WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological trojan horse

  1. Delivery of Biologics Across the Blood-Brain Barrier with Molecular Trojan Horse Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2017-12-01

    Biologics are potential new therapeutics for many diseases of the central nervous system. Biologics include recombinant lysosomal enzymes, neurotrophins, decoy receptors, and therapeutic antibodies. These are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). All classes of biologics have been tested, without success, in clinical trials of brain disease over the last 25 years. In none of these past clinical trials was the biologic re-engineered to enable transport across the BBB. If the biologic does not cross the BBB, the drug cannot reach the target site in brain, and success in a clinical trial is not expected. Biologics can be re-engineered for BBB transport with the use of molecular Trojan horse technology. A BBB molecular Trojan horse is a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against an endogenous BBB receptor transporter, such as the insulin receptor or transferrin receptor. The receptor-specific MAb penetrates the brain via transport on the endogenous BBB receptor. The MAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to deliver across the BBB the biologic pharmaceutical that is genetically fused to the MAb. The lead Trojan horse is a MAb against the human insulin receptor (HIR), and HIRMAb-derived fusion proteins have entered clinical trials for the treatment of brain disease.

  2. 'Trojan Horse" Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Poddiakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced strategic behavior, which we term, “Trojan horse” teaching (ThT, is described. In this type of counteractive behavior, a “teacher”, ostensibly helping his or her rival to learn something, really teaches the rival useless or disadvantageous things. This interaction is an object of interdisciplinary research related to the theory of human capital, the theory of agency, knowledge management, the theory of conflict, and to social and educational psychology. Examples of ThT in real life, and results of experiential studies, including the administration of a survey concerning people’s beliefs about teaching “with evil intent”, and a set of experiments with participation of adults and children, have been described. Possible directions of artificial intelligence systems development related to ThT are described. General relations between: (a counteraction to learning, and (b development in spite of the counteraction are discussed.

  3. [Exosome: Trojan horse in immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Dan-Lei; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Bai, Xue-Fan

    2005-04-01

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles that are secreted by a multitude of eukaryocytes as a consequence of fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes can play critical roles in different physiological processes depending on their origins. Exosomes secreted from professional antigen-presenting cells are enriched in MHC class I and II complexes, costimulatory molecules, hsp 70 and hsp 90 chaperones, therefore exosomes, like Trojan horse, are of importance of immunoregulation in vivo and in vitro. The review will present current trends of research on the fundamental properties, production and purification of exosomes, and will focus on their implementation in cancer and virus immunotherapy as a novel cell-free peptide-based vaccine.

  4. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A

    2003-05-19

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U{sub e} was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments.

  5. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; del Zoppo, A.; di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanić, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2003-05-01

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential Ue was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments.

  6. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U e was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments

  7. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...ml) Show Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID ...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses

  8. Trojan Horses or Local Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Jakob; Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    . On the negative side, we argue that these characteristics of HCNs can potentially be used to the harm of a foreign MNC. We analyze how formal and informal institutions affect the trade-off between positive effects and the potential costs associated with HCN managers (“Local allies” vs. “Trojan horses”). We find...... that legal institutions protect foreign MNCs from potential costs, encourage the use of HCNs and reinforce their benefits. Corruption and corruption distance, however, increase perceived costs associated with HCN managers up to a point, at which they outweigh their benefits. Our results suggest...

  9. Trojan Horses or Local Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Jakob; Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.

    2017-01-01

    , and higher legitimacy. Yet, we argue that local familiarity of HCNs can also be perceived as risky or harmful by MNC parents. We analyze how formal and informal institutions affect the trade-off between positive effects and potential costs associated with HCN managers (“Local allies” vs. “Trojan horses”). We...... find that legal institutions protect foreign MNCs from potential costs, encourage the use of HCNs and reinforce their benefits. Corruption and corruption distance, however, increase perceived costs associated with HCN managers up to a point at which they outweigh their perceived benefits....

  10. Transferrin trojan horses as a rational approach for the biological delivery of therapeutic peptide domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S A; Joao, H C; Hammerschmid, F; Eder, J; Steinkasserer, A

    1999-08-20

    One novel approach for the biological delivery of peptide drugs is to incorporate the sequence of the peptide into the structure of a natural transport protein, such as human serum transferrin. To examine whether this is feasible, a peptide sequence cleavable by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (VSQNYPIVL) was inserted into various regions of human serum transferrin, and the resultant proteins were tested for function. Experimentally, molecular modeling was used to identify five candidate insertion sites in surface exposed loops of human serum transferrin that were distant from biologically active domains. These insertions were cloned using polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis, and the proteins were expressed using a baculovirus expression vector system. Analysis of the mutant proteins provided a number of important findings: (a) they retained native human serum transferrin function, (b) the inserted peptide sequence was surface exposed, and most importantly, (c) two of these mutants could be cleaved by human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease. In conclusion, this investigation has validated the use of human serum transferrin as a carrier protein for functional peptide domains introduced into its structure using protein engineering. These findings will be useful for developing a novel class of therapeutic agents for a broad spectrum of diseases.

  11. Biological Trojan horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fexby, Sara; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, P. Ø.

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a versatile pathogen causing millions of infections in humans every year. This bacterium can form multicellular aggregates when it expresses a self-associating protein, antigen 43 (Ag43), on its surface. We have discovered that Ag43-expressing E. coli cells are efficiently tak...

  12. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In stars nuclear reactions take place at physical conditions that make very hard their measurements in terrestrial laboratories. Indeed in astrophysical environments nuclear reactions between charged nuclei occur at energies much lower than the Coulomb barrier and the corresponding cross section values lie in the nano or picobarn regime, that makes their experimental determination extremely difficult. This is due to the very small barrier Coulomb penetration factor, which produces an exponential fall off of the cross section as a function of energy. Additionally, the presence of the electron screening needs to be properly taken into account when dealing with cross section measurements at low-energies. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents an independent experimental technique, allowing one to measure astrophysical S(E)-factor bared from both Coulomb penetration and electron screening effects. The main advantages and the most recent results are here shown and discussed.

  13. Primordial nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzone R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN requires several nuclear physics inputs and nuclear reaction rates. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,pt, d(d,n3He and 3He(d,p4He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S(E-factor. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN (0.01

  14. Coding as a Trojan Horse for Mathematics Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The history of mathematics educational reform is replete with innovations taken up enthusiastically by early adopters without significant transfer to other classrooms. This paper explores the coupling of coding and mathematics education to create the possibility that coding may serve as a Trojan Horse for mathematics education reform. That is,…

  15. At the origins of the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    During the seventies and eighties a long experimental research program on the quasi-free reactions at low energy was carried out by a small group of nuclear physicists, where Claudio Spitaleri was one of the main protagonists. Nowadays, a posteriori, the results of these studies can be considered an essential step preparatory to the application of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) in Nuclear Astrophysics.

  16. Trojan Horse Method for neutrons-induced reaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, M.; Asfin Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Neutron-induced reactions play an important role in nuclear astrophysics in several scenario, such as primordial Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, heavy-element production during the weak component of the s-process, explosive stellar nucleosynthesis. To overcome the experimental problems arising from the production of a neutron beam, the possibility to use the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron-induced reactions has been investigated. The application is of particular interest for reactions involving radioactive nuclei having short lifetime.

  17. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.

  18. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each immunotoxin consists of two components an antibody and a toxin that are fused together. The custom-designed antibody acts as a homing signal, seeking out a specific target present on the surface of cancer cells. When the antibody binds its target, the whole immunotoxin is brought inside the cell. Unwittingly, the cancer cell has exposed itself to a powerful poison, a mistake that will likely condemn it to death.

  19. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  20. A trojan horse for human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catuogno, Silvia; Esposito, Carla Lucia; de Franciscis, Vittorio

    2015-03-19

    In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Zhou et al. demonstrate the possibility of effective multiple targeting of HIV infection by using a multifunctional molecule in which an anti-CCR5 receptor aptamer (G-3) is conjugated to an anti-TNPO3 siRNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Technique for Removing an Important Class of Trojan Horses from High-Order Languages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDermott, John

    1988-01-01

    .... The Trojan horse Thompson described is a form of virus (i.e., it is self-reproducing), but it has other characteristics that differentiate it from viruses that exploit the implementation details of a computer system...

  2. Trojan horse attacks on counterfactual quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiuqing, E-mail: xqqyang@163.com [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Sun, Shihai, E-mail: shsun@nudt.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Du, Yungang [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wu, Lingan [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2016-04-22

    There has been much interest in “counterfactual quantum cryptography” (T.-G. Noh, 2009 [10]). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes. - Highlights: • We find the attacks available for the two-way protocol become possible for the practical counterfactual systems. • It does not require the assumption that it works on the counterfactual systems only in a finite key scenario. • Compared to the other attack models, our scheme is relatively simple for an eavesdropper.

  3. Trojan horse at cellular level for tumor gene therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Guillaume; Grillon, Catherine; Nadim, Mahdi; Kieda, Claudine

    2013-08-10

    Among innovative strategies developed for cancer treatments, gene therapies stand of great interest despite their well-known limitations in targeting, delivery, toxicity or stability. The success of any given gene-therapy is highly dependent on the carrier efficiency. New approaches are often revisiting the mythic trojan horse concept to carry therapeutic nucleic acid, i.e. DNAs, RNAs or small interfering RNAs, to pathologic tumor site. Recent investigations are focusing on engineering carrying modalities to overtake the above limitations bringing new promise to cancer patients. This review describes recent advances and perspectives for gene therapies devoted to tumor treatment, taking advantage of available knowledge in biotechnology and medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Forrest, Heather L; Webster, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    Wild ducks are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to domestic poultry and mammals, including humans. Of the 16 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses, only the H5 and H7 subtypes cause highly pathogenic (HP) influenza in the natural hosts. Several duck species are naturally resistant to HP Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. These duck species can shed and spread virus from both the respiratory and intestinal tracts while showing few or no disease signs. While the HP Asian H5N1 viruses are 100% lethal for chickens and other gallinaceous poultry, the absence of disease signs in some duck species has led to the concept that ducks are the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 in their surreptitious spread of virus. An important unresolved issue is whether the HP H5N1 viruses are maintained in the wild duck population of the world. Here, we review the ecology and pathobiology of ducks infected with influenza A viruses and ducks' role in the maintenance and spread of HP H5N1 viruses. We also identify the key questions about the role of ducks that must be resolved in order to understand the emergence and control of pandemic influenza. It is generally accepted that wild duck species can spread HP H5N1 viruses, but there is insufficient evidence to show that ducks maintain these viruses and transfer them from one generation to the next.

  5. DNA Trojan Horses: Self-Assembled Floxuridine-Containing DNA Polyhedra for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Quanbing; Ma, Yuan; Pan, Gaifang; Xue, Bai; Yan, Deyue; Zhang, Chuan; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2017-10-02

    Based on their structural similarity to natural nucleobases, nucleoside analogue therapeutics were integrated into DNA strands through conventional solid-phase synthesis. By elaborately designing their sequences, floxuridine-integrated DNA strands were synthesized and self-assembled into well-defined DNA polyhedra with definite drug-loading ratios as well as tunable size and morphology. As a novel drug delivery system, these drug-containing DNA polyhedra could ideally mimic the Trojan Horse to deliver chemotherapeutics into tumor cells and fight against cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the DNA Trojan horse with buckyball architecture exhibits superior anticancer capability over the free drug and other formulations. With precise control over the drug-loading ratio and structure of the nanocarriers, the DNA Trojan horse may play an important role in anticancer treatment and exhibit great potential in translational nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Mahir S. [DCTA, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, C. P. 72012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C. P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

  7. A Trojan Horse Approach to the Production of {sup 18}F in Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); José, J. [Departament de Física, EEBE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hernanz, M., E-mail: lacognata@lns.infn.it [Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    Crucial information on nova nucleosynthesis can be potentially inferred from γ -ray signals powered by {sup 18}F decay. Therefore, the reaction network producing and destroying this radioactive isotope has been extensively studied in the last years. Among those reactions, the {sup 18}F(p, α ){sup 15}O cross-section has been measured by means of several dedicated experiments, both using direct and indirect methods. The presence of interfering resonances in the energy region of astrophysical interest has been reported by many authors including the recent applications of the Trojan Horse Method. In this work, we evaluate what changes are introduced by the Trojan Horse data in the {sup 18}F(p, α ){sup 15}O astrophysical factor recommended in a recent R-matrix analysis, accounting for existing direct and indirect measurements. Then the updated reaction rate is calculated and parameterized and implications of the new results on nova nucleosynthesis are thoroughly discussed.

  8. Effectiveness of using a magnetic spectrograph with the Trojan Horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, S.; Parikh, A.; Chen, A. A.; de Séréville, N.; Adsley, P.; Irvine, D.; Hammache, F.; Stefan, I.; Longland, R. F.; Tomlinson, J.; Morfuace, P.; Le Crom, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method relies on performing reactions in a specific kinematic phase space that maximizes contributions of a quasi-free reaction mechanism. The hallmark of this method is that the incident particle can be accelerated to high enough energies to overcome the Coulomb barrier of the target, but once inside the target nucleus the relative motion of the clustered nuclei allows the reaction of interest to proceed at energies below this Coulomb Barrier. This method allows the experimentalist to probe reactions that have significance in astrophysics at low reaction energies that would otherwise be impossible due to the vanishing cross section. Traditionally the Trojan Horse method has been applied with the use of silicon detectors to observe the reaction products. In this study we apply the Trojan Horse method to a well studied reaction to examine the potential benefits of using a splitpole magnetic spectrograph to detect one of the reaction products. We have measure the three body 7Li(d,αn)α reaction to constrain the energy 7Li(d,α)α cross section. Measurements were first made using two silicon detectors, and then by replacing one detector with the magnetic spectrograph. The experimental design, limitations, and early results are discussed.

  9. The eighth mystery of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the "Trojan horse' mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlander, S R

    1996-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors produce in acquired immune deficiency virus patients a decrease in both existing and new human immunodeficiency virus accompanied by an increase in CD4+ T cells. Yet these inhibitors are not capable of destroying existing human immunodeficiency virus. Thus human immunodeficiency virus cannot explain this 'eighth' mystery, nor can it explain the destruction of five times more CD4+ T cells than the plasma human immunodeficiency virus, either by apoptosis, by reduction in the half-life of human immunodeficiency virus, or by inducing killer cells. It is proposed that the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (and the reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside inhibitor Nevirapine) inhibit the sperm's proteases which then produces: (1) a reduction in existing human immunodeficiency virus by causing an increase in CD8+ T cells; (2) a reduction in new human immunodeficiency virus by inhibiting the activity of the 'Trojan horse' sperm, and (3) an increase in CD4+ T cells by a reduction in the ability of the sperm's proteases to cause apoptosis. The protection of the human immunodeficiency virus genetic material inside the "Trojan horse' sperm produces a steady-state, rapid turnover of human immunodeficiency virus. Thus the body's immune system, although capable of quickly destroying human immunodeficiency virus, can only dramatically destroy the offspring released into the plasma from sperm-infected T cells and is unable to destroy the source of human immunodeficiency virus, the "Trojan horse' sperm.

  10. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

  11. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: use of a ligand-lytic peptide for selective destruction of symbiotic protozoa within termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a 'Trojan-Horse' that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates.

  12. The Trojan Horse Method Applied to the Astrophysically Relevant Proton Capture Reactions on Li Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Bonomo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2005-12-01

    The 7Li(p,α)4He 6Li(d,α)4He and 6Li(p,α)3He reactions was performed and studied in the framework of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the d(7Li,αα)n, 6Li(6Li,αα)4He and d(6Li,α3He)n three-body reactions respectively. Their bare astrophysical S-factors were extracted and from the comparison with the behavior of the screened direct data, an independent estimate of the screening potential was obtained.

  13. A Trojan Horse mechanism for the spread of visna virus in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, R; Haase, A; Stowring, L; Edwards, M; Ventura, P

    1985-11-01

    Visna virus is the prototype of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses that cause slow infections of sheep and goats. These viruses persist and can be isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid for years despite neutralizing antibody. In the studies reported here we have used quantitative in situ hybridization to analyze infected leukocytes. We show that (1) monocytes harbor the visna genome; and (2) virus gene expression is as constrained in this cell as it is in glial and epithelial cells. These results are in accord with a Trojan Horse mechanism of virus dissemination in an immunologically responsive host.

  14. A Trojan horse for positivism?: a critique of mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2007-01-01

    Mixed methods research is captured by a pragmatically inflected form of postpositivism. Although it passes for an alternative methodological movement that purports to breach the divide between qualitative and quantitative research, most mixed methods studies favor the forms of analysis and truth finding associated with positivism. We anticipate a move away from exploring more philosophical questions or undertaking modes of enquiry that challenge the status quo. At the same time, we recognize that mixed methods research offers particular strengths and that, although it serves as a Trojan Horse for positivism, it may productively carry other paradigmatic passengers.

  15. %22Trojan Horse%22 strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sinclair, Michael B.; Yu, Eizadora; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Hadi, Masood Z.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multiagency national priority (DOE/USDA/EERE). Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology-engineered plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes. Deconstruction can then be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The unique aspects of our approach are the rationally engineered enzymes which become Trojan horses during pretreatment conditions. During this study we rationally engineered Cazy enzymes and then integrated them into plant cells by multiple transformation techniques. The regenerated plants were assayed for first expression of these messages and then for the resulting proteins. The plants were then subjected to consolidated bioprocessing and characterized in detail. Our results and possible implications of this work on developing

  16. Taming the Trojan horse: optimizing dynamic carrier cell/oncolytic virus systems for cancer biotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, A T; Bell, J C

    2008-05-01

    Live cells offer unique advantages as vehicles for systemic oncolytic virus (OV) delivery. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have shown that virus-infected cells can serve as Trojan horse vehicles to evade antiviral mechanisms encountered in the bloodstream, prevent uptake by off-target tissues and act as microscale factories to produce OV upon arrival in tumor beds. However to be employed effectively, OV-infected cells are best viewed as dynamic biological systems rather than static therapeutic agents. The time-dependent processes of infection and in vivo cell trafficking will inevitably vary depending on which particular OV is being delivered, as well as the type of carrier cells (CC) employed. Understanding these parameters with respect to each unique CC/OV combination will therefore be required in order to effectively evaluate and harness their potential in preclinical study. In the following review, we discuss how early studies of OV delivery led us to investigate the use of cell carriers in our laboratory, and the approaches we are currently undertaking to compare the dynamics of different CC/OV systems. On the basis of these studies and others it is apparent that the success of any cell-based system for OV delivery rests upon the coordinated timing of three sequential phases--(1) ex vivo loading, (2) stealth delivery and (3) virus production at the tumor site. While at the current time, the timing of these processes are coupled to the natural cycle of infection and in vivo trafficking properties innate to each cell virus system, a quantitative delineation of their dynamics will lay the foundation for engineering CC/OV biotherapeutic systems that can be clinically deployed in a highly directed and controlled manner.

  17. Wolbachia: The selfish Trojan Horse in dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M S; Rastogi, V; Gupta, R K; Jain, S; Singh, P M P; Gupta, A

    2016-10-01

    Dengue fever has re-emerged as a major public health challenge. Of late, several promising attempts have been made to control the disease with limited success. An innovative method of biological control of dengue is the use of the bacterium Wolbachia . Selected strains of Wolbachia have been introduced into Aedes aegypti to prevent transmission of dengue viruses by the vector. Wolbachia prevents dengue transmission by either directly blocking the virus or by decreasing the lifespan of the vector. The mechanism by which it causes these effects is not clearly understood. The main concern of this technique is the emergence of a new dengue virus serotype which may evade the protection offered by Wolbachia . The technique is environment friendly and holds promise for control of other vector borne diseases.

  18. Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Zhou Hongyu; Zhang Zhanjun

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the security of the multiparty quantum secret sharing (MQSS) protocol recently proposed by Zhang, Li, and Man [Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005)] and found that this protocol is secure for any other eavesdropper except for the agent Bob who prepares the quantum signals as he can attack the quantum communication with a Trojan horse. That is, Bob replaces the single-photon signal with a multiphoton one and the other agent Charlie cannot find this cheating as she does not measure the photons before they run back from the boss Alice, which reveals that this MQSS protocol is not secure for Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of the MQSS protocol security with two single-photon measurements and four unitary operations

  19. Social evolution in micro-organisms and a Trojan horse approach to medical intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam P; West, Stuart A; Diggle, Stephen P; Griffin, Ashleigh S

    2009-11-12

    Medical science is typically pitted against the evolutionary forces acting upon infective populations of bacteria. As an alternative strategy, we could exploit our growing understanding of population dynamics of social traits in bacteria to help treat bacterial disease. In particular, population dynamics of social traits could be exploited to introduce less virulent strains of bacteria, or medically beneficial alleles into infective populations. We discuss how bacterial strains adopting different social strategies can invade a population of cooperative wild-type, considering public good cheats, cheats carrying medically beneficial alleles (Trojan horses) and cheats carrying allelopathic traits (anti-competitor chemical bacteriocins or temperate bacteriophage viruses). We suggest that exploitation of the ability of cheats to invade cooperative, wild-type populations is a potential new strategy for treating bacterial disease.

  20. A "Trojan horse" bispecific-antibody strategy for broad protection against ebolaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wec, Anna Z; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Herbert, Andrew S; Howell, Katie A; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Bakken, Russell R; Mittler, Eva; Christin, John R; Shulenin, Sergey; Jangra, Rohit K; Bharrhan, Sushma; Kuehne, Ana I; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Flyak, Andrew I; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Crowe, James E; Aman, M Javad; Dye, John M; Lai, Jonathan R; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-10-21

    There is an urgent need for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies that broadly protect against Ebola virus and other filoviruses. The conserved, essential interaction between the filovirus glycoprotein, GP, and its entry receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides an attractive target for such mAbs but is shielded by multiple mechanisms, including physical sequestration in late endosomes. Here, we describe a bispecific-antibody strategy to target this interaction, in which mAbs specific for NPC1 or the GP receptor-binding site are coupled to a mAb against a conserved, surface-exposed GP epitope. Bispecific antibodies, but not parent mAbs, neutralized all known ebolaviruses by coopting viral particles themselves for endosomal delivery and conferred postexposure protection against multiple ebolaviruses in mice. Such "Trojan horse" bispecific antibodies have potential as broad antifilovirus immunotherapeutics. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Desferrioxamine-cadmium as a 'Trojan horse' for the delivery of Cd to bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Ana Luiza Costa; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo; de Couto, Ricardo Alexandre Alves; Pinto, Delia Manuela Luna; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2013-04-01

    Molecules naturally designed for the acquisition of essential metals can be used as a shuttle to deliver toxic metal ions to target organisms. In this study, we describe for the first time the synthesis of a derivative of cadmium and desferrioxamine B, a bacterial siderophore. The new compound was characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopy, mass coupled thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction methods. Studies on the in vitro toxicity toward a fungus and two bacterial strains indicated that the coordination compound is more active against microrganisms than cadmium chloride on a Cd-concentration basis, indicating that desferrioxamine can work as a "Trojan horse" in the delivery of a toxic metal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun

    2016-08-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).

  3. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hong-Xin; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Chou Chun

    2016-01-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. (paper)

  4. The tale of a Trojan horse or the quest for market access? China and the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Van Kerckhoven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, China finally joined the WTO. The accession of China was looked forward to by many WTO members and China itself. However, observers had some fears that the Chinese accession would prove to be a Trojan horse, disrupting the working of the WTO. This paper looks into the Chinese accession and its involvement in the WTO Dispute Settlement and argues that these fears seem so far to be unfounded.

  5. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as a Trojan horse: A cellular vehicle for the delivery of oncolytic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ming; Chen, Shu-Hsia

    2013-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses can be efficiently and selectively delivered to neoplastic lesions by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Importantly, the loading of viruses onto MDSCs inhibited their immunosuppressive properties and endowed them with immunostimulatory and tumoricidal functions. Our study demonstrates the potential use of MDSCs as a Trojan horse for the tumor-targeted delivery of various anticancer therapeutics.

  6. A Framework for Modelling Trojans and Computer Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Thimbleby, H.; Anderson, S.; Cairns, P.

    1998-01-01

    It is not possible to view a computer operating in the real world, including the possibility of Trojan horse programs and computer viruses, as simply a finite realisation of a Turing machine. We consider the actions of Trojan horses and viruses in real computer systems and suggest a minimal framework for an adequate formal understanding of the phenomena. Some conventional approaches, including biological metaphors, are shown to be inadequate; some suggestions are made towards constructing vir...

  7. Trojan Horse cross section measurements and their impact on primordial nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Bertulani, C.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tumino, A.

    2018-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) nucleosynthesis requires several nuclear physics inputs and, among them, an important role is played by nuclear reaction rates. They are among the most important input for a quantitative description of the early Universe. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,p)t, d(d,n)3He and 3He(d,p)4He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S(E)-factor. The result of these recent measurements is reviewed and compared with the available direct data. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN (0.01date reaction rate compilations. Their value were therefore used as input physics for primordial nucleosynthesis calculations in order to evaluate their impact on the calculated primordial abundances of D, 3,4He and 7Li. These ones were then compared with the observational primordial abundance estimates in different astrophysical sites. A comparison was also performed with calculations using other reaction rates compilations available in literature.

  8. Dendritic Cells Expressing Plasmacytoid Marker PDCA-1 Are Trojan Horses during Toxoplasma gondii Infection1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierly, Allison L.; Shufesky, William J.; Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Morelli, Adrian E.; Denkers, Eric Y.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection, due largely to their ability to produce large quantities of type I IFNs. These cells are also notable for their ability to differentiate into conventional dendritic cells after appropriate stimulation. Here, we show that a splenic population of murine CD11c+ cells expressing pDC markers Gr-1, B220, and PDCA-1 is preferentially parasitized after infection with the virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Although these markers are closely associated with pDCs, the population we identified was unusual because the cells express CD11b and higher than expected levels of CD11c. By adoptive transfer of CD45.1-positive cells into CD45.2 congenic mice, we show that CD11c+Gr-1+ cells migrate from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen. During infection, these cells accumulate in the marginal zone region. Recruitment of infected CD11c+Gr-1+ cells to the spleen is partially dependent upon signaling through chemokine receptor CCR2. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrates that infected, but not noninfected, splenic CD11c+Gr-1+ dendritic cells are suppressed in their ability to respond to ex vivo TLR stimulation. We hypothesize that Toxoplasma exploits pDCs as Trojan horses, targeting them for early infection, suppressing their cytokine effector function, and using them for dissemination within the host. PMID:19050266

  9. Dendritic cells expressing plasmacytoid marker PDCA-1 are Trojan horses during Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierly, Allison L; Shufesky, William J; Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Morelli, Adrian E; Denkers, Eric Y

    2008-12-15

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection, due largely to their ability to produce large quantities of type I IFNs. These cells are also notable for their ability to differentiate into conventional dendritic cells after appropriate stimulation. Here, we show that a splenic population of murine CD11c(+) cells expressing pDC markers Gr-1, B220, and PDCA-1 is preferentially parasitized after infection with the virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Although these markers are closely associated with pDCs, the population we identified was unusual because the cells express CD11b and higher than expected levels of CD11c. By adoptive transfer of CD45.1-positive cells into CD45.2 congenic mice, we show that CD11c(+)Gr-1(+) cells migrate from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen. During infection, these cells accumulate in the marginal zone region. Recruitment of infected CD11c(+)Gr-1(+) cells to the spleen is partially dependent upon signaling through chemokine receptor CCR2. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrates that infected, but not noninfected, splenic CD11c(+)Gr-1(+) dendritic cells are suppressed in their ability to respond to ex vivo TLR stimulation. We hypothesize that Toxoplasma exploits pDCs as Trojan horses, targeting them for early infection, suppressing their cytokine effector function, and using them for dissemination within the host.

  10. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Günther; Raftery, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently establishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZV to evade the antiviral immune response. Thus, DCs represent the immune systems' Achilles heel. Uniquely among the human herpesviruses, VZV infects both DCs and T cells, and exploits both as Trojan horses. During primary infection VZV-infected DCs traffic to the draining lymph nodes and tonsils, where the virus is transferred to T cells. VZV-infected T cells subsequently spread infection throughout the body to give the typical varicella skin rash. The delicate interplay between VZV and DCs and its consequences for viral immune evasion and viral dissemination will be discussed in this article.

  11. Macrophage activation and HIV infection: can the Trojan horse turn into a fortress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbein, G; Coaquette, A; Perez-Bercoff, D; Pancino, G

    2002-12-01

    Macrophages are infected early during HIV infection and are thought to play the role of a Trojan horse by spreading infection in tissues. Most recent studies point out to a more complex role for macrophages in HIV infection: macrophages could contribute to both host defense and viral persistence and pathogenesis. Infected macrophages are a reservoir for HIV and modulate apoptosis of T cells present in their vicinity. Also, a functional impairment of HIV-infected macrophages may play a role in AIDS pathogenesis. Nevertheless, both activation and differentiation of monocyte/macrophages can interfere with susceptibility of these cells to infection. Therefore, a wide variety of stimuli result in HIV suppression through macrophage activation. At present times, a dynamic view on the role of macrophages in HIV infection arises which indicates that macrophages are a target for the virus and at the same time regulate its replication. Therefore, macrophages are at the cross-road between protection and pathogenesis in HIV infection due to their involvement both as a viral target and a key modulator of non-specific and specific immune responses. Future studies will help unravel the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie HIV-macrophage interactions and might result in new vaccine and/or therapeutic strategies.

  12. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther eSchönrich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently estab-lishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZV to evade the antiviral immune response. Thus, DCs represent the immune systems’ Achilles heel. Uniquely among the human herpesviruses, VZV infects both DCs and T cells, and exploits both as Trojan horses. During primary infection VZV-infected DCs traffic to the draining lymph nodes and tonsils, where the virus is transferred to T cells. VZV-infected T cells subsequently spread infection throughout the body to give the typical varicella skin rash. The delicate interplay between VZV and DCs and its consequences for viral immune evasion and viral dissemination will be discussed in this article.

  13. The Trojan Horse Liposome Technology for Nonviral Gene Transfer across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M

    2011-01-01

    The application of blood-borne gene therapy protocols to the brain is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Viruses have been extensively used as gene delivery systems. However, their efficacy in brain is limited by the lack of transport across the BBB following intravenous (IV) administration. Recent progress in the "Trojan Horse Liposome" (THL) technology applied to transvascular non-viral gene therapy of the brain presents a promising solution to the trans-vascular brain gene delivery problem. THLs are comprised of immunoliposomes carrying nonviral gene expression plasmids. The tissue target specificity of the THL is provided by peptidomimetic monoclonal antibody (MAb) component of the THL, which binds to specific endogenous receptors located on both the BBB and on brain cellular membranes, for example, insulin receptor and transferrin receptor. These MAbs mediate (a) receptor-mediated transcytosis of the THL complex through the BBB, (b) endocytosis into brain cells and (c) transport to the brain cell nuclear compartment. The expression of the transgene in brain may be restricted using tissue/cell specific gene promoters. This manuscript presents an overview on the THL transport technology applied to brain disorders, including lysosomal storage disorders and Parkinson's disease.

  14. Neuro-invasion by a 'Trojan Horse' strategy and vasculopathy during intrauterine flavivirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Smirnova, Natalia P; Tolnay, Airn-Elizabeth; Webb, Brett T; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; van Campen, Hana; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-02-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a major target of several important human and animal viral pathogens causing congenital infections. However, despite the importance of neuropathological outcomes, for humans in particular, the pathogenesis, including mode of neuro-invasion, remains unresolved for most congenital virus infections. Using a natural model of congenital infection with an RNA virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus in pregnant cattle, we sought to delineate the timing and mode of virus neuro-invasion of and spread within the brain of foetuses following experimental respiratory tract infection of the dams at day 75 of pregnancy, a time of maximal risk of tissue pathology without foetal death. Virus antigen was first detected in the foetal brains 14 days postinfection of dams and was initially restricted to amoeboid microglial cells in the periventricular germinal layer. The appearance of these cells was preceded by or concurrent with vasculopathy in the same region. While the affected microvessels were negative for virus antigen, they expressed high levels of the type I interferon-stimulated protein ISG15 and eventually disappeared in parallel with the appearance of microcavitary lesions. Subsequently, the virus spread to neurons and other glial cells. Our findings suggest that the virus enters the CNS via infected microglial precursors, the amoeboid microglial cells, in a 'Trojan horse' mode of invasion and that the microcavitary lesions are associated with loss of periventricular microvasculature, perhaps as a consequence of high, unrestricted induction of interferon-regulated proteins. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  15. New measurement of the B-11(p,alpha(0))Be-8 bare-nucleus S(E) factor via the Trojan horse method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Burjan, Václav; Carlin, N.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Munhoz, M. G.; Del Santo, M. G.; Gulino, M.; Hons, Zdeněk; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, Václav; Kubono, S.; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Wen, Q.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.; Souza, F. A .; de Toledo, A. S.; Tabacaru, G.; Tumino, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zhou, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2012), 015106/1-015106/23 ISSN 0954-3899 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480902; GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : astrophysical reactions * Trojan horse method Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.326, year: 2012

  16. Measurement of the 10 keV resonance in the B-10(p,alpha(0))Be-7 reaction via the Trojan Horse method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; La Cognata, M.; Crucilla, V.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Del Santo, M. G.; Carlin, N.; Munhoz, M. G.; Souza, F. A .; de Toledo, A. S.; Tumino, A.; Irgaziev, B.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Burjan, Václav; Kroha, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Mrázek, Jaromír; Zhou, S. H.; Li, C. B.; Wen, Q. G.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Somorjai, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2014), 035801 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07050; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11001 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Trojan Horse method * nuclear astrophysics * cross-section Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2014

  17. The Trojan-Horse Method applied to the {sup 6}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction down to astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Pappalardo, L.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; La Cognata, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Typel, S

    2004-04-05

    The Trojan-Horse Method has been applied to the three-body d({sup 6}Li,{alpha}{sup 3}He)n break-up reaction in order to extract the bare nucleus S(E) factor for the {sup 6}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 3}He down to astrophysical energies.

