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Sample records for biological treatment facility

  1. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  2. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area

  3. Investigation into the non-biological outputs of mechanical-biological treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ed; Wagland, Stuart; Coulon, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical-biological and biological-mechanical treatment (MBT/BMT) are effective methods for reducing biogenic additions to landfill, producing fuel products and recovering recyclate from residual waste. However, large amounts of contamination in the non-biological outputs reduce their market value. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the principal drivers and barriers to the marketability of ferrous metals (MBTFe) and heavy inert rejects (MBTr) recovered from four UK MBT/BMT plants. The plants were either using biodrying or anaerobic digestion (AD-MBT) for biological processing. Samples were collected at the different recovery stage processes and characterised for elemental composition and particle size distribution. Results showed that processes at the two biodrying plants produced MBTFe with 10% less contamination by non-target materials than the two AD-MBT plants. Further to this, approximately 10% of the MBTFe fraction sampled at all four facilities comprised non-target material which had become entrapped in the folds of metal food containers. A possible cause is waste comminution in the cutting gap of the low-speed high-torque cutting mills. Upgrading MBTFe outputs could save the UK MBT/BMT industry up to £ 4.4 million per annum which equates to £ 230,000 per annum for an average sized facility (i.e. capacity 108,000 tpa). Glass content in the MBTr samples ranged between 44% and 62%, however all plants showed approximately 85% combined content of glass, bricks, stones and ceramics. The biodegradable content in the MBTr samples indicated that only minimal upgrade would be required to achieve the Landfill Directive requirements for inert waste. Again valorisation of MBTr could save the UK MBT/BMT industry up to £ 1.9 million pa which equates to £ 160,000 per annum for an average sized facility. PMID:26394679

  4. Dissolved air flotation primary clarifier improves performance of biological waste treatment at a latex manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.R.; Kerecz, B.J.; Davis, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. operates a chemical manufacturing facility in Piedmont, SC which generates a high strength COD emulsion wastewater from latex manufacturing. The on-site wastewater treatment facility consisted of flow equalization, activated sludge treatment and gravity clarification. The inability of the biological system to assimilate the high strength emulsion wastwater loadings led to incomplete conversion within the activated sludge process and poor settling waste sludge with turbid final effluent high in COD, BOD and TSS. The facility installed a dissolved air flotation (DAF) clarifier to effectively remove greater than 99 percent of the wastewater emulsion solids ahead of the activated sludge system. An organic coagulant is used for emulsion destabilization instead of iron or aluminum metal coagulants, improving DAF clarifier performance and minimizing operational cost and system complexity. An innovative DAF float solids collection and handling system produces disposal solids concentrations of 50 - 60% total solids resulting in further waste disposal cost savings. By removing more than 99 percent of the emulsion solids with the DAF clarifier ahead of the activated sludge process, the waste-water treatment facility now consistently produces a high quality effluent low in COD, BOD, TSS and turbidity. Wastewater treatment performance improved dramatically, as evident by the facility receiving the Western Carolina Regional Sewer Authority`s {open_quotes}Best Pollution Prevention Program{close_quotes} award. In addition, the wastewater treatment facility can now process three times the pre-DAF waste loads.

  5. Instability of biological nitrogen removal in a cokes wastewater treatment facility during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure in nitrogen removal of cokes wastewater occurs occasionally during summer season (38 deg. C) due to the instability of nitrification process. The objective of this study was to examine why the nitrification process is unstable especially in summer. Various parameters such as pH, temperature, nutrients and pollutants were examined in batch experiments using activated sludge and wastewater obtained from a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility. Batch experiments showed that nitrification rate of the activated sludge was faster in summer (38 deg. C) than in spring or autumn (29 deg. C) and the toxic effects of cyanide, phenol and thiocyanate on nitrification were reduced with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, experiment using continuous reactor showed that the reduction rate in nitrification efficiency was higher at 38 deg. C than at 29 deg. C. In conclusion, the instability of full-scale nitrification process in summer might be mainly due to washing out of nitrifiers by fast growth of competitive microorganisms at higher temperature under increased concentrations of phenol and thiocyanate

  6. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  7. Grout treatment facility operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the operation of the Grout Treatment Facility from initial testing to the final disposal to date of 3.8 x 103 m3 (1 Mgal) of low-level radioactive waste. It describes actual component testing and verification, testing of the full-scale system with simulated waste feed, summary of the radioactive disposal operation, lessons learned and equipment performance summary, facility impacts from safety analyses, long-term performance assessments, the Part B application, and projected facility modifications. The Grout Treatment Facility is one of two operations for permanently disposing of liquid defense wastes at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington, for the U.S. Department of Energy. High- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulating from defense material production since the mid-1940s at the Hanford site. All radioactive low-level and low-level mixed liquid wastes will be disposed of at the future Hanford Vitrification Facility

  8. The Biological Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

  9. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  10. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (the Authority) funded treatability study identified biotreatment as the best technology to reduce the hazardous constituent concentrations below discharge criteria. Ion exchange resins were shown to reduce strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations of a low-level radioactive waste disposal trench leachate below release limits. Based on the results of this treatability study, the Authority has funded the design of a leachate treatment system. An activated sludge bioreactor and ion exchange resin columns will be components of the treatment train. A discussion of the design and the design criteria for the treatment facility will be provided. Particular emphasis will be placed on the availability of the off-the-shelf equipment and the modifications that will be required. Other issues which will be discussed are: Tritium concentration concerns, secondary waste generation and processing, design codes, site layout and schedule

  11. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  12. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project, Treatment Definitions and Descriptions, and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, Final Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions)

  13. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  14. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.. For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration. Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production, reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a

  15. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  16. Mechanical Treatment: Material Recovery Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of mechanical treatment unit processes, including manual sorting, is described in Chapter 7.1. These unit processes may be used as a single separate operation (e.g. baling of recyclable cardboard) or as a single operation before or after biological and thermal treatment processes (e.......g. shredding prior to incineration or screening after composting). The mechanical treatment unit process is in the latter case an integrated part of the overall treatment usually with the purpose of improving the quality of the input material, or the efficiency or stability of the biological or thermal process......, or improving the quality of the output material. Examples hereof appear in the chapters on biological and thermal treatment. Mechanical treatment unit processes may also appear at industries using recycled material as part of their feedstock, for example, for removing impurities and homogenizing the material...

  17. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  18. Biology and treatment of myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioli, Annamaria; Melchor, Lorenzo; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

    2014-09-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in the understanding of multiple myeloma (MM) biology and its treatment. Current strategies for the treatment of MM involve the concept of sequential blocks of therapy given as an induction followed by consolidation and maintenance. In an age characterized by emerging and more powerful laboratory techniques, it is of primary importance to understand the biology of MM and how this biology can guide the development of new treatment strategies. This review focuses on the genetic basis of myeloma, including the most common genetic abnormalities and pathways affected and the effects that these have on MM treatment strategies. MM biology is discussed also in the light of more recent theory of intraclonal heterogeneity. PMID:25486959

  19. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich; Bertsun Svetlana Petrovna

    2014-01-01

    In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste wate...

  20. ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN TECHNOLOGY OF GROUND WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedluho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological peculiar features of biocenosis development in water treatment facilities and a role of biological processes in the technology of ground water treatment are considered in the paper. The paper provides main factors that influence on biological process development.

  1. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  2. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  3. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of low-level radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Geologic data, hydrologic data, groundwater monitoring program, information, detection monitoring program, groundwater characterization drawings, building emergency plan--grout treatment facility, response action plan for grout treatment facility, Hanford Facility contingency plan, training course descriptions, overview of the Hanford Facility Grout Performance, assessment, bland use and zoning map, waste minimization plan, cover design engineering report, and clay liners (ADMIXTURES) in semiarid environments

  4. Biological treatment of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de [eds.

    1998-12-01

    This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

  5. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  6. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  7. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  8. Biological treatment of drilling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, F.H.; Seris, J.L.; Martignon, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    Off shore operators are now faced with more stringent forthcoming regulations regarding waste discharge. Several aspects are to be taken into account when considering waste disposal in the sea; among them, the total amount of COD and the toxicity. While, in many regards, the problem caused by the processing fluids toxicity has been addressed, the elimination of residual COD from the waste is yet to be solved. Biodegradation of drilling waste is one of the major routes taken by third party contracters to address the reduction of COD in sea-discharged cuttings. This report describes a technique specifically developed to enhance drilling waste biodegradation under selected conditions. The suggested treatment involved biological catalysts used in conjunction with or prior to the biodegradation. We demonstrated that the considered environment-compatible substitute for oil-based mud could be more efficiently biodegraded if an enzymatic pretreatment was carried out prior to or during the actual biodegradation. The biodegradation rate, expressed as CO{sub 2} envolvement, was significantly higher in lipase-treated cultures. In addition, we demonstrated that this treatment was applicable to substrates in emulsion, suspension, or adsorbed on solid.

  9. Enhancing Biological Wastewater Treatment with Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈东辉; 朱珺

    2003-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan have been applied to biological wastewater treatment.From a number of parallel comparison experiments,it can be concluded that the application of chitin and chitosan can both enhance the biological treatment,besides which chitosan is more efficient than chitin.The study on the enhancement mechanism reveals the difference between the two additives:chitosan improves the sludge structure and settlibility,while chitin acts as a kind of carrier for microorganism in the biological treatment system.

  10. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  11. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the low-level liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Hanford Site Maps, road evaluation for the grout treatment facility, Department of Ecology certificate of non-designation for centralia fly ash, double-shell tank waste compositional modeling, laboratory analysis reports for double-shell tank waste, stored in tanks 241-AN-103, 241-AN-106, and 241-AW-101, grout vault heat transfer results for M-106 grout formulation, test results for extraction procedure toxicity testing, test results for toxicity testing of double-shell tank grout, pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste, characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test, description of the procedure for sampling nonaging waste storage tanks, description of laboratory procedures, grout campaign waste composition verification, variability in properties of grouted phosphate/sulfate N-reactor waste, engineering drawings, description of operating procedures, equipment list--transportable grout equipment, grout treatment facility--tank integrity assessment plan, long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel, vendor information, grout disposal facilities construction quality assurance plan, and flexible membrane liner/waste compatibility test results

  12. Developments in Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics and biological treatment technologies of several kinds of industrial wastewater are summarised. Biological treatment of industrial wastewater is a well-established system with applications going back for over a century. However, developments are still taking place but at the design stage, more emphasis will be placed on small "footprint" systems, odour control and minimization of excess sludge production.

