectively, possessed the strong antioxidant potency (10.3 trolox equivalents), as well as acted as a selective metal chelator and neuroprotective agent. Furthermore, 7b could improve memory impairment induced by scopolamine, ethanol, and sodium nitrite using the step-down passive avoidance task in vivo and could remarkably decrease the activity of acetylcholinesterase in mice brain. This study indicated that 7b could be considered as a potential multitarget agent against AD.

  10. Lab-on-a-chip for rapid electrochemical detection of nerve agent Sarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Nguyen, Nam-Trung;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a lab-on-a-chip for the detection of Sarin nerve agent based on rapid electrochemical detection. The chemical warfare agent Sarin (C4H10FO2P, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a highly toxic organophosphate that induces rapid respiratory depression, seizures and death w...

  11. A process-based model of soil structure to assess the impact of biological agents, climate and reduced tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteulx, Alexis; Pérès, Guénola; Wolf, Cédric; Hallaire, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    Soil structure can be defined as the spatial arrangement of voids and solids in soil. It is a dynamic soil property due to agents' activity such as (i) mechanical action of soil tillage (ii) earthworms through their burrowing activity and faeces production and (iii) climate impact due to rain or temperature. Soil structure is often studied because of its impacts on soil functional properties, e.g. water percolation, soil water conductivity. In a context of farming practices shift towards non-ploughing techniques, it is needed to evaluate impacts on soil structure and consequently on its functional properties. Existing models have adopted two strategies to simulate soil structure: (i) to use of measured parameters to adjust a theoretical model or (ii) to build a soil structure by simulating processes that are its base. The first strategy does not deal with the difficulty to access soil structure by itself because input measured parameters are needed. The second one starts from either a virgin structure or a structure coming from strategy (i). This starting structure is then altered according to one structuring agent. At present, there is a need for such dynamic models of soil structure. They must be explicit (3D) and common for a large set of structuring agents too. They must also deal with several issues: e.g. to memorize the many voids and solids building up the soil structure or the need to be fast enough to simulate soil structure dynamics for a month, a year, etc. A first proposal, based on the strong assumption that soil is fractal, was made by Marilleau et al. (2008). In our model three structuring agents were chosen: tillage, earthworm's activity and solid particles settlement due to climate. It first focuses on the building of a computerized soil structure which is a common base to simulate the agents. It aims at being as generic as possible by using an object-oriented structure. The concept of voxel is used to split the soil into elementary units and each

  12. Research Progress of Biological Agents in the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus%生物技术药物治疗系统性红斑狼疮的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立偲; 田浤; 高向东; 何书英

    2014-01-01

    系统性红斑狼疮是一种侵犯身体多脏器的典型的自体免疫疾病,对人体危害极大。严重肾脏受累的系统性红斑狼疮患者如果不给予适当治疗会进展到末期肾病,甚至死亡。系统性红斑狼疮的治疗是现今研究关注的热点。现有的激素治疗由于副作用以及对病程恶化无显著改善而限制了其临床应用。生物技术药物因其良好的靶向性为治疗系统性红斑狼疮提供了新的思路,其安全性和有效性已在临床试验中证明。本文对生物技术药物用于治疗系统性红斑狼疮的研究作一综述。%This paper aims to review the current development of therapies of systemic lupus erythe-matosus (SLE) based on biological agents. The conventional immunosuppressive therapies such as azathio-prine, cyclophosphamide and ormethotrexate reduce disease activity and improves the patients' general health conditions. However, these treatments have possible side effects. According to domestic and foreign literatures, new developed biological agents against SLE are summarized as follows: biologic agents that block B-cell activation; biologic agents that induce tolerance; biologic agents that induce antibody targeting IFN; biologic agents that target anti-dsDNA, Antigen-Based Heteropolymer. From these results it could be concluded that biological agents open a new path for the treatment of SLE.

  13. Electronic Warfare Simulation-based on Service Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nanda Kishore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of service oriented architecture (SOA is embodied in the accomplishments of various simulation applicable functions in the form of service encapsulation and the interconnection and interoperation of services. In this paper, an electronic warfare (EW simulation is structured to SOA and achieved the effect of dynamic sharing and reusability. As a proof of concept, a radar electronic support (ES simulator, which intercepts and classifies radar signals is designed and explained in this paper.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(4, pp.219-222, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.929

  14. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN LAND WARFARE; THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Jacobs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bellamy is 'n senior navorser verbonde aan die Sentrum vir Verdedigingstudies, Universiteit van Edinburgh. Sy akademiese opleiding sluit 'n MA-graad in Oorlogstudies aan die King's College in Londen in. Afgesien hiervan was hy ook 'n beroepsoldaat wat sy militêre skoling in die Koninklike Militêre Akademie te Sandhurst deurloop het. Hy het ook in die Britse Artillerie gedien. Bellamy is die skrywer van Red God of War: Soviet Artillery and Rocket Forces en The Future of Land Warfare.

  16. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  17. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings; recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Penny J; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V; Gross, Jonathan; Henderson, D A; O'Toole, Tara; Ahern-Seronde, Joa; Bahnfleth, William P; Brennan, Terry; Burroughs, H E Barney; Davidson, Cliff; Delp, William; Ensor, David S; Gomory, Ralph; Olsiewski, Paula; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, William M; Streifel, Andrew J; White, Ronald H; Woods, James E

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of biological attacks is a growing strategic threat. Covert aerosol attacks inside a building are of particular concern. In the summer of 2005, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center convened a Working Group to determine what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of exposure of building occupants after an aerosol release of a biological weapon. The Working Group was composed of subject matter experts in air filtration, building ventilation and pressurization, air conditioning and air distribution, biosecurity, building design and operation, building decontamination and restoration, economics, medicine, public health, and public policy. The group focused on functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in commercial or public buildings that could reduce the risk of exposure to deleterious aerosols following biological attacks. The Working Group's recommendations for building owners are based on the use of currently available, off-the-shelf technologies. These recommendations are modest in expense and could be implemented immediately. It is also the Working Group's judgment that the commitment and stewardship of a lead government agency is essential to secure the necessary financial and human resources and to plan and build a comprehensive, effective program to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings.

  18. Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, J M

    2009-07-01

    Advances in genetics may soon make possible the development of ethnic bioweapons that target specific ethnic or racial groups based upon genetic markers. While occasional published reports of such research generate public outrage, little has been written about the ethical distinction (if any) between the development of such weapons and ethnically neutral bioweapons. The purpose of this paper is to launch a debate on the subject of ethnic bioweapons before they become a scientific reality. PMID:19567692

  19. Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 99mTc- TMPP as a Novel Agent for Tumor Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TMPP( 5,10,15, 20 tetrakis (4-methoxyphenyl) 21 H, 23 H porphyrin) was labeled with technetium - 99m via direct labeling technique using stannous chloride as a reducing agent. The optimum conditions that gave high labeling yield (95.2%) of 99mTc- TMPP complex were achieved by using 3 mg TMPP, 100 μ gSnCl2 .2H2O, at ph 3 and 30 min reaction time. Accumulation of 99mTc-TMPP complex was studied in tumor bearing mice. After intravenous injection of 99mTc-TMPP complex, tumor radioactivity uptake was high compared to normal muscle uptake and it was 7.76 folds after 30 min. Tumor to blood ratio was 2.36 after 30 min

  20. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.