  18. Nanodiamonds act as Trojan horse for intracellular delivery of metal ions to trigger cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Guosheng; Yang, Jinrong; Zhang, Jichao; Li, Wenxin; Li, Aiguo; Tai, Renzhong; Fang, Haiping; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing

    2015-02-05

    good vehicles for metal ions delivery. NDs played the Trojan horse role by allowing large amounts of metal ions accumulate into living cells followed by subsequent release of ions in the interior of cells, which then led to cytotoxicity. The present experimental and theoretical results provide useful insight into understanding of cytotoxicity triggered by nanoparticle-ion interactions, and open new ways in the interpretation of nanotoxicity.

  19. The Role of Vitamin D in Reproductive Health—A Trojan Horse or the Golden Fleece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. Dabrowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, vitamin D was in the spotlight in many fields of research. Despite numerous publications, its influence on reproductive health remains ambiguous. This paper presents an up-to-date review of current knowledge concerning the role of cholecalciferol in human reproduction. It covers various infertility issues, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, myoma-induced infertility, male infertility, premature ovary failure and in vitro fertilization techniques. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol of less than 50 nmol/L, is commonly noted more frequently than only in fertility clinic patients. It is a global trend that is observed in all age groups. The results of original publications dated up to 2015 have been summarized and discussed in a critical manner. Most experts agree that vitamin D supplementation is a necessity, particularly in women suffering from obesity, insulin resistance or small ovarian reserve, as well as in men with oligo- and asthenozoospermia if serum concentration should fall below 50 nmol/L (normal range up to 125 nmol/L. High concentration of vitamin D and its metabolites in decidua during the 1st trimester suggests its important role in the implantation process and a local immunological embryo-protection. On the other hand, evidence-based research did not prove a significant difference so far in ovulation stimulation or embryo development depending on vitamin D level. In one of the publications, it was also found that vitamin D binding protein (VDBP has a molecular similarity to anti-sperm antibodies, and another one concluded that both low (<50 nmol/L and high (>125 nmol/L concentration of vitamin D are associated with decreased number and quality of spermatozoa in semen. Vitamin D is definitely not a Trojan Horse in reproductive health, since there were no adverse effects reported for vitamin D intake of up to 10,000 IU/day, but to proclaim it the Golden

  20. The 11 B ( p, α0 ) 8Be reaction at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan-horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rinollo, A.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.

    2004-05-01

    The 11 B ( p, α0 ) 8Be reaction was studied from 1 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the 2H ( 11 B , αo 8Be ) n three-body reaction performed at an incident energy of 27 MeV . Coincidence spectra measured in a kinematically complete experiment show the presence of the quasifree 11 B -p process. The astrophysical factor S(E) for the 11 B ( p, α0 ) 8Be reaction was extracted from the three-body cross section at low neutron momentum. The result was compared with the behavior of the astrophysical factor from the directly measured two-body reaction.

  1. Measurement of cross section and astrophysical factor of the d(d,p)t reaction using the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Bonomo, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; et al.

    2005-07-01

    Knowledge about reactions involving deuterium is required for a correct understanding of stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis processes, and also in planning fusion reactors for energy production. We have studied the d(d,p)t reaction in the energy range from 1.5 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body 6Li(d,pt)α reaction, at a beam energy of 14 MeV. Protons and tritons have been detected in coincidence and identified. Quasi-free events have been kinematically selected, in order to extract the cross section and the astrophysical factor, and compare them with the values measured for the direct d(d,p)t process.

  2. Measurement of cross section and astrophysical factor of the d(d,p)t reaction using the Trojan Horse Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Bonomo, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Schuermann, D.; Strieder, F.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about reactions involving deuterium is required for a correct understanding of stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis processes, and also in planning fusion reactors for energy production. We have studied the d(d,p)t reaction in the energy range from 1.5 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body 6 Li(d,pt)α reaction, at a beam energy of 14 MeV. Protons and tritons have been detected in coincidence and identified. Quasi-free events have been kinematically selected, in order to extract the cross section and the astrophysical factor, and compare them with the values measured for the direct d(d,p)t process

  3. Measurement of cross section and astrophysical factor of the d(d,p)t reaction using the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinollo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Romano, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Bonomo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Cherubini, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Pizzone, R.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Rolfs, C.; Schuermann, D.; Strieder, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy)

    2005-07-25

    Knowledge about reactions involving deuterium is required for a correct understanding of stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis processes, and also in planning fusion reactors for energy production. We have studied the d(d,p)t reaction in the energy range from 1.5 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body {sup 6}Li(d,pt){alpha} reaction, at a beam energy of 14 MeV. Protons and tritons have been detected in coincidence and identified. Quasi-free events have been kinematically selected, in order to extract the cross section and the astrophysical factor, and compare them with the values measured for the direct d(d,p)t process.

  4. Indirect Study of the 16O+16O Fusion Reaction Toward Stellar Energies by the Trojan Horse Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayakawa S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 16O+16O fusion reaction is important in terms of the explosive oxygen burning process during late evolution stage of massive stars as well as understanding of the mechanism of low-energy heavy-ion fusion reactions. We aim to determine the excitation function for the most major exit channels, α+28Si and p+31P, toward stellar energies indirectly by the Trojan Horse Method via the 16O(20Ne, α28Siα and 16O(20Ne, p31Pα three-body reactions. We report preliminary results involving reaction identification, and determination of the momentum distribution of α-16O intercluster motion in the projectile 20Ne nucleus.

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells as cellular vehicles to deliver oncolytic virus therapies to metastatic tumors: the "Trojan horse" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Jia, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In view of the limited success of available treatment modalities for metastatic tumor, alternative and complementary strategies need to be developed. Oncolytic viruses are capable of selective replication in malignant cells and therefore offer levels of potency and specificity that are potentially far higher than conventional treatments for tumor. However, lack of systemic delivery technique for therapeutic viruses impacts their application in treating patients with multiple disseminated metastases. Recent studies have demonstrated that when being transplanted, endothelial progenitor cells can migrate via peripheral blood and home exclusively to the site of tumor neovasculature. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells can act as "Trojan horse" to systemically deliver oncolytic virus to metastases in order to inhibit tumor neovascularization formation and eventually eradicate the metastatic tumor.

  6. Subthreshold resonances and resonances in the R -matrix method for binary reactions and in the Trojan horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak, Bertulani, C. A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the R -matrix approach to treat the subthreshold resonances for the single-level and one-channel and for the single-level and two-channel cases. In particular, the expression relating the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) with the observable reduced width, when the subthreshold bound state is the only channel or coupled with an open channel, which is a resonance, is formulated. Since the ANC plays a very important role in nuclear astrophysics, these relations significantly enhance the power of the derived equations. We present the relationship between the resonance width and the ANC for the general case and consider two limiting cases: wide and narrow resonances. Different equations for the astrophysical S factors in the R -matrix approach are presented. After that we discuss the Trojan horse method (THM) formalism. The developed equations are obtained using the surface-integral formalism and the generalized R -matrix approach for the three-body resonant reactions. It is shown how the Trojan horse (TH) double-differential cross section can be expressed in terms of the on-the-energy-shell astrophysical S factor for the binary subreaction. Finally, we demonstrate how the THM can be used to calculate the astrophysical S factor for the neutron generator 13C(α ,n )16O in low-mass AGB stars. At astrophysically relevant energies this astrophysical S factor is controlled by the threshold level 1 /2+,Ex=6356 keV. Here, we reanalyzed recent TH data taking into account more accurately the three-body effects and using both assumptions that the threshold level is a subthreshold bound state or it is a resonance state.

  7. Assessing the near threshold cross section of the O-17(n, alpha)C-14 reaction by means of the Trojan horse method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guardo, G. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Tang, X.; deBoer, R.; Fang, X.; Goldberg, V.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Notani, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 025807. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11001; GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear reactions * C-14 * Trojan Horse Method Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  8. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: Evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W.

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3′-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initia...

  9. The "Trojan horse" model-delivery of anti-HBV small interfering RNAs by a recombinant HBV vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomai, Amir; Lubelsky, Yoav; Har-Noy, Ofir; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-12-18

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small virus that infects the liver. The major obstacle in applying the RNA interference method as an anti-HBV weapon is the challenge to deliver the small interfering RNA molecules to the liver efficiently and specifically. Here we show that HBV-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are efficiently expressed from a recombinant HBV into which an shRNA-expressing cassette was inserted, resulting in a significant knock-down of HBV gene expression. Notably, this recombinant HBV still expresses the HBV Core protein, which is targeted by the shRNAs produced by the same vector. Our results set the stage for further use of this recombinant HBV virus with the potential to function as a "Trojan horse"; one that specifically targets the liver and uses the resident virus as an helper for its own propagation, and at the same time eliminate itself and the resident HBV by knocking-down their gene expression.

  10. Application of the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron induced reactions: the 17O(n, α14C reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulino M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction 17O(n, α14C was studied using virtual neutrons coming from the quasi-free deuteron break-up in the three body reaction 17O+d → α+14C+p. This technique, called virtual neutron method, extends the Trojan Horse method to neutron-induced reactions allowing to study the reaction cross section avoiding the suppression effects coming from the penetrability of the centrifugal barrier. For incident neutron energies from thermal up to a few hundred keV, direct experiments have shown the population of two out of three expected excited states at energies 8213 keV and 8282 keV and the influence of the sub-threshold level at 8038 keV. In the present experiment the 18O excited state at E* = 8.125 MeV, missing in the direct measurement, is observed. The angular distributions of the populated resonances have been measured for the first time. The results unambiguously indicate the ability of the method to overcome the centrifugal barrier suppression effect and to pick out the contribution of the bare nuclear interaction.

  11. A Prodrug-doped Cellular Trojan Horse for the Potential Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Oren; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Han, Edward; Rosen, David Marc; Musabeyezu, Juliet; Safaee, Helia; Ranganath, Sudhir; Ngai, Jessica; Heinelt, Martina; Milton, Yuka; Wang, Hao; Bhagchandani, Sachin H.; Joshi, Nitin; Bhowmick, Neil; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer research, there is a major need for a systemic delivery platform that efficiently targets anti-cancer drugs to sites of disseminated prostate cancer while minimizing host toxicity. In this proof-of-principle study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) that encapsulate the macromolecule G114, a thapsigargin-based prostate specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrug . G114-particles (~950nm in size) were internalized by MSCs, followed by the release of G114 as an intact prodrug from loaded cells. Moreover, G114 released from G114 MP-loaded MSCs selectively induced death of the PSA-secreting PCa cell line, LNCaP. Finally, G114 MP-loaded MSCs inhibited tumor growth when used in proof-of-concept co-inoculation studies with CWR22 PCa xenografts, suggesting that cell-based delivery of G114 did not compromise the potency of this pro-drug in-vitro or in-vivo. This study demonstrates a potentially promising approach to assemble a cell-based drug delivery platform, which inhibits cancer growth in-vivo without the need of genetic engineering. We envision that upon achieving efficient homing of systemically infused MSCs to cancer sites, this MSC-based platform may be developed into an effective, systemic ‘Trojan Horse’ therapy for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to sites of metastatic PCa. PMID:27019026

  12. Trojan Horse macrophages: studies with the murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus and implications for sexually transmitted virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafruny, W A; Bradley, S E

    1996-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that monocytes or macrophages may mediate internal virus spread. For the present study, the tissue distribution and infectious potential of dye-labelled and/or lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV)-infected murine macrophages were determined. Murine peritoneal macrophages were labelled with the fluorescent carbocyanine tracking dye Dil, injected into mice, and the tissue distribution of Dil-labelled cells was determined by fluorescence analysis of frozen sections. Mice receiving intravenous (i.v.) or intraperitoneal injections of Dil-labelled macrophages displayed rapid and broad tissue distribution of the labelled cells. Intravaginal injection of Dil-labelled macrophages resulted in penetration into the placentas, but not the fetuses, of pregnant mice. When macrophages were LDV-infected and Dil-labelled prior to i.v. injection into pregnant mice, they homed to various tissues including the placenta, but were not found in fetuses. Intravaginal injection of LDV-infected macrophages resulted in systemic LDV infection, even though the free-virus dose was less than the minimum infectious dose by this route. Neither polyclonal nor monoclonal IgG anti-LDV antibodies protected mice from vaginal infection with cell-associated virus, and LDV-immune complexes were themselves infectious by the vaginal route. These results show that exogenous macrophages are widely distributed following parenteral injection, penetrate locally to placentas after intravaginal injection, and are capable of acting vaginally as relatively efficient virus infection-delivery vehicles. Thus, 'Trojan Horse' macrophages are potentially infectious vehicles both for internal virus spread and for animal-to-animal transmission.

  13. The Signaling Pathway of Caenorhabditis elegans Mediates Chemotaxis Response to the Attractant 2-Heptanone in a Trojan Horse-like Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Ninghui; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Donghua; Yan, Jinyuan; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei

    2016-11-04

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits behavioral responses to a wide range of odorants associated with food and pathogens. A previous study described a Trojan Horse-like strategy of pathogenesis whereby the bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 emits the volatile organic compound 2-heptanone to trap C. elegans for successful infection. Here, we further explored the receptor for 2-heptanone as well as the pathway involved in signal transduction in C. elegans Our experiments showed that 2-heptanone sensing depended on the function of AWC neurons and a GPCR encoded by str-2 Consistent with the above observation, the HEK293 cells expressing STR-2 on their surfaces showed a transient elevation in intracellular Ca 2+ levels after 2-heptanone applications. After combining the assays of RNA interference and gene mutants, we also identified the Gα subunits and their downstream components in the olfactory signal cascade that are necessary for responding to 2-heptanone, including Gα subunits of egl-30 and gpa-3, phospholipase C of plc-1and egl-8, and the calcium channel of cmk-1 and cal-1. Our work demonstrates for the first time that an integrated signaling pathway for 2-heptanone response in C. elegans involves recognition by GPCR STR-2, activation by Gα subunits of egl-30/gpa-3 and transfer to the PLC pathway, indicating that a potentially novel olfactory pathway exists in AWC neurons. Meanwhile, since 2-heptanone, a metabolite from the pathogenic bacterium B. nematocida B16, can be sensed by C. elegans and thus strongly attract its host, our current work also suggested coevolution between the pathogenic microorganism and the chemosensory system in C. elegans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initiation coupling model, based on in vivo expression and ribosome toe-printing studies, proposes a variation of canonical leaky scanning. Here, we have re-examined the wheat germ extract experiments that led to the Trojan horse model, incorporating a variety of controls. We report that (1) translation in vitro from the polyprotein AUG of TYMV RNA is unchanged after removal of the 3' TLS but is stimulated by the presence of a 5'-cap; (2) the presence of free cap analog or edeine (which interferes with initiation at the ribosomal P site and its tRNA(i) (Met) involvement) inhibits translation from the polyprotein AUG; (3) the toe-prints of immediately post-initiation ribosomes on TYMV RNA are similar with and without an intact TLS; and (4) significant deacylation of valyl-TYMV RNA in wheat germ extract can complicate the detection of cis-incorporation. These results favor the initiation coupling model.

  15. Can Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Silently Travel From the Gut to the Wound and Cause Postoperative Infection? Modeling the "Trojan Horse Hypothesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezalek, Monika A; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Zaborin, Alexander; Okafor, Emeka; Chandrasekar, Laxmi; Bindokas, Vitas; Guyton, Kristina; Montgomery, Christopher P; Daum, Robert S; Zaborina, Olga; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Alverdy, John C

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether intestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be the source of surgical site infections (SSIs). We hypothesized that gut-derived MRSA may cause SSIs via mechanisms in which circulating immune cells scavenge MRSA from the gut, home to surgical wounds, and cause infection (Trojan Horse Hypothesis). MRSA gut colonization was achieved by disrupting the microbiota with antibiotics, imposing a period of starvation and introducing MRSA via gavage. Next, mice were subjected to a surgical injury (30% hepatectomy) and rectus muscle injury and ischemia before skin closure. All wounds were cultured before skin closure. To control for postoperative wound contamination, reiterative experiments were performed in mice in which the closed wound was painted with live MRSA for 2 consecutive postoperative days. To rule out extracellular bacteremia as a cause of wound infection, MRSA was injected intravenously in mice subjected to rectus muscle ischemia and injury. All wound cultures were negative before skin closure, ruling out intraoperative contamination. Out of 40 mice, 4 (10%) developed visible abscesses. Nine mice (22.5%) had MRSA positive cultures of the rectus muscle without visible abscesses. No SSIs were observed in mice injected intravenously with MRSA. Wounds painted with MRSA after closure did not develop infections. Circulating neutrophils from mice captured by flow cytometry demonstrated MRSA in their cytoplasm. Immune cells as Trojan horses carrying gut-derived MRSA may be a plausible mechanism of SSIs in the absence of direct contamination.

  16. RNA interference as a resistance mechanism against crop parasites in Africa: a 'Trojan horse' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runo, Steven; Alakonya, Amos; Machuka, Jesse; Sinha, Neelima

    2011-02-01

    Biological crop pests cause serious economic losses. In Africa, the most prevalent parasites are insect pests, plant pathogenic root-knot nematodes, viruses and parasitic plants. African smallholder farmers struggle to overcome these parasitic constraints to agricultural production. Crop losses and the host range of these parasites have continued to increase in spite of the use of widely advocated control methods. A sustainable method to overcome biological pests in Africa would be to develop crop germplasm resistant to parasites. This is achievable using either genetic modification (GM) or a non-GM approach. However, there is a paucity of resistant genes available for introduction. Additionally, the biological processes underpinning host parasite resistance are not sufficiently well understood. The authors review a technology platform for using RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) as bioengineered resistance to important crop parasites in Africa. To achieve acquired resistance, a host crop is stably transformed with a transgene that encodes a hairpin RNA targeting essential parasitic genes. The RNAi sequence is chosen in such a way that it shares no homology with the host's genes, so it remains 'inactive' until parasitism. Upon parasitism, the RNAi sequence enters the parasite and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mechanisms are activated, leading to the death of the parasite. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stromal cells for cancer therapy: turning partners in crime into Trojan horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niess Hanno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are adult progenitor cells with a high migratory and differentiation potential, which influence a broad range of biological functions in almost every tissue of the body. Among other mechanisms, MSCs do so by the secretion of molecular cues, differentiation toward more specialized cell types, or influence on the immune system. Expanding tumors also depend on the contribution of MSCs to building a supporting stroma, but the effects of MSCs appear to go beyond the mere supply of connective tissues. MSCs show targeted “homing” toward growing tumors, which is then followed by exerting direct and indirect effects on cancer cells. Several research groups have developed novel strategies that make use of the tumor tropism of MSCs by engineering them to express a transgene that enables an attack on cancer growth. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the current knowledge about MSC biology, the existing evidence for MSC contribution to tumor growth with its underlying mechanisms, and the strategies that have been developed using MSCs to deploy an anticancer therapy.

  18. The 11B(p,α0)8Be reaction at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan-horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Lamia, L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; Cherubini, S.; Rolfs, C.

    2004-01-01

    The 11 B(p,α 0 ) 8 Be reaction was studied from 1 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the 2 H( 11 B,α o 8 Be)n three-body reaction performed at an incident energy of 27 MeV. Coincidence spectra measured in a kinematically complete experiment show the presence of the quasifree 11 B-p process. The astrophysical factor S(E) for the 11 B(p,α 0 ) 8 Be reaction was extracted from the three-body cross section at low neutron momentum. The result was compared with the behavior of the astrophysical factor from the directly measured two-body reaction

  19. The 18F(n,α ) Reaction: First Study of n-Induced Reaction on a Radioactive Nucleus Using the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Marisa; Cherubini, Silvio; Spitaleri, Claudio; Rapisarda, Giuseppe Gabriele; La Cognata, Marco; Lamia, Livio; Gianluca Pizzone, Rosario; Romano, Stefano; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Hayakawa, Seya; Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Iwasa, Naohito; Kato, Seigo; Komatsubara, Tetsuro; Teranishi, Takashi; Coc, Alain; de Séréville, Nicolas; Hammache, Fairouz; Kiss, Gabor; Bishop, Shawn; Nguyen Binh, Dam

    For the first time the Trojan Horse Method was applied to infer information about a neutron induced reaction on a radioactive nucleus at low energies relevant for astrophysics. In particular, the 18F(n, α )15N reaction has been studied by using the 18F+d reaction. A 18F beam was produced at the CRIB facility at RIKEN, Japan, and was focused onto a CD2 target. The beam had energy of 48 MeV, an average intensity of 105 pps and an average purity of 80%. A new designed experimental set-up covering a large solid angle was used to detect the ejected particles. The reaction cross section has been for the first time investigated in the energy range from 0 up to 2.5 MeV and several resonant states of 19F have been populated.

  20. Intelligent "Peptide-Gathering Mechanical Arm" Tames Wild "Trojan-Horse" Peptides for the Controlled Delivery of Cancer Nanotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Nan; Qi, Ling; Wang, Shu-Ran; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2017-12-06

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), also called "Trojan-Horse" peptides, have been used for facilitating intracellular delivery of numerous diverse cargoes and even nanocarriers. However, the lack of targeting specificity ("wildness" or nonselectivity) of CPP-nanocarriers remains an intractable challenge for many in vivo applications. In this work, we used an intelligent "peptide-gathering mechanical arm" (Int PMA) to curb CPPs' wildness and enhance the selectivity of R 9 -liposome-based cargo delivery for tumor targeting. The peptide NGR, serving as a cell-targeting peptide for anchoring, and peptide PLGLAG, serving as a substrate peptide for deanchoring, were embedded in the Int PMA motif. The Int PMA construct was designed to be sensitive to tumor microenvironmental stimuli, including aminopeptidase N (CD13) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/9). Moreover, Int PMA could be specifically recognized by tumor tissues via CD13-mediated anchoring and released for cell entry by MMP-2/9-mediated deanchoring. To test the Int PMA design, a series of experiments were conducted in vitro and in vivo. Functional conjugates Int PMA-R 9 -poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 2000 -distearoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE) and R 9 -PEG 2000 -DSPE were synthesized by Michael addition reaction and were characterized by thin-layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Int PMA-R 9 -modified doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Int PMA-R 9 -Lip-DOX) exhibited a proper particle diameter (approximately 155 nm) with in vitro sustained release characteristics. Cleavage assay showed that Int PMA-R 9 peptide molecules could be cleaved by MMP-2/9 for completion of deanchoring. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies indicated that Int PMA-R 9 -Lip-DOX can respond to both endogenous and exogenous stimuli in the presence/absence of excess MMP-2/9 and MMP-2/9 inhibitor (GM6001) and effectively function under competitive receptor

  1. Low-solubility particles and a Trojan-horse type mechanism of toxicity: the case of cobalt oxide on human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of toxicity of metal oxide particles towards lung cells are far from being understood. In particular, the relative contribution of intracellular particulate versus solubilized fractions is rarely considered as it is very challenging to assess, especially for low-solubility particles such as cobalt oxide (Co3O4). Methods This study was possible owing to two highly sensitive, independent, analytical techniques, based on single-cell analysis, using ion beam microanalysis, and on bulk analysis of cell lysates, using mass spectrometry. Results Our study shows that cobalt oxide particles, of very low solubility in the culture medium, are readily incorporated by BEAS-2B human lung cells through endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent pathway. They are partially solubilized at low pH within lysosomes, leading to cobalt ions release. Solubilized cobalt was detected within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As expected from these low-solubility particles, the intracellular solubilized cobalt content is small compared with the intracellular particulate cobalt content, in the parts-per-thousand range or below. However, we were able to demonstrate that this minute fraction of intracellular solubilized cobalt is responsible for the overall toxicity. Conclusions Cobalt oxide particles are readily internalized by pulmonary cells via the endo-lysosomal pathway and can lead, through a Trojan-horse mechanism, to intracellular release of toxic metal ions over long periods of time, involving specific toxicity. PMID:24669904

  2. Measurement of the 13C(α,n)16O reaction with the Trojan horse method: Focus on the sub threshold resonance at −3 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Guardo, G. L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Spartà, R.; Trippella, O.; Kiss, G. G.; Rogachev, G. V.; Avila, M.; Koshchiy, E.; Kuchera, A.; Santiago, D.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The 13 C(α,n) 16 O reaction is the neutron source of the main component of the s-process. The astrophysical S(E)-factor is dominated by the −3 keV sub-threshold resonance due to the 6.356 MeV level in 17 O. Its contribution is still controversial as extrapolations, e.g., through R-matrix calculations, and indirect techniques, such as the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC), yield inconsistent results. Therefore, we have applied the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to the 13 C( 6 Li,n 16 O)d reaction to measure its contribution. For the first time, the ANC for the 6.356 MeV level has been deduced through the THM, allowing to attain an unprecedented accuracy. Though a larger ANC for the 6.356 MeV level is measured, our experimental S(E) factor agrees with the most recent extrapolation in the literature in the 140-230 keV energy interval, the accuracy being greatly enhanced thanks to this innovative approach, merging together two well establish indirect techniques, namely, the THM and the ANC

  3. Low-solubility particles and a Trojan-horse type mechanism of toxicity: the case of cobalt oxide on human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard; Bresson, Carole; Darolles, Carine; Gautier, Céline; Roudeau, Stéphane; Perrin, Laura; Janin, Myriam; Floriani, Magali; Aloin, Valérie; Carmona, Asuncion; Malard, Véronique

    2014-03-27

    The mechanisms of toxicity of metal oxide particles towards lung cells are far from being understood. In particular, the relative contribution of intracellular particulate versus solubilized fractions is rarely considered as it is very challenging to assess, especially for low-solubility particles such as cobalt oxide (Co3O4). This study was possible owing to two highly sensitive, independent, analytical techniques, based on single-cell analysis, using ion beam microanalysis, and on bulk analysis of cell lysates, using mass spectrometry. Our study shows that cobalt oxide particles, of very low solubility in the culture medium, are readily incorporated by BEAS-2B human lung cells through endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent pathway. They are partially solubilized at low pH within lysosomes, leading to cobalt ions release. Solubilized cobalt was detected within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As expected from these low-solubility particles, the intracellular solubilized cobalt content is small compared with the intracellular particulate cobalt content, in the parts-per-thousand range or below. However, we were able to demonstrate that this minute fraction of intracellular solubilized cobalt is responsible for the overall toxicity. Cobalt oxide particles are readily internalized by pulmonary cells via the endo-lysosomal pathway and can lead, through a Trojan-horse mechanism, to intracellular release of toxic metal ions over long periods of time, involving specific toxicity.

  4. Reproductive biology of horse mackerel Trachurus capensis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harvest control measures for Namibia and Angola are defined using reference points for spawning biomass, which requires knowledge of spawning potential and dynamics of fishery stocks. The reproductive biology of two species of horse mackerel, Trachurus capensis and Trachurus trecae, in these waters was ...

  5. Biological variation of thromboelastrography variables in 10 clinically healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Jennifer L; Flatland, Bente; McCormick, Karen A; Reed, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utility of population-based reference intervals (PRIs) for interpreting thromboelastography (TEG) variables in horses using biological variation data. Prospective cohort biologic variation study conducted over a 5-week period. Veterinary teaching hospital and research facility. Ten clinically healthy horses randomly selected from a veterinary school research and teaching herd. Horse health was determined using physical examination, CBC, and biochemical and coagulation profiles prior to the start of the study. Subsequently, once weekly blood sampling for TEG testing was performed for 5 weeks. The 4 TEG variables reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), angle, and maximum amplitude (MA) were measured, and coefficient of variation representing within- and between-horse biological variation (CVi and CVg , respectively) and coefficient of variation representing analytical variation (CVa ) were calculated using a nested ANOVA after removing outlier data. The CVi , CVg , and CVa for R were 26.8%, 5.2%, and 5.9%; for K were 31.0%, 0.0%, and 5.9%; for angle were 9.4%, 6.2%, and 21.7%; and for MA were 3.4%, 4.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. Index of individuality (IOI) was then calculated for each variable using the formula {( CVi² + CVa²/CVg²)}¹/². IOI for R was 5.3, for angle was 3.8, and for MA was 1.4; IOI was not assessed for K. PRIs are appropriate for TEG variables, R, angle, and MA when interpreting results from individual horses based on calculated IOI values equal to or greater than 1.4. PRIs are likely appropriate when interpreting K, but IOI could not be calculated for this variable. ©Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  6. Trojan quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertjerenken, Bettina; Holthaus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that a time-periodically driven bosonic Josephson junction supports stable, quasiparticle-like collective response modes which are N-particle analogs of the nonspreading Trojan wave packets known from microwave-driven Rydberg atoms. Similar to their single-particle counterparts, these collective modes, dubbed ‘flotons’, are well described by a Floquet–Mathieu approximation, and possess a well-defined discrete set of excitations. In contrast to other, ‘chaotic’ modes of response, the nonheating Trojan modes conform to a mean-field description, and thus may be of particular interest for the more general question under which conditions the reduction of quantum N-particle dynamics to a strongly simplified mean-field evolution is feasible. Our reasoning is supported by phase-space portraits which reveal the degree of correspondence beween the N-particle dynamics und the mean-field picture in an intuitive manner. (paper)

  7. The 10B(p,α)7Be S(E)-factor from 5 keV to 1.5 MeV using the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Sebastiana Maria Regina; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Lamia, Livio; Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Carlin, Nelson; Cherubini, Silvio; Cvetinovic, Alexandra; D'Agata, Giuseppe; Dell'aquila, Daniele; Depalo, Rosanna; Gulino, Marisa; Guardo, Giovanni Luca; Indelicato, Iolanda; Lombardo, Ivano; Menegazzo, Roberto; Munhoz, Marcelo Gimenez; Pizzone, Rosario Gianluca; Rapisarda, Giuseppe Gabriele; Rigato, Valentino; Romano, Stefano; Sergi, Maria Letizia; Souza, Francisco; Sparta, Roberta; Tudisco, Salvo; Tumino, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction is the main responsible for the 10B destruction in stellar interior [1]. In such environments this p-capture process occurs at a Gamow energy of 10 keV and takes places mainly through a resonant state (Ex = 8.701 MeV) of the compound 11C nucleus. Thus a resonance right in the region of the Gamow peak is expected to significantly influence the behavior of the astrophysical S(E)-factor. The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction was studied via the Trojan Horse Method (THM) applied to the 2H(10B,α7Be)n in order to extract the astrophysical S(E)-factor in a wide energy range from 5 keV to 1.5 MeV.

  8. Translational Mini-Review Series on B cell subsets in disease. B cells in multiple sclerosis: drivers of disease pathogenesis and Trojan horse for Epstein-Barr virus entry to the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, U-C; Giovannoni, G; Tzartos, J S; Khan, G

    2012-01-01

    The recent success of therapies directed at B cells has highlighted their potential as central players in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Exciting new data showed that B cell depletion led to reduced clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown, but could involve autoantibody production, antigen presentation and/or cytokine production by B cells. Another exciting line of investigation in the field of MS comes from latent infection of memory B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). These cells are hijacked as 'Trojan horses' and 'smuggle' the virus into the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, these new anti B cell treatments will also be likely to have anti-viral effects. We briefly review recent findings in the field of MS pathogenesis, and highlight promising new targets for therapeutic intervention in MS. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  9. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind; McDonough, Sean; Cullen, John; Bhuva, Nishit; Jain, Komal; Chauhan, Lokendra Singh; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Lipkin, W Ian; Laverack, Melissa; Trivedi, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Satyapramod; Beard, Laurie; Rice, Charles M; Burbelo, Peter D; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward; Kapoor, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares horses using a tetanus antitoxin contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed, the horses seroconverted, and acute hepatitis developed that was confirmed by clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic testing. We also determined that EqPV-H is an endemic infection because, in a cohort of 100 clinically normal adult horses, 13 were viremic and 15 were seropositive. We identified a new virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products.

  10. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  11. Indirect study of 11B(p,α)8Be and 10B(p,α)7Be reactions at astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method: recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Spitaleri, C.; Romano, S.; Del Santo, M. Gimenez; Carlin, N.; Munhoz, M. Gameiro; Cherubini, S.; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, V.; Kubono, S.; La Cognata, M.; Li, Cheng-Bo; Pizzone, R. G.; Wen, Qun-Gang; Sergi, M. L.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zhou, Shu-Hua

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear (p,α) reactions destroying the so-called “light-elements” lithium, beryllium and boron have been largely studied in the past mainly because their role in understanding some astrophysical phenomena, i.e. mixing-phenomena occurring in young F-G stars [A.M. Boesgaard et al., Astr. Phys. J, 991, 2005, 621]. Such mechanisms transport the surface material down to the region close to the nuclear destruction zone, where typical temperatures of the order of ˜106 K are reached. The corresponding Gamow energy E=1.22(Z keV [C. Rolfs and W. Rodney, “Cauldrons in the Cosmos”, The Univ. of Chicago press, 1988] is about ˜10 keV if one considers the “boron-case” and replaces in the previous formula Z=1, Z=5 and T=5. Direct measurements of the two 11B(p,α)8Be and 10B(p,α)7Be reactions in correspondence of this energy region are difficult to perform mainly because the combined effects of Coulomb barrier penetrability and electron screening [H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys., 327, 1987, 461]. The indirect method of the Trojan Horse (THM) [G. Baur et al., Phys. Lett. B, 178, 1986, 135; G. Calvi et al., Nucl. Phys. A, 621, 1997, 139; C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C, 493, 1999, 206] allows one to extract the two-body reaction cross section of interest for astrophysics without the extrapolation-procedures. Due to the THM formalism, the extracted indirect data have to be normalized to the available direct ones at higher energies thus implying that the method is a complementary tool in solving some still open questions for both nuclear and astrophysical issues [S. Cherubini et al., Astr. Phys. J, 457, 1996, 855; C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C, 63, 2001, 005801; C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C, 63, 2004, 055806; A. Tumino et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 2007, 252502; M. La Cognata et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 2007, 152501; M.L. Sergi et al., AIPC, 1016, 2008, 433; H.W. Becker, Z. Phys. A, 327, 1987, 341; T. Rauscher and G. Raimann, Phys. Rev

  12. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed...... virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products....