  13. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  14. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  15. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Vault design, run-on/run-off control design, and asphalt compatibility with 90-degree celsius double-shell slurry feed

  16. Facile: a command-line network compiler for systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ollivier Julien F; Siso-Nadal Fernando; Swain Peter S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A goal of systems biology is the quantitative modelling of biochemical networks. Yet for many biochemical systems, parameter values and even the existence of interactions between some chemical species are unknown. It is therefore important to be able to easily investigate the effects of adding or removing reactions and to easily perform a bifurcation analysis, which shows the qualitative dynamics of a model for a range of parameter values. Results We present Facile, a Perl...

  17. [Biological treatment of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P.S.; Sellebjerg, F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 interferon (IFN)beta was the first biopharmaceutical product to be approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In 2006 the more potent monoclonal antibody natalizumab was approved. Presently, a number of monoclonal antibodies are being studied, including...

  18. A national facility for biological cryo-electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibil, Helen R., E-mail: h.saibil@mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk [Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Grünewald, Kay [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief update on the use of cryo-electron microscopy for integrated structural biology, along with an overview of the plans for the UK national facility for electron microscopy being built at the Diamond synchrotron. Three-dimensional electron microscopy is an enormously powerful tool for structural biologists. It is now able to provide an understanding of the molecular machinery of cells, disease processes and the actions of pathogenic organisms from atomic detail through to the cellular context. However, cutting-edge research in this field requires very substantial resources for equipment, infrastructure and expertise. Here, a brief overview is provided of the plans for a UK national three-dimensional electron-microscopy facility for integrated structural biology to enable internationally leading research on the machinery of life. State-of-the-art equipment operated with expert support will be provided, optimized for both atomic-level single-particle analysis of purified macromolecules and complexes and for tomography of cell sections. The access to and organization of the facility will be modelled on the highly successful macromolecular crystallography (MX) synchrotron beamlines, and will be embedded at the Diamond Light Source, facilitating the development of user-friendly workflows providing near-real-time experimental feedback.

  19. The NIGMS X6A East Coast Structural Biology Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X6A facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a dedicated macromolecular crystallography beam line funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. The facility serves expert and non-expert crystallographers from protein purification to the determination of atomic coordinates. The X6A facility consists of an experimental station and an associated laboratory for sample preparation. The X6A beam line optics include an NSLS design Si(111) channel-cut monochromator and an Oxford Danfysik toroidal focusing mirror. The end station consists of a CrystalLogic Kappa diffractometer and an ADSC 210 CCD detector. Standard crystallographic packages are available to assist the users for data analysis. An automated sample changer will be added in the near future to the end station. The associated laboratory is fully equipped for all aspects of protein purification and crystallization. The beam line is currently available for users (http://protein.nsls.bnl.gov). The main goal of the X6A effort is to provide the basic tools to researchers who would like to use macromolecular crystallography and structural biology to address important biological questions

  20. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  1. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  2. Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and

  3. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

  4. [Biological treatment of rare inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the use of biological medicine in the treatment of adult onset morbus still, Wegeners granulomatosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reviewed. The need for controlled trials is emphasized. Anti-CD20 treatment for SLE patients with kidney involvement and patients wi...... with Wegeners granulomatosis seems promising. Anti-TNF and IL1 receptor antagonist can control disease activity in most patients with adult morbus still Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  5. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  6. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  7. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  8. Systematic Review of Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashler, Samantha R; Cooper, Lynn K; Oosenbrug, Eric D; Burns, Lindsay C; Razavi, Shima; Goldberg, Lauren; Katz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study reviewed the published literature evaluating multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment facilities to provide an overview of their availability, caseload, wait times, and facility characteristics. A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines following a search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that studies be original research, survey more than one pain treatment facility directly, and describe a range of available treatments. Fourteen articles satisfied inclusion criteria. Results showed little consistency in the research design used to describe pain treatment facilities. Availability of pain treatment facilities was scarce and the reported caseloads and wait times were generally high. A wide range of medical, physical, and psychological pain treatments were available. Most studies reported findings on the percentage of practitioners in different health care professions employed. Future studies should consider using more comprehensive search strategies to survey facilities, improving clarity on what is considered to be a pain treatment facility, and reporting on a consistent set of variables to provide a clear summary of the status of pain treatment facilities. This review highlights important information for policymakers on the scope, demand, and accessibility of pain treatment facilities. PMID:27445618

  9. Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a protective coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishing industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cleaning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aerobic biological treatment, water aeration accounts for a significant portion of the total operating cost of the treatment process. Intermittent aeration is thus of benefit since it would reduce the energy consumption in the wastewater treatment. In the present study, wastewater from an electro-coating process was treated biologically using a packed column as an aerator where the wastewater was aerated by a countercurrent air flow. The objective was to obtain an optimum aeration cycle. Approach: Intermittent aeration time was varied at different preset cycles. An operational optimum of the aeration time (or air-water contacting time in the column was determined from the BOD5 removal after a certain treatment period. For continuous aeration of the wastewater, the air-liquid contacting time in the column was 52 min for 24 h of treatment. A unit energy consumption for pumping liquid and air, which was defined as the energy consumption per percent BOD5 removed, was used as a criterion to determine the optimum contacting time. Results: Optimum air-liquid contacting times were found to be about 38, 26 and 22 min for the treatment times of 24, 48 and 72 h, consecutively. This indicates that 27-58% saving on the unit energy consumption can be achieved using intermittent aeration of the wastewater. On the basis of the overall BOD5 removal, 17% and 23% savings in energy were observed with the intermittent aeration as compared to the continuous aeration of the wastewater for 48 and 72 h. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that an appropriate intermittent aeration cycle can bring about a substantial energy saving

  10. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round

  11. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.

  12. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  13. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  14. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  15. Analysis of a sewage treatment facility using hybrid Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasemieh, Hamed; Remke, Anne; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2013-01-01

    Waste water treatment facilities clean sewage water from households and industry in several cleaning steps. Such facilities are dimensioned to accommodate a maximum intake. However, in the case of very bad weather conditions or failures of system components the system might not suffice to accommoda

  16. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  17. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  18. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  19. Recycling Facilities - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  20. Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, R. A.; And Others

    This manual for the development of emergency operating plans for municipal wastewater treatment systems was compiled using information provided by over two hundred municipal treatment systems. It covers emergencies caused by natural disasters, civil disorders and strikes, faulty maintenance, negligent operation, and accidents. The effects of such…

  1. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. The 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility (3718-F Facility), located in the 300 Area, was used to store and treat alkali metal wastes. Therefore, it is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989) and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy the thermal treatment facility closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the 3718-F Facility, the history of wastes managed, and the approach that will be followed to close the facility. Only hazardous constituents derived from 3718-F Facility operations will be addressed

  2. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals.

  3. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals. PMID:15708944

  4. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

  5. Treatment of textiles industrial wastewater by electron beam and biological treatment (sbr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of treating textiles industrial wastewater with combined of electron beam and Tower Style Biological Treatment (TSB) was investigated in Korea. In this project, textiles wastewater was also treated with electron beam, but hybrid with Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The purpose of this research is to develop combined electron beam treatment with existing biological treatment facility (SBR), of textile industries in Malaysia. The objectives of this project are to determine the effective irradiation parameter for treatment and to identify effective total retention time in SBR system. To achieve the objective, samples fill in polypropyle tray were irradiated at 1 MeV, 20 mA and 1 MeV ,5 mA at doses 11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy respectively. Raw effluent and two series of irradiated effluent at 1 MeV 20 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) and 1 MeV 5 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) were then treated in SBR system. Samples were analysed at 6, 14 and 20 hrs after aeration in the SBR. The results show that, average reduction in BOD was about 2-11% after irradiated at 5 mA, and the percentage increased to 21-73% after treatment in SBR system. At 20 mA, BOD reduced to 7-29% during irradiation and the value increased to 57-87% after treatment in SBR system. (Author)

  6. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  7. Grout Treatment Facility waste feed acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes criteria for the acceptance of grout waste feed to provide assurance that the final grout form produced by the Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) will meet the regulatory, design, product, and process requirements. Contained in the report is an evaluation of the regulatory requirements associated with the grout disposal option along with a description of the waste currently stored on the site. An evaluation of the heat generation requirements for the waste feed stream is presented. This evaluation includes the heat resulting from the grout curing process as well as heat associated with the radiolytic decay of the radioisotopes present. Limits for individual elements as well as limits for classes of materials such as organics, sulfates, etc. are presented in Table 1-1. These values are based on regulatory, heat generation, and compositional limits to assure the integrity of the final grout products. Some compositional limits such as heavy metals will require Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing to demonstrate regulatory compliance

  8. Wastewater treatment facilities: Energy efficient improvements and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has worked with both the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance to local governments. Based on a recent study conducted by Ecotope for WSEO, local governments spend an estimated $45 million on utility bills statewide. Water and wastewater facilities account for almost a third of this cost. As a result, WSEO decided to focus its efforts on the energy intensive water and wastewater sector. The ultimate goal of this project was to develop mechanisms to incorporate energy efficiency improvements into wastewater treatment facilities in retrofits and during upgrades, remodels, and new construction. Project activities included the following: The review of the existing regulatory environment for treatment system construction, A summary of financing options for efficiency improvements in treatment facilities, A literature review of energy efficiency opportunities in treatment plants, Survey and site visits to characterize existing facilities in Washington State, Estimates of the energy efficiency and cogeneration potential in the sector, and A case study to illustrate the implementation of an efficiency improvement in a treatment facility

  9. Biological Considerations in Land Use Planning for a Federal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents biological considerations of land use planning for the United States Department of Agriculture Beltsville Agricultural Research Center and...