  13. A Comparison of Trojan Virus Behavior in Linux and Windows Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saadoon, Ghossoon. M. W.; Al-Bayatti, Hilal M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Trojan virus attacks pose one of the most serious threats to computer security. A Trojan horse is typically separated into two parts - a server and a client. It is the client that is cleverly disguised as significant software and positioned in peer-to-peer file sharing networks, or unauthorized download websites. The most common means of infection is through email attachments. The developer of the virus usually uses various spamming techniques in order to distribute the virus to unsuspecting ...

  14. A Trojan horse in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Skytte, Dorthe Mondrup; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2009-01-01

    Available chemotherapeutics take advantage of the fast proliferation of cancer cells. Consequently slow growth makes androgen refractory prostate cancer resistant towards available drugs. No treatment is available at the present, when the cancer has developed metastases outside the prostate (T4...... stage). Cytotoxins killing cells irrespective of the phase of the cell cycle will be able to kill slowly proliferating prostate cancer cells. Lack of selectivity, however, prevents their use as systemic drugs. Prostate cancer cells secrete characteristic proteolytic enzymes, e.g. PSA and hK2......, with unusual substrate specificity. Conjugation of cytotoxins with peptides, which are selective substrates for PSA or hK2, will afford prodrugs, from which the active drug only will be released in close vicinity of the cancer cells. Based on this strategy prodrugs targeted at prostate cancer cells have been...

  15. Sovereign collateral as a Trojan Horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschmann, Christian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Sovereign bonds are widely used as collateral in banks' funding and trading operations. If a sovereign becomes distressed, the collateral mechanism impairs and banks are suddenly facing significant liquidity calls. Basel III's Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) protects banks against unexpected...

  16. A Trojan horse in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Skytte, Dorthe Mondrup; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2009-01-01

    Available chemotherapeutics take advantage of the fast proliferation of cancer cells. Consequently slow growth makes androgen refractory prostate cancer resistant towards available drugs. No treatment is available at the present, when the cancer has developed metastases outside the prostate (T4 s...

  17. Rubella, the Trojan horse of obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, J R

    1981-10-01

    Documentation has been provided that health care personnel working in prenatal clinics have exposed their patients to the rubella virus. Various states have instituted rules and regulations toward the prevention of spread of rubella to pregnant women. These regulations have been ineffectual as rubella antibody testing and immunization programs do not include all health care providers. Cogent reasons for rubella antibody testing and immunization of all susceptible health care providers, whether they are physicians, nurses, or students, are presented.

  18. Publisher Correction: Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper....

  19. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, Václav; Kroha, Václav; La Cognata, M.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Sparta, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, 8-10 (2014), s. 1001-1004 ISSN 0177-7963 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : astrophysical implications * nuclear astrophysics * destruction Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2014

  20. A comparative study of economical separation and aggregation properties of biologically capped and thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles: selecting the eco-friendly trojan horses for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sunil; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Mewada, Ashmi; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-09-01

    We are presenting facile bio-fabrication of extremely stable gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (commonly called Neem) and its comparison with most commonly used glutathione (GSH) protected GNPs in terms of stability under physiological conditions, seperation using density gradient centrifugation and aggregation properties in the solution. There was dual peak at 536 and 662 nm indicating the presence of non-spherical GNPs including triangles, rods and hexagons in case of A. indica mediated GNPs unlike citrate stabilized GNPs which exhibited single sharp peak. Spherical GNPs were separated from the consortium of uniquely shaped nanoparticles bio-fabricated using A. indica leaf extract using sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC).To comprehend the anti-agglomeration potentials of A. indica leaf mediated GNPs and GSH-GNPs under physiological conditions, flocculation parameters (FP) were calculated and found to be least for A. indica leaf mediated GNPs, indicating their exceptional stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Economic Trojan Horse is Actually a German Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the immigrants‘ impact on the EU‘s economy in the context of the latest immigrant crisis generated by Germany and France. The analysis in the paper covers not only the economic negative effects, but the social effects as well. The scientific approach is based on the latest official data. A distinct part of the paper deals with forecasting procedures able to point out the powerful negative impact of the immigrants on the labor market and public finances on short and medium terms. The main conclusion of the paper is that Germany is not able to manage this immigrant crisis and it will try to solve the problem putting pressure on other Member States or translating the crisis management to the global organism, as Davos Conference, for example.

  2. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  3. Biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Ruqaiyyah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread and host susceptibility, and are highlighted together with potential therapeutic and preventative measures. The use of Acanthamoeba in the study of cellular differentiation mechanisms, motility and phagocytosis, bacterial pathogenesis and evolutionary processes makes it an attractive model organism. There is a significant emphasis on Acanthamoeba as a Trojan horse of other microbes including viral, bacterial, protists and yeast pathogens.

  4. Biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread and host susceptibility, and are highlighted together with potential therapeutic and preventative measures. The use of Acanthamoeba in the study of cellular differentiation mechanisms, motility and phagocytosis, bacterial pathogenesis and evolutionary processes makes it an attractive model organism. There is a significant emphasis on Acanthamoeba as a Trojan horse of other microbes including viral, bacterial, protists and yeast pathogens. PMID:22229971

  5. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product

    OpenAIRE

    Divers, Thomas J.; Tennant, Bud C.; Kumar, Arvind; McDonough, Sean; Cullen, John; Bhuva, Nishit; Jain, Komal; Chauhan, Lokendra Singh; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Lipkin, W. Ian; Laverack, Melissa; Trivedi, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Satyapramod; Beard, Laurie; Rice, Charles M.

    2018-01-01

    Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler’s disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares

  6. Effects of 3 biologic dressings on healing of cutaneous wounds on the limbs of horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Three biologic dressings [split-thickness allogeneic skin (STS)], allogeneic peritoneum (P), and xenogenic porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS)] were studied to determine their effects on bacterial proliferation, inflammatory reaction, vascularization, and overall healing and to compare the effects of these dressings with the effects of a nonbiologic dressing, a nonadherent synthetic pad (NASP). A medial wound (3 cm in diameter) and 2 lateral wounds (2 cm in diameter) were created at the junction of the proximal and middle thirds of each metacarpus and metatarsus in 5 horses. Each medial wound and the proximolateral wound received an STS, P, PSIS, or NASP dressing on day 8 after wounding. The other lateral wound received an NASP dressing. Bacterial proliferation, inflammatory reaction (histologic changes), and drhessing vascularization were evaluated 6 d after application of the dressing. Percentages of contraction and epithelialization, as well as healing time, were determined when the wounds had completely epithelialized. The practical applicability of the different dressings to equine wound management was also assessed. No significant difference was detected in the parameters evaluated among the treated wounds or between the treated and control wounds. The biologic dressings had no effect on infection, inflammatory response, or healing time. Vascularization was not identified in any of the biologic dressings. The PSIS and P dressings required numerous applications over the study period. The STS dressings are more practical than PSIS and P dressings owing to ease of application and stability. Thus, these biologic dressings offer no apparent advantage over a nonbiologic dressing for treatment of small granulating wounds. PMID:14979435

  7. Milton H. Erickson e o cavalo de tróia: a terapia não convencional no cenário da crise dos paradigmas em psicologia clínica Milton H. Erickson and the trojan horse: the nonconventional therapy in the paradigms crisis scenario in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício S. Neubern

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca situar a obra de Milton Erickson no cenário da transição de paradigmas científicos, particularmente da psicologia clínica. Destaca-se que as contribuições desse autor, ao mesmo tempo em que denunciam as limitações do paradigma dominante, apontam na direção de pressupostos distintos, muito afins com as perspectivas de um paradigma emergente. A metáfora do cavalo de Tróia busca retratar a influência sutil e intensa do trabalho desse autor sobre as perspectivas consagradas, de modo que, enquanto fascina e causa admiração, traz em si um potencial elevado de reflexão crítica e incisiva sobre essas mesmas perspectivas. Destacando três aspectos centrais desse processo - a impossibilidade teórica, o resgate da subjetividade complexa e a busca de novas racionalidades - o artigo é concluído delineando possíveis caminhos para a concepção e o uso do legado de Erickson.This article places Milton Erickson's work in the scenerio of transition of scientific paradigms, especially in clinical psychology. The text shows that Erickson' contribution denounces the limitations of the dominant paradigm and at the same time points to different assumptions that are very similar to the emergent paradigm's perspectives. The trojan horse metaphor aims at showing the powerful and subtle influence of Erickson's work on sacred perspectives. While Erickson's work cause fascination and wonder it simultaneously provoques critical and incisive reflections about the sacred perspectives. This paper makes salient three main aspects - the theorical impossibility, the rescue of a complex subjectivity and, at last, the search of new racionalities. As a conclusion, possible pathways for understanding and using Erickson's legacy in the field of clinical psychology are enphasized.

  8. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A R; Gemini-Piperni, S; Travassos, R; Lemgruber, L; Silva, R C; Rossi, A L; Farina, M; Anselme, K; Shokuhfar, T; Shahbazian-Yassar, R; Borojevic, R; Rocha, L A; Werckmann, J; Granjeiro, J M

    2016-03-29

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of 'Trojan-horse' internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  9. Rootkits, Trojans, backdoors and new developments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Decloedt, HE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the history and new developments with Rootkits, Trojans and backdoors. The paper also looks at the different types of rootkits that exist, how to use a rootkit, and methods for detecting rootkits. Backdoors, Trojans...

  10. AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part B: Malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tony W

    2004-01-01

    The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was less obvious initially, although primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has dropped precipitously since the introduction of HAART. The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma is multifactorial. Epstein-Barr virus plays a significant role in these diseases, especially Burkitt lymphoma and PCNSL. Data regarding the effect of HAART on the natural history and treatment outcomes of these malignancies are emerging. The possibility of direct and indirect roles of human immunodeficiency virus in the carcinogenesis suggests that antiretroviral therapy may be an important component of the treatment for these malignancies. The simultaneous administration of HAART and chemotherapy does not appear to significantly alter the toxicity profile, although the information with respect to the interaction of HAART and chemotherapy is limited. The use of biological agents, for example, monoclonal antibody against CD-20, is being explored to improve the clinical outcome of this disease.

  11. The Trojan horse method in nuclear astrophysics: recent results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romano, S.; Spitareli, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Tribble, R. E.; Goldberg, V.Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Kroha, Václav; Burjan, Václav; Mrázek, Jaromír; Somorjai, E.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gyurky, G.; Kiss, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2008), 014008-1-014008-7 ISSN 0954-3899 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : cross-sections Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.270, year: 2008

  12. Taming Trojan Horses: Identifying and Mitigating Corporate Social Responsibility Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); N.A. Dentchev (Nikolay)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations are exposed to increasing pressures from their constituents to integrate corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles into their ongoing business practices. But accepting new and potentially open-ended commitments is not a harmless exercise, and companies may well

  13. Investigating the ?Trojan Horse? Mechanism of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Fitch, J P

    2005-02-08

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is a Gram-negative, highly communicable, enteric bacterium that has been responsible for three historic plague pandemics. Currently, several thousand cases of plague are reported worldwide annually, and Y. pestis remains a considerable threat from a biodefense perspective. Y. pestis infection can manifest in three forms: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Of these three forms, pneumonic plague has the highest fatality rate ({approx}100% if left untreated), the shortest intervention time ({approx}24 hours), and is highly contagious. Currently, there are no rapid, widely available vaccines for plague and though plague may be treated with antibiotics, the emergence of both naturally occurring and potentially engineered antibiotic resistant strains makes the search for more effective therapies and vaccines for plague of pressing concern. The virulence mechanism of this deadly bacterium involves induction of a Type III secretion system, a syringe-like apparatus that facilitates the injection of virulence factors, termed Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), into the host cell. These virulence factors inhibit phagocytosis and cytokine secretion, and trigger apoptosis of the host cell. Y. pestis virulence factors and the Type III secretion system are induced thermally, when the bacterium enters the mammalian host from the flea vector, and through host cell contact (or conditions of low Ca{sup 2+} in vitro). Apart from the temperature increase from 26 C to 37 C and host cell contact (or low Ca{sup 2+} conditions), other molecular mechanisms that influence virulence induction in Y. pestis are largely uncharacterized. This project focused on characterizing two novel mechanisms that regulate virulence factor induction in Y. pestis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding and quorum sensing, using a real-time reporter system to monitor induction of virulence. Incorporating a better understanding of the mechanisms of virulence and pathogenicity into detection systems, may allow us to anticipate both natural and engineered evolution of infectious diseases while laying the foundation for next-generation detection of biothreat agents.

  14. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length...

  15. Protein phosphatase 2A: the Trojan Horse of cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, E

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins are fundamental mechanisms utilized by cells to transduce signals. Whereas transduction by protein kinases has been a major focus of studies in the last decade, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzymes emerge in this millenium as the most fashionable players in cellular signaling. Viral proteins target specific PP2A enzymes in order to deregulate chosen cellular pathways in the host and promote viral progeny. The observation that a variety of viruses utilize PP2A to alienate cellular behavior emphasizes the fundamental importance of PP2A in signal transduction. This review will primarily focus on discussing the uniqueness of PP2A regulation and uncovering the critical role played by protein-protein interactions in the modulation of PP2A signaling. Moreover, the place of PP2A in signaling pathways and its functional significance for human diseases will be discussed.

  16. Chloroplast: the Trojan horse in plant-virus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhriti; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2018-02-01

    The chloroplast is one of the most dynamic organelles of a plant cell. It carries out photosynthesis, synthesizes major phytohormones, plays an active part in the defence response and is crucial for interorganelle signalling. Viruses, on the other hand, are extremely strategic in manipulating the internal environment of the host cell. The chloroplast, a prime target for viruses, undergoes enormous structural and functional damage during viral infection. Indeed, large proportions of affected gene products in a virus-infected plant are closely associated with the chloroplast and the process of photosynthesis. Although the chloroplast is deficient in gene silencing machinery, it elicits the effector-triggered immune response against viral pathogens. Virus infection induces the organelle to produce an extensive network of stromules which are involved in both viral propagation and antiviral defence. From studies over the last few decades, the involvement of the chloroplast in the regulation of plant-virus interaction has become increasingly evident. This review presents an exhaustive account of these facts, with their implications for pathogenicity. We have attempted to highlight the intricacies of chloroplast-virus interactions and to explain the existing gaps in our current knowledge, which will enable virologists to utilize chloroplast genome-based antiviral resistance in economically important crops. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Necroptosis: The Trojan Horse in Cell Autonomous Antiviral Host Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mocarski, Edward S.; Guo, Hongyan; Kaiser, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses suppress cell death to assure sustained infection in their natural hosts. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) encodes suppressors of apoptosis as well as M45-encoded viral inhibitor of RIP activation (vIRA) to block RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM)-signaling and recruitment of RIP3 (also called RIPK3), to prevent necroptosis. MCMV and human cytomegalovirus encode a viral inhibitor of caspase (Casp)8 activation to blocks apoptosis, an activity that unleashes necroptosis. Herpes s...

  18. Necroptosis: The Trojan horse in cell autonomous antiviral host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarski, Edward S; Guo, Hongyan; Kaiser, William J

    2015-05-01

    Herpesviruses suppress cell death to assure sustained infection in their natural hosts. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) encodes suppressors of apoptosis as well as M45-encoded viral inhibitor of RIP activation (vIRA) to block RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM)-signaling and recruitment of RIP3 (also called RIPK3), to prevent necroptosis. MCMV and human cytomegalovirus encode a viral inhibitor of caspase (Casp)8 activation to block apoptosis, an activity that unleashes necroptosis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)1 and HSV2 incorporate both RHIM and Casp8 suppression strategies within UL39-encoded ICP6 and ICP10, respectively, which are herpesvirus-conserved homologs of MCMV M45. Both HSV proteins sensitize human cells to necroptosis by blocking Casp8 activity while preventing RHIM-dependent RIP3 activation and death. In mouse cells, HSV1 ICP6 interacts with RIP3 and, surprisingly, drives necroptosis. Thus, herpesviruses have illuminated the contribution of necoptosis to host defense in the natural host as well as its potential to restrict cross-species infections in nonnatural hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extracellular vesicles are the Trojan horses of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral propagation exploited by both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. In particular non-enveloped viruses utilize the hosts' production of extracellular vesicles to exit from cells non-lytically and to hide and manipulate the immune system. Moreover, challenging the long held idea that viruses behave as independent genetic units, extracellular vesicles enable multiple viral particles and genomes to collectively traffic in and out of cells, which can promote genetic cooperativity among viral quasispecies and enhance the fitness of the overall viral population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Oncology's Trojan Horse: Using Viruses to Battle Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Heena J; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2016-12-01

    In 2016, the American health care system was faced with more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer, and individuals older than 65 years of age will be affected disproportionately. Many older individuals are poor candidates for traditional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) because of actual or potential treatment-related adverse events. Researchers continuously look for novel therapeutic strategies, and an exciting new one is on the horizon: virotherapy. Viruses' ability to infect and kill human cells makes them promising cancer treatments. The greatest success has been seen in acute lymphocytic leukemia. To date, four genetically engineered oncolytic viruses have been approved globally by several countries' health regulatory agencies, but several challenges remain. Only one, talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec), is available in the United States. Treatment-naive patients tend to respond better than patients receiving T-Vec as second-line therapy. Other good candidates for T-Vec include elderly patients who do not tolerate checkpoint inhibitors (the leading immunotherapy in advanced melanoma). Researchers continue to look for ways to increase oncolytic viruses' clinical potency. Once they do, these agents will become effective cancer therapy. GM-CSF = Genetically modified colony-stimulating factor, HIV = Human immunodeficiency virus, HSV-1 = Herpes simplex virus, OV = Oncolytic virus.

  1. Integrated circuit authentication hardware Trojans and counterfeit detection

    CERN Document Server

    Tehranipoor, Mohammad; Zhang, Xuehui

    2013-01-01

    This book describes techniques to verify the authenticity of integrated circuits (ICs). It focuses on hardware Trojan detection and prevention and counterfeit detection and prevention. The authors discuss a variety of detection schemes and design methodologies for improving Trojan detection techniques, as well as various attempts at developing hardware Trojans in IP cores and ICs. While describing existing Trojan detection methods, the authors also analyze their effectiveness in disclosing various types of Trojans, and demonstrate several architecture-level solutions. 

  2. On habitable Trojan worlds in exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Eggl, Siegfried; Akos, Bazso; Funk, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    When astronomers look for life on planets in exoplanetary systems (EPS), they use the concept of the habitable zone (HZ) for the search of life in the universe. In many EPS a giant planet moves in the HZ and makes the existence of another habitable planet impossible, because of the gravitational interaction with a gas giant (GG). Therefore the investigation of the Trojan configuration provides another opportunity for an additional habitable planet. The configuration is the following, when a GG (like Jupiter or larger) moves in the HZ, a terrestrial Trojan planet may move in a stable orbit around the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 or L5. Trojans are moving either close to 60° ahead or 60° behind the GG with nearly the same semi-major axis as the planet (as shown in the figure for the circular case). Former studies (Schwarz et al. 2009 and Schwarz et al 2014) could show that this configuration is not only stable for small bodies like asteroids (e.g. Jupiter Trojans), but also for larger ones (Earth-mass). We investigate the stability of possible Trojan planets in several known extra-solar planetary systems, by using the planar 3 and N-body problem as dynamical model considering the eccentricity of the planets. For our numerical simulations we use the Lie-integration method with an automatic step-size control to solve the equations of motion (Eggl and Dvorak 2010). In our study, we have concentrated on the extension of the stability region around the Lagrangian points and the influence of additional outer or inner GG. Finally we present a list of candidates of EPS where a massive GG (3-10 Jupiter masses) moves almost or fully in the HZ and an additional possible Trojan planet can have stable motion.

  3. Lucy: Navigating a Jupiter Trojan Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbridge, Dale; Williams, Ken; Williams, Bobby; Jackman, Coralie; Weaver, Hal; Berry, Kevin; Sutter, Brian; Englander, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    In January 2017, NASA selected the Lucy mission to explore six Jupiter Trojan asteroids. These six bodies, remnants of the primordial material that formed the outer planets, were captured in the Sun-Jupiter L4 and L5 Lagrangian regions early in the solar system formation. These particular bodies were chosen because of their diverse spectral properties and the chance to observe up close for the first time two orbiting approximately equal mass binaries, Patroclus and Menoetius. KinetX, Inc. is the primary navigation supplier for the Lucy mission. This paper describes preliminary navigation analyses of the approach phase for each Trojan encounter.

  4. TROJAN WOMEN IN CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES: DUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precious

    arise" from complex influences and forces which make contemporary living richer and less susceptible .... fashion and talking about numerology, horoscope and dating (Mee. Trojan Women 33 ). It is her gruesome murder .... (966-1013), a Japanese, author of The Pillow Book. Summarily,. Mee's diction is a concatenation of ...

  5. From Basking Ridge to the Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the activities of the Global Trajectory Optimization Lab, a subdivision of the Navigation and Mission Design Branch at NASA GSFC. The students will learn the basics of interplanetary trajectory optimization and then, as an example, the Lucy mission to the Jupiter Trojans will be described from both a science and engineering perspective.

  6. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR TROJAN PLANETS IN THE KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Markus, E-mail: janson@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Trojans are circumstellar bodies that reside in characteristic 1:1 orbital resonances with planets. While all the trojans in our solar system are small ({approx}<100 km), stable planet-size trojans may exist in extrasolar planetary systems, and the Kepler telescope constitutes a formidable tool to search for them. Here we report on a systematic search for extrasolar trojan companions to 2244 known Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), with epicyclic orbital characteristics similar to those of the Jovian trojan families. No convincing trojan candidates are found, despite a typical sensitivity down to Earth-size objects. This fact, however, cannot be used to stringently exclude the existence of trojans in this size range, since stable trojans need not necessarily share the same orbital plane as the planet, and thus may not transit. Following this reasoning, we note that if Earth-sized trojans exist at all, they are almost certainly both present and in principle detectable in the full set of Kepler data, although a very substantial computational effort would be required to detect them. Additionally, we also note that some of the existing KOIs could in principle be trojans themselves, with a primary planet orbiting outside of the transiting plane. A few examples are given for which this is a readily testable scenario.

  7. Rotational Properties of Jupiter Trojan 1173 Anchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd; French, Linda; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    Anchises (1173) is a large Trojan asteroid librating about Jupiter’s L5 Lagrange point. Here we examine its rotational and lightcurve properties by way of data collected over a 3.5 year observing campaign. The length of the campaign means that data were gathered for more than a quarter of Anchises' full orbital revolution which allows for accurate determinations of pole orientation and bulk shape properties for the asteroid that can then be compared to results of previous work (i.e. French 1987, Horner et al. 2012). In addition to light curves, photometric data taken during this campaign could potentially detect color differences between hemispheres as the viewing geometry changes over time. Understanding these details about a prominent member of the Jupiter Trojans may help us better understand the history of this fascinating and important group of asteroids.

  8. DroydSeuss: A Mobile Banking Trojan Tracker - Short Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coletta, A.; van der Veen, V.; Maggi, F.

    2016-01-01

    After analyzing several Android mobile banking trojans, weobserved the presence of repetitive artifacts that describe valuable informationabout the distribution of this class of malicious apps. Motivatedby the high threat level posed by mobile banking trojans and by thelack of publicly available

  9. New Martian Trojans and an update on the Eureka cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christou, A. A.; Vaduvescu, O.; Tudor, V.; Asher, D. J.; Toma, R.; Knapen, J.; Ponomareva, A. A.

    The number of known Trojan asteroids of Mars has recently increased twofold [1, 2]. This has led to claims of a cluster [2] associated with the first Mars Trojan discovered, 5261 Eureka. The existence of an asteroid family so close to the Sun has implications for our understanding of asteroid

  10. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  11. Trojan asteroids - Populations, dynamical structure and origin of the L4 and L5 swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Shoemaker, C.S.; Wolfe, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The origin of Trojan asteroids, their populations, and dynamical structures are examined. Data available of Trojan asteroids reveal that the total population of Trojans of greater than 15-km diam is roughly half that estimated for the main-belt asteroids. Two-thirds of the known Trojans are in the L4 swarm. Bright Trojans are as numerous in the L5 swarm as in L4 swarm, but faint L5 Trojans are only half as numerous. Similarities of characteristic orbital parameters among certain Trojans indicate the presence of five and possibly as many as eight collisional groups in the L4 swarm. It is suggested that the magnitude distribution of L4 Trojans is probably a result of strong collisional evolution. It is suggested that the present Trojans are chiefly fragments of Jupiter planetesimals that were captured during an episode of heavy flux near Jupiter during the dispersal of the planetesimal swarm. 40 refs

  12. Trojan Microparticles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F. Vandamme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA have regulated a wide range of products, (foods, cosmetics, drugs, devices, veterinary, and tobacco which may utilize micro and nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials. Nanotechnology allows scientists to create, explore, and manipulate materials in nano-regime. Such materials have chemical, physical, and biological properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. For pharmaceutical applications and in order to improve their administration (oral, pulmonary and dermal, the nanocarriers can be spread into microparticles. These supramolecular associations can also modulate the kinetic releases of drugs entrapped in the nanoparticles. Different strategies to produce these hybrid particles and to optimize the release kinetics of encapsulated drugs are discussed in this review.

  13. COTD: Reference-free Hardware Trojan Detection in Gate-level Netlist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    same time [10]. The COTD technique obtains the pairs <CC, CO> for every signal in a circuit (CC=(CC0^2+CC1^2)^1/2). Then it passes them in the form...triggering signal. Any signal that is not a Trojan signal but passing through a Trojan gate is identified as a Trojan payload signal. Any gate whose...one of inputs is a payload signal composes the Trojan payload circuitry. The remaining Trojan gates compose the Trojan trigger circuitry. The

  14. SPECTROSCOPY AND PHOTOMETRY OF JUPITER TROJANS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of the visible spectroscopic and photometric survey of Jupiter Trojans reported in Fornasier et al. 2004 and Fornasier et al....

  15. Colors and Properties of Jupiter's Greeks and Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd J.; French, Linda M.; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    In this Ph.D. talk, I will present the colors and properties of Jupiter Trojan asteroids examined in my dissertation research. The Jupiter Trojan asteroids are minor bodies that orbit 60 degrees in front and 60 degrees behind Jupiter. Because these orbits are stable over the lifetime of the Solar System, the properties of these objects may inform us about the conditions under which the Solar System formed. We present BVRKCIKC photometry for over 100 of the intrinsically brightest and presumably largest members of the L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans. We use a new principal color component derived by Chatelain et al. 2016 that is indicative of taxonomic types relevant to the Jupiter Trojan asteroids. We previously found that 76% of the largest L5 Jupiter Trojans are consistent with a D-type classification, while 24% show shallower slopes more consistent with X-type and C-type classifications. Here we extend this study to the L4 cloud and compare the two populations, as well as include findings about specific objects that have resulted from these data. Specifically, multiple photometric observations hint at color variation in some objects, and our richest datasets allow for the determination of phase curves and shapes for a handful of the most compelling asteroids including a new shape model and pole solution for 1173 Anchises. Our goal is to use this study to shed light on these fascinating objects and to place the Trojans in context in the larger Solar System.

  16. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Safety? The unprocessed seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers of horse chestnut contain esculin, which is poisonous ... E-mail: info@nccih.nih.gov PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains ...

  17. Trojan Asteroid Lightcurves: Probing Internal Structure and the Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of the small bodies of the solar system reveal important clues about the condensation and formation of planetesimal bodies, and ultimately planets in planetary systems. Dynamics of small bodies have been utilized to model giant planet migration within our solar system, colors have been used to explore compositional gradients within the protoplanetary disk, & studies of the size-frequency distribution of main belt asteroids may reveal compositional dependences on planetesimal strength limiting models of planetary growth from collisional aggregration. Studies of the optical lightcurves of asteroids also yield important information on shape and potential binarity of asteroidal bodies. The K2 mission has allowed for the unprecedented collection of Trojan asteroid lightcurves on a 30 minute cadence for baselines of 10 days, in both the L4 and L5 Trojan clouds. Preliminary results from the K2 mission suggest that Trojan asteroids have bulk densities of 1 g/cc and a binary fraction ≤ 33 percent (Ryan et al., 2017, Astronomical Journal, 153, 116), however Trojan lightcurve data is actively being collected via the continued K2 mission. We will present updated results of bulk density and binary fraction of the Trojan asteroids and compare these results to other small body populations, including Hilda asteroids, transNeptunian objects and comet nuclei to test dynamical models of the origins of these populations.

  18. Facial trauma in the Trojan War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, Ioanna; Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Mourouzis, Konstantinos; Piagkou, Mara; Rallis, George

    2015-06-01

    The Iliad and Odyssey of Homer represent the cornerstones of classical Greek literature and subsequently the foundations of literature of the Western civilization. The Iliad, particularly, is the most famous and influential epic poem ever conceived and is considered to be the most prominent and representative work of the ancient Greek epic poetry. We present the injuries that involve the face, mentioned so vividly in the Iliad, and discuss the aetiology of their extraordinary mortality rate. We recorded the references of the injuries, the attacker and defender involved, the weapons that were used, the site and the result of the injury. The face was involved in 21 trauma cases. The frontal area was traumatized in 7 cases; the oral cavity in 6; the auricular area in 4; the orbits and the retromandibular area in 3; the mandible and the nose in 2; and the maxilla, the submental and the buccal area in 1, respectively. The mortality rate concerning the facial injuries reaches 100%. Homer's literate dexterity, charisma and his unique aptitude in the narration of the events of the Trojan War have established him as the greatest epic poet. We consider the study of these vibrantly described events to be recreational and entertaining for everyone but especially for a surgeon.

  19. Rotational properties of L4 Trojan asteroids from K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Sharkey, Benjamin N. L.

    2016-10-01

    Our understanding of solar system formation is undergoing a renaissance as new planetary systems are found, often unlike our own. Many questions now ask how the giant planets and their satellite systems accreted and if there is evidence that they migrated to new orbital positions. One of the keys to understanding these questions within our own solar system is the Jupiter Trojan population which is co-orbital with Jupiter. The two Trojan clouds at the stable L4 and L5 Lagrangian points are in orbits which are stable over the age of the Solar System, unlike many other present epoch small body populations. Planetary migration models suggest that the Trojan asteroids, and the dynamically hot (i.e. "scattered"), population of Kuiper Belt objects originate from the same region in the early solar system. While these objects would have started with the same compositions, establishing compositional linkages is challenging and complicated due to a paucity of distinct and easily identifiable mineralogical features in the optical, where these objects are the brightest. While the surface compositions and colors of the Trojans match objects in the inner solar system, as well as the Kuiper Belt, physical characterization of this large population of objects has been scarce. During Campaign 6 in late 2015, the 115 square degree K2 spacecraft field of view overlapped with the L4 Trojan cloud, allowing for long term monitoring. We report on the fitted rotational periods and lightcurve amplitudes from 56 Trojan asteroids that were observed for an average of 11 days by K2. We find ~20% of objects have rotational periods longer than 50 hours and ~40% of the objects have lightcurves with shapes characteristic of contact binary systems.

  20. Genetic drift. Descent, lineage, and pedigree of the Trojans in Homer's Iliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, Euterpe

    2007-12-15

    Homer's Iliad, is an epic poem that describes the last 70 days of the Trojan War, which was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans. Here, the descent, lineage, and the pedigree of the Trojans are presented. In the Illiad, they are said to have originated from Zeus. Beginning with him, the Trojan pedigree comprised 17 men in 8 generations with Dardanus, founder of Dardania in the second generation; Tros, King of the Trojans in the fourth generation; and the two heroes Hector and Aeneas in the eighth generation. In the seventh generation, Priam, as King of the Trojans, had a huge family, including 50 sons: 19 children with his wife Hecabe, other sons with many different wives, and some daughters as well. Hector, the first born, became leader of the Trojans. Hector's brother, Paris, in abducting Helen of Sparta, the wife of King Menelaus, caused the Trojan War to break out. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Horse chestnut pollen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality of horse chestnut, expressed as pollen productivity, viability and germination was studied. Anthers of horse chestnut genotypes had pollen production from 3.66 to 5.06 x 103 pollen grains per anther, depending of genotype. Also, pollen of horse chestnut Ah1-Ah4 genotypes showed different viability (from 56 to 68%, after staining with fluorescein diacetate. Pollen germination of Ah1-Ah4 genotypes varied from 50-66% on basic medium. Inclusion of polyethylene glycol-PEG from 10%, 15% and 20% v/w increased pollen germination. The best results were achieved on medium with the largest PEG concentration. On these medium 76-91% pollen grains were germinated, depending of genotype. The best pollen quality, for all tested parameters, had genotype Ah2. Knowledge about morphology, production, viability, in vitro germination, tube growth as well as pollen: ovule ratio can be of great importance for future pollen biology studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173015

  2. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  3. Trojan Nuclear Plant. Annual operating report: January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojan generated 28,791,044 MW hours of electricity, an output greater than any other commercial U.S. plant. Availability factor was 92.6 percent and the capacity factor was 68.6 percent. Data are presented concerning operations, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, specifications, and modifications. Also reported are effluents, waste disposal, meteorology data, radiation doses, chemical uses, and environmental surveillance

  4. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  5. A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COLOR BIMODALITY OF JUPITER TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H 2 S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H 2 S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  6. A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COLOR BIMODALITY OF JUPITER TROJANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: iwong@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H{sub 2}S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H{sub 2}S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  7. Trojan Asteroids in the Kepler Campaign 6 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Erin Lee; Sharkey, Benjamin N. L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2017-03-01

    We report on a Kepler spacecraft survey during the K2 mission to characterize the rotational properties of 56 Trojan asteroids in the L4 cloud. More than one rotational period was observed for 51 of these targets, allowing for well constrained lightcurve rotation periods and amplitudes, five of which are found to be in conflict with previously published values. We find ˜10% of objects have rotational periods longer than 100 hr, an excess of slow rotators 10 times larger than suggested from the literature. Investigation of the rotational frequencies of our Kepler sample when combined with high-quality lightcurves in the literature reveals the distribution of rotational frequencies is non-Maxwellian even when consideration is given to size-dependent variations in rotational rate. From investigation of lightcurve shapes and amplitudes, we estimate the binary fraction within the Trojan population to be ˜6%-36% depending on the methodology utilized to identify binary candidates.