  10. Federal Facilities Compliance Act, Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conceptual Site Treatment Plan was prepared by Ames Laboratory to meet the requirements of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Topics discussed in this document include: general discussion of the plan, including the purpose and scope; technical aspects of preparing plans, including the rationale behind the treatability groupings and a discussion of characterization issues; treatment technology needs and treatment options for specific waste streams; low-level mixed waste options; TRU waste options; and future waste generation from restoration activities

  11. Federal Facilities Compliance Act, Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-29

    This Conceptual Site Treatment Plan was prepared by Ames Laboratory to meet the requirements of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Topics discussed in this document include: general discussion of the plan, including the purpose and scope; technical aspects of preparing plans, including the rationale behind the treatability groupings and a discussion of characterization issues; treatment technology needs and treatment options for specific waste streams; low-level mixed waste options; TRU waste options; and future waste generation from restoration activities.

  12. Proposed layout features of an Australian proton treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From a theoretical point of view protons offer the best possible physical dose distribution for many radiotherapy treatment scenarios. However, proton generation of sufficient energy for treatment (about 250MeV) requires a large accelerator and is more expensive than conventional radiotherapy. Therefore the present project aimed at determining the desired configuration for a proton radiotherapy treatment facility in Australia. This is part of a proposal to introduce proton radiotherapy to Australia by the Australian Proton Project Group. It is assumed that a proton centre is build as a dedicated national radiotherapy facility. In this context and to be economically viable it must be large enough to treat well in excess of 1000 patients per year on several treatment stations. When building a proton treatment facility, it is essential to make use of all state-of-the-art features such as spot scanning techniques in order to offer patients a significant improvement in dose distribution compared to advanced conventional treatment techniques such as conformal and/or intensity modulated X-ray radiotherapy. As the potential useful life of a proton treatment unit is of the order of 20 years, it must be designed in a flexible way to allow upgrading as technology advances. The proposed facility includes at least one rotating gantry for isocentric beam delivery and stationary beam lines delivering protons between 70 and 250MeV energy. Features such as proton radiography and in situ PET treatment verification should be considered as a potential upgrade for future expansion. Other commercial activities (eg. radiation hardness testing) which could contribute to the running costs of the facility and scientific research out of the normal treatment hours is to be considered in the final design. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  14. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…

  15. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological ....... These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of patients with schizophrenia.......These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological...... treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations which are clinically and scientifically relevant. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating patients with schizophrenia...

  16. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and wastewater plants, workers may be killed by drowning, trench collapses, falls, ...

  17. Reducing the indoor odorous charge in waste treatment facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Piñol, Eva; Roca Mussons, Francisco Javier; Perales Lorente, José Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Characterising and determining the odorous charge of indoor air through Odour Units (OU) is an advantageous approach to evaluate indoor air quality and discomfort inside municipal solid waste facilities. The assessment of the OU can be done through the determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) concentrations and their odour thresholds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the odorous charge in the organic matter pit of a mechanical-biological waste treat...

  18. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  19. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  20. Optimization of water treatment facility by using radioisotope tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, J. H.; Lee, M. J.; Jung, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to get the optimization of conventional water treatment facility, radioisotope tracer technique was applied. It is desirable to set the baffles inside of mixing basin for the enhancement of mixing effect. It was appeared that most of flocs were settled down within 60 - 70 % of total length of sedimentation basin even with high flow rate. (author). 2 tabs., 32 figs.

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  2. Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Meer, van der W.; Temmink, H.

    2008-01-01

    Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent membr

  3. Biosimilars: A New Aspect in the Biological Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Başak Yalçın; Nilgün Atakan; Nihal Kundakçı; Ferda Artüz

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological drugs (biological agents, biologics) are medical products, which are produced by DNA technology and hybridoma methods. Nowadays these drugs are effectively used in the treatment of several diseases with a consistently increasing diversity and indication spectrum. Psoriasis is the major dermatological disease in which biologics are used successfully. With the use of these drugs important improvements were achieved in the treatment of the disease. However these drugs are very e...

  4. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Vazquez, CM; Kubare, M.; Saroj, DP; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J.; Daims, H.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biologic...

  5. System design description, PFP low level waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), or Safety Assessment Document (SAD). The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP LLWTF: Safety Equipment and Safety Envelope Analysis; Design description; General safety features and analysis; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures. The appendices contain additional data for informational purposes only. The actual data bases and/or supporting documents should be consulted for the most current data

  6. Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN, W.E.

    1999-05-11

    This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document.

  7. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  8. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  10. Feasibility of gamma facilities for food treatment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited investigation was done on the economic feasibility of installing multipurpose 60Co facilities at selected ports in Malaysia for the treatment of foods and agricultural commodities. The ports selected for study were Penang, Kelang and Kuching. The potential items for irradiation were imported rice and export commodities such as cocoa beans, pepper and frozen shrimps. The investment criteria used for comparing economic feasibility were the internal rate of return, net present value, benefit-cost ratio and pay back period. The calculated total investment cost (capital plus operational costs) for facilities at these ports ranged from M $8.1 to M $8.7 million. The capital cost accounted for 94% of the total cost. The study showed that installation of 60Co facilities at all the ports was financially viable when operated at both 6000 and 8000 hours per year. The charges for irradiation services and the interest rates affected the economic viability of the facilities. Increasing charges and reducing interest rates significantly improved the economic return of the projects. All the facilities would exhibit economies of scale, i.e. the unit costs decline as the throughput increases. Other possible factors which may affect the feasibility of applying food irradiation technology in Malaysia are also discussed. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  11. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities.

  12. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities. PMID:26946936

  13. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting......, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built...... partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating...

  14. Biology and Treatment of Rhabdoid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James I; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy that primarily affects infants and young children. These tumors typically arise in the brain and kidney, although extrarenal, non-central nervous system tumors in almost all soft-tissue sites have been described. SMARCB1 is a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and functions as a tumor suppressor in the vast majority of rhabdoid tumors. Patients with germline mutations or deletions affecting SMARCB1 are predisposed to the development of rhabdoid tumors, as well as the genetic disorder schwannomatosis. The current hypothesis is that rhabdoid tumors are driven by epigenetic dysregulation, as opposed to the alteration of a specific biologic pathway. The strategies for novel therapeutic approaches based on what is currently known about rhabdoid tumor biology are presented. PMID:26349416

  15. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  16. Heavy ion radiation biology research facility and ongoing activities at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy Ion Radiation Biology is an interdisciplinary science involving use of charged particle accelerator in the study of molecular biology. It is the study of the interaction of a beam of swift heavy ions with a biological system. In contrast to the sparsely ionizing photon or electron radiation, the high velocity charged heavy ions leave a track of densely populated ionization sites resulting in clustered DNA damage. The growing interest in this field encompasses the studies in gene expression, mechanisms of cell death, DNA damage and repair, signal transduction etc. induced because of this unique assault on the genetic material. IUAC radiation biology programme is focused on the in-vitro studies of different effects of heavy ion irradiation on eukaryotic cells. The facility provides a laboratory for pre and post irradiation treatment of samples. The irradiation system called ASPIRE (Automatic Sample Positioning for Irradiation in Radiation Biology Experiments) is installed at the dedicated Radiation Biology Beam line. It produces a nearly uniform flux distribution over a irradiation field of 40 mm diameter. The particle doses can be preselected and repeated within inherent statistical accuracy. The particle energy can also be measured. The facility is at present utilized by the University researchers of India. A few results obtained by the investigators would be presented. The outcome of the research in heavy ion radiation biology would be of immense use in augmenting the efficacy of Hadron therapy of cancer. The results would also contribute to the field of space radiation protection. It would also help in understanding the phenomena subsequent to complex DNA damage. (author)

  17. Treatment of psoriasis with biologic agents in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Liam; Boffa, Michael J.; Clark, Eileen; Scerri, Lawrence; Aquilina, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biologic therapy has revolutionalised the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis leading to improved clinical outcomes and quality of life scores. This study aims to determine current biologic use in psoriatic patients at our Dermatology department at Sir Paul Boffa hospital, Malta. Method: All patients who were administered biologic therapy for psoriasis in Malta until the end of 2014 were included. Data included demographic details, disease dur...

  18. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been propo...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF MODERNIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna; Kulakov Artem Alekseevich

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the biological treatment of wastewater associated with removal of nitrogen. Results of laboratory experiments that involve nitrification and denitrification are also presented and analyzed in the paper. Discharges of inadequately treated and untreated wastewater have a negative impact on the aquatic ecosystem. The biological treatment of the wastewater that includes denitrification is strongly influenced by external factors. They need thorough research at t...

  20. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  1. Research of the Mechanism of Enhancing Biological Treatment by Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; QIN Bing; CHEN Dong-hui

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan of different molecular weight (M. W. ) was added into SBR bioreactor to treat domestic wastewater. From comparison of treatment efficiency, sludge activity, sludge structure etc., we revealed the mechanism that chitosan enhanced the biological treatment function of activated sludge. The results proved that, chitosan is certain to restrain the reaction of activated sludge, but it do improve the structure of sludge fiocs and increase the treatment efficiency of activated sludge. The bigger the M. W. of chitosan is, the better the efficiency of enhancing biological treatment can be.

  2. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  4. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R ampersand D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R ampersand D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action

  5. BEO-Life, a Test and Refurbishment Support for Biological Research Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, I.; Hueser, D.; Reese, C.; Schoenfeld, R.