  8. Demystifying the epidemic among Achaeans during the Trojan War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2014-12-01

    Although some modern scholars believe that Homer had at least a basic medical education, given that a plethora of medical terms may be found in his poems, in the case of the pestilence that killed the Achaeans (one of the Hellenic peoples believed to have inhabited the Peloponnese) at Troy, his reference was simply informative. No symptoms were mentioned and the only thing known was that mules and dogs were the first to die. While Delphic Apollo was usually on the side of Peloponnesians, during the Trojan War Apollo Smintheus (the Mouse God) sided with the Trojans. Apollo was invoked as Smintheus by his priest Chryses two times and on both occasions a pestilence ensued. In our paper we try to clarify whether this pestilence, as we believe, was caused by a member of the Alphavirus genus, which can inflict a serious epidemic both on human and animal species, especially in equines.

  9. Hardware Trojans - Prevention, Detection, Countermeasures (A Literature Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    manufacturing process in-house is infeasible for all but the smallest Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designs. Our reliance on the globalisation ...for all but the smallest ASIC designs. Our reliance on the globalisation of the electronics industry is critical for developing both our commercial and...on the detection mechanism used, a Hardware Trojan may be either definitively identified, or a statistical measure may be provided indicating the

  10. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than ∼10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 ± 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 ± 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) ∼ 1.4 ± 0.2, lower than the 1.6 ± 0.1 value derived by Szabó et al.

  11. Light Curves and Low Phase Angle Photometry for Jupiter Trojans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph P.; Henry, Todd J.; Scott, Nicholas J.; French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.

    2012-08-01

    We propose to make light curve observations in both the V and I filters as well as phase curve observations of the 26 brightest Jupiter Trojans, evenly selected from the L4 (Greek) and L5 (Trojan) Lagrangian camps. We are observing these objects as part of a comprehensive effort including 113 Greeks and Trojans using the CTIO 1.0m. With these light curve data we will update previously calculated variation amplitudes and look for color variations that can give details about shapes, orientations, surface features, and ages. None of these targets have published simultaneous color information. The phase information can provide insight into surface detail and composition. These data will also enable calibration of our ongoing photometry program that will reveal the possible origins of the two camps, which remain surprisingly obscure. Furthermore, the light curves are necessary to produce proper phase curves by allowing for the removal of any changes in brightness due to rotation. The proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  12. DNA nanotechnology: On-command molecular Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Christof M.

    2017-12-01

    Lipid-motif-decorated DNA nanocapsules filled with photoresponsive polymers are capable of delivering signalling molecules into target organisms for biological perturbations at high spatiotemporal resolution.

  13. Fear in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  14. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  15. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  16. A "Trojan horse" strategy to reverse drug-resistance in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzon-Daza, Martha L.

    2014-01-01

    Los gliomas malignos representan una de las formas más agresivas de los tumores del sistema nervioso central (SNC). De acuerdo con la clasificación de los tumores cerebrales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), los astrocitomas han sido categorizados en cuatro grados, determinados por la patología subyacente. Es así como los gliomas malignos (o de alto grado) incluyen el glioma anaplásico (grado III) así como el glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grado IV),estos últimos los más agresiv...

  17. Nanocarriers Conjugated with Cell Penetrating Peptides: New Trojan Horses by Modern Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappavigna, Silvia; Misso, Gabriella; Falanga, Annarita; Perillo, Emiliana; Novellino, Ettore; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Grieco, Paolo; Caraglia, Michele; Galdiero, Stefania

    Nanomedicine has opened the way to the design of more efficient diagnostics and therapeutics. Moreover, recent literature has illustrated the use of short cationic and/or amphipathic peptides, known as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), for mediating advanced drug delivery. CPPs exploit their ability to enter cells and enhance the uptake of many cargoes ranging from small molecules to proteins. The distinctive properties of nanocarriers (NC) based systems provide unforeseen benefits over pure drugs for biomedical applications and constitute a challenging research field particularly focused on imaging and delivery; nonetheless, several problems have to be overcome to make them a viable option in clinic. The use of CPPs improves significantly their delivery to specific intracellular targets and thus readily contributes to their use both for effective tumor therapy and gene therapy. A key issue is related to their mechanism of uptake, because although classical CPPs enhance NCs' uptake, the entry mechanism involves the endocytic pathway, which means that the delivered material is sequestered within vesicles and only a small amount will escape from this environment and reach the desired target. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in the use of CPP for enhanced delivery of nanocarriers, nucleic acids, and drugs, we will discuss their uptake mechanisms and we will describe novel approaches to improve endosomal escape of internalized nanosystems.

  18. James Joyce’s Trojan Hobby-Horse: The Iliad and the Collective Unconscious Ulysses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Fuchs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available James Joyce’s Ulysses rewrites the Homeric Odyssey in such a way that the ancient myth provides a structural pattern, which gives order and meaning to a seemingly chaotic and meaningless contemporary world – an aspect which T. S. Eliot called the “mythical method”. As the characters of Ulysses are ignorant of this ordering device, they function as Jungian archetypes rather than individuals: Their deeds correspond to a mythical framework which is not actively remembered but provides a collective unconsciousness that guides their lives as a principle of order and continuity. What they do is meaningful although they consider themselves as insignificant agents thrown into a seemingly chaotic world. Whereas scholars have focused on Homer’s Odyssey as an archetypal (i.e. collective unconscious key to the cultural memory of the mythical roots of Western culture, they have turned a comparatively blind eye to the fact that Homer’s corresponding work of the Iliad has a similar function for the mythopoetic design of Ulysses. This paper is going to reconstruct Joyce’s neglected intertextual dialogue with the Iliad as an archetypal key to the cultural memory of the roots of Western civilisation.

  19. Red Trojan Horses? A New Look at Chinese SOEs' Outward Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How dangerous is Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI because of the state's influence over business, particularly state-owned enterprises (SOEs? To what extent are business and politics interwoven in Chinese investment decisions? Crucial knowledge is lacking on the relationship between the state and companies in China's OFDI. This study does not claim to completely refute the conventional view that Chinese companies, particularly SOEs, are controlled by the state in their OFDI activities. However, it tries to provide some evidence that suggests the need for a revised look at them. It argues that although Chinese SOEs are supported by Chinese diplomacy and loans in their OFDI and have a tacit understanding of certain strategic goals of the state, they enjoy autonomy to make business decisions and have prioritized maximizing their own business interests. Importantly, this is enabled by the state's view that the profit of SOEs is consistent with national interests.

  20. Delivery of Nanotethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    previously [1, 2]. Briefly, the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were cultured for 24 h in an 8- well micro -chamber slide and then incubated with the NS@dsDNA...Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA 3Department of Surgery , Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern...9882 Vol. 55, No. 34 / December 1 2016 / Applied Optics Research Article 50 Helioseal dental sealant (20%) [17,19]. Our study measured the

  1. Pumped hydroelectric storage utilization assessment: Forerunner of renewable energy integration or Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    KOUGIAS IOANNIS; SZABO SANDOR

    2017-01-01

    Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is the main utility-scale storage technology. Although PHS systems generally constitute a fraction of generation, they receive increasing attention due to their potential balancing role towards higher penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES). In the European context it is widely believed that PHS are key elements of the ongoing energy transition. The present analysis examines if this assumption is valid and PHS utilization grows parallel to RES...

  2. Endoscopic Vein Harvesting for Coronary Bypass Grafting: A Blessing or a Trojan Horse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Accord

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional open harvest of the great saphenous vein (GSV during CABG results in approximately 7% donor-site complications. Using endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH the full GSV length can be harvested through a 3 cm incision. This nonsystematic review discusses several key issues concerning EVH, based on an extensive Pubmed search. Found studies show that EVH results in reduced number of wound complications, less postoperative pain, earlier postoperative mobilisation, reduced length of hospital stay, and is more cost-effective. Initial studies did not find significant differences in graft histology, patency, or clinical outcome. However, in 2009 convincing evidence of inferior histological graft properties became available. Furthermore, an observational study showed that EVH resulted in significantly more graft stenosis, was associated with higher mortality, more myocard infarction, and more reinterventions. Most recent publications could not confirm these findings, however larger randomised controlled trials focusing on graft quality are being awaited.

  3. Dendritic cells as Achilles? heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sch?nrich, G?nther; Raftery, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently establishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZ...

  4. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Günther eSchönrich; Martin J. Raftery

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently estab-lishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing V...

  5. Entrapping ribosomes for viral translation: tRNA mimicry as a molecular Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Sharief; Bink, Hugo H J; van den Worm, Sjoerd H E; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Kraal, Barend

    2003-01-10

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has a genomic plus-strand RNA with a 5' cap followed by overlapping and different reading frames for the movement protein and polyprotein, while the distal coat protein cistron is translated from a subgenomic RNA. The 3'-untranslated region harbors a tRNA-like structure (TLS) to which a valine moiety can be added and it is indispensable for virus viability. Here, we report about a surprising interaction between TYMV-RNA-programmed ribosomes and 3'-valylated TLS that yields polyprotein with the valine N terminally incorporated by a translation mechanism resistant to regular initiation inhibitors. Disruption of the TLS exclusively abolishes polyprotein synthesis, which can be restored by adding excess TLS in trans. Our observations imply a novel eukaryotic mechanism for internal initiation of mRNA translation.

  6. Osteopontin facilitates West Nile virus neuroinvasion via neutrophil "Trojan horse" transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amber M; Acharya, Dhiraj; Duty, Laurel; Thompson, E Ashley; Le, Linda; Stokic, Dobrivoje S; Leis, A Arturo; Bai, Fengwei

    2017-07-05

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause severe human neurological diseases including encephalitis and meningitis. The mechanisms by which WNV enters the central nervous system (CNS) and host-factors that are involved in WNV neuroinvasion are not completely understood. The proinflammatory chemokine osteopontin (OPN) is induced in multiple neuroinflammatory diseases and is responsible for leukocyte recruitment to sites of its expression. In this study, we found that WNV infection induced OPN expression in both human and mouse cells. Interestingly, WNV-infected OPN deficient (Opn -/- ) mice exhibited a higher survival rate (70%) than wild type (WT) control mice (30%), suggesting OPN plays a deleterious role in WNV infection. Despite comparable levels of viral load in circulating blood cells and peripheral organs in the two groups, WNV-infected polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and viral burden in brain of Opn -/- mice were significantly lower than in WT mice. Importantly, intracerebral administration of recombinant OPN into the brains of Opn -/- mice resulted in increased WNV-infected PMN infiltration and viral burden in the brain, which was coupled to increased mortality. The overall results suggest that OPN facilitates WNV neuroinvasion by recruiting WNV-infected PMNs into the brain.

  7. Low-energy d plus d fusion reactions via the Trojan Horse Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Typel, S.; Burjan, Václav; Del Santo, M. G.; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Pizzone, R. G.; Piskoř, Štěpán; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Sparta, R.; Aliotta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 700, č. 2 (2011), s. 111-115 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07050; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11001; GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Nuclear astrophysics * Nucleosynthesis * Plasma physics * Few-body physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2011

  8. Gravity equations : Workhorse or Trojan horse in explaining trade and FDI patterns across time and space?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, Remco C. J.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd

    Gravity equations are a widely used tool in the International Business (IB) literature to explain country-level trade and FDI flows. Against the background of its increased popularity and data availability, a range of commonly made econometric mistakes have recently been discussed in the literature,

  9. Trojan Horse Method: a useful tool for electron screening effect investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.; Li, C.; Wen, Q.; Zhou, S.; Burjan, Václav; Kroha, Václav; Mrázek, Jaromír; Carlin, N.; Del Santo, M. G.; de Toledo, A. S.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Rolfs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 834, 1-4 (2010), 673C-675C ISSN 0375-9474. [10th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2009). Beijing, 16.08.2009-21.08.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS * NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS * S(E)-FACTOR Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  10. Action research in inter-organisational networks : - impartial studies or the Trojan horse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj

    2007-01-01

    -organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article...

  11. Action Research in Inter-organisational Networks - Impartial studies or the Trojan Horse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Bergenholtz, Carsten; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj

    2008-01-01

    -organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and, potentially, the credibility of the researchers. The article...

  12. The electronic cigarette: a knight in shining armour or a Trojan horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluger, Neil W

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have caused a sharp debate in the public health community, with some promoting them as a means of harm reduction for tobacco users and some taking a strong stand against them because of fear of renormalising smoking behaviour and interrupting tobacco control progress. People with mental health problems smoke at high rates and e-cigarettes seem a potentially attractive method of cessation in this population, and their use should be studied carefully.

  13. The electronic cigarette: a knight in shining armour or a Trojan horse?†

    OpenAIRE

    Schluger, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have caused a sharp debate in the public health community, with some promoting them as a means of harm reduction for tobacco users and some taking a strong stand against them because of fear of renormalising smoking behaviour and interrupting tobacco control progress. People with mental health problems smoke at high rates and e-cigarettes seem a potentially attractive method of cessation in this population, and their use should be studied carefully.

  14. Trojan horse or horn of plenty? Reflections on allowing CCS in the CDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coninck, Heleen de

    2008-01-01

    The discussion around allowing CO 2 capture and geological storage (CCS) into the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is important, as the CDM is currently the only structural incentive for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the developing world. Without the potential incentives given by the CDM, CCS in developing countries will only take place sporadically in niche sectors. The debate around CCS in the CDM has developed into a highly polarised discussion, with a deep divide between proponents and opponents and no view on reconciliation between the various perspectives. Environmental organisations and several developing-country parties in the climate negotiations are increasingly vehemently opposed against CCS in the CDM, and industrialised countries, several large fossil-fuel-dependent developing countries and industry view CCS as a natural option under the CDM, provided some surmountable technical and procedural barriers are taken care of. This paper argues that the efforts of those trying to bring the discussion to a close by solving technical and procedural issues around CCS in the CDM will not lead to agreement because of underlying convictions of all stakeholders. Six convictions are identified and discussed. Based on the discussion of the convictions of both opponents and proponents, research needs and a potential negotiation package are suggested. The research needs are primarily in the field of the CDM market impacts of CCS, the issue of enhanced oil emission accounting, and sustainable development aspects, and particularly whether developing countries could actually benefit from technological leadership in the field of CCS, or whether they will be worse off. Devoting attention to the identified convictions could provide information for a more acceptable negotiation package on CCS in the CDM

  15. EU Common Energy Policy: A Trojan Horse for Member States? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest energeetika valdkonnas. Autor leiab, et Eesti peaks aktiivselt osalema Euroopa Liidu ühise energiapoliitika väljatöötamisel ning mõstma, et see on osa välis- ja kaitsepoliitikast

  16. How Long-Lived Are the Hypothetical Trojan Populations of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, D.; Dones, L.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the possibility that fractions of the primordial populations at the triangular Lagrangian points of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have survived to the present and form (as yet unobserved) clusters of bodies coorbiting with these planets. Such leftovers would be analogs of the numerous objects (Trojans) leading and trailing the revolutions of Jupiter around the Sun. We focus on the dynamical stability of such populations over the age of the Solar System, assuming the current configuration of planets, and also discuss effects of the early radial migration of the outer planets. Our results suggest that, while Saturn's and Uranus' primordial Trojan populations should have been depleted by a factor of 100, Neptune may retain 50% of its original population of Trojans. A population of neptunian Trojans comparable to, or even larger than, Jupiter's Trojan population cannot be ruled out by existing observations. We compute the present-day sky densities of the hypothetical Trojans of the outer planets which can be used to guide observational surveys. Finally, we propose that the long-term instabilities that cause some jovian Trojans to escape the region of the Lagrange points at the present are due to three-body resonances.

  17. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  18. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Monodromy matrix theory of Trojan wave packets on elliptical orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinski, Matt

    2009-05-01

    The possibility of existence of so called Trojan wavepackets on elliptical orbits, nondispersing wave packets once predicted on cirular orbits while the Hydrogen atom is placed in the CP field has been predicted both theoretically [1] and after many years finally confirmed experimentally in recent microwave experiments. They are caused by so called population lock on the resonance with the infinite semi-harmonic but nonlinear spectrum. However no extension of harmonic theory has been given which simply explains the phenomenon as generalized concept of the Paul trap in the atom but for the single electron. Hereby we apply the monodromy matrix theory originally developed by Heller [2] to study such phenomenon. We define the instantaneous Hamiltonian for the electron an the elliptical orbit and surprisingly find out that it needs not to have real eigenvalues for all times of the circular motion while the packed motion is still nondispersing. Numerical simulations using split-operator method are also presented. [1] E. A. Shapiro, M. Kalinski, and J. H. Eberly, ``Non-circular Trojan-like wavepackets: quantum theory and application to quantum control,'' J. Phys. B 33, 3079, (2000); [2] E. J. Heller, ``Bound-State Eigenfunctions of Classically Chaotic Hamiltonian Systems: Scars of Periodic Orbits,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1515 (1984).

  20. Dynamical evolution of a fictitious population of binary Neptune Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, Adrián

    2018-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of the evolution of a synthetic population of Binary Neptune Trojans, under the influence of the solar perturbations and tidal friction (the so-called Kozai cycles and tidal friction evolution). Our model includes the dynamical influence of the four giant planets on the heliocentric orbit of the binary centre of mass. In this paper, we explore the evolution of initially tight binaries around the Neptune L4 Lagrange point. We found that the variation of the heliocentric orbital elements due to the libration around the Lagrange point introduces significant changes in the orbital evolution of the binaries. Collisional processes would not play a significant role in the dynamical evolution of Neptune Trojans. After 4.5 × 109 yr of evolution, ˜50 per cent of the synthetic systems end up separated as single objects, most of them with slow diurnal rotation rate. The final orbital distribution of the surviving binary systems is statistically similar to the one found for Kuiper Belt Binaries when collisional evolution is not included in the model. Systems composed by a primary and a small satellite are more fragile than the ones composed by components of similar sizes.

  1. The composition of the Eureka family of Martian Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Galin; Christou, Apostolos; Bagnulo, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    The so-called Martian Trojan asteroids orbit the Sun just inside the terrestrial planet region. They are thought to date from the earliest period of the solar system's history (Scholl et al, Icarus, 2005). Recently, Christou (Icarus, 2013) identified an orbital concentration of Trojans, named the "Eureka" cluster after its largest member, 5261 Eureka. This asteroid belongs to the rare olivine-rich A taxonomic class (Rivkin et al, Icarus, 2007; Lim et al, DPS/EPSC 2011). Unlike asteroids belonging to other taxonomies (e.g. C or S), no orbital concentrations or families of A-types are currently known to exist. These asteroids may represent samples of the building blocks that came together to form Mars and the other terrestrial planets but have since been destroyed by collisions (Sanchez et al, Icarus, 2014, and references therein).We have used the X-SHOOTER echelle spectrograph on the ESO VLT KUEYEN to obtain vis-NIR reflectance spectra of asteroids in the cluster and test their genetic relationship to Eureka. During the presentation we will show the spectra, compare them with available spectra for Eureka itself and discuss the implications for the origin of this cluster and for other olivine-dominated asteroids in the Main Belt.Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programme ID 296.C-5030 (PI: A. Christou). Astronomical Research at Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL).

  2. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  3. Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lucey, Paul; Glotch, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    With a total mass similar to the main asteroid belt, the jovian Trojan asteroids are a major feature in the Solar System. Based upon the thermal infrared spectra of the largest Trojans obtained with the Spitzer space telescope, Emery et al. (Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182, 496) suggested that the surfaces of these Trojans may consist of fine-grained silicates suspended in a transparent matrix. To explore the transparent matrix hypothesis, we adopted a modified radiative transfer model to fit the Trojan spectra simultaneously both in the near and the thermal infrared regions. Our model shows that the Trojan spectra over a wide wavelength range can be consistently explained by fine grained silicates (1-5 wt.%) and highly absorbing material (e.g. carbon or iron, 2-10 wt.%) suspended in a transparent matrix. The matrix is consistent with a deposit of salt on the surfaces of the large Trojans. However, this consistency is not an actual detection of salt and other alternatives may still be possible. We suggest that early in the Solar System history, short-lived radionuclides heated ice-rich Trojans and caused melting, internal circulation of water and dissolution of soluble materials. Briny water volcanism were facilitated by internal volatiles and a possibly global sill of frozen brine was formed beneath the cold primitive crust. The frozen brine layer was likely to be evacuated by impact erosions and evaporation of the exposed brines eventually left a lag deposit of salt. Over the Solar System’s history, fine dust from comets or impacts contaminated and colored these salty surfaces of the Trojans to produce the spectral properties observed today.

  4. Are Trojan collisional families a source for short-period comets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Farinella, P.; Vanzani, V.

    1995-07-01

    We have investigated the dynamical evolution of fragments generated by the impact breakup of Trojan asteroids, in order to study the formation of collisional families in the Trojan clouds and to identify a possible genetic connection between these fragments and the population of short-period comets. Using a collisional model based on the results of high-velocity laboratory impact experiments and previously applied to main-belt asteroid families, we show that typical family-forming Trojan collisions eject a significant percentage (at least =~20%) of the resulting fragments onto unstable orbits. Numerical integrations of the orbits of such fictitious, unstable Trojan fragments show that soon they experience close encounters with Jupiter, and as a consequence they become undistinguishable from those of Jupiter-family comets (some of which are currently close to the 1:1 Jovian resonance), of comets undergoing temporary satellite captures by Jupiter (such as P/Shoemaker-Levy 9), and of objects with Jupiter-crossing or -approaching orbits (such as 944 Hidalgo, 2060 Chiron, 5145 Pholus and 3552 Don Quixote). A reliable assessment of the efficiency of the transfer process from the Trojan clouds into comet-type orbits and of its time dependence is difficult, owing in particular to the poorly known size distribution of Trojans. However, an order-of-magnitude estimate suggests that if the fragment flux from the Trojan clouds over the last =~10^6^yr has been close to the average one over the solar system's lifetime, then a few tens of the 160 known short-period comets might have been generated by Trojan collisions.

  5. Testing Migration of the Jupiter Trojan Asteroids in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Michael; Blacksberg, Jordana; Brown, Mike; Carey, Elizabeth; Carlson, Robert; Ehlmann, Bethany; Eiler, John; Hand, Kevin; Hodyss, Robert; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Wong, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Today’s Jupiter Trojan asteroids may have orininated in the Kuiper Belt (eg. Morbidelli et al. Nature 2005, Nesvorny et al. ApJ 2013) and migrated to capture at their present locations. If this is the case, it is expected that their surfaces will contain chemical traces of this history. No distinct spectral bands have been conclusively identified in the literature, however, visible and near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt, Centaur, and Trojan populations each show two sub-populations distinguished by their spectral slopes (Brown et al. ApJL 2011; Emery et al. AJ 2011). The slopes are all positive (or “red”), steepest in the Kuiper Belt, and least steep in the Trojan population. Here we test the hypothesis that the asteroids formed spanning a stability line for a critical substance; in this case we test sulfur, as H2S. The hypothesis is that irradiating mixed ices containing H2S will result in a refractory residue of steeper slope than the same composition without the H2S. We have simulated this history in the Minos chamber at the Icy Worlds Simulation Laboratory at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Ices that will be discussed include a 3:3:3:1 mixture of H2S: NH3: CH3OH: H2O and a 3:3:1 mixture of NH3: CH3OH: H2O. After deposition at 50 K, the ices were irradiated with a beam of 10 keV electrons to form the refractory crust. The ices were then warmed (while continuing irradiation) to 120 K and observed for several days. Reflectance spectra were collected throughout the experiment in the visible and infrared. The spectral slope increased dramatically after irradiation of the mixture containing H2S, while the spectral slope for the mixture without any sulfur changed very little. This is consistent with sulfur being the critical component determining which of the spectral populations an object belongs to in the present inventory of outer solar system objects. Quantitative analysis is underway.This work has been supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies

  6. Population control of Martian Trojans by the Yarkovsky & YORP effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos; Borisov, Galin; Jacobson, Seth A.; Colas, Francois; dell'Oro, Aldo; Cellino, Alberto; Bagnulo, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Mars is the only terrestrial planet supporting a stable population of Trojan asteroids. One, (5261) Eureka, has a family of smaller asteroids of similar composition (Borisov et al, 2017; Polishook et al, 2017) that likely separated from Eureka within the last 1 Gyr (Ćuk et al, 2015). Two other Trojans, (101429) 1998 VF31 and (121514) 1999 UJ7, of similar size and on similar orbits to Eureka, are not associated with families of asteroids, begging the question of what makes Eureka special.The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect may have formed the Eureka family (Christou, 2013; Ćuk et al, 2015) by the spinning off of ``YORPlets’’, a mechanism also responsible for close orbital pairs of small Main Belt asteroids (Pravec et al, 2010). Eureka’s fast rotation rate (P=2.69 hr; Koehn et al, 2014), right at the so-called ``spin barrier’’ (Warner et al, 2009), apparently supports this.We obtained photometry of 101429 and 121514 to find out their rotation periods. We find an unusually long, ˜50 hr period for 121514; the asteroid may be in a ``tumbling’’ rotational state that inhibits YOPRlet production. On the other hand, the faster (P=7.7 hr) rotation we obtain for 101429 does not preclude it from having been spun up to the rotational fission limit during the most recent 10s of Myr.Instead, 101429’s location near a secular resonance (Scholl et al, 2005) may lead to rapid loss of any YORPlet asteroids. Indeed, test particles started at 101429’s orbit and evolving under the Yarkovsky effect escape within a few hundred Myr, several times faster than particles started near Eureka. We conclude that the stability enjoyed by asteroids in Eureka’s orbital vicinity, combined with the ability to readily populate that vicinity with new asteroids, are likely responsible for Eureka’s status as the only Martian Trojan with a family.

  7. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed.

  8. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hany A M; Alkabani, Yousra; Selim, Gamal M I

    2014-07-01

    The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs) during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security.

  9. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany A.M. Amin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security.

  10. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  11. Lightcurve Analysis of L5 Trojan Asteroids at the Center for Solar System Studies 2017 September to December

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert D.; Warner, Brian D.

    2018-04-01

    Lightcurves for four Jovian Trojan asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) from 2017 September to December. From observations in 2016 June, 2759 Idomeneus was found to be another candidate for the special case of very wide binaries. This would be the fifth confirmed Jovian Trojan binary asteroid.

  12. Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs. The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO, genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses.

  13. Color Variation on the Surfaces of Jupiter’s Greek and Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Trilling, David E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2017-10-01

    The L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter are populated with thousands of known, and possibly hundreds of thousands of unknown, Greek and Trojan Asteroids. Understanding the environmental and weathering conditions experienced by these objects over their lifetimes could constrain formation models for the Solar System. In an effort to shine some light on this issue, we have collected partial, simultaneous, lightcurves in both Johnson-Cousins V and I filters for a dozen large Jupiter Trojans. We found significant signs of color variation over the surfaces of four of these objects, and more subtle signs on an additional four. The most convincing examples of variation occur on (4709) Ennomos and (4833) Meges. Such a variation in color with rotation likely implies a large surface feature such as a recent crater. That such a high fraction of observed Trojans display these signatures could imply a more active collisional history for Jupiter Trojans than previously thought. It is therefore likely that one or more of the targets for the Lucy mission will have experienced a large, relatively recent, cratering event. This may help us obtain a much more in-depth understanding of the evolutionary processes ongoing for the Jupiter Trojan populations.

  14. Reproduction in feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, J D; McCullough, D R

    1975-10-01

    A behavioural study of feral horses was conducted on the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in the western United States. All 270 horses on the Range were identified individually. The sex ratio was nearly balanced. Foal to adult female ratio was 43-2:100. Morality was concentrated among foals and old horses. Horses were organized as forty-four harem groups each with a dominant stallion, one to two immature stallions, one to three immature mares, one to three adult mares and their yearling and foal offspring, and 23 bachelor groups of one to eight stallions. Harem groups were quite stable year-round because of dominance and leadership by the stallions and group fidelity by mares and their offsring. Most changes occurred during the breeding season and involved immature females. Defeat of dominant stallions was infrequent. Immature males were tolerated because of their submissive behaviour. Bachelor stallion groups were inherently unstable. Mares came into heat after foaling in May/June, and were mated by harem stallions only.

  15. Picking Sides: Classifying Jupiter’s Greeks and Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd J.; French, Linda M.; Trilling, David E.

    2014-11-01

    The L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter are populated with thousands of known, and possibly hundreds of thousands of unknown, Greek and Trojan Asteroids. As a robust, intermediate population, these objects represent a crucial dynamical group for testing the viability of various Solar System formation models and mechanisms. A detailed examination of these two camps is therefore necessary for fully understanding Solar System formation. We have collected hundreds of visible photometric observations for 110 of the brightest (H ≤ 10.0) members from both camps using several different observatories in both hemispheres in an effort to precisely classify these objects in a way readily comparable both to the Main Belt population as well as to populations of icy bodies further out in the Solar System. Here we present the full results of our photometric survey and analysis. These data also allow for a visible wavelength comparison between the two camps as well a search for a similar visible color bimodality in the populations as has been suggested by some Infrared spectroscopic observations. Ultimately such information will help us better understand this very important group of objects and how they came to reside in their current orbits. This in-turn will provide insight into the very formation of the Solar System.

  16. BINARY CANDIDATES IN THE JOVIAN TROJAN AND HILDA POPULATIONS FROM NEOWISE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnett, S.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: Sarah.Sonnett@jpl.nasa.gov [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Determining the binary fraction for a population of asteroids, particularly as a function of separation between the two components, helps describe the dynamical environment at the time the binaries formed, which in turn offers constraints on the dynamical evolution of the solar system. We searched the NEOWISE archival data set for close and contact binary Trojans and Hildas via their diagnostically large light curve amplitudes. We present 48 out of 554 Hilda and 34 out of 953 Trojan binary candidates in need of follow-up to confirm their large light curve amplitudes and subsequently constrain the binary orbit and component sizes. From these candidates, we calculate a preliminary estimate of the binary fraction without confirmation or debiasing of 14%-23% for Trojans larger than ∼12 km and 30%-51% for Hildas larger than ∼4 km. Once the binary candidates have been confirmed, it should be possible to infer the underlying, debiased binary fraction through estimation of survey biases.

  17. THE 3–4  μ m SPECTRA OF JUPITER TROJAN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. E., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    To date, reflectance spectra of Jupiter Trojan asteroids have revealed no distinctive absorption features. For this reason, the surface composition of these objects remains a subject of speculation. Spectra have revealed, however, that the Jupiter Trojan asteroids consist of two distinct sub-populations that differ in the optical to near-infrared colors. The origins and compositional differences between the two sub-populations remain unclear. Here, we report the results from a 2.2–3.8 μ m spectral survey of a collection of 16 Jupiter Trojan asteroids, divided equally between the two sub-populations. We find clear spectral absorption features centered around 3.1 μ m in the less-red population. Additional absorption consistent with that expected from organic materials might also be present. No such features are see in the red population. A strong correlation exists between the strength of the 3.1 μ m absorption feature and the optical to near-infrared color of the objects. While, traditionally, absorptions such as these in dark asteroids are modeled as being due to fine-grain water frost, we find it physically implausible that the special circumstances required to create such fine-grained frost would exist on a substantial fraction of the Jupiter Trojan asteroids. We suggest, instead, that the 3.1 μ m absorption on Trojans and other dark asteroids could be due to N–H stretch features. Additionally, we point out that reflectivities derived from WISE observations show a strong absorption beyond 4 μ m for both populations. The continuum of 3.1 μ m features and the common absorption beyond 4 μ m might suggest that both sub-populations of Jupiter Trojan asteroids formed in the same general region of the early solar system.

  18. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  19. True single-molecule DNA sequencing of a pleistocene horse bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Raghavan, Maanasa

    2011-01-01

    -preserved Pleistocene horse bone using the Helicos HeliScope and Illumina GAIIx platforms, respectively. We find that the percentage of endogenous DNA sequences derived from the horse is higher among the Helicos data than Illumina data. This result indicates that the molecular biology tools used to generate sequencing...

  20. The Trojan war dated by two solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Goran

    The Trojan War was very significant for the ancient Greeks and they dated historical events according to the number of years after the fall of Troy. However, there was already in antiquity no consensus as to the exact date of the war when compared with different epochs. Even after the modern discovery of the ancient city, there has been disagreement among different excavators as to which layer corresponds to the city mentioned in the Iliad attributed to Homer. In this paper an attempt is made to identify the strange obscuration of the sun that occurred during the final battle of the Iliad as a total solar eclipse close to the southern border of the zone of totality. There exists only one solar eclipse that corresponds to the description in the text and this is the total solar eclipse of June 11, in 1312 BC. When I first presented this date in 1986, there was a difference of about 60 years compared with the most common archaeological dating at that time. My date is now fully supported by the latest results from the German-American excavation that identifies the fall of Homer's Troy with the destruction of the archaeological layer Troy VIh, dated to about 1300 BC. Further independent support is provided by another solar eclipse that dates the reign of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. This king wrote a letter to king Alaksandu in Wilusa, identified as the Hittite name for Ilios, the most frequently used name for Troy in the Iliad. Alexander was another name for Paris who abducted Helen, the crime that resulted in the war. Muwatalli II was king 1315-1297 BC, according to the chronology for the Hittite Kingdom based on a solar eclipse in 1335 BC, during the tenth year of King Mursili II (1345- 1315 BC), the father of Muwatalli II.

  1. Analysis of the Trojan Y-Chromosome eradication strategy for an invasive species

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xueying

    2013-05-24

    The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we analyze the dynamical system model of the TYC strategy, with the aim of studying the viability of the TYC eradication and control strategy of an invasive species. In particular, because the constant introduction of sex-reversed trojan females for all time is not possible in practice, there arises the question: What happens if this injection is stopped after some time? Can the invasive species recover? To answer that question, we perform a rigorous bifurcation analysis and study the basin of attraction of the recovery state and the extinction state in both the full model and a certain reduced model. In particular, we find a theoretical condition for the eradication strategy to work. Additionally, the consideration of an Allee effect and the possibility of a Turing instability are also studied in this work. Our results show that: (1) with the inclusion of an Allee effect, the number of the invasive females is not required to be very low when the introduction of the sex-reversed trojan females is stopped, and the remaining Trojan Y-Chromosome population is sufficient to induce extinction of the invasive females; (2) incorporating diffusive spatial spread does not produce a Turing instability, which would have suggested that the TYC eradication strategy might be only partially effective, leaving a patchy distribution of the invasive species. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing seve...... group provided the fastest training solution and expressed less stress response. Thus, the PR procedure could provide a preferable training solution when training horses in potentially stressing situations....