    Since the ISS commenced its operational phase, the need of ground based test and refurbishment support, facilitating the utilisation of the station and especially its facilities for biological research, becomes increasingly important.. The onboard biological research facilities (e.g. BIOLAB) are designed and built for a life time of 10 years, requiring the regular exchange of the integrated life support systems. The exact conditioning of the atmosphere in these systems plays an important role for the scientific outcome. The composition of the air (O2, N2 and CO2) as well as the humidity and the temperature inside the experiment chambers containing the plants and cell-cultures needs to be adjustable for various types of experiments. Since the various ingredients for a life support system are consumables, which consumption depends on the number of performed experiments, the life support systems needs to be refurbished from time to time. Our contribution to this challenge is BEO- Life, which offers a unique test, refurbishment and qualification environment for maintenance and re-supply for life support systems of the ISS onboard biological facilities. BEO-Life provides the ground support for all these tasks, such as tests, maintenance, verification and procedures. To fulfil the demanding requirements for the automatic and stable conditioning of the life support system, a complex arrangement of pumps, valves, sensors and an electronic system including software with exact control algorithms is provided. Beside the refurbishment activities, BEO-Life will support preliminary ground-based investigations of scientists before utilisation of the ISS biological research facilities, too. In conclusion, we offer a novel service element for the ground-based maintenance of biological research facilities onboard the ISS. This service can be easily adapted to the needs of users for preparatory work.

  6. Using biological markers to inform a clinically meaningful treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Pratchett, Laura C; Pelcovitz, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrate less robust improvement following treatments than do civilians with PTSD. This paper discusses a theoretical model for evaluating treatment response based on the extent of change in biological markers of symptom severity or resilience between treatment initiation and termination. Such analysis permits a determination of biological change associated with the liberal criteria commonly used to determine treatment response in combat PTSD, and a comparison of this to the biological change associated with clinical response determined according to the conservative definition more appropriate to civilian PTSD. Interim data supporting the utility of this approach is presented based on preliminary analyses from our work in progress. We propose that future studies consider the unique consequences of combat trauma and develop treatments that incorporate the complex nature of the exposure and response characteristic of a veteran population. PMID:20955338

  7. Biological treatment of wine of distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of the yeast Candida tropicalis and Candida guillermondii was evaluated and an isolated partnership of microorganisms of waters of the Medellin River, conformed by two bacteria and one leavening, to degrade the content of organic matter present in wine produced by the factory of Licores and Alcoholes de Antioquia (FLA) in aerobic process with biomass production. For each one of the microorganisms in study this capacity of removal in units of chemical demand of oxygen was quantified (CDO); in addition, parameters were analyzed such as yield of the biomass in relation to the removed CDO and to total reducing sugars (TRS) consumed, time of fermentation and speed of growth different dilutions from wine. Also the possible inhibition was analyzed that the present phenolic compounds in this wine can cause in the biological process of degradation

  8. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references

  9. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  10. Waste water treatment options for SAGD oil production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portelance, S.N. [WorleyParsons MEG Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water treatment facilities produce concentrated waste streams that contain high concentrations of total dissolved solids. The waste streams are typically partially recycled to upstream processes or injected into wells. However, these methods can result in the precipitation of silicate compounds and chemical imbalances in upstream water treatment processes. This study simulated 2 SAGD processes and MVC and once-through steam generator (OTSG) waste water treatment options. MVC waste water treatments were simulated with sulfuric acid only; with sulfuric acid and magnesium oxide; and low TH-high silica OTSG blowdown. Results of the simulations showed that the waste water generated was adequately treated with a combination of acid and magox. Further reductions in pH reduced silica contents and alkalinity. Costs for the treatment were estimated at $6.17 per metre{sup 3} for MVC waste water and $1.77 m{sup 3} for blowdown waste water. The addition of magox lowered the cost for silica removal to $4.60 per m{sup 3}. It was concluded that waste water treatment is needed to make produced water treatment options viable with the oil sands industry. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Overview of a conceptualized waste water treatment facility for the Consolidated Incinerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The offgas system in the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) will generate an aqueous waste stream which is expected to contain hazardous, nonhazardous, and radioactive components. The actual composition of this waste stream will not be identified until startup of the facility, and is expected to vary considerably. Wastewater treatment is being considered as a pretreatment to solidification in order to make a more stable final waste form and to reduce disposal costs. A potential treatment scenario has been defined which may allow disposition of this waste in compliance with all applicable regulations. The conceptualized wastewater treatment plant is based on literature evaluations for treating hazardous metals. Laboratory tests hwill be run to verify the design for its ability to remove the hazardous and radioactive components from this waste stream. The predominant mechanism employed for removal of the hazardous and radioactive metal ions is coprecipitation. The literature indicates that reasonably low quantities of hazardous metals can be achieved with this technique. The effect on the radioactive metal ions is not predictable and has not been tested. The quantity of radioactive metal ions predicted to be present in the waste is significantly less than the solubility limit of those ions, but is higher than the discharge guidelines established by DOE Order 5400.5

  13. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses f

  14. Biological off-gas treatment: let's make things better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van

    1998-01-01

    Biological off-gas treatment is the most effective cleaning method for many off-gases which contain low concentration of pollutants (<5 g/m3). The world market share in off-gas treatment is a few percent. Potential buyers are reserved because of existing biofilter quality differences and lack of exp

  15. A High-Throughput Biological Calorimetry Core: Steps to Startup, Run, and Maintain a Multiuser Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennawar, Neela H; Fecko, Julia A; Showalter, Scott A; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    Many labs have conventional calorimeters where denaturation and binding experiments are setup and run one at a time. While these systems are highly informative to biopolymer folding and ligand interaction, they require considerable manual intervention for cleaning and setup. As such, the throughput for such setups is limited typically to a few runs a day. With a large number of experimental parameters to explore including different buffers, macromolecule concentrations, temperatures, ligands, mutants, controls, replicates, and instrument tests, the need for high-throughput automated calorimeters is on the rise. Lower sample volume requirements and reduced user intervention time compared to the manual instruments have improved turnover of calorimetry experiments in a high-throughput format where 25 or more runs can be conducted per day. The cost and efforts to maintain high-throughput equipment typically demands that these instruments be housed in a multiuser core facility. We describe here the steps taken to successfully start and run an automated biological calorimetry facility at Pennsylvania State University. Scientists from various departments at Penn State including Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biology, Food Science, and Chemical Engineering are benefiting from this core facility. Samples studied include proteins, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, synthetic polymers, small molecules, natural products, and virus capsids. This facility has led to higher throughput of data, which has been leveraged into grant support, attracting new faculty hire and has led to some exciting publications.

  16. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section 403.19 Protection of Environment... Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term “Participating... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when...

  17. Development of a remote laboratory-scale waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A waste treatment facility, designed on the basis of a feedrate of 1 l/hr of concentrated waste to a spray calciner, has been installed in a radiochemical hot cell at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The facility includes three modules: feed preparation (storage tanks, evaporator, condenser), waste solidification (a spray calciner and in-can melter), and effluent control (venturi scrubber, cyclone separator, fission product adsorbers, nitrogen oxides destructor, iodine adsorber, HEPA filter, and packed scrubber). The system is flexible. The spray calciner and in-can melter can be easily removed and replaced by alternative solidification systems, and the effluent control system can be operated in many different sequences. Other components can be easily added to the effluent system for tests. Two effluent control flowsheets, designed to simulate those in defense waste and commercial waste processing plants, will be evaluated during the first radioactive runs. Most operational data from the system are remotely recorded continuously on strip-chart and multipoint recorders. Data on equipment operating parameters and upset conditions will be used to help maximize data on effluents, effluent decontamination factors and product quality. Five laboratory, pilot- and full-scale radioactive and nonradioactive waste solidification systems have already been operated at PNL. Experience with these systems demonstrated a need for additional radioactive work. Thus, the Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility was developed. Operations completed with the other systems have indicated that scaling factors related to equipment size will not be a major consideration in the interpretation and usage of results from this equipment. These results can be used to provide guidance in developing full-scale radioactive waste treatment equipment

  18. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetko Prokopov; Dasha Mihaylova; Nikolay Mihalkov

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method) was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%), BOD5 (96.6%), total nitrogen (81.3%), total phosphorus (53.7%) and suspended soli...

  19. Combining biological agents and chemotherapy in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Jakobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    is not always possible. Chemotherapy is effective and the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine is considered a standard treatment of inoperable cholangiocarcinoma. Biological targeted treatment to date has minor effect when given as monotherapy, but some of the drugs hold promise as an adjunct...... to chemotherapy. It should, however, be noted that most of the trials are based on few patients, and thus far the literature does not allow for a conclusion as to the role of biological treatment on cholangiocarcinoma. This situation calls for well-designed randomized trials, and international cooperation as well...

  20. Adapting federated cyberinfrastructure for shared data collection facilities in structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been difficult, historically, to manage and maintain early-stage experimental data collected by structural biologists in synchrotron facilities. This work describes a prototype system that adapts existing federated cyberinfrastructure technology and techniques to manage collected data at synchrotrons and to facilitate the efficient and secure transfer of data to the owner's home institution. Early stage experimental data in structural biology is generally unmaintained and inaccessible to the public. It is increasingly believed that this data, which forms the basis for each macromolecular structure discovered by this field, must be archived and, in due course, published. Furthermore, the widespread use of shared scientific facilities such as synchrotron beamlines complicates the issue of data storage, access and movement, as does the increase of remote users. This work describes a prototype system that adapts existing federated cyberinfrastructure technology and techniques to significantly improve the operational environment for users and administrators of synchrotron data collection facilities used in structural biology. This is achieved through software from the Virtual Data Toolkit and Globus, bringing together federated users and facilities from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, the Advanced Photon Source, the Open Science Grid, the SBGrid Consortium and Harvard Medical School. The performance and experience with the prototype provide a model for data management at shared scientific facilities

  1. Atherosclerosis: from biology to pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graziano Riccioni; Valeriana Sblendorio

    2012-01-01

    A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk has swept across the globe. Primary prevention is the preferred method to lower cardiovascular risk. Lowering the prevalence of obesity is the most urgent matter, and is pleiotropic since it affects blood pressure, lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, inflammation, and atherothrombotic disease progression. Given the current obstacles, success of primary prevention remains uncertain. At the same time, the consequences of delay and inaction will inevitably be disastrous, and the sense of urgency mounts. Pathological and epidemiological data confirm that atherosclerosis begins in early childhood, and advances seamlessly and inexorably throughout life. Risk factors in childhood are similar to those in adults, and track between stages of life. When indicated, aggressive treatment should begin at the earliest indication, and be continued for many years. For those patients at intermediate risk according to global risk scores, C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcium, and carotid intima-media thickness are available for further stratification. Using statins for primary prevention is recommended by guidelines, is prevalent, but remains under prescribed. Statin drugs are unrivaled, evidence-based, major weapons to lower cardiovascular risk. Even when low density lipoprotein cholesterol targets are attained, over half of patients continue to have disease progression and clinical events. Though clinical evidence is incomplete, altering or raising the blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol level continues to be pursued. The aim of this review is to point out the attention of key aspects of vulnerable plaques regarding their pathogenesis and treatment.