  3. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  4. Delivery of Nano-Tethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    output of the laser/OPO system (Nd:YAG class 4 laser/ MagicPRISM OPO, Opotek Inc.) (tuned to 800nm) through an integrating sphere (Melles Griot ). The...equatorial and az- imuthal directions. The probe tip is illuminated by laser light emanating from an integrating sphere (Melles Griot two port integrating

  5. Trojan horse strategies used by pathogens to influence the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) system of host eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békés, Miklós; Drag, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable feature of pathogenic organisms is their ability to utilize the cellular machinery of host cells to their advantage in facilitating their survival and propagation. Posttranslational modification of proteins offers a quick way to achieve changes in the localization, binding partners or functions of a target protein. It is no surprise then that pathogens have evolved multiple ways to interfere with host posttranslational modifications and hijack them for their own purposes. Recently, modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier has emerged as an important posttranslational modification regulating transcription, DNA repair and cell division, and literature has started to emerge documenting how it could be utilized by pathogenic bacteria and viruses during infection. In this brief review, we focus on the host small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) system and how disease causing agents influence SUMO conjugation and deconjugation, highlighting the common theme of global hypoSUMOylation upon infection by pathogens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Trojan horse lymphocytes: a vesicular stomatitis virus-specific T-cell clone lyses target cells by carrying virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, R C; Soman, G; Finberg, R

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-specific CD4+ CD8- murine T-cell clone. This clone proliferates only in response to VSV and lyses infected tumor cells bearing class II major histocompatibility antigens in short-term chromium release assays. In addition, the cell has VSV antigens on its surface and is capable of killing uninfected tumor cells without major histocompatibility antigen restriction in a 2-day assay. This latter cytolytic activity is eliminated by anti-VSV antib...

  7. Structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of galectins in aquatic mollusks: From a sweet tooth to the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Feng, C; Bianchet, M A; Bachvaroff, T R; Tasumi, S

    2015-09-01

    Galectins constitute a conserved and widely distributed lectin family characterized by their binding affinity for β-galactosides and a unique binding site sequence motif in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of their structural conservation, galectins display a remarkable functional diversity, by participating in developmental processes, cell adhesion and motility, regulation of immune homeostasis, and recognition of glycans on the surface of viruses, bacteria and protozoan parasites. In contrast with mammals, and other vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, the identification and characterization of bona fide galectins in aquatic mollusks has been relatively recent. Most of the studies have focused on the identification and domain organization of galectin-like transcripts or proteins in diverse tissues and cell types, including hemocytes, and their expression upon environmental or infectious challenge. Lectins from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, however, have been characterized in their molecular, structural and functional aspects and some notable features have become apparent in the galectin repertoire of aquatic mollusks. These including less diversified galectin repertoires and different domain organizations relative to those observed in vertebrates, carbohydrate specificity for blood group oligosaccharides, and up regulation of galectin expression by infectious challenge, a feature that supports their proposed role(s) in innate immune responses. Although galectins from some aquatic mollusks have been shown to recognize microbial pathogens and parasites and promote their phagocytosis, they can also selectively bind to phytoplankton components, suggesting that they also participate in uptake and intracellular digestion of microalgae. In addition, the experimental evidence suggests that the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus has co-evolved with the oyster host to be selectively recognized by the oyster hemocyte galectins over algal food or bacterial pathogens, thereby subverting the oyster's innate immune/feeding recognition mechanisms to gain entry into the host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trojan horse lymphocytes: a vesicular stomatitis virus-specific T-cell clone lyses target cells by carrying virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, R C; Soman, G; Finberg, R

    1989-10-01

    We have isolated a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-specific CD4+ CD8- murine T-cell clone. This clone proliferates only in response to VSV and lyses infected tumor cells bearing class II major histocompatibility antigens in short-term chromium release assays. In addition, the cell has VSV antigens on its surface and is capable of killing uninfected tumor cells without major histocompatibility antigen restriction in a 2-day assay. This latter cytolytic activity is eliminated by anti-VSV antibody, indicating that its lytic activity is provided by the virus. [35S]methionine labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that viral protein translation is initiated after incubation of the clone with a tumor target cell, defining this as the mechanism of its cytolytic activity.

  9. Dendritic cells serve as a "Trojan horse" for oncolytic adenovirus delivery in the treatment of mouse prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Lun; Liang, Xuan; Li, He-Cheng; Wang, Zi-Ming; Chong, Tie

    2016-08-01

    Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer, in which replication of the virus itself is the anticancer method. However, the success of this novel therapy is limited due to inefficient delivery of the virus to the target sites. In this study, we used dendritic cells (DCs) as carriers for conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) in targeting prostate carcinoma (PCa). Four types of CRAds, including Ad-PC (without PCa-specific promoter and a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor, rmhTNF, sequence), Ad-PC-rmhTNF (without PCa-specific promoter), Ad-PPC-NCS (without an rmhTNF sequence) and Ad-PPC-rmhTNF, were constructed. The androgen-insensitive mouse PCa RM-1 cells were co-cultured with CRAd-loading DCs, and the viability of RM-1 cells was examined using MTT assay. The in vivo effects of CRAd-loading DCs on PCa were evaluated in RM-1 xenograft mouse model. Two PCa-specific CRAds (Ad-PPC-NCS, Ad-PPC-rmhTNF) exhibited more potent suppression on the viability of RM-1 cells in vitro than the PCa-non-specific CRAds (Ad-PC, Ad-PC-rmhTNF). In PCa-bearing mice, intravenous injection of the PCa-specific CRAd-loading DCs significantly inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors, extended the survival time, and induced T-cell activation. Additionally, the rmhTNF-containing CRAds exhibited greater tumor killing ability than CRAds without rmhTNF. DCs may be an effective vector for the delivery of CRAds in the treatment of PCa.

  10. Policy Reforms, Trojan Horses, and Imaginary Friends: The Role of External Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria João; Teixeira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The governance of higher education has been changing across Europe, most notably in response to the reform agenda that has been pervading many higher education systems. This wave of reforms has given enhanced visibility to external stakeholders, which has been often received with contrasting views. Some regarded it as a factor that would undermine…

  11. Arts-Based Research: Trojan Horses and Shibboleths. The Liabilities of a Hybrid Research Approach. "What Hath Eisner Wrought?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David

    2009-01-01

    The term "arts-based research" has been debated for some time now. In an article strongly in favor of this approach Bean (2007) identifies three species: "Research on the arts (italics in the original) (art history, visual and cultural studies, media studies etc.)...Research for the arts, refers to research into applied techniques, materials and…

  12. Chronic renal failure in Sri Lanka caused by elevated dietary cadmium: Trojan horse of the green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Liyanege, J; Upul, M A; Bandara, J M U A

    2010-09-15

    The endemic of chronic renal failure (CRF) emerged in 2002 in the farming provinces of Sri Lanka. An estimate of dietary cadmium intake was between 15 and 28 microg/kg body weight per week. The mean urinary cadmium in patients diagnosed with stage 5 kidney failure was 7.6 microg/g creatinine and 11.6 microg/g for asymptomatic persons. The agrochemical triple superphosphate (TSP) fertilizer containing 23.5-71.7 mg Cd/kg was the source of cadmium added to soils. Mean Cd content in cultivated vs. uncultivated soils in Anuradhapura district was 0.02 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.11 +/- 0.19 mg/kg while in Polonnaruwa district, it was 0.005 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.016 +/- 0.005 mg/kg. Prior to the Green Revolution, the amount of fertilizer used in rice cultivation in 1970 was 32,000 metric tons (Mts) rising to 74,000 Mts in 1975. Up to 68.9 Mts of Cd could have entered into the rice-cascade reservoir environment from TSP use since 1973. Diversion of the Mahaweli River in 1970-1980 further increased cadmium input. Cadmium transfer from Upper Mahaweli water to Polgolla was 72.13 kg/day. Cadmium content of the sediments from reservoirs collecting cadmium from irrigated TSP fertilized crop fields (rice and vegetables) was 1.8-2.4 mg/kg. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extremism and Neo-Liberal Education Policy: A Contextual Critique of the Trojan Horse Affair in Birmingham Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers new insights into the effects of neo-liberal education policies on some Muslim majority schools in Birmingham. It critically reveals how the implementation of neo-liberal education policies, pursued by both Labour and Conservative Governments, has contributed to the failure of some mechanisms of school leadership and governance.…

  14. Balancing the principles: why the universality of human rights is not the Trojan horse of moral imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semplici, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the 'global' level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most relevant international declarations and documents, is not exempt from the charge. However, the refusal of a top-down conception of the universal as a sort of product for exportation should not be confused with a relativistic landscape, where all the cows can be indifferently black or white. This contribution aims at outlining an approach, which reconciles universalism as enshrined in founding human rights declarations with respect for cultural diversity. In order to do so, two conceptual frameworks are discussed: the 'tool-kit' model and the morals/ethics difference. The example of the right to quality health care confirms the argument that striking a balance between cherishing pluralism and defending some fundamental rights and obligations does not amount to an assertion of moral imperialism.

  15. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills,

  16. Assessing Shape Characteristics of Jupiter Trojans in the Kepler Campaign 6 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Benjamin; Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2017-10-01

    We report estimates of spin pole orientations and body-centric axis ratios of nine Jupiter Trojan asteroids through convex shape models derived from Kepler K2 photometry. Our sample contains single-component as well as candidate binary systems (identified through lightcurve features). Photometric baselines on the targets covered 7 to 93 full rotation periods. By incorporating a bias against highly elongated physical shapes, spin vector orientations of single-component systems were constrained to several discrete regions. Single-component convex models failed to converge on two binary candidates while two others demonstrated pronounced tapering that may be consistent with concavities of contact binaries. Further work to create two-component models is likely necessary to constrain the candidate binary targets. We find that Kepler K2 photometry provides robust datasets capable of providing detailed information on physical shape parameters of Jupiter Trojans.

  17. The olivine-dominated composition of the Eureka family of Mars Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G.; Christou, A.; Bagnulo, S.; Cellino, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Dell'Oro, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have used the XSHOOTER echelle spectrograph on the European Southern Obseratory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain UVB-VIS-NIR (ultraviolet-blue (UVB), visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR)) reflectance spectra of two members of the Eureka family of L5 Mars Trojans, in order to test a genetic relationship to Eureka. In addition to obtaining spectra, we also carried out VRI photometry of one of the VLT targets using the 2-m telescope at the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory - Rozhen and the two-channel focal reducer. We found that these asteroids belong to the olivine-dominated A, or Sa, taxonomic class. As Eureka itself is also an olivine-dominated asteroid, it is likely that all family asteroids share a common origin and composition. We discuss the significance of these results in terms of the origin of the martian Trojan population.

  18. Production of Sulfur Allotropes in Electron Irradiated Jupiter Trojans Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John M.; Brown, Michael E.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate sulfur chemistry in laboratory analogs of Jupiter Trojans and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Electron irradiation experiments of CH3OH-NH3-H2O and H2S-CH3OH-NH3-H2O ices were conducted to better understand the chemical differences between primordial planetesimals inside and outside the sublimation line of H2S. The main goal of this work is to test the chemical plausibility of the hypothesis correlating the color bimodality in Jupiter Trojans with sulfur chemistry in the incipient solar system. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the irradiated mixtures allows the detection of small sulfur allotropes (S3 and S4) after the irradiation of H2S containing ice mixtures. These small, red polymers are metastable and could polymerize further under thermal processing and irradiation, producing larger sulfur polymers (mainly S8) that are spectroscopically neutral at wavelengths above 500 nm. This transformation may affect the spectral reflectance of Jupiter Trojans in a different way compared to KBOs, thereby providing a useful framework for possibly differentiating and determining the formation and history of small bodies. Along with allotropes, we report the production of organo-sulfur molecules. Sulfur molecules produced in our experiment have been recently detected by Rosetta in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very weak absorption of sulfur polymers in the infrared range hampers their identification on Trojans and KBOs, but these allotropes strongly absorb light at UV and Visible wavelengths. This suggests that high signal-to-noise ratio UV-Vis spectra of these objects could provide new constraints on their presence.

  19. The TROJAN Project: Creating a Customized International Orthopedic Training Program for Junior Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai

    2015-03-03

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful.

  20. The TROJAN Project: Creating a Customized International Orthopedic Training Program for Junior Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful

  1. Trojan War displayed as a full annihilation-diffusion-reaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    The diffusive pair annihilation model with embedded topological domains and archaeological data is applied in an analysis of the hypothetical Trojan-Greek war during the late Bronze Age. Estimations of parameter are explicitly made for critical dynamics of the model. In particular, the 8-metre walls of Troy could be viewed as the effective shield that provided the technological difference between the two armies. Suggestively, the numbers in The Iliad are quite sound, being in accord with Lanchester's laws of warfare.

  2. Collisional Histories of Comets and Trojan Asteroids: Insights from Forsterite and Enstatite Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer. S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Cintala, M. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Impacts into forsterite and orthoenstatite at speeds typically encountered by comets demonstrate that shock imparted by collisions is detectable in the infrared signatures of their dust. The spectral signatures can be traced to physical alterations in their crystalline structures, as observed in TEM imaging and modeled using a dipole approximation. These results yield tantalizing insights into the collisional history of our solar system, as well as the history of individual comets and Trojan asteroids.

  3. Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E. Jr.; Bereano, P.L.; Douglass, J.; Watson, R.H.; Zemansky, G.M.

    1979-10-01

    The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions

  4. Science Experiments of a Jupiter Trojan asteroid in the Solar Power Sail Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, T.; Kebukawa, Y.; Aoki, J.; Kawai, Y.; Ito, M.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.; Matsumoto, J.; Bibring, J. P.; Ulamec, S.; Jaumann, R.; Iwata, T.; Mori, O.; Kawaguchi, J.

    2017-12-01

    A Jupiter Trojan asteroid mission using a large area solar power sail (SPS) is under study in JAXA in collaboration with DLR and CNES. The asteroid will be investigated through remote sensing, followed by in situ in-depth observations on the asteroid with a lander. A sample-return is also studied as an option. LUCY has been selected as the NASA's future Discovery class mission which aims at understanding the diversity of Jupiter Trojans by multiple flybys, complementally to the SPS mission. The SPS is a candidate of the next medium class space science mission in Japan. The 1.4-ton spacecraft will carry a 100-kg class lander and 20-kg mission payloads on it. Its launch is expected in mid 2020s, and will take at least 11 years to visit a Jupiter Trojan asteroid. During the cruise phase, science experiments will be performed such as an infrared astronomy, a very long baseline gamma ray interferometry, and dust and magnetic field measurements. A classical static model of solar system suggests that the Jupiter Trojans were formed around the Jupiter region, while a dynamical model such as Nice model indicates that they formed at the far end of the solar system and then scattered inward due to a dynamical migration of giant planets. The physical, mineralogical, organics and isotopic distribution in the heliocentric distance could solve their origin and evolution of the solar system. A global mapping of the asteroid from the mothership will be conducted such as high-resolved imaging, NIR and TIR imaging spectrometry, and radar soundings. The lander will characterize the asteroid with geological, mineralogical, and geophysical observations using a panoramic camera, an infrared hyperspectral imager, a magnetometer, and a thermal radiometer. These samples will be measured by a high resolved mass spectrometer (HRMS) to investigate isotopic ratios of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, as well as organic species.

  5. Spectrophotometric Characterisation of the Trojan Asteroids (624) Hektor et (911) Agamemnon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Bott, N.; Perna, D.

    2016-12-01

    We obtained spectrophotometric observations of (624) Hektor and (911) Agamemnon, two large Trojan asteroids in order to (1) better understand the composition of their surface by means of their visible and infrared spectra, and (2) eventually detect a possible weak cometary activity by means of their images in the visible. We had data at different rotational phases to probe surface variegations. We found that the visible and infrared spectra are very similar to each other. That indicates a relatively homogenous surface for the asteroids, but it does not exclude the presence of localized inhomogeneities. Computation of a high spectral slope confirmed their D-type asteroids classification. No aqueous alteration absorption band was found in the visible spectra of both studied Trojan asteroids. This can be interpreted in two differents ways: either no liquid water flowed on their surface, or the surface is covered with a crust that mask the presence of hydrated minerals. We use a radiative transfer model to investigate the surface composition of these icy and primitive outer solar system bodies. We suggest models composed of mixtures of organic compounds, minerals and lower limits for water ice. Lastly, the analysis of the images of both Trojan asteroids did not reveal any cometary activity.

  6. Consequence evaluation of radiation embrittlement of Trojan reactor pressure vessel supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Sommer, S.C.; Johnson, G.L.; Lambert, H.E.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a consequence evaluation to address safety concerns raised by the radiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports for the Trojan nuclear power plant. The study comprises a structural evaluation and an effects evaluation and assumes that all four reactor vessel supports have completely lost the load carrying capability. By demonstrating that the ASME code requirements governing Level D service limits are satisfied, the structural evaluation concludes that the Trojan reactor coolant loop (RCL) piping is capable of transferring loads to the steam generator (SG) supports and the reactor coolant pump (RCP) supports. A subsequent design margins to accommodate additional loads transferred to them through the RCL piping. The effects evaluation, employing a systems analysis approach, investigates initiating events and the reliability of the engineered safeguard systems as the RPV is subject to movements caused by the RPV support failure. The evaluation identifies a number of areas of additional safety concerns, but further investigation of the above safety concerns, however, concludes that a hypothetical failure of the Trojan RPV supports due to radiation embrittlement will not result in consequences of significant safety concerns

  7. A Search for Colorful Characters Among the Jupiter Greeks and Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Pewett, T.; Henry, T.; French, L.; Winters, J.

    2013-10-01

    As more and more space craft rendezvous with asteroids, it has become increasingly apparent that asteroids do not always present a single heterogeneous surface to observers. Global variation in color and albedo can be caused by impact events or non-uniform composition which can, in turn, provide details about the recent collisional history and the formation mechanisms of these objects. Here we look to determine the level of surface color uniformity for a sample of Jupiter Greek and Trojan asteroids through multi-filter light curve observations. For this study high cadence, partial light curves were taken of several large (D > 60km) Trojan and Greek asteroids in simultaneous V and I broadband photometric filters using the CTIO 0.9m, the CTIO 1.0m, and the Lowell 42in telescopes. For these observations color variation of 0.03 magnitudes should be observable using relative photometry. The Greeks and Trojans themselves, as largely primordial populations and a key test parameters for the Nice Model, are very fascinating groups for studying Solar System formation. Information on the collisional history of those populations through a search for color variation in their largest members could prove vital for a better understanding of their evolution and origins.

  8. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  9. AHP 47: RAG DRUG: A FAITHFUL HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had three horses in 2016, but when I was about five years old (2006 we had seven horses. Over time, we sold four horses to people living in other communities. We do not want to sell horses to Chinese and Muslim businessmen because Father says, "They take the horses directly to big slaughterhouses and kill them." Instead, we prefer to sell our livestock, including sheep, yaks, and goats to Tibetans, even though the payment is less. ...

  10. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses...... of different breeds, age and gender. Most injuries occurred the day after mixing. Injuries of the more severe categories 4 and 5, which normally would necessitate veterinary care and/or loss of function for some time, were not observed at all. The minor injuries categorized as 1-2 counted for 99% of the total...

  11. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Endo, Yoshiro; Kikkawa, Lisa; Korosue, Kenji; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Kitauchi, Akira; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Torisu, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (Phorses.

  12. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-06

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  13. Treating insect-bite hypersensitivity in horses with active vaccination against IL-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettelschoss-Gabriel, Antonia; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Thoms, Franziska; Giese, Christoph; Daniel, Michelle; Olomski, Florian; Kamarachev, Jivko; Birkmann, Katharina; Bühler, Maya; Kummer, Martin; Zeltins, Andris; Marti, Eliane; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2018-03-28

    Insect-bite hypersensitivity is the most common allergic dermatitis in horses. Excoriated skin lesions are typical symptoms of this seasonal and refractory chronic disease. On a cellular level, the skin lesions are characterized by massive eosinophil infiltration caused by an underlying allergic response. To target these cells and treat disease, we developed a therapeutic vaccine against equine IL-5 (eIL-5), the master regulator of eosinophils. The vaccine consisted of eIL-5 covalently linked to a virus-like particle derived from cucumber mosaic virus containing the tetanus toxoid universal T-cell epitope tt830-843 (CMV TT ). Thirty-four Icelandic horses were recruited and immunized with 400 μg of eIL-5-CMV TT formulated in PBS without adjuvant (19 horses) or PBS alone (15 horses). The vaccine was well tolerated and did not reveal any safety concerns but was able to induce anti-eIL-5 autoantibody titers in 17 of 19 horses. This resulted in a statistically significant reduction in clinical lesion scores when compared with previous season levels, as well as levels in placebo-treated horses. Protection required a minimal threshold of anti-eIL-5 antibodies. Clinical improvement by disease scoring showed that 47% and 21% of vaccinated horses reached 50% and 75% improvement, respectively. In the placebo group no horse reached 75% improvement, and only 13% reached 50% improvement. Our therapeutic vaccine inducing autoantibodies against self IL-5 brings biologics to horses, is the first successful immunotherapeutic approach targeting a chronic disease in horses, and might facilitate development of a similar vaccine against IL-5 in human subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Explorer in EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujimoto, Masaki; Takashima, Takeshi; Yano, Hajime; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Kimura, Jun; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mori, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    thick. Currently we are studying a mission to Jupiter and one (or two) of Trojan asteroids using a large (100m-scale) solar power sail that can transfer large payload mass as far as Jupiter. Trojan asteroids are primitive bodies with information of the early solar system as well as raw solid materials of Jovian system. According to the mission plan, as the main spacecraft flies by Jupiter, it will deploy a JMO spinner around Jupiter. Proposed instruments on board Trojan spacecraft are cameras, IR spectrometers, XRS, a laser altimeter, and a surface vehicle (if rendezvous with the target is possible). An instrument for measuring cosmic background is also proposed. Currently JEO and JGO will be launched in 2020 and the Trojan spacecraft with JMO shall be launched at the same window. The mission (Trojan-JMO) will take 6 years to Jupiter and 5 years more to a Trojan asteroid around L4. The mission study team also includes J. Kawaguchi, Y. Kawakatsu, and M. Morimoto of JAXA.

  15. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... veterinarian from the definition of ``sore'' when used to described a horse.) The practice of soring horses is aimed at producing an exaggerated show gait for competition. Typically, the forelimbs of the horse are... the ground, causing pain, the horse quickly extends its forelimbs and snaps them forward. This gait is...

  16. Redesign of the spent fuel storage racks at the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, K.

    1987-01-01

    The spent fuel pool (SFP) at the Trojan Nuclear Plant located near Prescott, Oregon, was originally designed to hold 1.33 cores worth of spent fuel assemblies. Due to the delay in the site selection and preparation process for the spent fuel repository, the SFP storage capacity was increased in 1978 from 260 assemblies to 651 assemblies and in 1983 was increased again from 651 to 1408 assemblies to allow Trojan to continue operations through the year 2003 with a full core reserve in the SFP. Now it appears unlikely that a high level waste repository will be in operation before 2010. This indicates that a further capacity increase in the SFP is required to allow commercial operation until 2010, at which time the repository should be open to receive spent fuel. To accomplish this, an increase of seven times the original SFP capacity of 260 assemblies is needed. This paper presents a spent fuel assembly rack design that enables the required capacity increase in the SFP to be met. By the use of a boron carbide - silicon polymer inside a titanium/vanadium honeycomb as a neutron absorber between the fuel assemblies and by increasing the metal to water ratio of the spent fuel pool to harden the neutron energy spectrum the capacity of the SFP is increased to 1880 assemblies for an increase of 7.23 times the original spent fuel pool capacity. The multiplication factor for the pool with every fuel assembly slot filled in the new rack system is 0.62; well below the NRC regulatory limit of keff < 0.95. The capacity increase with allow the commercial operation of the Trojan Nuclear Plant through 2010 with a full core reserve in the spent fuel pool

  17. Ecological problems in horse-breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zachinyaew

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article is represented general information devoted to environmental problems in the horse- breeding. The concept of development of ecological explorations in the horse-breeding is considered as well.

  18. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  19. Horse Husbandry and Preventive Health Practices in Australia: An Online Survey of Horse Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette

    2018-02-08

    Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.

  20. [Endometrial cups in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P H; Elsinghorst, T A

    1987-04-01

    Endometrial cups in horses are outgrowths appearing in the uterine wall of the pregnant horn between approximately 38 days and 150 of gestation. The cups are structures which vary in shape from oval to irregular and have distinct raised edges, showing an ulcer-like form. The maximum measurements are approximately 5 X 2.5 X 2.5 cm. Microscopic examination shows that they consist of large epithelioid decidual-like cells having large nucleoli. Pregnant Mare Endometrium Gonadotrophin (PMEG) is produced in the endometrial cups. PMEG may be regarded as a precursor of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG), which can be detected in the blood of mares. The exact function of PMSG is still obscure; some possible functions are suggested in the present paper. After approximately 70 days of gestation, regression starts. The regression of the cups is an immunological process in which the cellular branch of the immunological system plays an important role. Humoral immunity plays a more protective role in the process of regression, probably as a result of the production of 'blocking' antibodies.

  1. Wound care in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, Stephanie S

    2012-04-01

    Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.

  2. Stakeholder involvement in the decommissioning of Trojan and Maine Yankee nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Bruce A.; Orlando, Dominick A.

    2006-01-01

    Trojan Nuclear Plant (Trojan) and Maine Yankee Nuclear Plant (Maine Yankee) were the first two power reactors to complete decommissioning under the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) License Termination Rule (LTR), 10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E. The respective owners' decisions to decommission the sites resulted in different approaches to both the physical aspects of the decommissioning, and the approach for obtaining approval for completing the decommissioning in accordance with regulations. Being in different States, the two single-unit pressurized water reactor sites had different State requirements and levels of public interest that impacted the decommissioning approaches. This resulted in significant differences in the decommissioning planning, the conduct of decommissioning operations, the volume of low-level radioactive waste, and the final status survey (FSS) program. While both licensees have Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs), Trojan obtained a separate license for the ISFSI in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 72 and terminated its 10 CFR Part 50 license. Maine Yankee elected to reduce the 10 CFR Part 50 license to only the requirements for the ISFSI. While the NRC regulations are flexible and allow different approaches to ISFSI licensing, there are separate licensing requirements that must be addressed. In 10 CFR 50.82, the NRC mandates public participation in the decommissioning process. For Maine Yankee, stakeholder and public input resulted in the licensee entering into an agreement with a citizen group and resulted in State legislation that lowered the dose limit below the NRC radiological criteria of 0.25 milli-Sievert/year (mSv/yr) (25 mrem/yr) in 10 CFR 20.1402 for unrestricted use. The lowering of the radiological criteria resulted in a significant dose modeling effort using site-specific Derived Concentrations Guideline Levels (DCGLs) that were well below the NRC DCGL screening values. This contributed to

  3. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-loaded Trojan microparticles for targeted aerosol delivery to the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Frederic; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Targeted aerosol delivery to specific regions of the lung may improve therapeutic efficiency and minimise unwanted side effects. Targeted delivery could potentially be achieved with porous microparticles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-in combination with a target-directed magnetic gradient field. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the aerodynamic properties of SPIONs-loaded Trojan microparticles after delivery from a dry powder inhaler. Microparticles made of SPIONs, PEG and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were formulated by spray drying and characterised by various physicochemical methods. Aerodynamic properties were evaluated using a next generation cascade impactor (NGI), with or without a magnet positioned at stage 2. Mixing appropriate proportions of SPIONs, PEG and HPβCD allowed Trojan microparticle to be formulated. These particles had a median geometric diameter of 2.8±0.3μm and were shown to be sensitive to the magnetic field induced by a magnet having a maximum energy product of 413.8kJ/m(3). However, these particles, characterised by a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 10.2±2.0μm, were considered to be not inhalable. The poor aerodynamic properties resulted from aggregation of the particles. The addition of (NH4)2CO3 and magnesium stearate (MgST) to the formulation improved the aerodynamic properties of the Trojan particles and resulted in a MMAD of 2.2±0.8μm. In the presence of a magnetic field on stage 2 of the NGI, the amount of particles deposited at this stage increased 4-fold from 4.8±0.7% to 19.5±3.3%. These Trojan particles appeared highly sensitive to the magnetic field and their deposition on most of the stages of the NGI was changed in the presence compared to the absence of the magnet. If loaded with a pharmaceutical active ingredient, these particles may be useful for treating localised lung disease such as cancer nodules or bacterial infectious foci. Copyright

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  5. Periorbital skull fractures in five horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, J.P.; Barber, S.M.; Bailey, J.V.; Fretz, P.B.; Pharr, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Periorbital skull fractures were diagnosed in 5 horses, and were associated with ophthalmic complications including corneal ulceration, uveitis, and entrapment of the eye by retrobulbar bone fragments. Physical examination was of greater diagnostic use than radiography. Surgical repair was performed on all horses and was associated with a more favorable postoperative appearance in horses treated acutely; however, the cosmetic results were considered acceptable in all horses. Major postoperative complications were not observed

  6. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. On optimal (non-Trojan) semi-Latin squares with side n and block size n: Construction procedure and admissible permutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigbu, P.E.; Ukekwe, E.C.; Ikekeonwu, G.A.M.

    2006-12-01

    There is a special family of the (n x n)/k semi-Latin squares called the Trojan squares which are optimal among semi-Latin squares of equivalent sizes. Unfortunately, Trojan squares do not exist for all k; for instance, there is no Trojan square for k ≥ n. However, the need usually arises for constructing optimal semi-Latin squares where no Trojan squares exist. Bailey made a conjecture on optimal semi-Latin squares for k ≥ n and based on this conjecture, optimal non-Trojan semi-Latin squares are here constructed for k = n, considering the inherent Trojan squares for k < n. A lemma substantiating this conjecture for k = n is given and proved. In addition, the properties for the admissible permutation sets used in constructing these optimal squares are made evident based on the systematic-group-theoretic algorithm of Bailey and Chigbu. Algorithms for identifying the admissible permutations as well as constructing the optimal non-Trojan (n x n)/k = n semi-Latin squares for odd n and n = 4 are given. (author)

  8. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.

    2015-01-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  9. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of

  10. Cloverbud Curriculum. Do You Have Horse Sense!

    OpenAIRE

    Porr, C. A. Shea; Crisman, Celeste C.; Splan, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Since horses don't speak in words, we need to watch their body in order to understand what they are trying to tell us. This publication is a Virginia 4-H project unit used to teach elementary school-aged children about which parts of the body horses use to communicate and what emotions various equine postures indicate. Virginia Horse Industry Board

  11. Cloverbud Curriculum. Horses Wear Clothes, Too!

    OpenAIRE

    Porr, C. A. Shea; Crisman, Celeste C.; Splan, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Having the proper equipment for the task not only works better, but it's safer. This publication is a Virginia 4-H project unit used to teach elementary school-aged children about the equipment used for different types of work with horses and explains how different tack allows horses to different jobs. Virginia Horse Industry Board

  12. Genetic characterization of Indian Spiti horses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    horses can be utilized in planning breeding strategies in the small populations of Spiti horses. The present panel of microsatellites evaluated in Spiti horses showed a very high heterozygosity and polymorphism and, therefore, this set of microsatellites may be reliably used for genetic diversity studies in other breeds of ...

  13. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru; Ancuţa Elena Coşuleanu; Ioan Gîlcă; Vasile Ujică

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and Engli...

  14. Coagulopathies in horses with colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal, Luis; Cesarini, Carla

    2009-08-01

    The most common coagulopathy in horses with colic is a hypercoagulable state associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. The intensity of this coagulopathy depends on the severity and duration of the gastrointestinal lesion, with the ischemic and inflammatory problems and peritonitis being the most frequently affected by coagulopathies. Early initiation of prophylactic therapy significantly reduces the severe hypercoagulable state in horses with intestinal conditions which are recognized to be at high risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition to the systemic coagulopathy observed in horses with colic, a peritoneal coagulopathy independent from that occurring in blood has been observed, and its recognition and assessment may have clinical usefulness in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal diseases and outcome.

  15. Social organization of feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingel, H

    1982-01-01

    The basic social unit in feral horses is the family group consisting of one stallion, one to a few unrelated mares and their foals. Surplus stallions associate in bachelor groups. Stallions are instrumental in bringing mares together in a unit which then persists even without a stallion. The similarity of social organization in populations living in a variety of different habitats indicates that feral horses have reverted to the habits of their wild ancestors, and that domestication has had no influence on this basic behavioural feature.

  16. Reconstructing Laomedon’s Reign in Homer: Olympiomachia, Poseidon’s Wall, and the Earlier Trojan War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Porter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeric allusions to Laomedon, the walls of Troy, and the first Trojan War reflect a backstory of previous fighting among the Olympians, which helps to explain the Iliadic portrait of Zeus’s fear of insubordination among the other gods.

  17. Oleg Mandzhiev, How Kalmyks Trained Their Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Oleg talks about how Kalmyks trained their horses in the past. It is known that horses can see flying objects and that they are also afraid of snakes. Horse training was based on these two principles. When foals were in, children put snakes inside the enclosures so that the foals would get used to them. As foals grew up, snakes were chopped into small pieces and tied to arrows. Then the young horses were shot with these arrows. When horses saw arrows they jumped aside to avoid. In the past du...

  18. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  19. Systematic pain assessment in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes

  20. Vertical dimensions of suspended horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton, R E; Chase-Topping, M; Squires, R; Lawson, H; Minard, H; Rose, S

    2010-11-01

    The dimensions of anaesthetised hobbled horses during suspension and transfer onto the operating table are unknown. These data are required for the cost-effective construction of equine surgical facilities. To measure the distance from the toe to dependent back margin (Bsusp) and poll (Psusp) of anaesthetised suspended horses and correlate them with readily obtained measures from standing animals. Digital photographs of suspended horses were taken in the anaesthesia induction box at a fixed position that allowed trigonometric determination of Bsusp and Psusp. These values were linked with body mass, height at the withers (Wstand), the length of the crest from the poll to the withers (crest) and of the back (back) from the withers to the crop, by deriving an equine morphological index (EMI) using principal component analysis. The EMI and other linear variables were then subjected to single variable regression analysis. EMI was 0.531mass((kg)) + 0.528Wstand((cm)) + 0.469crest((cm)) + 0.468back((cm)) . Bsusp was most accurately estimated using the expression Bsusp= 118.71 + 0.128EMI while Psusp was most strongly associated with Wstand, i.e. Psusp= 46.9 + 1.01Wstand((cm)) . The height of suspended horses at the most ventral margin of the back and the poll can be estimated from measures taken from the standing animal. The data will allow the more informed planning and construction of equine surgical facilities in which mechanical hoists are used. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  1. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  2. Cardiac changes in horses with atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, T; Decloedt, A; De Clercq, D; van Loon, G

    2012-01-01

    Atypical myopathy (AM) is an acute, fatal rhabdomyolysis in grazing horses that mainly affects skeletal muscles. Postmortem examinations have shown that myocardial damage also occurs. Limited information is available on the effect of AM on cardiac function in affected and surviving horses. To describe electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes associated with AM in the acute stage of the disease and after follow-up. Horses (n = 12) diagnosed with AM in which cardiac ultrasound examination and ECG recording were available. All horses underwent clinical examinations, serum biochemistry, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Four surviving horses underwent the same examinations after 2-10 weeks. All but 1 horse had increased cardiac troponin I concentrations and 10 horses had ventricular premature depolarizations (VPDs). All horses had prolonged corrected QT (QT(cf) ) intervals on the day of admission and abnormal myocardial wall motion on echocardiography. One of the surviving horses still had VPDs and prolonged QT(cf) at follow-up after 10 weeks. The AM results in characteristic electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes and may be associated with increased cardiac troponin I concentrations and VPDs. In survivors, abnormal cardiac function still may be found at follow-up after 10 weeks. Additional research in a larger group of horses is necessary to identify the long-term effects of AM on cardiac function. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Blood-Brain Barrier Penetrating Biologic TNF-α Inhibitor for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rudy; Knox, Jillian; Chang, Jae; Derbedrossian, Aram; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Cribbs, David; Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M; Sumbria, Rachita K

    2017-07-03

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) driven processes are involved at multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology and disease progression. Biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) are the most potent class of TNFIs but cannot be developed for AD since these macromolecules do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating TNFI was engineered by the fusion of the extracellular domain of the type II human TNF receptor (TNFR) to a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the mouse transferrin receptor (TfR), designated as the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein. The cTfRMAb domain functions as a molecular Trojan horse, binding to the mouse TfR and ferrying the biologic TNFI across the BBB via receptor-mediated transcytosis. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of this BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI in a mouse model of AD. Six-month-old APPswe, PSEN 1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice were treated with saline (n = 13), the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein (n = 12), or etanercept (non-BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI; n = 11) 3 days per week intraperitoneally. After 12 weeks of treatment, recognition memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task, mice were sacrificed, and brains were assessed for amyloid beta (Aβ) load, neuroinflammation, BBB damage, and cerebral microhemorrhages. The cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein caused a significant reduction in brain Aβ burden (both Aβ peptide and plaque), neuroinflammatory marker ICAM-1, and a BBB disruption marker, parenchymal IgG, and improved recognition memory in the APP/PS1 mice. Fusion protein treatment resulted in low antidrug-antibody formation with no signs of either immune reaction or cerebral microhemorrhage development with chronic 12-week treatment. Chronic treatment with the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein, a BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI, offers therapeutic benefits by targeting Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation, and BBB-disruption, overall improving recognition memory in a transgenic mouse model

  4. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n......: To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion...

  5. A peptidic hydrogel that may behave as a “Trojan Horse”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Castellucci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A physical hydrogel prepared with the low-molecular-weight hydrogelator (LMWHG CH2(C3H6CO-L-Phe-D-Oxd-OH2 and water/ethanol mixture was applied as a potential “Trojan Horse” carrier into cells. By SEM and XRD analysis we could demonstrate that a fibrous structure is present in the xerogel, making a complex network. The gelator is derived from α-amino acids (Thr, Phe and a fatty acid (azelaic acid and is biocompatible: it was dosed to IGROV-1 cells, which internalized it, without significantly affecting the cell proliferation. To check the internalization process by confocal microscopy, fluorescent hydrogels were prepared, introducing the fluorescent dansyl moiety into the mixture.

  6. DNA polymorphism of Arabian, Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses in Morocco. Application to identification and parentage verification of individual horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouragh, L.

    2005-01-01

    New techniques of molecular biology used in analysing DNA polymorphism give access to the whole genetic variability of a given individual, while traditional blood typing (red cell typing and biochemical polymorphisms) gives access only to the transcribed Fraction, which is then translated to protein. In addition, this fraction represents only a tiny part (5 to 10%) of the genome's coding fraction. One of the newer testing methods in identifying horses is a DNA-based test using microsatellite marker analysis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology in the identification and parentage verification of Arabian, Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses in Morocco. The Anglo-Arab horse is a crossbreed between Arabian and Thoroughbred. Three samples from the three breeds were analysed for 12 microsatellites (HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, AHT4, AHTS, VHL20, HTGlO and ASB2). Blood samples were gathered from a total of 1541 horses: 804 Arabians, 559 Thoroughbreds and 178 Anglo-Arabs. Allelic frequencies of the 12 loci studied were calculated in the three groups. The results allowed the determination of intra-population genetic parameters: heterozygosity ratio (h), probability of identification (P i ) and probability of exclusion (P e ). Based on mean heterozygosity values, variability was relatively lower in Thoroughbred horse (0.7036), while it was almost the same in Arabian and Anglo-Arab horses (respectively 0.7217 and 0.7232). Probabilities of exclusion obtained with the 12 systems were greater than 99.9% for the three populations studied, and probabilities of identification of individual horses were 15.4 x 10 -12 , 3 .5 x 10 -12 and 3.2 x 10 -12 in the Thoroughbred, Arabian and Anglo-Arab breeds, respectively. These results indicate that the test using microsatellite marker analysis constitutes a highly efficient and reliable alternative for the identification and parentage verification of individual horses and so it is a

  7. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... supervision of a licensed veterinarian from the definition of soring.) The practice of soring horses is aimed at producing an exaggerated show gait for competition. Typically, the forelimbs of the horse are... the ground, causing pain, the horse quickly extends its forelimbs and snaps them forward. This gait is...

  8. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  9. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  10. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  11. Discospondylitis in an adult horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillyer, M.H.; Innes, J.F.; Patteson, M.W.; Barr, A.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Discospondylitis, of presumed bacterial origin, was diagnosed in an adult thoroughbred racehorse. The clinical signs were vague and associated with abnormal mobility of the neck and forelimbs. Clinical pathology showed only a non-specific inflammatory response. A scintigraphic examination revealed the site of the lesion and the diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of radiographic changes affecting two thoracic vertebrae. A prolonged course of antimicrobial agents produced a complete recovery and the horse returned to full athletic use

  12. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  13. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  14. Visible Near-infrared Spectral Evolution of Irradiated Mixed Ices and Application to Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Michael J.; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Brown, Michael E.; Carlson, Robert W.; Eiler, John M.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Wong, Ian

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the history of Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans will help to constrain models of solar system formation and dynamical evolution. Laboratory simulations of a possible thermal and irradiation history of these bodies were conducted on ice mixtures while monitoring their spectral properties. These simulations tested the hypothesis that the presence or absence of sulfur explains the two distinct visible near-infrared spectral groups observed in each population and that Trojans and KBOs share a common formation location. Mixed ices consisting of water, methanol, and ammonia, in mixtures both with and without hydrogen sulfide, were deposited and irradiated with 10 keV electrons. Deposition and initial irradiation were performed at 50 K to simulate formation at 20 au in the early solar system, then heated to Trojan-like temperatures and irradiated further. Finally, irradiation was concluded and resulting samples were observed during heating to room temperature. Results indicated that the presence of sulfur resulted in steeper spectral slopes. Heating through the 140–200 K range decreased the slopes and total reflectance for both mixtures. In addition, absorption features at 410, 620, and 900 nm appeared under irradiation, but only in the H2S-containing mixture. These features were lost with heating once irradiation was concluded. While the results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis, additional work is needed to address uncertainties and to simulate conditions not included in the present work.

  15. Are the Greeks and Trojans Different? --- Comparing the Brightest Objects in Jupiter's L4 and L5 Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph P.; Henry, Todd J.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Cartwright, Richard; Emery, Josh

    2011-02-01

    We propose to make UBVRI photometric observations of at least the 113 brightest Jupiter Trojans from both the L4 (Greek) and the L5 (Trojan) Lagrange points using the CTIO 0.9m, in conjunction with data gathered at Lowell Observatory. With these data we hope to reveal any color trends and/or differences between the largest members of the two camps. A comprehensive database of uniform photometry does not exist for this effectively complete sample, so robust comparisons are virtually impossible at this time. These data will also enable comparisons between the Greek and Trojan swarms and other Solar System populations to discover the possible origins of the two camps, which remain surprisingly obscure. Over the course of the program we will collect several important phase curves that can be used to systematically calibrate the photometry over time. During non- photometric conditions, we will measure light curves that yield information about albedo changes (or a lack thereof,which would also be informative), shapes, and rotation periods. The proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  16. Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Post, D J; Sturm-Ramirez, K M; Humberd, J; Seiler, P; Govorkova, E A; Krauss, S; Scholtissek, C; Puthavathana, P; Buranathai, C; Nguyen, T D; Long, H T; Naipospos, T S P; Chen, H; Ellis, T M; Guan, Y; Peiris, J S M; Webster, R G

    2005-07-26

    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat.

  17. A survey for piroplasmids in horses and Bactrian camels in North-Eastern Mongolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Lukešová, D.; Qablan, M.; Batsukh, Z.; Fiala, Ivan; Horin, P.; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-3 (2011), 246-249 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Piroplasmosis * Babesia * Theileria * Horse * Bactrian camel * Dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  18. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in horses kept under different management systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Buňatová, Z.; Civišová, H.; Maršálek, M.; Kváč, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 190, 3-4 (2012), s. 573-577 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Horse * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * Encephalitozoon cuniculi * PCR * ITS * Natural infection Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304401712003676

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meldonium in exercised thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Heather K; Stanley, Scott D; McKemie, Dan S; Arthur, Rick M; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael; Thevis, Mario; Kass, Philip H

    2017-09-01

    Although developed as a therapeutic medication, meldonium has found widespread use in human sports and was recently added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. Its reported abuse potential in human sports has led to concern by regulatory authorities about the possible misuse of meldonium in equine athletics. The potential abuse in equine athletes along with the limited data available regarding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meldonium in horses necessitates further study. Eight exercised adult thoroughbred horses received a single oral dose of 3.5, 7.1, 14.3 or 21.4 mg/kg of meldonium. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Maximum serum concentrations ranged from 440.2 to 1147 ng/mL and the elimination half-life from 422 to 647.8 h. Serum concentrations were below the limit of quantitation by days 4, 7, 12 and 12 for doses of 3.5, 7.1, 14.3 and 21.4 mg/kg, respectively. Urine concentrations were below the limit of detection by day 44 following administration of 3.5 mg/kg and day 51 for all other dose groups. No adverse effects were observed following meldonium administration. While the group numbers were small, changes in heart rate were observed in the 3.5 mg/kg dose group (n = 1). Glucose concentrations changed significantly in all dose groups studied (n = 2 per dose group). Similar to that reported for humans, the detection time of meldonium in biological samples collected from horses is prolonged, which should allow for satisfactory regulation in performance horses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Genetic characterization of Zanskari breed of horse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, poor management of these animals has led to dilution of their characteristic features to some ex- ... animals of Zanskari breed from its breeding tract in Jammu and Kashmir state. About 10 ml of blood per ..... variation of Polish endangered Bilgoraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci. J. Appl.

  1. Genetic characterization of Indian Spiti horses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. India has a rich biodiversity of equines in the form of six distinct indigenous horse (Equus caballus) breeds, namely. Kathiawari, Marwari, Spiti, Zanskari, Bhutia and Mani- puri, in addition to indigenous donkeys and wild asses. (Yadav et al. 2001). These horse breeds are well adapted to different agroclimatic ...

  2. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolframm, I.A.; Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe

  3. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  4. Some possible factors affecting horse welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Fejsáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various stimuli that confound interpretation of assessed indicators of horse welfare during rest and working period by the use of non-invasive methods of sampling. In total, 40 horses of different breeds and used for different purposes in Slovakia were used. The following indicators were tested: concentration of cortisol in saliva and 11,17-dioxoandrostanes in faeces measured by Elisa methods, heart rate and heart rate variability recording with the Polar Heart Rate Monitor and presence of stereotypical behaviour assessed with a horse questionnaire survey. The evaluated physiological responses were mostly affected by the type of work undertaken, especially horse movement intensity (P P P < 0.05 compared to horses without stereotypical behaviour. Horse breed, age, sex and stabling conditions affected only some of the heart rate indicators. The type of riding style had no fundamental influence on evaluated indicators. These observations highlight the difficulties in determining the welfare status in horses, since measurements can be affected by many factors that need to be investigated for achieving relevant outcomes. This is the first study in Slovakia focusing on the evaluation of horse welfare by non-invasive sampling.

  5. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.J.; Allhands, R.V.; Baker, G.J.; Boero, M.J.; Foreman, J.H.; Hyyppa, T.; Huhn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  6. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  7. The importance of social relationships in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    2006-01-01

    Feral horses are social animals, which have to rely on survival strategies centered on the formation of cohesive social bonds within their bands. Many problems in the husbandry of social animals such as horses, are due to the fact that the limits of their adaptive abilities are exceeded. Evidence

  8. Nutrition and feeding of the geriatric horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Paul D

    2002-12-01

    Little is known regarding nutrient requirements and feeding of geriatric horses, and more effort should be placed on this area of equine nutrition research. That which is known suggests that some geriatric horses may not have different requirements than other mature horses, whereas others affected by disease or poor dentition may have special nutritional needs. In general, rations for geriatric horses should be based on high-quality roughage supplemented with complementary minerals and vitamins. The need for additional energy aside from that provided by the forage can be supplied by adding energy concentrates, such as cereal grains or fat, to the ration. Processing techniques involving heat, such as pelleting and extruding, are advised when cereal grains are included in the ration so as to improve starch digestibility in the small intestine and avoid starch overload in the hindgut and it subsequent problem (ie, colic, laminitis). In addition, the environment in which geriatric horses are fed should be one that promotes ease of ration consumption and eliminates factors thar impair feed consumption, such as competition from other horses and the need to travel relatively long distances (eg, grazing marginal pastures). Finally, strict attention should be paid to the body condition of geriatric horses so as to evaluate adequacy of the ration and the general health of the horse.

  9. Population genetics of Great Basin feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A T

    1994-06-01

    The genetic make-up of Great Basin wild (feral) horses was investigated by blood typing studies. Blood samples of 975 feral horses from seven trap sites in Nevada and Oregon were tested by serological and electrophoretic techniques for genetic markers at 19 polymorphic loci. The average number of variants for the seven feral populations [72.1 +/- 3.2 (SEM), range 62-85] was not significantly different from that of 16 domestic breeds (75.0 +/- 11.5, range 58-105). The expected average frequency of heterozygotes per locus (average heterozygosity) for the feral populations (0.402 +/- 0.009, range 0.368-0.442) was not significantly different from the domestic breeds (0.389 +/- 0.045, range 0.295-0.443). Dendrograms constructed using pairwise comparisons of Nei's distance measurements substantiated anecdotal accounts of the origins of Great Basin horses from Iberian, American saddle horse and draft horse breeds.

  10. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  12. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  13. A study of patrilineal genetic diversity in Iranian indigenous horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... domestic horse breeds, polymorphism was reported in one horse Y-specific microsatellite (Ling et al., 2010). Iran has a long history in horse domestication and breeding (Andrews and Legates, 1962; Tavakkolian,. 1999). Iranian horse breeds may be classified into 4 main groups according to their origins ...

  14. A review of the human-horse relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  15. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  16. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annette

    horses referred to as Friesians, was during mediaeval times, when the knights in armour mostly used Friesian. Horses (Douma, 1994). Since then Friesian Horses were subjected to selection for several conformational features suited to the requirements of the moment in time, varying from a horse used in warfare, to sport ...

  17. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Distal phalanx fractures in horses: a survey of 274 horses with radiographic assessment of healing in 36 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnas, C.M.; O'Brien, T.R.; Linford, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The case records of 274 horses with fractures of the distal phalanx were reviewed. Fifty-two horses had bilateral forelimb fractures, for a total of 326 distal phalanx fractures. The fractures were classified into one of five previously described types, based on the radiographic anatomic configuration of the fracture. Solar margin fractures, which have been briefly described in other reports and previously classified as type V fractures, were identified in 132 horses. This type of fracture is distinct from other distal phalanx fractures. Due to the high incidence of solar margin fractures, these fractures were classified as a separate type (type VI). Follow-up radiographic examinations to assess fracture healing were available for 36 horses. Twenty-two horses with distal phalanx fractures (three type I, nine type II, two type III, one type IV, one type V, and six type VI) had radiographic evidence of complete bony union of the fracture at a mean of 11 months after injury. Eight horses with conplete type II fractures involving the articular surface had bony union of the body and solar margin, but not the subchondral bone at the articular surface, a mean of 11 months after injury. Six horses (four type II and two type IV) had little radiographic evidence of bony healing during the follow-up period. All fractures that eventually healed had evidence of progression toward bony union by 6 months after injury

  19. Diagnosis of hoof disease in horses using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Milomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Germany of 39 horses with hoof diseaseas. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses, laminitis (seven horses, keratnoma (six horses and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses. The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography.

  20. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Nowak, M.; Kaufels, N.; Tambur, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  1. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  2. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson Larry E; Rubin Esther S; Atwill Edward A; Ostermann-Kelm Stacey D; Boyce Walter M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroin...

  3. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  4. Ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in six horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Nicole M; Lassaline, Mary; Engiles, Julie

    2017-11-07

    To determine the characteristics of and prognosis for ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Six horses treated for ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. A retrospective review of medical records from 2007 to 2015 was performed to identify horses with a histologic diagnosis of ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. Signalment (age, sex, breed), duration of clinical signs, prior treatment, tumor size and location, medical and surgical treatment including postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up time, and outcome were obtained from medical records. Histopathology was reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. In six horses diagnosed with ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma, no breed, age, or sex was overrepresented. Sites included the temporal limbus (3), third eyelid (2), and uvea (1). With the exception of one horse with uveal hemangiosarcoma, 5/6 horses had lightly pigmented periocular haircoat. Histologic features of ocular hemangiosarcoma in 6/6 cases included high cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and inflammation with a mitotic index ranging from 0 to 8 mitoses per 10 consecutive 400× fields. Five of six tumors displayed solar elastosis, indicating ultraviolet light-induced damage to sub-epithelial collagen. Treatment included surgical excision in all cases and was not associated with recurrence in 4/6. Three cases that received ancillary treatment with topical mitomycin C had no postoperative recurrence. Two cases with postexcisional recurrence had histologic evidence of incomplete excision. Complete surgical excision may be associated with resolution of periocular and ocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Etiopathogenesis may include exposure to ultraviolet light. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Horse Welfare and Natural Values on Semi-Natural and Extensive Pastures in Finland: Synergies and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In several regions in Europe, the horse is becoming a common grazer on semi-natural and cultivated grasslands, though the pasturing benefits for animals and biodiversity alike are not universally appreciated. The composition of ground vegetation on pastures determines the value of both the forage for grazing animals as well as the biodiversity values for species associated with the pastoral ecosystems. We studied three pastures, each representing one of the management types in southern Finland (latitudes 60–61: semi-natural, permanent and cultivated grassland. All have been grazed exclusively by horses for several decades. We aimed to evaluate feeding values and horses’ welfare, on the one hand, and impacts of horses on biodiversity in boreal conditions, on the other. Though there were differences among the pastures, the nutritional value of the vegetation in all three pastures met the energy and protein needs of most horse categories through the whole grazing season. Some mineral concentrations were low compared to the requirements, and supplementation of Cu, Zn and Na is needed to balance the mineral intake. Only minor injuries or health problems were observed. All metrics of biological values, as well as number of species eaten by horses, were particularly high in a semi-natural pasture compared to other pasture types. The highest ratio of species cover preferred by horses to the total cover was found in the permanent pasture, while at the regularly re-seeded pasture, there was a particularly high cover of species, indicating low biodiversity values on grassland. There was, therefore, a trade-off between the quantity of forage and biological values in pastures, but not in quality. The results provide clear indication both for the suitability of the studied pasture types to horses and for grazing of horses for biodiversity management. In each pasture type, specific management is needed to simultaneously achieve objectives of adequate

  6. Lunar cycles at mating do not influence sex ratio at birth in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Santa Juliana, L

    2015-02-01

    It is scientifically demonstrated that lunar cycles have important effects on several biological events. Controversy exists about the lunar influence on human and animal parturition. In addition, in the horse industry, especially in Polo Horse breeders of Argentina and around the world there is a higher demand for female offspring than for males. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between the lunar phase at the time of mating and the sex ratio at birth in horses. The Argentinean Stud Book provided information related to all matings registered for Thoroughbred and Arab horses between 2003 and 2011. Statistical associations were tested between dates of matings at different lunar phases or days and sex ratio at birth. A total of 65.535 gestations were studied. Overall, sex ratio at birth resulted in 33.396 fillies (50.96%) and 32.139 colts (49.04%). The percentages of males and females at birth were not statistically different amongst the different lunar phases or days. We can strongly conclude that managing the breeding dates in relation to lunar cycles in order to manipulate the sex ratio of the offspring is not a viable option in horses.

  7. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  8. The “Trojan Horse” Approach to Tumor Immunotherapy: Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anticancer therapies including immunotherapies are given systemically; yet therapies given directly into tumors may be more effective, particularly those that overcome natural suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment. The “Trojan Horse” approach of intratumoural delivery aims to promote immune-mediated destruction by inducing microenvironmental changes within the tumour at the same time as avoiding the systemic toxicity that is often associated with more “full frontal” treatments such as transfer of large numbers of laboratory-expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or large intravenous doses of cytokine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoural therapy has the capacity to minimizing local suppression, inducing sufficient “dangerous” tumor cell death to cross-prime strong immune responses, and rending tumor blood vessels amenable to immune cell traffic to induce effector cell changes in secondary lymphoid organs. However, the key to its success is the design of a sound rational approach based on evidence. There is compelling preclinical data for local immunotherapy approaches in tumor immunology. This review summarises how immune events within a tumour can be modified by local approaches, how this can affect systemic antitumor immunity such that distal sites are attacked, and what approaches have been proven most successful so far in animals and patients.

  9. Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of Jupiter Trojans (624) Hektor and (911) Agamemnon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, D.; Bott, N.; Hromakina, T.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Dotto, E.; Doressoundiram, A.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first-ever rotationally resolved spectroscopic investigation of (624) Hektor and (911) Agamemnon, the two largest Jupiter Trojans. The visible and near-infrared spectra that we have obtained at the TNG telescope (La Palma, Spain) do not show any feature or hints of heterogeneity. In particular, we found no hints of water-related absorptions. No cometary activity was detected down to ˜23.5 R mag arcsec-2 based on the complementary photometric data. We estimated upper limits on the dust production rates of Hektor and Agamemnon to be ≈30 and ≈24 kg s-1, respectively. We modelled complete visible and near-infrared spectra of our targets using the Shkuratov formalism to define the upper limit to the presence of water ice and more in general to constrain their surface composition. For both objects, successful models include amorphous carbon, magnesium-rich pyroxene, and kerogen, with an upper limit to the amount of water ice of a few per cent.

  10. Neuro-invasion by a ‘Trojan Horse’ strategy and vasculopathy during intrauterine flavivirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Smirnova, Natalia P; Tolnay, Airn-Elizabeth; Webb, Brett T; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; van Campen, Hana; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a major target of several important human and animal viral pathogens causing congenital infections. However, despite the importance of neuropathological outcomes, for humans in particular, the pathogenesis, including mode of neuro-invasion, remains unresolved for most congenital virus infections. Using a natural model of congenital infection with an RNA virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus in pregnant cattle, we sought to delineate the timing and mode of virus neuro-invasion of and spread within the brain of foetuses following experimental respiratory tract infection of the dams at day 75 of pregnancy, a time of maximal risk of tissue pathology without foetal death. Virus antigen was first detected in the foetal brains 14 days postinfection of dams and was initially restricted to amoeboid microglial cells in the periventricular germinal layer. The appearance of these cells was preceded by or concurrent with vasculopathy in the same region. While the affected microvessels were negative for virus antigen, they expressed high levels of the type I interferon-stimulated protein ISG15 and eventually disappeared in parallel with the appearance of microcavitary lesions. Subsequently, the virus spread to neurons and other glial cells. Our findings suggest that the virus enters the CNS via infected microglial precursors, the amoeboid microglial cells, in a ‘Trojan horse’ mode of invasion and that the microcavitary lesions are associated with loss of periventricular microvasculature, perhaps as a consequence of high, unrestricted induction of interferon-regulated proteins. PMID:22264283

  11. Staphylococcus hyicus in skin lesions of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; Vlaminck, K; Nuytten, J; De Keersmaecker, P

    1983-07-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus (subspecies hyicus) was isolated as the only pathogenic organism from two independent cases of dermatitis of the lower parts of the limbs (grease heel) in horses. The organism was recovered together with other pathogenic staphylococci from similar conditions in two other horses of different origins. These conditions were characterised by epidermolysis, alopecia and crust formation. They responded quickly to antibiotic treatment. The organism was also isolated from a long standing case of "summer eczema" which healed without antibiotic treatment, and from a horse with dermatophilosis (streptotrichosis, Dermatophilus congolensis infection). Experimentally, Staph hyicus caused epidermolysis, exudation and inflammation in the superficial layers of the skin.

  12. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  13. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Josip Ljubešić; Tomo Rastija; Živko Bošnjak

    2000-01-01

    Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to en...

  14. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between...

  15. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    .13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  16. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been shown to increase balance, self-confidence, and self-esteem. However, as with any animal, you must be ... Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  17. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  18. Trojan Horses and Friendly Faces: Irish Gaelic Typography as Propaganda Comment former les caractères : la typographie gaélique comme instrument de propagande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew D. Staunton

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans son livre Cinq cents ans d’imprimerie, l’historien S. H. Steinberg plaide pour l’élimination des caractères non-latin et cite le gaélique d’Irlande comme l’exemple même d’une typographie devenue désuète. Si cette critique peut être considérée comme malveillante par certains commentateurs, elle n’en fournit pas moins un cadre utile à une étude des caractères typographiques gaéliques et de leur signification.Comme Steinberg, nous pouvons envisager la typographie gaélique de trois manières.Premièrement, loin d’avoir été développées en Irlande, les fontes gaéliques furent d’abord conçues et fabriquées en Angleterre. Des formes plus tardives apparurent en Belgique, France, Italie, Australie et aux Etats-Unis. Ont-elles une identité essentiellement irlandaise ?Deuxièmement, la création de ces fontes découla, à l’origine, de la politique religieuse d’Elizabeth Ière. Elles devinrent plus tard un instrument de la Contre-réforme et plus tard encore du nationalisme irlandais. En dehors de son utilisation à des fins de propagande, la typographie gaélique a-t-elle jamais véritablement existé ?Enfin, les inventeurs des caractères typographiques gaéliques se sont toujours montrés hostiles à toute évolution susceptible de parvenir à une plus grande lisibilité. La forme de chaque caractère répond davantage à un critère d’authenticité visuelle qu’à une quelconque notion d’efficacité.  Comment l’irlandité est-elle ainsi véhiculée par la typographie ?

  19. Trojan horse particle invariance studied with the Li-6(d,alpha)He-4 and Li-7(p,alpha)He-4 reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, Václav; Cherubini, S.; Hons, Zdeněk; Kiss, G.G.; Kroha, Václav; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Piskoř, Štěpán; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 4 (2011), 045801/1-045801/7 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07050; GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : CROSS-SECTIONS * ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS * NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2011

  20. Measurement of the 20 and 90 keV Resonances in the O-18(p,alpha)N-15 Reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    La Cognata, M.; Spitareli, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Irgaziev, B.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Crucilla, V.; Goldberg, V.Z.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Lamia, L.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Trzaska, W.; Tumino, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 15 (2008), 152501/1-152501/4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH * O-18 * ENERGIES Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  1. Trojan Horses and Friendly Faces: Irish Gaelic Typography as Propaganda Comment former les caractères : la typographie gaélique comme instrument de propagande

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew D. Staunton

    2009-01-01

    Dans son livre Cinq cents ans d’imprimerie, l’historien S. H. Steinberg plaide pour l’élimination des caractères non-latin et cite le gaélique d’Irlande comme l’exemple même d’une typographie devenue désuète. Si cette critique peut être considérée comme malveillante par certains commentateurs, elle n’en fournit pas moins un cadre utile à une étude des caractères typographiques gaéliques et de leur signification.Comme Steinberg, nous pouvons envisager la typographie gaélique de trois manières....

  2. Slaying the Trojan horse: natural killer cells exhibit robust anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent activation and cytolysis against allogeneic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Shayarana L; Richard, Jonathan; Lee, Wen Shi; Finzi, Andrés; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts to design prophylactic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines have focused on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) that block infection by free virions. Despite the focus on viral particles, virus-infected cells, which can be found within mucosal secretions, are more infectious than free virus both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, assessment of human transmission couples suggests infected seminal lymphocytes might be responsible for a proportion of HIV-1 transmissions. Although vaccines that induce neutralizing Abs are sought, only some broadly neutralizing Abs efficiently block cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. As HIV-1 vaccines need to elicit immune responses capable of controlling both free and cell-associated virus, we evaluated the potential of natural killer (NK) cells to respond in an Ab-dependent manner to allogeneic T cells bearing HIV-1 antigens. This study presents data measuring Ab-dependent anti-HIV-1 NK cell responses to primary and transformed allogeneic T-cell targets. We found that NK cells are robustly activated in an anti-HIV-1 Ab-dependent manner against allogeneic targets and that tested target cells are subject to Ab-dependent cytolysis. Furthermore, the educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cell subset from HLA-Bw4(+) individuals exhibits an activation advantage over the KIR3DL1(-) subset that contains both NK cells educated through other receptor/ligand combinations and uneducated NK cells. These results are intriguing and important for understanding the regulation of Ab-dependent NK cell responses and are potentially valuable for designing Ab-dependent therapies and/or vaccines. NK cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent functions have been associated with protection from infection and disease progression; however, their role in protecting from infection with allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 is unknown. We found that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies bound to allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 or coated with HIV-1 gp120 were capable of activating NK cells and/or trigging cytolysis of the allogeneic target cells. This suggests ADCC may be able to assist in preventing infection with cell-associated HIV-1. In order to fully utilize NK cell-mediated Ab-dependent effector functions, it might also be important that educated NK cells, which hold the highest activation potential, can become activated against targets bearing HIV-1 antigens and expressing the ligands for self-inhibitory receptors. Here, we show that with Ab-dependent stimulation, NK cells expressing inhibitory receptors can mediate robust activation against targets expressing the ligands for those receptors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. [Asymptomatic infections in man: a Trojan horse for the introduction and spread of mosquito-borne arboviruses in non-endemic areas?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    2011-08-01

    In mosquito-borne arbovirus infections in man the asymptomatic cases are much more frequent than the symptomatic ones, but their true role in the introduction and subsequent spread of such diseases in non-endemic areas remains to be clarified. We have collected pertinent data from English and French literature from 1952 to 2010 through Pubmed and other bibliographic sources. Data were analysed to assess if viremia in asymptomatic human arbovirus infections might be sufficient to represent a true risk for introduction in non-endemic areas. During dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks, humans are believed to be the only vertebrate hosts. Since a very large number of individuals are infected and since viremic levels are known to vary by many orders of magnitude in symptomatic patients, it is reasonable to augur that a proportion of asymptomatic cases might reach levels of viremia sufficient to infect competent mosquitoes. Moreover, in both dengue and chikungunya fever, nosocomial infections have been identified representing an alternative opportunity for virus introduction in non-endemic areas. In zoonotic mosquito-borne arbovirus infections such as Japanese encephalitis or West Nile infection, the situation is quite different since humans are considered as "dead-end" hosts. However, the very large number of asymptomatic cases arising during outbreaks and the existence of newly recognised ways of contamination (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental way etc.) may also ensure their introduction and subsequent spread in new areas.

  4. Improvement of the high-accuracy O-17(p, alpha)N-14 reaction-rate measurement via the Trojan Horse method for application to O-17 nucleosynthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Tang, X. D.; Bucher, B.; Couder, M.; Davies, P.; deBoer, R.; Fang, X.; Lamm, L.; Ma, C.; Notani, M.; O'Brien, S.; Roberson, D.; Tan, W.; Wiescher, M.; Irgaziev, B.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Kroha, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 6 (2015), s. 065803 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thermonuclear reaction rates * cross section * O-17 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2015

  5. Indirect Study of the (2)H(d,p)(3)H and (2)H(d,n)(3)He Reactions at Astrophysical Energies via the Trojan Horse Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Typel, S.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, Václav; Del Santo, M. G.; Kiss, G.G.; Kroha, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Pizzone, R. G.; Piskoř, Štěpán; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Sparta, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, 1-4 (2011), s. 323-325 ISSN 0177-7963. [21st European Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics Location. Salamanca, 30.08.2010-03092010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : CROSS-SECTIONS * REACTION-RATES * COMPILATION * D+D Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2011

  6. Internal Entrepreneurship--A Trojan Horse of the Neoliberal Governance of Education? Finnish Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Implementation of and Resistance towards Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Katri; Naskali, Paivi; Korhonen, Maija; Keskitalo-Foley, Seija

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of neoliberal education policies, by examining how the Finnish pre- and in-service teachers engage with the discourses of "external" and "internal entrepreneurship", create related inclusions and exclusions, and implement or challenge the aim of educating enterprising and entrepreneurial…

  7. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ruth A; Keen, John A; Walker, Brian R; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein) and the facial skin (facial skin arteries) by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M) and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M) was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01). In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006) and veins (P = 0.009) from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  9. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  10. Insulin resistance and laminitis in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    Laminitis is a common painful condition in horses that often has a poor outcome. The aetiology of laminitis has been widely studied, but still not completely understood. There is some evidence that pasture associated laminitis is one of the most common forms of laminitis , and this is most likely associated with underlying endocrine dysfunction i.e. insulin resistance. However, what the prevalence of insulin resistance in horses presented with laminitis is, that is currently unknown and it ha...