  2. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  3. New treatments for psoriasis: which biologic is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew A; Pearce, Daniel J; Fleischer, Alan B; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, debilitating disease affecting not only the skin, but also having a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. The treatment of severe psoriasis is quite challenging due to the chronic, relapsing nature of the disease and the difficulties inherent in treatment planning. Though the biologics are perhaps the most promising of available psoriasis treatments, the decision to institute a given therapy may be fraught with complexity for the clinician. Patients now hear of these promising new treatments for psoriasis via print, television and radio advertising; they frequently come to their physician asking if they are eligible for any of these agents and, if so, 'which biologic is best?'. This paper attempts to determine the ideal biologic agent based upon several parameters: FDA- and EU-approved indications, therapeutic efficacy, impact on quality of life, cost-effectiveness, and safety profile. Certainly the physician is central to medical decision-making, though ultimately patient preference may play the largest role in determining the 'best' biologic agent. There is no single ideal biologic for all patients and a physician's job is to educate patients on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each agent. Through informed discussion, the clinician can help each individual patient decide which biologic agent is ideal for them. PMID:16766334

  4. Groundwater Treatment at the Fernald Preserve: Status and Path Forward for the Water Treatment Facility - 12320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating a water treatment facility at the Fernald Preserve in Cincinnati, Ohio-to support groundwater remediation and other wastewater treatment needs-has become increasingly unnecessary. The Fernald Preserve became a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, once most of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration had been completed. Groundwater remediation is anticipated to continue beyond 2020. A portion of the wastewater treatment facility that operated during the CERCLA cleanup continued to operate after the site was transferred to LM, to support the remaining groundwater remediation effort. The treatment facility handles the site's remaining water treatment needs (for groundwater, storm water, and wastewater) as necessary, to ensure that uranium discharge limits specified in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision are met. As anticipated, the need to treat groundwater to meet uranium discharge limits has greatly diminished over the last several years. Data indicate that the groundwater treatment facility is no longer needed to support the ongoing aquifer remediation effort. (authors)

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  7. Biosimilars: A New Aspect in the Biological Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Yalçın

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological drugs (biological agents, biologics are medical products, which are produced by DNA technology and hybridoma methods. Nowadays these drugs are effectively used in the treatment of several diseases with a consistently increasing diversity and indication spectrum. Psoriasis is the major dermatological disease in which biologics are used successfully. With the use of these drugs important improvements were achieved in the treatment of the disease. However these drugs are very expensive. To preclude this disadvantage, biosimilar drugs have been produced recently. Together with the appearance of biosimilars in the markets some problems and concerns related to these drugs begin to appear as well. First of all biosimilars and original biologics are not identical molecules and their efficacies and side effects may be different. Secondly their naming, tracking, interchangeability and substitution criteria are not clear yet. In this article we discuss the opinions and recommendations of major health authorities in the world about these concerns.

  8. The development and assessment of biological treatments for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eve M D; Foster, Helen E; Beresford, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The development of biological agents with specific immunological targets has revolutionized the treatment of a wide variety of paediatric diseases where traditional immunosuppressive agents have been partly ineffective or intolerable. The increasing requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake paediatric studies has provided impetus for studies of biologics in children. The assessment of biological agents in children to date has largely relied upon randomized controlled trials using a withdrawal design, rather than a parallel study design. This approach has been largely used due to ethical concerns, including use of placebo treatments in children with active chronic disease, and justified on the basis that treatments have usually already undergone robust assessment in related adult conditions. However, this study design limits the reliability of the data and can confuse the interpretation of safety results. Careful ongoing monitoring of safety and efficacy in real-world practice through national and international biologics registries and robust reporting systems is crucial. The most commonly used biological agents in children target tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and cytotoxic lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. These agents are most frequently used in paediatric rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the development and assessment of biologics within paediatric rheumatology with reference to the lessons learned from use in other subspecialties. PMID:24750505

  9. The Psychology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Biological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mantosh J

    2016-08-01

    The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes. A coherent psychological model (the deficit model) based on object relations theory best explains all the biological, psychological, clinical, and sociocultural factors relevant to the understanding and treatment of persons with schizophrenia. A better understanding of a coherent psychology of persons with schizophrenia and provision of psychotherapies improves both the biological and psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with schizophrenia. PMID:27479611

  10. Theme day: corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the theme day organized by the Bourgogne Nuclear Pole on the topic of corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Eleven presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Introduction - PNB centre of competitiveness and R and D activities (A. Mantovan, PNB); 2 - Corrosion damage (M. Foucault, Areva NP - Centre Technique Le Creusot); 3 - Corrosion mechanisms (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 4 - Examples of expertise management (C. Duret-Thual, Institut de la corrosion/Corrosion Institute); 5 - General framework of surface treatments (C. Nouveau, ENSAM Cluny Paris Tech); 6 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part A (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 7 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part B (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 8 - Ion beam surface treatment (Y. Le Guellec, Quertech Ingenierie); 9 - Impact surface treatment (G. Saout, Sonats); 10 - Metal oxides Characterisation by US laser (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 11 - Detection and Characterisation of intergranular corrosion (Y. Kernin, Stephane Bourgois, Areva Intercontrole)

  11. Factors affecting response to biologic treatment in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Jacek; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population in western countries. Patients with a more severe form of the disease are typically considered for systemic therapy, including biologics. In spite of the overall superiority of biologic agents, the treatment response may differ substantially among individual patients. As with other medical conditions, a range of factors contribute to response heterogeneity observed in psoriasis. Proper identification of these factors can significantly improve the therapeutic decisions. This review focuses on potential genetic and nongenetic factors that may affect the treatment response and outcomes in patients with psoriasis.

  12. Improving BOD removal at SNJ wastewater treatment plant by biological treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hantanirina, Jeannine Marie Olga

    2010-01-01

    SNJ uses chemical precipitation method to treat domestic wastewater. With regard to organic removal requirement; chemical treatment alone does not seem to be sufficient at SNJ/IVAR wastewater plant. This thesis is to assess the performance of the aerobic biological treatment on the wastewater of the plant in order to upgrade the existing plant to include biological treatment. The work was to conduct a laboratory scale SBR test for determination of the wastewater characteristics and the effect...

  13. U1/U2 crib groundwater biological treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the biological treatment project is to develop and demonstrate a process for Hanford groundwater remediation. Biodenitrification using facultative anaerobic microorganisms is a promising technology for the simultaneous removal of nitrates and organics from contaminated aqueous streams. During FY 1988, a consortium of Hanford groundwater microorganisms was shown to degrade both nitrates and carbon tetrachloride (CC14). A pilot-scale treatment system was designed and constructed based on the results of laboratory-and-bench-scale testing. This report summarizes the results of biological groundwater treatment studies performed during FY 1989 at the pilot-scale. These tests were conducted using a simulated Hanford groundwater with a continuous stirred-tank bioreactor, and a fluidized-bed bioreactor that was added to the pilot-scale treatment system in FY 1989. The pilot-scale system demonstrated continuous degradation of nitrates and CC14 in a simulated groundwater. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D; Mehra, Rohit; Kenneth J Pienta

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer pre...

  15. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  16. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  17. Biologics for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum in ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivarasan, K; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Sud, Sukrit; Sachdeva, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite limited published literature, biologics have caused a paradigm shift in the management of this difficult-to-treat skin condition. The clinical data and outcomes of three patients with active ulcerative colitis and concurrent PG treated with biologics (infliximab two and adalimumab one) are reviewed in this report. Biologics were added because of the sub-optimal response of the colonic symptoms and skin lesions to parenteral hydrocortisone therapy. All three patients showed a dramatic response to the addition of the biologics. In view of the rapid healing of the skin lesions, superior response rate, and the additional benefit of improvement in the underlying colonic disease following treatment, anti-tumor necrosis factor blockers should be considered as a first line therapy in the management of PG with underlying IBD. PMID:27799888

  18. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

  19. STRINGFELLOW LEACHATE TREATMENT WITH RBC (ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted with a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of leachate from the Stringfellow hazardous waste site in Riverside County, California. The leachate was transported from California to Cincinnati, where a pilot sized RBC was installed at the U.S. EPA...

  20. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  1. Toluene: biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. Fluctuations in the contamina

  2. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Treatment Facility, referred to throughout this document as T Plant, has been identified as the location where sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement Aptus Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Department of the Interior

    1988-01-01

    The environmental impact statement for the proposed aptus industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility analyzes the environmental impacts of the proposed transfer, storage, and incineration facility, and the the transportation and utility corridors through construction, operation, and closure.

  4. Design of commercial dyeing wastewater treatment facility with e-beam (based on the results of pilot plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant for a large-scale test of dyeing facility wastewater (flow rate of 1,000m3 per day from 80,000m3/day of total wastewater) was constructed and operated with the electron accelerator of 1MeV, 40kW. The accelerator was installed in February 1998 and the Tower Style Biological treatment facility (TSB) was also installed in October 1998. The wastewater is injected under the e-beam irradiation area through the nozzle type injector to obtain the adequate penetration depth. The speed of injection could be varied upon the dose and dose rate. Performance statistics are given

  5. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  6. United membrane biological reactor in the treatment of wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-ti; YAN Bin; DU Cui-hong; DONG Xiao-li

    2003-01-01

    The united membrane biological reactor(UMBR) was studied for the treatment of some simulate and municipal wastewater . The removal efficiency for COD and turbidity are greater than 80% and 99% respectively. Effluent COD is less than 100 mg/L while turbidity less than 5. The removal of LAS in bath wastewater is greater than 70%. In treatment of dinning-hall wastewater, removal of fatty oil is greater than 90%, and its concentration in effluent is less than 5 mg/L. The match of biological reactor and the membrane separation component were calculated. The stable performance of wastewater treatment can be maintained by the optimization of operation conditions and the cleanout of membranes.

  7. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λcomponents either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  8. From Earth to Space: Application of Biological Treatment for the Removal of Ammonia from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen; Adam, Niklas; White, Dawn; Ghosh, Amlan; Seidel, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Managing ammonia is often a challenge in both drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. Ammonia is unregulated in drinking water, but its presence may result in numerous water quality issues in the distribution system such as loss of residual disinfectant, nitrification, and corrosion. Ammonia concentrations need to be managed in wastewater effluent to sustain the health of receiving water bodies. Biological treatment involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate through a two-step process. While nitrification is common in the environment, and nitrifying bacteria can grow rapidly on filtration media, appropriate conditions, such as the presence of dissolved oxygen and required nutrients, need to be established. This presentation will highlight results from two ongoing research programs - one at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and the other at a drinking water facility in California. Both programs are designed to demonstrate nitrification through biological treatment. The objective of NASA's research is to be able to recycle wastewater to potable water for spaceflight missions. To this end, a biological water processor (BWP) has been integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). Bacteria mineralize organic carbon to carbon dioxide as well as ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system testing planned for this year is expected to produce water that requires only a polishing step to meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. The pilot study in California is being conducted on Golden State Water Company's Yukon wells that have hydrogen sulfide odor

  9. Perceptions of Organizational Functioning in Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Steven; Louw, Johann; Myers, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Directors' and treatment staff's perceptions of organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment facilities in four provinces in South Africa were examined via the Texas Christian University's Organizational Readiness for Change instrument. Forty-four treatment facilities (out of 89) participated in the study. Results indicated that…

  10. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  11. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft2) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  12. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a comprehensive understanding of requirements for a facility that could safely conduct effluent treatment for a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket...

  13. Comparison of Three Systems for Biological Greywater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Hernández Leal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Greywater consists of household wastewater excluding toilet discharges. Three systems were compared for the biological treatment of greywater at a similar hydraulic retention time of approximately 12–13 hours. These systems were aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor, anaerobic treatment in an up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor and combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment (up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor + sequencing batch reactor. Aerobic conditions resulted in a COD removal of 90%, which was significantly higher than 51% removal by anaerobic treatment. The low removal in the anaerobic reactor may have been caused by high concentration of anionic surfactants in the influent (43.5 mg/L and a poor removal of the colloidal fraction of the COD in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Combined aerobic-anaerobic treatment accomplished a COD removal of 89%, similar to the aerobic treatment alone. Greywater methanization was 32% for the anaerobic system and 25% for the anaerobic-aerobic system, yielding a small amount of energy. Therefore, anaerobic pre-treatment is not feasible and an aerobic system is preferred for the treatment of greywater.

  14. New construction of an inside-container drying facility in the central decontamination and water treatment facility (ZDW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the future conditioning of radioactive liquid waste during the proceeding dismantling of the NPP Greifswald the GNS company provides the an inside-container drying facility in the frame of the new construction of ZDW (central decontamination and water treatment facility) including related infrastructure and media supply. The concept of the FAVORIT facility which is in operation since years has been refined; a fully automated version was realized so that no handling by the personnel is necessary for loading and unloading of the container station. Components of the vacuum system were optimized.

  15. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Su; Guangshan Zhang; Peng Wang; Shixiong Li; Ryan M. Ravenelle; JOHN C. CRITTENDEN

    2015-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%....

  16. Direct landfill disposal versus Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhawik Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of a new waste management system, in which recycling is the most dominating process, landfill disposal still appears to be the most popular method of waste management in Poland, in which waste undergoes gradual decomposition and the influence of climate conditions, for example, air and atmospheric fallout, leads to the production of leachate and biogas emissions, which contribute to continual threats to the natural environment and humans. The above-mentioned threats can be limited by applying suitable techniques of waste treatment before its disposal. A technology that is oriented to these aims is a mechanical biological treatment (MBT before disposal.

  17. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system......, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power...... a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven...

  18. Assessment of the proposed decontamination and waste treatment facility at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a centralized decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) at LLNL, the construction of a new installation has been planned. Objectives for this new facility were to replace obsolete, structurally and environmentally sub-marginal liquid and solid waste process facilities and decontamination facility and to bring these facilities into compliance with existing federal, state and local regulations as well as DOE orders. In a previous study, SAIC conducted a preliminary review and evaluation of existing facilities at LLNL and cost effectiveness of the proposed DWTF. This document reports on a detailed review of specific aspects of the proposed DWTF

  19. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  20. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  1. Three-year registry data on biological treatment for psoriasis: the influence of patient characteristics on treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The course of biological treatment in clinical practice may be highly different from treatment schedules in clinical trials. Treatment modifications and patient characteristics may influence treatment safety and efficacy. So far, long-term results from the use of biological treatment in

  2. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  3. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment. PMID:19135363

  4. Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, R; Utecht, K-U; Exner, M; Verstraete, W; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2016-01-01

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster. Additionally, to gain insight into the factors that promote the growth of Legionella in biological systems, growth experiments were made with different substrates and temperatures. The dosage rates of silver micro-particles, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone and pH stress to the activated sludge were not able to decrease the number of culturable Legionella spp. in the effluent. Nevertheless, the UV treatment of secondary treated effluent reduced Legionella spp. on average by 1.6-3.4 log units. Laboratory-scale experiments and full-scale measurements suggested that the aerobic treatment of warm wastewater (30-35 °C) rich in organic nitrogen (protein) is a possible source of Legionella infection. PMID:27533856

  5. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m2/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  6. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.tr

    2008-05-30

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 {+-} 2% and 84 {+-} 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 {+-} 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 {mu}m pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m{sup 2}/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria.

  7. Microstructured surfaces engineered using biological templates: a facile approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN LOSIC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of microstructured surfaces using biological templates was investigated with the aim of exploring of a facile and low cost approach for the fabrication of structured surfaces with superhydrophobic properties. Two soft lithographic techniques, i.e., replica moulding and nano-imprinting, were used to replicate the surfaces of a biological substrate. Leaves of the Agave plant (Agave attenuate, a cost-free biological template, were used as a model of a biosurface with superhydrophobic properties. The replication process was performed using two polymers: an elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS, and a polyurethane (PU based, UV-curable polymer (NOA 60. In the first replication step, negative polymer replicas of the surface of leaves were fabricated, which were used as masters to fabricate positive polymer replicas by moulding and soft imprinting. The pattern with micro and nanostructures of the surface of the leaf possesses superhydrophobic properties, which was successfully replicated into both polymers. Finally, the positive replicas were coated with a thin gold film and modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs to verify the importance of the surface chemistry on the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated structures. Wetting (contact angle and structural (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterisation was performed to confirm the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated surfaces (> 150°, as well as the precision and reproducibility of the replication process.

  8. Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosani, Matteo; Ardizzone, Sandro; Porro, Gabriele Bianchi

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been clarified and immunosuppressive agents which nonspecifically reduce inflammation and immunity have been used in the conventional therapies for IBD. Evidence indicates that a dysregulation of mucosal immunity in the gut of IBD causes an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and trafficking of effector leukocytes into the bowel, thus leading to an uncontrolled intestinal inflammation. Under normal situations, the intestinal mucosa is in a state of "controlled" inflammation regulated by a delicate balance of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor [TNF-alpha], interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma], interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-12 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-11). The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. Cytokines may therefore be a logical target for inflammatory bowel disease therapy using specific cytokine inhibitors. Biotechnology agents targeted against TNF, leukocyte adhesion, Th1 polarization, T cell activation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and other miscellaneous therapies are being evaluated as potential therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In this context, infliximab and adalimumab are currently the only biologic agents approved in Europe for the treatment of inflammatory Crohn's disease. Other anti-TNF biologic agents have emerged, including CDP571, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, onercept. However, ongoing research continues to generate new biologic agents targeted at specific pathogenic mechanism involved in the inflammatory process. Lymphocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by adhesion molecules are important in leukocyte migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation, and selective blockade of these adhesion molecules is a novel and promising strategy to treat Crohn's disease. Therapeutics agents to inhibit leukocyte trafficking

  9. Nonoperative biological treatment approach for partial Achilles tendon lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Presti, Mirco Lo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2010-02-01

    Tendon injuries, especially those of the Achilles tendon, are major concerns in sports medicine. The clinical presentation can be acute or chronic and the pathologic findings can range from peritendonitis to full-thickness tendon rupture. Nonsurgical treatment is not always successful; in particular, significant partial ruptures seem to respond poorly to conservative measures and do not improve with time. Surgery is most often considered the favored treatment option for this kind of lesion to obtain pain relief and full functionality with long-standing effects.This article describes a case of a partial tear of the Achilles tendon in a 34-year-old competitive athlete where surgical treatment was avoided in favor of a new biological approach. We applied autologous platelet growth factors through multiple platelet-rich plasma injections; approximately 6.5 billion platelets were injected into the lesion 3 times, 7 days apart. The treatment with platelet-rich plasma and a progressive rehabilitation program allowed the patient to play for 20 minutes in a basketball game 64 days after the trauma and in a full game 75 days after the trauma. To date, 18 months later, he has participated regularly in all the season's games and received no further treatment for his tendon.The fast tissue repair, confirmed by magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, allowed a swift return to full functionality and competitive sports activity, suggesting a possible role of platelet growth factors in promoting rapid tendon healing with high-quality tissue. This biological approach may represent a less-invasive therapeutic option even in cases where severe tendon lesions are candidates for surgical treatment. PMID:20192152