  11. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  12. Refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred horse: a comparison with the Crossbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull-Cotrina, Jorge; Molleda, Jose M; Gallardo, José; Martín-Suárez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To assess the refractive state of the equine eye utilizing retinoscopy. To compare the refractive state of Spanish Thoroughbred horses with the refractive state of Crossbred horses. The refractive state of 135 horses (264 eyes) was assessed utilizing streak retinoscopy. Two perpendicular meridians were examined in order to assess astigmatism at a working distance of approximately 67 cm. A group of 81 Spanish Thoroughbred horses was compared with a group of 54 Crossbred horses. Cyclopentolate ophthalmic solution was instilled in the eyes of a group of 18 horses to determine if accommodation has any influence on the assessment of the refractive state.   Mean ± SE refractive state of all horses examined was -0.17 ± 0.04 D. The mean refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was -0.28 ± 0.06 D while that of the Crossbred was -0.01 ± 0.05 D. The refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was found to be statistically different to that of the Crossbred. The most prevalent refractive state was emmetropia in all cases, followed by hyperopia for the Crossbred, and myopia for the Spanish Thoroughbred. Astigmatism ≥0.50 D present in both eyes from the same individual was found in 21.7% of all horses examined. Anisometropia ≥1.00 D was diagnosed in 4 out of 129 horses with both visual eyes. Cycloplegia did not statistically affect the refractive state of the evaluated eyes. The equine eye has a refractive state close to emmetropia. Myopia is higher among Spanish Thoroughbred horses than among Crossbred horses. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Hypotheses about the psychological benefits of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Maujean, Annick; Pepping, Christopher A; Wright, John J

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, therapeutic horse-riding has become recognized as a progressive form of therapy, particularly for people with disabilities. Although there is a substantial amount of literature that supports the physical benefit of therapeutic riding, only anecdotal evidence exists in relation to its psychological benefits. The purpose of this article is to develop hypotheses about the mechanisms by which therapeutic riding might have a beneficial psychological effect. These hypotheses can then be tested, leading to a more detailed knowledge base. PsychINFO, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Data sources were searched for studies that (a) were related to the psychological effects of therapeutic horse-riding, (b) focused exclusively on therapeutic horse-riding, (c) described, explicitly or implicitly, the mechanism by which therapeutic riding had a beneficial psychological effect. Studies were limited to those published between 2008 and 2012. Data were extracted by two authors independently. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. Three potential hypotheses emerged from the literature, namely, (1) the psychological benefits of therapeutic riding are actually unrelated to the horse, (2) the horse provides a particularly positive context within which psychological gains are facilitated, and (3) the horse itself has specific therapeutic qualities that bring about unique changes not otherwise likely to occur. The challenge for researchers in this area is to design studies that adequately test these competing hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coat Clipping of Horses: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff-Wagner, J

    2018-04-01

    Coat clipping is a common practice in sport horses; however, timing, purpose, technique, and clips vary widely, as do the management and feeding of a clipped horse. The aim of this study was to collect data regarding common clipping practices. A questionnaire was published online in Germany and contained 32 questions. Four hundred ninety-eight people answered at least one question, and 373 individuals (7% male, 93% female; ages 14-59 years) completed all the questions. Clipped horses were predominantly used as sport horses (68%), and they were either clipped immediately before or during the winter season (88%) or year-round (7%). The clipping date was scheduled according to hair length (52%), sweat amount (47%), and drying time (47%). Participants primarily used two clips: the hunter clip and the blanket clip, both without clipping the head (23% each). The majority of the clipped horses wore a blanket day and night (> 90%). Future studies with observations in the field are needed to support survey data in an effort to develop welfare recommendations for clipping practices utilized with horses.

  15. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  16. Flying-fox species density--a spatial risk factor for Hendra virus infection in horses in eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus causes sporadic but typically fatal infection in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Fruit-bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes are the natural host of the virus, and the putative source of infection in horses; infected horses are the source of human infection. Effective treatment is lacking in both horses and humans, and notwithstanding the recent availability of a vaccine for horses, exposure risk mitigation remains an important infection control strategy. This study sought to inform risk mitigation by identifying spatial and environmental risk factors for equine infection using multiple analytical approaches to investigate the relationship between plausible variables and reported Hendra virus infection in horses. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I showed significant clustering of equine cases at a distance of 40 km, a distance consistent with the foraging 'footprint' of a flying-fox roost, suggesting the latter as a biologically plausible basis for the clustering. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis identified multiple equine infection hot spots along the eastern Australia coast from far north Queensland to central New South Wales, with the largest extending for nearly 300 km from southern Queensland to northern New South Wales. Geographically weighted regression (GWR showed the density of P. alecto and P. conspicillatus to have the strongest positive correlation with equine case locations, suggesting these species are more likely a source of infection of Hendra virus for horses than P. poliocephalus or P. scapulatus. The density of horses, climate variables and vegetation variables were not found to be a significant risk factors, but the residuals from the GWR suggest that additional unidentified risk factors exist at the property level. Further investigations and comparisons between case and control properties are needed to identify these local risk factors.

  17. Flying-fox species density--a spatial risk factor for Hendra virus infection in horses in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig; Skelly, Chris; Kung, Nina; Roberts, Billie; Field, Hume

    2014-01-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic but typically fatal infection in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Fruit-bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, and the putative source of infection in horses; infected horses are the source of human infection. Effective treatment is lacking in both horses and humans, and notwithstanding the recent availability of a vaccine for horses, exposure risk mitigation remains an important infection control strategy. This study sought to inform risk mitigation by identifying spatial and environmental risk factors for equine infection using multiple analytical approaches to investigate the relationship between plausible variables and reported Hendra virus infection in horses. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I) showed significant clustering of equine cases at a distance of 40 km, a distance consistent with the foraging 'footprint' of a flying-fox roost, suggesting the latter as a biologically plausible basis for the clustering. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis identified multiple equine infection hot spots along the eastern Australia coast from far north Queensland to central New South Wales, with the largest extending for nearly 300 km from southern Queensland to northern New South Wales. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) showed the density of P. alecto and P. conspicillatus to have the strongest positive correlation with equine case locations, suggesting these species are more likely a source of infection of Hendra virus for horses than P. poliocephalus or P. scapulatus. The density of horses, climate variables and vegetation variables were not found to be a significant risk factors, but the residuals from the GWR suggest that additional unidentified risk factors exist at the property level. Further investigations and comparisons between case and control properties are needed to identify these local risk factors.

  18. Flying-Fox Species Density - A Spatial Risk Factor for Hendra Virus Infection in Horses in Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig; Skelly, Chris; Kung, Nina; Roberts, Billie; Field, Hume

    2014-01-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic but typically fatal infection in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Fruit-bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, and the putative source of infection in horses; infected horses are the source of human infection. Effective treatment is lacking in both horses and humans, and notwithstanding the recent availability of a vaccine for horses, exposure risk mitigation remains an important infection control strategy. This study sought to inform risk mitigation by identifying spatial and environmental risk factors for equine infection using multiple analytical approaches to investigate the relationship between plausible variables and reported Hendra virus infection in horses. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran’s I) showed significant clustering of equine cases at a distance of 40 km, a distance consistent with the foraging ‘footprint’ of a flying-fox roost, suggesting the latter as a biologically plausible basis for the clustering. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis identified multiple equine infection hot spots along the eastern Australia coast from far north Queensland to central New South Wales, with the largest extending for nearly 300 km from southern Queensland to northern New South Wales. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) showed the density of P. alecto and P. conspicillatus to have the strongest positive correlation with equine case locations, suggesting these species are more likely a source of infection of Hendra virus for horses than P. poliocephalus or P. scapulatus. The density of horses, climate variables and vegetation variables were not found to be a significant risk factors, but the residuals from the GWR suggest that additional unidentified risk factors exist at the property level. Further investigations and comparisons between case and control properties are needed to identify these local risk factors. PMID:24936789

  19. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  20. Distances travelled by feral horses in 'outback' Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Pollitt, C C

    2010-11-01

    The distance travelled by Australian feral horses in an unrestricted environment has not previously been determined. It is important to investigate horse movement in wilderness environments to establish baseline data against which the movement of domestically managed horses and wild equids can be compared. To determine the travel dynamics of 2 groups of feral horses in unrestricted but different wilderness environments. Twelve feral horses living in 2 wilderness environments (2000 vs. 20,000 km(2)) in outback Australia were tracked for 6.5 consecutive days using custom designed, collar mounted global positioning systems (GPS). Collars were attached after darting and immobilising the horses. The collars were recovered after a minimum of 6.5 days by re-darting the horses. Average daily distance travelled was calculated. Range use and watering patterns of horses were analysed by viewing GPS tracks overlaid on satellite photographs of the study area. Average distance travelled was 15.9 ± 1.9 km/day (range 8.1-28.3 km/day). Horses were recorded up to 55 km from their watering points and some horses walked for 12 h to water from feeding grounds. Mean watering frequency was 2.67 days (range 1-4 days). Central Australian horses watered less frequently and showed a different range use compared to horses from central Queensland. Central Australian horses walked for long distances in direct lines to patchy food sources whereas central Queensland horses were able to graze close to water sources and moved in a more or less circular pattern around the central water source. The distances travelled by feral horses were far greater than those previously observed for managed domestic horses and other species of equid. Feral horses are able to travel long distances and withstand long periods without water, allowing them to survive in semi-arid conditions. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. THE HORSE SERUM BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY UNDER OCTANOL INFLUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Kuznetsova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase preparations from horse blood serum widely use in the research purposes and as an analytical reagent for determination of biologically active substances. High sensitivity of butyrylcholinesterase to organophosphorous inhibitors which possess high toxicity for the warm-blooded is especially important. Influence of octanol on reactive capacity of horse serum butyrylcholinesterase to butyrylcholine and ?-naphtylacetate and on its sensitivity to diisopropylfluorophosphate is investigated. Enzyme activity measured by a method of potentiometric titration in experiments with butyrylcholine and a fluorimetric method in experiments with ?-naphtylacetate allowing to define speed of hydrolysis of small concentration of a substrate. It is shown, that octanol does not influence on the hydrolysis rate of butyrylcholine but activates the enzymatic hydrolysis of ?-naphtylacetate and reduces the sensitivity of enzyme to inhibition by diisopropylfluorophosphate. The received results have the important practical value as octanol apply in some manufactures in the capacity of a defoamer. Our researches have shown that such standard procedures which used by manufacture of enzyme preparations as salting-out and desalting only partially delete octanol impurities. Complete separation of the enzyme from octanol and its sensitivity reduction to diisopropylfluorophosphate was possible by selective sorption of enzyme protein on the ion-exchange resin with the after-elution by a salt solution.

  3. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and English thoroughbred breeds and at the Hucul breed the stallions had aheight at withers of 140 cm and the improved population 143.80 cm. Oblique length of the trunk presented valuesslightly lower at the improved horses in comparison with the stallions used at mount. The English thoroughbredpresented a value of 21.50 cm of the cannon girth at the improved population in comparison with the value of 19.5cm obtained at the mount stallions. The weight has been lower at the improved populations than the one of thestallions. Most of the morphological characteristics of the improved population are close to the ones if the stallionsused at mount.

  4. AHP 47: G.YANG RTA: A GENTLE WHITE HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rin chen don 'grub རིན་ཆེན་དོན་འགྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When I was seven (the year 2000 my family had ten horses. These horses were very important, especially when we moved from one pasture to another. Among the horses was G.yang rta - a gentle, white horse. There were five children in my family aged from five to ten. When we moved to a new campsite, we could not walk for a long distance, and Mother could not carry us all, therefore, our dear Gyang rta helped carry us. ...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  6. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of procaterol in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, K; Nomura, M; Toju, K; Ishikawa, Y; Minamijima, Y; Yamashita, S; Nagata, S

    2016-06-01

    Procaterol (PCR) is a beta-2-adrenergic bronchodilator widely used in Japanese racehorses for treating lower respiratory disease. The pharmacokinetics of PCR following single intravenous (0.5 μg/kg) and oral (2.0 μg/kg) administrations were investigated in six thoroughbred horses. Plasma and urine concentrations of PCR were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma PCR concentration following intravenous administration showed a biphasic elimination pattern. The systemic clearance was 0.47 ± 0.16 L/h/kg, the steady-state volume of the distribution was 1.21 ± 0.23 L/kg, and the elimination half-life was 2.85 ± 1.35 h. Heart rate rapidly increased after intravenous administration and gradually decreased thereafter. A strong correlation between heart rate and plasma concentration of PCR was observed. Plasma concentrations of PCR after oral administration were not quantifiable in all horses. Urine concentrations of PCR following intravenous and oral administrations were quantified in all horses until 32 h after administration. Urine PCR concentrations were not significantly different on and after 24 h between intravenous and oral administrations. These results suggest that the bioavailability of orally administrated PCR in horses is very poor, and the drug was eliminated from the body slowly based on urinary concentrations. This report is the first study to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic character of PCR in thoroughbred horses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Horse-Expert: An aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.

  9. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  10. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  11. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a large...

  12. Severe diaphragmatic necrosis in 4 horses with degenerative myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Beth A.; Hammock, Phillip D.; Lemiski, David; Hughes, Faith E.; Gerstner, Lonna; Bird, Karyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Severe diaphragmatic necrosis occurred in horses with degenerative myopathy due to polysaccharide storage myopathy (n = 2), nutritional myopathy (n = 1), and vasculitis (n = 1). Blood gas analysis performed in 1 horse indicated development of respiratory acidosis. Respiratory muscle necrosis can be severe in horses with degenerative myopathy and can lead to respiratory failure.

  13. Severe diaphragmatic necrosis in 4 horses with degenerative myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Beth A; Hammock, Phillip D; Lemiski, David; Hughes, Faith E; Gerstner, Lonna; Bird, Karyn E

    2002-08-01

    Severe diaphragmatic necrosis occurred in horses with degenerative myopathy due to polysaccharide storage myopathy (n = 2), nutritional myopathy (n = 1), and vasculitis (n = 1). Blood gas analysis performed in 1 horse indicated development of respiratory acidosis. Respiratory muscle necrosis can be severe in horses with degenerative myopathy and can lead to respiratory failure.

  14. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  16. Palmar annular ligament desmotomy in horses with the Arthrex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-01-25

    Jan 25, 2018 ... Published: 07/02/2018. Palmar annular ligament desmotomy in horses with the Arthrex-Centerline™ ... Ten horse distal front limbs from horses free of PAL disease were prepared for tenoscopy of the digital flexor tendon sheath .... operative field, a better diagnosis and a reduction in both the surgical wound.

  17. Playing with fire ? What is influencing horse owners? decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Aus...

  18. 18 September 2012 - PD Dr. med. Andreas Trojan Researcher, University of Zürich and Mr Marc Forster Independant Swiss Movie Director Switzerland visiting the CMS underground area with Head of international Relations F. Pauss and CMS Collaboration Z. Szillasi.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    18 September 2012 - PD Dr. med. Andreas Trojan Researcher, University of Zürich and Mr Marc Forster Independant Swiss Movie Director Switzerland visiting the CMS underground area with Head of international Relations F. Pauss and CMS Collaboration Z. Szillasi.

  19. Behavior patterns and communication in feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, J D; McCullough, D R

    1976-08-01

    The social behavior of feral horses was studied in the western United States. Stable harem groups with a dominant stallion and bachelor hermaphrodite hermaphrodite groups occupied overlapping home ranges. Groups spacing, but not territoriality, was expressed. Harem group, stability resulted from strong dominance by dominant stallions, and fidelity of group members. Eliminations of group members were usually marked by urine of the dominant stallion. Hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite aggression involved spacing between harems and dominance in bachelor groups. Marking with feces was important in hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite interactions. Foaling occurred in May and early June, following the post-partum estrous. All breeding was done by harem stallions. Young were commonly nursed through yearling age. These horses showed social organizations similar to other feral horses and plains zebras.

  20. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable.

  1. Twenty years of Hendra virus: laboratory submission trends and risk factors for infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C S; McLAUGHLIN, A; Field, H E; Edson, D; Mayer, D; Ossedryver, S; Barrett, J; Waltisbuhl, D

    2016-11-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition. Peaks in submissions for testing, and visitations to the Government HeV website, were associated with reported equine incidents. Significantly differing between-year HeV detection rates in north and south Queensland suggest a fundamental difference in risk exposure between the two regions. The statistical association between HeV detection and stockhorse type may suggest that husbandry is a more important risk determinant than breed per se. The detection of HeV in horses with neither neurological nor respiratory signs poses a risk management challenge for attending veterinarians and laboratory staff, reinforcing animal health authority recommendations that appropriate risk management strategies be employed for all sick horses, and by anyone handling sick horses or associated biological samples.

  2. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

  3. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brandariz-Fontes

    Full Text Available Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

  4. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2009-08-06

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  6. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2008-12-22

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  7. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2005-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and

  8. Have Betting Exchanges Corrupted Horse Racing?

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Brown; Fuyu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Betting exchanges allow punters to bet on a horse to lose a race. This, many argue, has opened up the sport to a new form of corruption, where races will be deliberately lost in order to profit from betting. We examine whether anecdotal evidence of the fixing of horses to lose—of which there are many examples—is indicative of wider corruption. Following a “forensic economics” approach, we build an asymmetric information model of exchange betting and take it to betting data on 9,560 races run ...

  9. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M

    2011-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  10. Examining ecological consequences of feral horse grazing using exclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Brussard, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Although feral horses have inhabited western North America since the end of the 16th century, relatively little synecological research has been conducted to quantitatively characterize how they interact with ecosystem components. Because feral horses exhibit watering behavior markedly different from that of domestic cattle, it is particularly important to evaluate response of ecosystem elements near water sources to horse use. To assess this response, we performed live-trapping of small mammals and 2-tiered vegetative sampling in 2 mountain ranges in central Nevada in the interior Great Basin, USA. At low elevations, plots around horse-excluded springs exhibited notably greater plant species richness, percent cover, and abundance of grasses and shrubs, as well as more small mammal burrow entrances than plots at horse-grazed springs. At high elevations, meadows protected from grazing exhibited maximum vegetation heights 2.8 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses only and 4.5 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses and cattle. Species richness in quadrats was most different between the horse-and-cattle-grazed meadow and its ungrazed counterpart, suggesting the possibility of synergistic effects of horse and cattle grazing in the same location. This study, the first in the Great Basin to investigate quantitatively ecosystem consequences of feral horse use with exclosures, represents a preliminary step in identifying factors that determine the magnitude of horse grazing impacts. 

  11. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Warmuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  12. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  13. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  14. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    OpenAIRE

    Sybrand J. van Sittert; Tessa M. Drew; Johannes L. Kotze; Tom Strydom; Camilla T. Weyer; Alan J. Guthrie

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS) in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs). Hi...

  15. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against Hendra

  16. Playing with fire – What is influencing horse owners’ decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners’ attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners’ location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  17. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiea Arianna Goyen

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162 of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214 currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1 perceived low risk (compared to high of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2 perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3 horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4 horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5 handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only and 6 perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination. Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  18. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Rhodococcus equi pleuropneumonia in an adult horse

    OpenAIRE

    Vengust, Modest; Stæmpfli, Henry; Prescott, John F.

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year-old warmblood gelding was evaluated for intermittent pyrexia, dullness, weight loss, and progressive respiratory disease. Multifocal necrotic pneumonia and pleuritis due to Rhodococcus equi infection was diagnosed. Case management is discussed, as well as factors that may have led to this rare cause of pleuropneumonia in an adult horse.

  1. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  2. Optimized horse trail design for Illinois soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Jones; Logan O. Park

    2014-01-01

    One of the fastest growing forms of outdoor recreation is equestrian trail riding. In a study examining long-term trends of use on Forest Service lands, equestrian-based recreation was identified as one of the top five activities experiencing growth. As the numbers of horse riders rise, the economic impact of equestrian recreation can be expected to increase across the...

  3. Welfare monitoring system : assessment protocol for horses

    OpenAIRE

    Livestock Research

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  4. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  5. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  6. Microbial quality of raw horse milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of horse milk has become popular in developed countries, especially among people suffering from bowel problems and skin diseases. Since the positive effect is supposedly not observed after pasteurisation, the product is mostly consumed as raw milk. Since the microbiological quality of

  7. Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J.V.; Barber, S.M.; Fretz, P.B.; Jacobs, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).

  8. Adapting craniosacral therapy to treat horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kanik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniosacral therapy is an acknowledged therapeutic method used for treating humans. It derives from osteopathy, being a manual technique which uses a very gentle touch. It consists in balancing the fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid by applying appropriate holds that make it possible for the patientŐs organism to release tensions which have formed in tissues. The aim of the present work was to depict the possibility to adapt the method of craniosacral therapy used in humans to the therapy of horses. Thirteen therapeutic holds proposed for the treatment of horses were described and interpreted graphically on the basis of therapy of 62 horses with different disorders. A total of 241 craniosacral therapy treatments were performed. The adaptation of presented craniosacral therapy holds to equine therapy was developed by the first author on the basis of relevant holds used in the biodynamic craniosacral therapy in humans and in own therapeutic practice. The effects of own practice and data available in literature suggest that craniosacral therapy seems to be an effective method of improving the state of health of horses suffering from different complaints that may cause major difficulties in sport, breeding or private use of the animals. The use of thermography made it possible to record the effects of therapy and some processes accompanying it, which had been impossible before.

  9. [Hypocalcemia in the horse. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbjerg, J

    1980-05-01

    With reference to previous reports on hypocalcemia in horses special attention is given to the principal symptoms such as anxiety, increased muscular tension, esp. of the musculature of the extremities, in severe cases leading to ataxia, and to a pulse-synchronized respiration (Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter). The time of appearance of the symptoms are much more variable than it is the case for hypocalcemic agalactia in cows. Furthermore the condition has been reported in foals as well as in geldings. Thus the triggering factor seems to be somewhat different from that of agalactia. Hypocalcemic horses also develop decreased manganese blood-level. Treatment with Ca-borogluconat in the horse can be as efficient as is the case in agalactia in the cows, but quite often it is necessary to repeat the treatment. This is illustrated by the fact that the relatively high dose (17 mg Ca/kg) administered to the present patient only increased the Calcium blood level to somewhat below normal. The triggering condition, estrus, weaning of the foal, stress, hard (sweat-provoking) work etc., in many cases perhaps a kind of mental stress, must be adequately treated. An all-round and sufficient feed ration in accordance with the working load and eventually with milk production may prove to be much more essential than realized so far for the prevention of hypocalcemia in horses.

  10. General anesthesia for horses with specific problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.

    1990-01-01

    We have discussed anesthetic techniques, special considerations, and expected complications involved in anesthetizing horses for abdominal, orthopedic, and head and neck surgery, and myelography and have described expected physiologic dysfunction that may require changes in anesthetic technique or supportive measures. The objective is high-quality patient care and reduction in anesthesia-related morbidity and death

  11. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  12. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... similar requirement for the importation of Spanish Pure Breed horses and thoroughbred horses over 731 days...) * * * (D) For Spanish Pure Breed horses and thoroughbred horses over 731 days of age, cultures negative for.... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries...

  13. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann-Kelm, Stacey D; Atwill, Edward A; Rubin, Esther S; Hendrickson, Larry E; Boyce, Walter M

    2009-11-10

    Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  14. Equine laminitis: induced by 48 h hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; McGowan, C M; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2010-03-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is known to induce laminitis experimentally in healthy ponies with no history of the condition. Horses are more insulin sensitive than ponies and whether prolonged hyperinsulinaemia and euglycaemia would have a similar laminitogenic effect requires study. To determine if laminitis results when the prolonged euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique (p-EHC) is applied to clinically normal Standardbred horses, and to monitor hoof wall temperature seeking an association between vascular activity and laminitis development. Eight young, clinically normal Standardbred horses were assigned into 4 pairs and within each pair, one was assigned randomly to either treatment (n = 4) or control (n = 4) groups. Treated horses received continuous infusions of insulin and glucose until clinical signs of laminitis developed, at which point the horses were subjected to euthanasia. Control horses received an equivalent volume of a balanced electrolyte infusion for the same period. Hoof wall surface temperature (HWST) was monitored continuously throughout the experimental period. All horses in the treatment group were calculated to have normal insulin sensitivity. All treated horses, and none in the control group, developed laminitis (P = 0.01). Pronounced digital pulses were a feature of the treatment group, while insignificant digital pulses occurred in control horses. HWST was higher and less variable in treated horses once hyperinsulinaemia was established. Healthy Standardbred horses subjected to prolonged hyperinsulinaemia develop laminitis within 48 h, demonstrating that laminitis in horses can be triggered by insulin. Insulin resistance and the associated hyperinsulinaemia place horses and ponies at risk of developing laminitis. This study demonstrates a need for prompt management of the persistent hyperinsulinaemia seen in some endocrinopathies.

  15. Morphometric Characterization of Minahasa Horse for Breeding and Conservation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Takaendengan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate morphometric variation of Minahasa horses. Body measurements and live-weight were taken on 195 mare and 310 stallion of Minahasa horse. A multivariate approach was adopted to provide description of both body shape and body size of four Minahasa local horse populations, i.e. Tomohon, Manado, South Minahasa, and Minahasa. Statistical methods employed in this study were general linear model, simple discriminant analysis, and principle component analysis were used to construct phylogenic trees. The results showed that Tomohon’s horse population had higher body weights and body measurements (P<0.05 than those from three other areas (Manado, South Minahasa, and Minahasa. The hip width is the most discriminant variable to determine the differences among Minahasa local horse population. The results support establishment of strategy to promote the use and the development of local adapted horse.

  16. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  17. Horses – A Natural Fit for Camp Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Galloway

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 4-H Member’s Horse Camp allows horse project members to enjoy their equine partner in a non-competitive, outdoor setting. Campers learn about leave-no-trace outdoor ethics, trail riding, maneuvering trail obstacles, equine emergency first aid, and low impact camping. 4?H has long understood that providing opportunities for youth to learn about things that interest them is just one aspect of the program. Project specific content, in this case horses, helps youth in 4?H programs to develop important life skills. In the positive atmosphere at 4?H horse camp, youth may feel a sense of belonging, and are provided opportunities to develop mastery, independence, and a spirit of generosity? which are all essential elements in high quality youth development programs. Horse camps are a natural extension of opportunities for horse project members, and they can be added to existing camps, or create new camping lessons.

  18. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  19. Myopathy in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Cushing's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Watson, J L; Williams, D C; LeCouteur, R A; Nieto, J E; Shelton, G D

    2006-11-01

    Fifteen horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were studied. The horses were of various breeds and between 15 and 28 years of age. Control horses matched for breed and age were studied for comparison. Evaluations included complete blood cell count and serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and gluteus medius muscle biopsies for histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. No differences were found between groups of horses on routine laboratory analysis or electromyography. We demonstrated that muscle wasting in diseased horses was the result of atrophy of types 2A and 2B muscle fibers and loss of type 2B myofibers. Mild non-specific non-inflammatory myopathic alterations such as myofiber size variation, internal nuclei, perimysial, endomysial and sarcoplasmic fat accumulation were observed. At the ultrastructural level, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation and increased lipid droplets were evident. Similar to other species, this study confirmed atrophy of type 2 fibers as the cause of muscle mass loss in horses with Cushing's disease.

  20. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  1. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  2. Intra-articular morphine in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Casper

    Regardless of species, optimal pain management of animals subjected to various painful procedures is of outmost importance for several reasons, including animal welfare considerations, improved convalescence and improved final outcome. One way of improving pain management in horses is through the...... compared to the same dose administered IV, was demonstrated. In combination with the results of the pharmacologic analysis, this is highly suggestive of a peripherally mediated effect of IA morphine.......Regardless of species, optimal pain management of animals subjected to various painful procedures is of outmost importance for several reasons, including animal welfare considerations, improved convalescence and improved final outcome. One way of improving pain management in horses is through...... the principles embodied in "multimodal analgesia". This concept is based on combining various analgesic drugs acting at different levels in the nociceptive pathway, thereby achieving additive and in some situations even synergistic effects of the administered drugs. Consequently, the dose of each drug can...

  3. An ethological study of young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šišková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia, defecation and micturition, comfortable behaviour and mutual comfort behaviour, manifestations of relaxation (resting posture, lying down, movement manifestations, playful behaviour, stereotype behaviour, other manifestations (acoustic, olfactory etc.As a result we recommended several changes in the technology, e.g. larger stables, salt-lick out of reach of the foals, more frequent exchange of bedding, shelter for horses grazing in the open.

  4. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  5. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  6. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  7. An ethological study of young horses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Šišková; Iva Jiskrová; Vladimír Mikule

    2006-01-01

    In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia), defecation and micturition, comfortable behavi...

  8. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A.; Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  9. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  10. Inflammatory Myopathy in Horses With Chronic Piroplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasolini, Maria P; Pagano, Teresa B; Costagliola, Alessandro; Biase, Davide De; Lamagna, Barbara; Auletta, Luigi; Fatone, Gerardo; Greco, Michele; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Veneziano, Veneziano; Pirozzi, Claudio; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Santoro, Pasquale; Manna, Giuseppe; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2018-01-01

    Horses affected by chronic piroplasmosis may develop poor performance and muscle atrophy. Here we investigate the pathological and immunopathological aspects of myopathy occurring in chronic equine piroplasmosis. The study included 16 horses serologically positive for equine piroplasms presenting with clinical signs and supporting serum biochemical evidence of a myopathy. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, indirect immunofluorescence, and molecular detection of piroplasms and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. Histologic lesions included muscle fiber atrophy (100% of cases), degenerative changes (13/16, 81%), and perivascular perimysial and endomysial lymphocytic infiltrates (81% of cases). In 15 cases (94%), muscle fibers had strong immunostaining for major histocompatibility complex classes I and II. T lymphocyte populations were mainly CD3+, CD8+, and CD4+ in equal proportions, with a lower number of CD79α+ cells. The serum from affected horses was tested by indirect immunofluorescence for binding of IgG, IgM, or IgA to sections of normal equine muscle to detect circulating autoantibodies against muscle antigen(s). In all cases, distinct sarcolemmal staining was detected in sections incubated with serum from affected horses, in contrast to sections incubated with phosphate-buffered saline or equine control sera. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of muscles from affected animals revealed a significant increase of interferon-γ, interleukin-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression compared to healthy controls. Theileria equi or Babesia caballi was not detected in samples of affected muscle by RT-PCR. Thus, inflammatory myopathy associated with equine piroplasmosis may involve an autoimmune pathogenesis with upregulation of inflammatory cytokines that may cause myofiber atrophy and degeneration.

  11. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  13. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  14. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  15. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gronqvist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  17. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson Larry E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  18. Frequency of gray coat color in native Chinese horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, K X; Chen, N B; Liu, W J; Li, R; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z; Dang, R H

    2015-10-30

    Gray horses are born colored, and they then gradually lose their hair pigmentation. Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the genes responsible for graying with age in horses in recent years. Results show that gray coat color in horses is caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of the syntaxin 17 gene (STX17), which constitutes a cis-acting-regulatory mutation. However, little is known about the gray phenotype in native Chinese horses. This study was conducted to explore the frequency distribution of the gray mutation in native Chinese horse breeds. A total of 489 samples from 14 native Chinese horse breeds were genotyped for the STX17 duplication using a simplified conventional PCR-based method. The results show that the gray mutation was present in 12 native Chinese horse breeds, except the Balikun and Guanzhong breeds. The Chakouyi and Hequ breeds had the highest frequency of the gray mutation (P(G) = 0.367 and P(G) = 0.274, respectively). There was no significant geographical difference in the distribution of gray coat color across native Chinese horse breeds. Our results suggest that gray is a common coat color in Chinese horses.

  19. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  20. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  1. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  2. Factors affecting the performance of Pantaneiro horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Silva e Souza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the physical performance of Pantaneiro horses with and without equine infectious anemia (EIA under functional conditions of cattle management. The horses were subjected to a performance test and split into two groups according to a completely randomized design: animals were chosen from populations testing positive and negative for EIA. Performance was measured as a function of a data envelopment analysis (DEA model considering four outputs and one unitary input. The output measures were the distance achieved in the performance test, hematocrit as a weighted average over the test duration, respiratory rate as weighted average over the test duration, and the level of lactic acid at the test termination. Weights for the hematocrit and the respiratory rate output variables were determined by means of factor analysis. The performance score was a weighted average of the output variables with the weights defined by the averages of the optimum individual multipliers in the DEA analysis. Contextual variables of interest were age, horse weight, room temperature, and corporal temperature. Only groups and room temperature were statistically significant effects, as indicated by a bootstrap analysis. The performance of group positive for EIA is significantly lower than that of the group negative for EIA and room temperature has a negative effect.