  10. Biological approaches for treatment of distillery wastewater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-09-01

    Effluent originating from distilleries known as spent wash leads to extensive soil and water pollution. Elimination of pollutants and colour from distillery effluent is becoming increasingly important from environmental and aesthetic point of view. Stillage, fermenter and condenser cooling water and fermenter wastewater are the primary polluting streams of a typical distillery. Due to the large volumes of effluent and presence of certain recalcitrant compounds, the treatment of this stream is rather challenging by conventional methods. Therefore, to supplement the existing treatments, a number of studies encompassing physico-chemical and biological treatments have been conducted. This review presents an account of the problem and the description of colour causing components in distillery wastewater and a detailed review of existing biological approaches. Further, the studies dealing with pure cultures such as bacterial, fungal, algal and plant based systems have also been incorporated. Also, the roles of microbial enzymes in the decolourization process have been discussed to develop a better understanding of the phenomenon. PMID:17092705

  11. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  12. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  13. F/H effluent treatment facility. Technical data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J P; Stimson, R E

    1984-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the design of the facility. Some of the sections are described with options to permit simplification of the process, depending on the effluent quality criteria that the facility will have to meet. Each part of the F/HETF process is reviewed with respect to decontamination and concentration efficiency, operability, additional waste generation, energy efficiency, and compatability with the rest of the process.

  14. F/H effluent treatment facility. Technical data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the technical basis for the design of the facility. Some of the sections are described with options to permit simplification of the process, depending on the effluent quality criteria that the facility will have to meet. Each part of the F/HETF process is reviewed with respect to decontamination and concentration efficiency, operability, additional waste generation, energy efficiency, and compatability with the rest of the process

  15. Rotating biological contactors for wastewater treatment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Hassard, Francis; Biddle, Jeremy R.; Cartmell, Elise; Jefferson, Bruce; Tyrrel, Sean F.; Stephenson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) for wastewater treatment began in the 1970s. Removal of organic matter has been targeted within organic loading rates of up to 120 g m−2 d−1 with an optimum at around 15 g m−2 d−1 for combined BOD and ammonia removal. Full nitrification is achievable under appropriate process conditions with oxidation rates of up to 6 g m−2 d−1 reported for municipal wastewater. The RBC process has been adapted for denitrification with reported removal rates of up to 14 g...

  16. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter in municipal wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiang; ZHANG Yu-ping; XU Jian-bin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter (IBAF) applied to municipal wastewater treatment were studied in a pilot scale experiment. The experimental results showed that IBAF has high efficiencies in removing organic pollutants, such as CODCr and SS, in municipal wastewater. The removal rates of CODCr and SS can reach over 90% and 80%, respectively, when COD and SS in the influent are 234 mg L-1 and 112 mg L-1, hydraulic retention time (HRT) is 8 h, and the aerated intensity is in the range of (0.5 to 0.6) L m-2 s-1.

  18. Benchmarking Combined Biological Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    are to a large extent based on the already existing nitrogen removal simulation benchmark. The paper illustrates and motivates the selection of the treatment plant lay-out, the selection of the biological process model, the development of realistic influent disturbance scenarios for dry, rain and storm weather...... resulting from open loop simulations with a dynamic dry weather influent scenario. The influence of the dissolved oxygen set point selection on the nitrate control loop performance observed in the simulations further illustrates the need for a plant-wide optimization approach to reach optimal plant...

  19. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  1. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  2. Conceptual design of a biological specimen holding facility. [Life Science Laboratory for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    An all-important first step in the development of the Spacelab Life Science Laboratory is the design of the Biological Specimen Holding Facility (BSHF) which will provide accommodation for living specimens for life science research in orbit. As a useful tool in the understanding of physiological and biomedical changes produced in the weightless environment, the BSHF will enable biomedical researchers to conduct in-orbit investigations utilizing techniques that may be impossible to perform on human subjects. The results of a comprehensive study for defining the BSHF, description of its experiment support capabilities, and the planning required for its development are presented. Conceptual designs of the facility, its subsystems and interfaces with the Orbiter and Spacelab are included. Environmental control, life support and data management systems are provided. Interface and support equipment required for specimen transfer, surgical research, and food, water and waste storage is defined. New and optimized concepts are presented for waste collection, feces and urine separation and sampling, environmental control, feeding and watering, lighting, data management and other support subsystems.

  3. Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2014-07-17

    The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 10(33) photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s(-1)) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging.

  4. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  5. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Rojas, J B; Verreth, J A J; Amato, S; Huisman, E A

    2003-09-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 gkg(-1) molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P<0.05). Similarly, true protein values tended to increase. The cellulose and total phenols levels of E-CoP were lower than OD-CoP (P<0.05). The E-CoP tannins levels tended to be lower than OD-CoP whereas caffeine levels remained unaffected. Improvement in the nutritional quality of E-CoP was associated with higher fat and protein contents and reduction of cellulose, total phenols and tannins. The aerobic decomposition treatment improved the nutritional quality of CoP by increasing true protein and fat contents. In addition, total phenols, tannins, caffeine and cellulose contents were reduced by an increase in treatment time (P<0.05). Bacterial treatment increased the protein content of CoP after 21 days (from 137 to 392 gkg(-1)) and decreased it after 28 days. Cellulose, total phenols, tannins and caffeine contents reduced with an increase in time of bacterial degradation. Bacterial treatment improved the CoP quality by increasing protein content and reducing cellulose and ANFs, especially after 21 days of treatment. Both the aerobic decomposition (after 21-28 days) and the aerobic bacterial degradation of CoP (after 21 days) appeared more suitable to improve the nutritional quality of CoP than the ensiling.

  6. Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs

  7. KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a safe and effective in the farm biological treatment for low level agricultural pesticide wastewater. The degradation of the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch and continuous modes of operation with a retention time of 15 days. The initial cell number (30.1ח106 cells/mL in the soil water mixture first declined with time during the 24 h reaching 15.6ח106 and 11.1ח106 cells/mL in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. This was due to the inhibitory effect of pesticide on some of the soil microbial species that had less tolerance to captan at the initial concentration of 144 mg L-1. Then, the microbial population started growing, reaching its maximum after 5 and 12 days from the start in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. The lag period and the specific growth rate for the batch bioreactor were 22 h and 0.096 h-1, respectively. A captan degradation efficiency of 89.6% was achieved after 10 days in the continuous bioreactor compared to a degradation efficiency of 100% after 5 d in the batch bioreactor. This study showed that the effluent from the continuous bioreactor has a captan concentration of 12 mg L-1 which is not acceptable for livestock water according to Health Canada Guidelines. A half life of 52 h is observed in the batch bioreactor.

  8. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  9. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  10. Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bosani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi PorroChair of Gastroenterology, “L. Sacco” University Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has not yet been clarified and immunosuppressive agents which nonspecifically reduce inflammation and immunity have been used in the conventional therapies for IBD. Evidence indicates that a dysregulation of mucosal immunity in the gut of IBD causes an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and trafficking of effector leukocytes into the bowel, thus leading to an uncontrolled intestinal inflammation. Under normal situations, the intestinal mucosa is in a state of “controlled” inflammation regulated by a delicate balance of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-12 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-11. The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. Cytokines may therefore be a logical target for inflammatory bowel disease therapy using specific cytokine inhibitors. Biotechnology agents targeted against TNF, leukocyte adhesion, Th1 polarization, T cell activation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, and other miscellaneous therapies are being evaluated as potential therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In this context, infliximab and adalimumab are currently the only biologic agents approved in Europe for the treatment of inflammatory Crohn’s disease. Other anti-TNF biologic agents have emerged, including CDP571, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, onercept. However, ongoing research continues to generate new biologic agents targeted at specific pathogenic mechanism involved in the inflammatory process. Lymphocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by adhesion molecules are important in leukocyte migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation, and

  11. The Biological Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders: an Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoyda, Brian J; Kellaher, Denise C

    2016-02-01

    Paraphilic disorders are characterized by atypical sexual interests, fantasies, and behaviors that are subjectively distressing to patients or pose a risk of harm to others. By their very nature, some paraphilic disorders may predispose an individual to commit sexual offenses. The biological treatment of paraphilic disorders, then, is of paramount importance for psychiatry and society at large. Three categories of pharmacologic agents commonly used to treat paraphilic disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, synthetic steroidal analogs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Each medication uses a different mechanism of action and has different effects on the physiological and psychological features of paraphilic disorders. In general, these medications have limited high-quality research to support their use. Despite this, some authors have proposed treatment algorithms for individuals with paraphilic disorders of varying severity. These guidelines offer clinicians potentially useful, rational approaches to assessing treatment need in individuals with paraphilic disorders. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging may offer further promise in effectively assessing paraphilic disorders to help direct treatment options. PMID:26800994

  12. Biological investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biological field survey performed on the Sandia National Laboratories Aerial Cable Facility, at the east end of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), Bernalillo County, New Mexico. This survey was conducted late September through October, 1991. ACF occupies a 440-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service (USFS) for use by KAFB, and in turn placed under operational control of SNL by the Department of Energy (DOE). All land used by SNL for ACF is part of a 15,851-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service. In addition, a number of different organizations use the 15,851-acre area. The project area used by SNL encompasses portions of approximately six sections (3,840 acres) of US Forest Service land located within the foothills of the west side of the Manzano Mountains (East Mesa). The biological study area is used by the KAFB, the US Department of Interior, and SNL. This area includes: (1) Sol se Mete Springs and Canyon, (2) East Anchor Access Road, (3) East Anchor Site, (4) Rocket Sled Track, (5) North Arena, (6) East Instrumentation Site and Access Road, (7) West Anchor Access Road, (8) West Anchor Site, (9) South Arena, (10) Winch Sites, (11) West Instrumentation Sites, (12) Explosive Assembly Building, (13) Control Building, (14) Lurance Canyon Road and vicinity. Although portions of approximately 960 acres of withdrawn US Forest Service land have been altered, only 700 acres have been disturbed by activities associated with ACF; approximately 2,880 acres consist of natural habitat. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative lack of human disturbance have allowed this area to remain in a more natural vegetative state relative to the condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found on ACF, as well as a comprehensive assessment of biological habitats.