  3. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel: an investigation of several outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; Moleman, M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Multem, J; Troelstra, A; Fluit, A C; van Wamel, W J B; Houwers, D J; de Neeling, A J; Wagenaar, J A

    2010-02-24

    At the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Center, the Netherlands, the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates found in equine clinical samples increased from 0% in 2002 to 37% in 2008. MRSA of spa-type t064, belonging to MLST ST8 and spa-types t011 and t2123, both belonging to the livestock-associated MLST ST398, predominated. During an outbreak of post-surgical MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2006/2007, MRSA isolates of spa-type t2123 were cultured from 7 horses and 4/61 personnel which indicated zoonotic transmission. After intervention the outbreak stopped. However, another outbreak occurred in 2008, where 17 equine MRSA isolates of spa-type t011 (n=12), t2123 (n=4), and t064 (n=1) were found. This time, 16/170 personnel were positive for MRSA with spa-type t011 (n=11) and t2123 (n=5). Personnel in close contact with horses were more often MRSA-positive (15/106) than those without (1/64). Screening of horses upon admission showed that 9.3% were MRSA-positive predominantly with spa-type t011. Weekly cross-sectional sampling of all hospitalized horses for 5 weeks showed that 42% of the horses were MRSA-positive at least once, again predominantly with spa-type t011, which suggests that nosocomial transmission took place. Fifty-three percent of the environmental samples were MRSA-positive, including samples from students' and staff members' rooms, and all were spa-type t011. This indicates that humans contribute to spreading the organism. Culturing of samples employing high-salt pre-enrichment performed better than a comparable method without pre-enrichment. Our results show that nosocomial transmission occurs in equine clinics and suggests that personnel play a role in the transmission. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio‐Martínez, L. M.; Redding, W. R.; Bladon, B.; Wilderjans, H.; Payne, R. J.; Tessier, C.; Geffroy, O.; Parker, R.; Bell, C.; Collingwood, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. Objectives To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Study design Multicentre retrospective case series. Methods Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow‐up informatio...

  7. Characterization of equine vitamin D–binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12...... in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses....

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knezevic Sabina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury to the supraspinous ligament (SSL is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. The ultrasonographic appearance of the supraspinous ligament has been well described, but there are few studies that correlate ultrasonographic findings with clinical pain and/or pathology. This preliminary study aims to test the hypothesis that unridden horses (n = 13 have a significantly reduced frequency of occurrence of ultrasonographic changes of the SSL consistent with a diagnosis of desmitis when compared to ridden horses (n = 13 and those with clinical signs of back pain (n = 13. Results The supraspinous ligament of all horses was imaged between T(thoracic6-T18 and ultrasonographic appearance. There was an average of 2.08 abnormal images per horse from the whole group. The average number of abnormalities in unridden horses was 4.92, in ridden horses 2.92 and in horses with clinical back pain 4.69. No lesions were found between T6 and T10 and 68% of lesions were found between T14 and T17. No significant difference (p Conclusion The main conclusion was that every horse in this study (n = 39 had at least one site of SSL desmitis (range 2 to 11. It was clear that ultrasonographically diagnosed SSL desmitis cannot be considered as prima facie evidence of clinically significant disease and further evidence is required for a definitive diagnosis.

  9. Biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta in warmblood horses, Friesian horses, and Friesians with aortic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, Veronique; Famaey, Nele; Smoljkic, Marija; Claeys, Erik; van Loon, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Ploeg, Margreet; Delesalle, Catherine; Gröne, Andrea; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen

    2015-11-18

    Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation are rare conditions in horses. It mainly affects Friesian horses. Intrinsic differences in biomechanical properties of the aortic wall might predispose this breed. The biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta were characterized in warmblood horses, unaffected Friesian horses and Friesians with aortic rupture in an attempt to unravel the underlying pathogenesis of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. Samples of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum (LA), mid thoracic aorta (T1) and distal thoracic aorta (T2) were obtained from Friesian horses with aortic rupture (A), nonaffected Friesian (NA) and warmblood horses (WB). The biomechanical properties of these samples were determined using uniaxial tensile and rupture assays. The percentages of collagen and elastin (mg/mg dry weight) were quantified. Data revealed no significant biomechanical nor biochemical differences among the different groups of horses. The distal thoracic aorta displayed an increased stiffness associated with a higher collagen percentage in this area and a higher load-bearing capacity compared to the more proximal segments. Our findings match reported findings in other animal species. Study results did not provide evidence that the predisposition of the Friesian horse breed for aortic rupture can be attributed to altered biomechanical properties of the aortic wall.

  10. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    study identified several genomic regions associated with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses. On chromosome 20, associated genomic regions in both breeds were within 2 Mb from the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region. Increased knowledge on insect bite hypersensitivity associated genes will contribute to our understanding of its biology, enabling more efficient selection, therapy and prevention to decrease insect bite hypersensitivity prevalence.

  11. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  12. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  13. Musculoskeletal Disease in Aged Horses and Its Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weeren, Paul René; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar

  14. Eimeria leuckarti infections in sport horses in Northwest Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülegen, Ender; Girisgin, Oya; Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Cirak, Veli Yilgor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine sport horses in Northwest Turkey for Eimeria (E.) leuckarti infections. Between 2004 and 2008 fecal samples from 549 horses of different age, breed and sex of 21 farms were examined for E. leuckarti oocysts using a qualitative method which involved centrifugation/flotation and saturated sugar solution as medium. The prevalence of infection was evaluated relative to host age, sex, breed and pasture availability. 16 (2.9%) horses were found to be infected with E. leuckarti, whilst infected horses were located in nine (42.8%) farms. Younger horses (infected than older ones. However, breed, sex and availability of pasture were not identified as factors influencing the prevalence. As a main conclusion, compared with the low infection rate found in individual horses, E. leuckarti was highly prevalent at the farm level which possess a permanent risk of infection of especially younger horses at these premises. This study reports for the first time on the prevalence of E. leuckarti in sport horses from farms in Northwest Turkey.

  15. A study of patrilineal genetic diversity in Iranian indigenous horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autosomal markers and mtDNA have been used in horse phylogenetic studies. These studies display evolutionary events that happened in both sexes or only in females. It is necessary to investigate genetic diversity in Y-specific markers for clarifying contribution of males in horse domestication. The Y chromosome ...

  16. Insect bite hypersensitivity in horses: genetic and epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by bites of Culicoides spp. IBH reduces welfare of affected horses and at present no effective preventive measure or cure exists. Aim of our research was to increase knowledge of the

  17. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  18. Serum biochemistry profile of Nigerian horses ( Equus Caballus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the serum biochemistry profile of apparently healthy Nigerian horses and determined the influence of age, sex and season on the serum biochemistry parameters. A total of 61 apparently healthy horses of varied ages and either sex were studied during a six-month period [three months of dry season ...

  19. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  1. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Agustsdóttir, Elfa; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Oström, Inga-Lena Örde; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Wensman, Jonas Johansson

    2013-11-01

    In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

  2. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  3. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  4. Pain: Its Diagnosis and Management in the Rehabilitation of Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglish, Jodie; Mama, Khursheed R

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a brief overview of pain physiology and its relevance to equine patients. Objective and subjective techniques for assessing pain in the horse are described in depth. Pharmacologic and interventional pain modulation treatments are discussed with a focus on the rehabilitating horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  6. Dominance and Leadership: Useful Concepts in Human–Horse Interactions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Christensen, Janne Winther; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    been reported to be higher than in their feral counterparts but can often be attributed to suboptimal management. Horse owners often express concerns about the risk of injuries occurring in group-kept horses, but these concerns have not been substantiated by empirical investigations. What has not yet...

  7. Variability of social behaviour in domestic and feral horses

    OpenAIRE

    DUDOVÁ, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on social behaviour of horses living under feral, semi-feral and domestic conditions and its variability. This variability is represented mainly by variations in agonistic and friendly interactions among horses. Also the differences in reproductive behaviour and maternal care are included.

  8. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  9. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... situations, such as but not limited to, lack of proper facilities for inspection, refusal of management to... custodial and maintenance care, such as walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided, That: (1) Such feeding, watering, and other normal custodial and maintenance care of the detained horse is...

  10. Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses. PMID:21119866

  11. Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses.

  12. Incidence of polysaccharide storage myopathy: necropsy study of 225 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Cooper, B J

    2005-11-01

    Muscle samples were obtained at necropsy from 225 horses and ponies 1 year of age or older. Samples were processed in routine manner and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and with periodic acid-Schiff for glycogen. Sections were examined for abnormal glycogen content and amylase-resistant complex polysaccharide and for chronic myopathic change (excessive fiber size variation, increase in number of internal nuclei). A total of 101 horses and ponies with lesions of polysaccharide storage myopathy were identified. Age of affected horses ranged from one to 30 years, with a mean of 14.7 years. Mean age of nonaffected horses was 12 years. Incidence of polysaccharide storage myopathy varied depending on breed; Thoroughbreds had the lowest (27%) and draft-related horses had the highest (86%) incidence. Chronic myopathic changes were more severe in polysaccharide storage myopathy-affected horses than in nonaffected horses. Results of this study indicate that polysaccharide storage myopathy is a common disorder of many breeds of horses and ponies.

  13. Environmental exposures and airway inflammation in young thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivester, K M; Couëtil, L L; Moore, G E; Zimmerman, N J; Raskin, R E

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) in horses is a widespread, performance-limiting syndrome believed to develop in response to inhaled irritants in the barn environment. To evaluate changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and exposure to particulates, endotoxin, and ammonia during horses' first month in training. Forty-nine client-owned 12- to 36-month-old Thoroughbred horses entering race training. In this prospective cohort study, a convenience sample of horses was assigned to be fed hay from a net (n = 16), whereas the remaining horses were fed hay from the ground (n = 33). BALF was collected at enrollment and after 14 and 28 days in training. Respirable particulate, inhalable particulate, respirable endotoxin, and ammonia concentrations were measured at the breathing zone of each horse weekly. Median respirable particulates were significantly higher when horses were fed from hay nets than when fed hay from the ground (hay net 0.28 mg/m(3) , no hay net 0.055 mg/m(3) , P horses were fed from hay nets. Feeding hay from a net resulted in significantly higher BALF eosinophil proportions over time (P Thoroughbreds, indicating a potential hypersensitivity to inhaled particulate allergens. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  15. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  16. Vacuum phenomenon in the metatarsophalangeal joint of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, T.E.; Poulos, P.W.; Metcalf, M.R.; Robertson, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    Vacuum phenomenon was induced inadvertently during radiographic examination of a metatarsophalangeal joint of a lame horse. The phenomenon was recreated in a sound horse when a metacarpophalangeal joint was radiographed in a stress-flexed position. Distraction of apposing articular surfaces may induce the vacuum phenomenon, which could result in misdiagnosis of an osteochondral defect or fracture

  17. Blood gas analysis in Mangalarga Marchador horses with colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiane F. Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to distinguish blood gas changes in horses with colic syndrome in which small or large intestine is affected. Materials and methods. Thirty Mangalarga Marchador horses were assessed, divided into groups according to the affected intestinal segment in episodes of colic syndrome (ECS: a group (N=10 of horses suffering from ECS with lesions only in the small intestine, a group (N=10 of horses suffering from ECS with lesions only in the large intestine and a group (N=10 of healthy horses (control. All the animals with ECS were submitted to exploratory laparotomy in order to establish the intestinal segment affected. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture, before surgical procedure to determine sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, total carbon dioxide concentration, bicarbonate, base excess and anion gap. Results. No significant changes were found in plasma levels of Na+, K+, Cl-, pCO2 and anion gap in any type of ECS. Horses with small intestine injuries presented higher levels of tCO2, urea and bicarbonate compared to those with large intestine injuries and to the control group, as well as higher levels of glucose and base excess than the control group. Conclusions. Horses with colic syndrome bearing small intestine injuries show wider variations in the blood gas parameters than horses with large bowel lesions.

  18. Deep neural network features for horses identity recognition using multiview horses' face pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Islem; Ouarda, Wael; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    To control the state of horses in the born, breeders needs a monitoring system with a surveillance camera that can identify and distinguish between horses. We proposed in [5] a method of horse's identification at a distance using the frontal facial biometric modality. Due to the change of views, the face recognition becomes more difficult. In this paper, the number of images used in our THoDBRL'2015 database (Tunisian Horses DataBase of Regim Lab) is augmented by adding other images of other views. Thus, we used front, right and left profile face's view. Moreover, we suggested an approach for multiview face recognition. First, we proposed to use the Gabor filter for face characterization. Next, due to the augmentation of the number of images, and the large number of Gabor features, we proposed to test the Deep Neural Network with the auto-encoder to obtain the more pertinent features and to reduce the size of features vector. Finally, we performed the proposed approach on our THoDBRL'2015 database and we used the linear SVM for classification.

  19. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.; Madsen, O.; Norberg, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Ducro, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between the

  20. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty......, to repeated regrouping. Compared to horses in Stable groups, more agonistic behaviour was shown by horses in Unstable groups (i.e. non-contact agonistic; F1,65 = 5.60, P = 0.02), whereas there was no treatment effect on other variables. The level of play behaviour appeared, however, to be more variable...... in Unstable groups. There was a significant effect of week on the level of contact agonistic interactions as well as greeting behaviour, due to a high occurrence in weeks 4–6. Non-contact agonistic interactions constituted the major part of agonistic interactions (66%). Possibly as consequence, no serious...

  1. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...... the restriction on social contact (full > head > muzzle). However, the finding that horses showed a similar and high motivation for all three types of social contact suggests that they are valued equally highly in a situation where the alternative is no social contact....

  2. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  3. Sexual dimorphism in Hucul horses using discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzyc, H; Kobryńczuk, F; Bojarski, J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the applicability of discriminant function analysis to determine gender dimorphism in Hucul horses, based on morphological indices obtained in different stages of life. A total of 243 horses, divided into six age groups, have been examined in its course. For each horse we have measured 12 metric traits, which were then used to calculate 13 biometric indices commonly used in horse breeding in Poland. These have become the basis for defining functions classifying the animals by gender in each of the six age groups. This study answers the question of what parameters play the greatest role in the course of shaping of body proportions of male and female horses in post-foetal development. The following indices have been found to significantly contribute in discriminant models: boniness, smaller trunk length, height at the croup, pelvis width and width of chest.

  4. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses by RNA-seq to Elucidate Differentially Expressed Genes in the Muscle of Korean Thoroughbred Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Woong; Choi, Jae-Young; Chung, Young-Hwa; Sharma, Neelesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kim, Nam Eun; Mongre, Raj Kumar; Huynh, Do; Jiao, Zhang Jiao; Do, Kyoung Tag; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Song, Ki-Duk; Cho, Byung-Wook; Jeong, DongKee

    2016-10-01

    The athletic abilities of the horse serve as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in triceps brachii muscle tissues collected from Eonjena Taeyang and Jigusang Seryeok Thoroughbred horses and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. High-quality horse transcriptome data were generated, with over 22 million 90-bp pair-end reads. By comparing the annotations, we found that MYH3, MPZ, and PDE8B genes in Eonjena Taeyang and PDE8B and KIF18A genes in Jigusang Seryeok were upregulated before exercise. Notably further, we observed that PPP1R27, NDUFA3, TNC, and ANK1 in Eonjena Taeyang and HIF1A, BDNF, ADRB2, OBSCN, and PER3 in Jigusang Seryeok have shown upregulation at the postexercise period. This investigation suggested that genes responsible for metabolism and oxidative phosphorylations associated with endurance and resistance exercise were highly expressed, whereas genes encoding structural proteins were generally suppressed. The expression profile of racehorses at pre- and postexercise will provide credible reference for further studies on biological effects such as responses to stress and adaption of other Thoroughbred horse, which might be useful for selective breeding for improvement of traits in commercial production.

  5. Post anaesthetic myopathy/neuropathy in horses undergoing magnetic resonance imaging compared to horses undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, P; Leece, E A; Brearley, J C

    2006-11-01

    Patient positioning and long anaesthetic duration required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may result in a higher frequency of post anaesthetic myopathy/neuropathy syndrome (PAMNS) as compared to horses undergoing anaesthesia for surgery. Equine anaesthesia for MRI is associated with a higher frequency of PAMNS than anaesthesia for nonemergency, nonabdominal surgery. Anaesthetic and medical records of horses (n = 633) undergoing MRI or surgery between January 2001 and January 2005 (inclusive), were reviewed. Information obtained included patient details (breed, sex, age, bodyweight), area of body scanned or involved in surgery, body position, anaesthetic and inotropic agents administered, anaesthetic duration, adverse events during anaesthesia and outcome at 7 days. Data were examined by cross tabulation and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test of association. The influence of individual variables was examined by univariant and multivariant analysis models. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in parameters examined, except that horses in the MRI group were heavier (Phorses (2.3%, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.2) in the MRI group had clinical signs of PAMNS in the post anaesthetic period, whereas only 2 horses (0.98%, 95% CI: 0.2-2.8) in the surgery group were affected. This was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.8-13, P = 0.3). Two horses undergoing MRI were subjected to euthanasia due to the severity of PAMNS. There was no difference in the occurrence of PAMNS between the 2 groups. The risk of performing general anaesthesia for diagnostic procedures such as MRI may not be greater than that for a surgical procedure. However, the benefits should be carefully weighed against the risks involved.

  6. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  7. An epidemiological study of myopathies in Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L M; Valberg, S J; Steffenhagen, K; McCue, M E

    2008-03-01

    There are few detailed reports describing muscular disorders in Warmblood horses. To determine the types of muscular disorders that occur in Warmblood horses, along with presenting clinical signs, associated risk factors and response to diet and exercise recommendations, and to compare these characteristics between horses diagnosed with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), those diagnosed with a neuromuscular disorder other than PSSM (non-PSSM) and control horses. Subject details, muscle biopsy diagnosis and clinical history were compiled for Warmblood horses identified from records of biopsy submissions to the University of Minnesota Neuromuscular Diagnostic Laboratory. A standardised questionnaire was answered by owners at least 6 months after receiving the muscle biopsy report for an affected and a control horse. Polysaccharide storage myopathy (72/132 horses) was the most common myopathy identified followed by recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) (7/132), neurogenic or myogenic atrophy (7/132), and nonspecific myopathic changes (14/132). Thirty-two biopsies were normal. Gait abnormality, 'tying-up', Shivers, muscle fasciculations and atrophy were common presenting clinical signs. Forty-five owners completed questionnaires. There were no differences in sex, age, breed, history or management between control, PSSM and non-PSSM horses. Owners that provided the recommended low starch fat supplemented diet and regular daily exercise reported improvement in clinical signs in 68% (19/28) of horses with a biopsy submission and 71% of horses diagnosed with PSSM (15/21). Muscle biopsy evaluation was a valuable tool to identify a variety of myopathies in Warmblood breeds including PSSM and RER. These myopathies often presented as gait abnormalities or overt exertional rhabdomyolysis and both a low starch fat supplemented diet and regular exercise appeared to be important in their successful management. Warmbloods are affected by a variety of muscle disorders, which

  8. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: horse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available horse Equus caballus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Equus_caballus_L.png Equus_caball...us_NL.png Equus_caballus_S.png Equus_caballus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NS ...

  10. Renal mucus gland cystadenomas in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, Alan T; Bryant, Uneeda K; Williams, Neil M

    2008-07-01

    A 35-year-old horse was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. At necropsy, multiple 1-4-cm-diameter cystic structures were incidentally identified unilaterally in the right renal medulla and the cortex. On histologic examination, the cystic structures compressed the normal renal architecture, were lined by tall columnar epithelium that formed occasional papillary projections, and contained large amounts of mucicarmine and periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucinous material. The masses were diagnosed as renal mucus-gland cystadenomas. This tumor should be considered as a differential diagnosis when cystic structures are identified in the equine kidney.

  11. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Lucy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia.

  12. Stem cell therapy for joint problems using the horse as a clinically relevant animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Betts, Dean H.

    2007-01-01

    of the developmental biology of synovial joints and their pathologies. Before human clinical trials are undertaken, stem cell-based therapies for non-life-threatening disorders should be evaluated for their safety and efficacy using animal models of spontaneous disease and not solely by the existing laboratory models...... of experimentally induced lesions. The horse lends itself as a good animal model of spontaneous joint disorders that are clinically relevant to similar human disorders. Equine stem cell and tissue engineering studies may be financially feasible to principal investigators and small biotechnology companies...

  13. Ocular findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA ...

  14. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  15. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been common to the Slavs, as it was to their Baltic, Iranian and German neighbors, but at a later moment - which is hard to determine precisely, although we can assign it to a time before the disintegration of Slavic linguistic unity around the middle of the first millennium A. D. - for this inherited designation the new one *ko(moń' was substituted, either as a lexical innovation made by the Slavs themselves or as a borrowing from another language. Under the entries *komoń' and *koń' of the Moscow dictionary, where their continuations in Slavic languages are respectively listed, O. N. Trubachev gives a survey of previous etymological proposals and rejects all of them in favor of his own explanations. According to him, *komoń' is a Slavic onomatopoeic creation imitative of neigh, while *koń' is a loan-word, going back to Celtic *konkos/kankos 'horse' (originally 'springer'? through an intermediate form *konk', which was presumably understood as a diminutive in -'k'' and consequently shortened. Apart from the facts that the word in question is scarcely attested in comparison with two others Celtic designations for horse, *equo- (> Olr. ech, Gall, epo- and *marka-, and that in Slavic mouth it should have been reflected as *kok'', and not as *kon'k'', the very separation of both forms, *koń' and *komoń', seems unmethodical. With more reason Gamkrelidze and Ivanov recur to the old proposal connecting *koń' via *komoń' (<**kobn-? with *kobyla and further with

  16. Genetic variation in the feral horses of the Namib Desert, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; van Dyk, E; van der Merwe, F J

    2001-03-01

    Genetic variation at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 30 horses from a feral herd from the Namib Desert of Namibia, Africa. The observed genetic variability was extremely low compared with that found in domestic horse breeds. The low variation was most probably a result of recent small population size and a small founding population size. Genetic comparison of the Namib horses, which were of unknown origins, to domestic horse breeds, showed that the Namib horses had the highest genetic similarity to Arabian type horses, although they did not closely resemble this type of horse in conformation.

  17. Genetic variation in the feral horses of the Namib Desert, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 30 horses from a feral herd from the Namib Desert of Namibia, Africa. The observed genetic variability was extremely low compared with that found in domestic horse breeds. The low variation was most probably a result of recent small population size and a small founding population size. Genetic comparison of the Namib horses, which were of unknown origins, to domestic horse breeds, showed that the Namib horses had the highest genetic similarity to Arabian type horses, although they did not closely resemble this type of horse in conformation.

  18. Oral rosmarinic acid-enhanced Mentha spicata modulates synovial fluid biomarkers of inflammation in horses challenged with intra-articular LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, W; Fletcher, R S; Kott, L S

    2012-10-01

    A biological extract of high-rosmarinic acid mint (HRAM) has previously demonstrated inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), nitric oxide (NO) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release in vitro. This study was undertaken to determine whether HRAM added to feed produces similar effects in horses challenged with intra-articular LPS. Eight horses received HRAM (0 or 28.1 ± 1.3 g/day; n = 4 per group) in their feed for 24 days in a blinded manner. On day 21, all horses received an intra-articular injection of LPS (0.3 ng) into their left or right intercarpal joint. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were taken on postinjection day (PID)-21 (i.e. prior to commencement of supplementation), PID0, PID0.25, PID0.5, PID1 and PID3 and analysed for PGE(2), GAG, NO, protein and total nucleated cells counts. Blood biochemistry and haematology screens were conducted at PID-21, PID0, PID1 and PID3. There was a significant reduction in LPS-induced PGE(2) and GAG in SF in horses supplemented with HRAM compared with controls and a tendency to increase complement recognition protein accumulation in synovial fluid of HRAM horses. Plasma from HRAM horses had reduced total white blood cells, segmented neutrophils (compared with baseline concentrations) and lymphocytes (compared with controls), and increased SF nucleated cell count (compared with baseline concentrations and controls). It is concluded that HRAM offered as part of the feed alter biomarkers of inflammation in SF of LPS-challenged horses. Larger studies that seek to clarify effects of HRAM on synovial fluid cell counts and possible role of HRAM-induced interference with complement signalling are warranted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  20. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  1. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical characteristics and muscle glycogen concentrations in warmblood horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susannah S; Nicholson, Anne M; Williams, Zoë J; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings for polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in warmblood horses with type 1 PSSM (PSSM1; caused by mutation of the glycogen synthase 1 gene) and type 2 PSSM (PSSM2; unknown etiology). SAMPLE Database with 3,615 clinical muscle biopsy submissions. PROCEDURES Reported clinical signs and serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were retrospectively analyzed for horses with PSSM1 (16 warmblood and 430 nonwarmblood), horses with PSSM2 (188 warmblood and 646 nonwarmblood), and warmblood horses without PSSM (278). Lameness examinations were reviewed for 9 warmblood horses with PSSM2. Muscle glycogen concentrations were evaluated for horses with PSSM1 (14 warmblood and 6 nonwarmblood), warmblood horses with PSSM2 (13), and horses without PSSM (10 warmblood and 6 nonwarmblood). RESULTS Rhabdomyolysis was more common for horses with PSSM1 (12/16 [75%] warmblood and 223/303 [74%] nonwarmblood) and nonwarmblood horses with PSSM2 (221/436 [51%]) than for warmblood horses with PSSM2 (39/147 [27%]). Gait abnormality was more common in warmblood horses with PSSM2 (97/147 [66%]) than in warmblood horses with PSSM1 (1/16 [7%]), nonwarmblood horses with PSSM2 (176/436 [40%]), and warmblood horses without PSSM (106/200 [53%]). Activities of CK and AST were similar in warmblood horses with and without PSSM2. Muscle glycogen concentrations in warmblood and nonwarmblood horses with PSSM1 were significantly higher than concentrations in warmblood horses with PSSM2. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICIAL RELEVANCE Rhabdomyolysis and elevated muscle glycogen concentration were detected in horses with PSSM1 regardless of breed. Most warmblood horses with PSSM2 had stiffness and gait abnormalities with CK and AST activities and muscle glycogen concentrations within reference limits.

  3. Genetic variation in the feral horses of the Namib Desert, Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Cothran; E. Van Dyk; F.J. Van der Merwe

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variation at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 30 horses from a feral herd from the Namib Desert of Namibia, Africa. The observed genetic variability was extremely low compared with that found in domestic horse breeds. The low variation was most probably a result of recent small population size and a small founding population size. Genetic comparison of the Namib horses, which were of unknown origins, to domestic horse breeds, showed that the Namib horses h...

  4. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  5. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  6. Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H

    1992-08-01

    Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.

  7. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  8. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dejmal

    Full Text Available A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  9. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  10. Ubiquitin expression in muscle from horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Flint, T H; Fischer, K A

    2006-05-01

    Serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded muscle biopsy specimens from 28 Quarter Horse, Paint, and draft-related breeds, aged 0.5-23 years, were treated with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain for glycogen and were immunostained to detect ubiquitin expression. On the basis of findings in PAS-stained sections, a diagnosis of equine polysaccharide storage myopathy (EPSSM) was made in 22 horses aged 2-23 years (mean, 9.4 years); samples from 6 horses aged 0.5-15 years (mean, 7.3 years) had a normal PAS staining pattern, with no relevant lesions. Ubiquitin expression was detected in all but a 2-year-old EPSSM-affected horse and was not detected in the non-EPSSM-affected horses. Ubiquitin expression was greater than the degree of PAS-positive, amylase-resistant material, and ubiquitin was detected in aggregates of amylase-sensitive glycogen as well as in aggregates of amylase-resistant material. Results suggest that glycogen aggregates develop and are ubiquitinated prior to development of amylase-resistant inclusions. Ubiquitin immunostaining may be most useful for confirming the diagnosis of EPSSM in horses with only amylase-sensitive glycogen aggregates and in horses with early amylase-resistant inclusions. However, ubiquitin immunostaining is no more sensitive than is PAS staining for diagnosis of EPSSM.

  11. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....

  13. Metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad fibrotic proliferation in 63 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabareiner, R.M.; White, N.A.; Sullins, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and sonograms of 63 horses with metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad proliferation were examined retrospectively. AR horses had lameness, joint effusion, or both signs associated with one or both metacarpophalangeal joints. Bony remodeling and concavity of the distodorsal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) just proximal to the metacarpal condyles was identified by radiography in 71 joints (93%); 24 joints (32%) had radiographic evidence of a chip fracture located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Fifty-four joints (71%) were examined by ultrasound. The mean +- SD sagittal thickness of the synovial pad was 11.3 +- 2.8 mm. Seventy-nine percent of the horses had single joint involvement with equal distribution between the right and left forelimbs. Sixty-eight joints in 55 horses were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Sixty joints (88%) had debridement of chondral or osteochondral fragmentation from the dorsal surface of Mc3 beneath the synovial pad and 30 joints (44%) had a bone chip fracture removed from the medial or lateral proximal dorsal eminence of the proximal phalanx. Complete or partial excision of both medial and lateral synovial pads was completed in 42 joints. Only the medial synovial pad was excised or trimmed in 21 joints, and 5 joints had only the lateral pad removed. Eight joints in eight horses were treated by stall rest, administration of intra-articular medication and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up information was obtained for 50 horses treated surgically and for eight horses treated medically. Forty-three (86%) that had surgery returned to racing; 34 (68%) raced at an equivalent or better level than before surgery. Three (38%) of the medically treated horses returned to racing; only one horse raced better than the preinjury level. Horses that returned to racing at a similar or equal level of performance were significantly younger in age than horses returning at a

  14. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  15. The risk of introduction of equine infectious anemia virus into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseged, B D; Habtemariam, T; Tameru, B; Nganwa, D

    2012-01-15

    Deriving horse oocytes in the USA is hampered by the lack of abattoirs processing horse carcasses which could provide abundant quantities of ovaries from slaughtered mares. Therefore, several cloning industries in the USA are attempting to import cloned horse embryos from Canada. Like any agricultural commodity, cloned embryos pose a risk of introduction of exotic animal diseases into the importing country. Under such circumstances, risk assessment could provide an objective, transparent, and internationally accepted means for evaluating the risk. This quantitative risk assessment (QRA) was initiated to determine the risk of introduction of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) into the USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada. In assessing the risk, a structured knowledge base regarding cloning in relation to Equine infectious anemia (EIA) was first developed. Based on the knowledge base, a scenario tree was developed to determine conditions (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of EIAV along the cloning pathway. Parameters for the occurrence of the event at each node were estimated using published literature. Using @Risk software and setting Monte Carlo simulation at 50,000 iterations, the probability of importing an EIAV-infected cloned horse embryo was 1.8 × 10(-9) (R = 1.5 × 10(-12) to 2.9 × 10(-8)). Taking into account the current protocol for equine cloning and assuming the yield of 5 to 30 clones per year, the possible number of EIAV-infected cloned horse embryos ranged from 2.0 × 10(-10) to 9.1 × 10(-5) (Mean = 1.4×10(-6)) per year. Consequently, it would take up to 1.5 × 10(7) (R = 1.6 × 10(4) to 5.1 × 10(10)) years for EIAV to be introduced into the USA. Based on the knowledge base and our critical pathway analysis, the biological plausibility of introducing EIAV into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada is extremely low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Population genetic parameters of aboriginal Yakut horses as related to modern breeds of the domestic horse Equus caballus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, V N; Cothran, E G; Kniazev, S P

    1998-06-01

    This study was the first to analyze the polymorphic characteristics of a wide range of biochemical markers in aboriginal Yakut horses. A total of 124 alleles, including 48 alleles of seven blood-group loci and 76 alleles of ten loci for enzymes and other proteins, were studied. For these polymorphic systems, a computer analysis of the genetic distances between 85 horse breeds of different origin from all parts of the world was performed. The low level of hereditary variation in the Yakut horses confirmed that this breed is old and has long been an isolated population. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Yakut horses exhibited the most genetic similarity to the breeds from the Central Asian cluster, such as Akhal Teke, Arabian, Yabou, and Caspan Pony (Iran). The dispersal route of ancient horses was revealed. It led from America through Siberia and Central Asia to Africa and Eastern Europe, where evidence of the earliest domestication of horses was found. Genetic and ecological explanations of the formation of racing and draft breeds with similar immunogenetic characteristics are advanced. These explanations agree with craniological data on fossils and with the relative rates of growth of the axial and peripheral skeletons in modern breeds. These data shed light on the initial stages of domestication of the horse, an event that was extremely important for development of the human civilization.

  17. The feral horse foot. Part B: radiographic, gross visual and histopathological parameters of foot health in 100 Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Walsh, D M; Pollitt, C C

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the feral horse foot is a benchmark model for foot health in horses. However, the foot health of feral horses has not been formally investigated. To investigate the foot health of Australian feral horses and determine if foot health is affected by environmental factors, such as substrate properties and distance travelled. Twenty adult feral horses from five populations (n = 100) were investigated. Populations were selected on the basis of substrate hardness and the amount of travel typical for the population. Feet were radiographed and photographed, and digital images were surveyed by two experienced assessors blinded to each other's assessment and to the population origin. Lamellar samples from 15 feet from three populations were investigated histologically for evidence of laminitis. There was a total of 377 gross foot abnormalities identified in 100 left forefeet. There were no abnormalities detected in three of the feet surveyed. Each population had a comparable prevalence of foot abnormalities, although the type and severity of abnormality varied among populations. Of the three populations surveyed by histopathology, the prevalence of chronic laminitis ranged between 40% and 93%. Foot health appeared to be affected by the environment inhabited by the horses. The observed chronic laminitis may be attributable to either nutritional or traumatic causes. Given the overwhelming evidence of suboptimal foot health, it may not be appropriate for the feral horse foot to be the benchmark model for equine foot health. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Differences in serum protein 2D gel electrophoresis patterns of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuren, Enkhbolor; Namkhai, Bandi; Kong, Hong Sik

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in serum protein expression profiles of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses using proteome analysis. The serum proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and five different gene products were identified. Proteins represented by the five spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS technology. The identities of all proteins were deduced based on their similarity to proteins in the human plasma protein database. Three proteins (a haptoglobin-2 alpha glycoprotein and two haptoglobin-2beta glycoproteins with different accession numbers) were downregulated in Przewalski's horse sera compared to thoroughbred horse sera. Moreover, two proteins (tetraspanin-18 and pM5) were upregulated in Przewalski's horses compared to thoroughbred horses. Haptoglobin-2 alpha and haptoglobin-2beta may serve as candidate molecules in future studies of inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation and pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity with consequential effects on the entire metabolism of the horse. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Ascione, Frank R.; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues. PMID:29466458

  20. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Griffiths, Mark D; Ascione, Frank R; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.