  13. Inventory and treatment of compost maturation emissions in a municipal solid waste treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Antonio D; Husni, Shafik; Pascual, Guillem; Puigdellivol, Carles; Gabriel, David

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the compost maturation building in a municipal solid waste treatment facility were inventoried by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A large diversity of chemical classes and compounds were found. The highest concentrations were found for n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone and limonene (ppmv level). Also, a range of compounds exceeded their odor threshold evidencing that treatment was needed. Performance of a chemical scrubber followed by two parallel biofilters packed with an advanced packing material and treating an average airflow of 99,300 m(3) h(-1) was assessed in the treatment of the VOCs inventoried. Performance of the odor abatement system was evaluated in terms of removal efficiency by comparing inlet and outlet abundances. Outlet concentrations of selected VOCs permitted to identify critical odorants emitted to the atmosphere. In particular, limonene was found as the most critical VOC in the present study. Only six compounds from the odorant group were removed with efficiencies higher than 90%. Low removal efficiencies were found for most of the compounds present in the emission showing a significant relation with their chemical properties (functionality and solubility) and operational parameters (temperature, pH and inlet concentration). Interestingly, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol were found to be produced in the treatment system.

  14. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  15. Survivability analysis of a sewage treatment facility using hybrid Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasemieh, Hamed; Remke, Anne; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2015-01-01

    Waste water treatment facilities clean sewage water from households and industry in several cleaning steps. Such facilities are dimensioned to accommodate a maximum intake. However, in the case of very bad weather conditions or failures of system components, the system might not be able to accommoda

  16. Markers for Aggression in Inpatient Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneij, Nienke H.; Didden, Robert; Stolker, Joost Jan; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    In high care settings for persons with intellectual disability (ID) aggressive incidents often occur. Still little is known about factors that are associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior in clients who are admitted to an inpatient treatment facility. In four inpatient facilities, 108 adults with mild and borderline ID and…

  17. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  18. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  19. How to Find a Doctor or Treatment Facility If You Have Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes 4 years of premedical education at a college or university, 4 years of medical school to earn an ... can provide you with a list of approved facilities. Although the costs of cancer treatment can be very high, you ...

  20. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  1. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  2. Biological control and management of the detoxication wastewater treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalova Yana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Detoxication technologies require the combination of theoretical and practical knowledge of xenobiotic biodegradation, wastewater treatment technologies, and management rules. The purpose of this complicated combination is to propose specialized strategies for detoxication, based on lab- and pilot-scale modeling. These strategies include preliminary created algorithms for preventing the risk of water pollution and sediments. The technologies and algorithms are essentially important outcome, applied in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, woodtreating, and oiltreating industries. In this paper four rehabilitation technologies for pretreatment of water contaminated by pentachlorophenol (PCP have been developed in the frame of the European and Bulgarian National projects. Emphasize is put on the biological systems and their potential of detoxication management. The light and transmission electron microscopy of the reconstructed activated sludges the microbial, kinetic and enzymological indicators are presented and approved as critical points in the biocontrol.

  3. Scientific Basis for a Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological Experimental Facility at DUSEL Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Maher, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Uzunlar, N.; Freifeld, B. M.; Keimowitz, A. R.; Wang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Most natural and engineered earth system processes involve strong coupling of thermal, mechanical, chemical, and sometimes biological processes in rocks that are heterogeneous at a wide range of spatial scales. One of the most pervasive processes in the Earth’s crust is that of fluids (primarily water, but also CO2, hydrocarbons, volcanic gases, etc.) flowing through fractured heated rock under stress. A preliminary design is being formulated for a large-scale subsurface experimental facility to investigate coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) processes in fractured rock at depth. The experiment would be part of the proposed Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Fundamental geochemical, isotopic, microbiological, laboratory THMC experiments, and numerical modeling will be used to guide the experimental design and evaluation of the time and spatial scales of the coupled THMCB processes. Although we sometimes analyze rocks and fluids for physical and chemical properties, it is difficult to create quantitative numerical models based on fundamental physics and chemistry that can capture the dynamic changes that have occurred or may yet take place. Initial conditions and history are only known roughly at best, and the boundary conditions have likely varied over time as well. Processes such as multicomponent chemical and thermal diffusion, multiphase flow, advection, and thermal expansion/contraction, are taking place simultaneously in rocks that are structurally and chemically complex—heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, pores, and fractures—and visually opaque. The only way to fully understand such processes is to carry out well-controlled experiments at a range of scales (grain/pore-scale to decimeter-scale) that can be interrogated and modeled. The THMCB experimental facility is also intended to be a unique laboratory for testing hypotheses regarding effects of

  4. A heat transfer model for biological wastewater treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. H.

    A heat transfer model for predicting the water temperature of aeration tank in a biological wastewater treatment plant is presented. The heat transfer mechanisms involved in the development of the heat transfer model include heat gains from solar radiation and biochemical reaction and heat losses from evaporation, aeration, wind blowing and conduction through tank walls. Several empirical correlations were adopted and appropriate assumptions made to facilitate the model development. Experiments were conducted in the biological wastewater treatment plant of a chemical fiber company over a year's period. The operational, weather and temperature data were registered. The daily water temperature data were averaged over a month period and compared with the theoretical prediction. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the predicted and measured temperatures, verifying the proposed heat transfer model. Zusammenfassung Es wird ein Wärmeübergangsmodell zur Berechnung der Wassertemperatur im Belüftungstank einer Anlage zur biologischen Abwasserbehandlung vorgestellt. Die in das Modell eingehenden Wärmeübergangsmechanismen umfassen: solare Wärmeeinstrahlung, biochemische Reaktion, Wärmeverluste durch Verdampfung, Belüftung, Windeinfluß und Leitung durch die Behälterwände. Mehrere empirische Beziehungen sowie vertretbare Annahmen tragen zur Modellvereinfachung bei. An der biologischen Abwasser-Kläranlage einer Chemiefaserfirma wurden ein Jahr lang Experimente durchgeführt und dabei Betriebs-, Wetter- und Temperaturdaten aufgezeichnet. Die täglichen Wassertemperaturen, gemittelt über einen Monat, zeigten ausgezeichnete Übereinstimmung mit den theoretischen Vorausberechnungen und bestätigten so die Brauchbarkeit des vorgeschlagenen Wärmeübergangsmodells.

  5. Investigations on mechanical biological treatment of waste in South America: Towards more sustainable MSW management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an analysis on the suitability of mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste in South America, based on two previous experimental investigations carried out in two different countries. The first experiment was performed for determining the mass and volume reduction of MSW in the province of Concepcion (Chile). The implemented bench-scale process consisted of a manual classification and separation stage, followed by an in-vessel biological degradation process. The second experiment consisted of a full-scale experiment performed in the city of Estrela (Brazil), where the existing municipal waste management facility was adapted to enhance the materials sorting and separation. Expressed in wet weight composition, 85.5% of the material input in the first experiment was separated for biological degradation. After 27 days of processing, 60% of the initial mass was reduced through degradation and water evaporation. The final fraction destined for landfilling equals 59% of the total input mass, corresponding to about 50% of the initial volume. In the second experiment, the fraction destined to landfill reaches 46.6% of the total input waste mass, whilst also significantly reducing the total volume to be disposed. These results, and the possible recovery of material streams suitable for recycling or for preparing solid recovered fuels, are the main advantages of the studied process

  6. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. The 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility (3718-F Facility), located in the 300 Area, was used to store and treat alkali metal wastes. Therefore, it is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989) and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy the thermal treatment facility closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the 3718-F Facility, the history of wastes managed, and the approach that will be followed to close the facility. Only hazardous constituents derived from 3718-F Facility operations will be addressed.

  7. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  8. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  9. Biological treatment of colored wastewater by Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntić, A V; Pavlović, M D; Šiler-Marinković, S S; Dimitrijević-Branković, S I

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the biological processes related to the biodegradable potential of growing microbial cells for contaminated water treatment. Thus, the use of the Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7 (CKS7) has been evaluated for decolorizing efficiency of a solution containing a cationic triphenylmethane dye, crystal violet. The color reduction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis, through changes in their absorption spectrum and comparing the results with those of the respective controls. It was found that the CKS7 performed well and reached up to 100% effectiveness. The required process parameters have been apparently mild and include the reaction temperature of 27-30 °C, 10% inoculum size, under shaking conditions, whereas the time course of decolorization had been concentration dependent. A possible mechanism for removing dye from the working medium was accomplished in two steps: the binding of the dye on the bacterial cell surface, in addition to the dye biodegradation by the bacterial intracellular enzymes. After one cycle of the complete dye removal, the adapted culture was successfully reused for the same purpose. The phytotoxicity analysis revealed that non-toxic compounds were present in decolorized medium, indicating that the CKS7 bacteria seem to be a promising application for contaminated water treatment. PMID:27148725

  10. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis,and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cynthia Ro; Wanxing Chai; Victoria E.Yu; Run Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs),a group of endocrine tumors arising in the pancreas,are among the most common neuroendocrine tumors.The genetic causes of familial and sporadic PNETs are somewhat understood,but their molecular pathogenesis remains unknown.Most PNETs are indolent but have malignant potential.The biological behavior of an individual PNET is unpredictable; higher tumor grade,lymph node and liver metastasis,and larger tumor size generally indicate a less favorable prognosis.Endocrine testing,imaging,and histological evidence are necessary to accurately diagnose PNETs.A 4-pronged aggressive treatment approach consisting of surgery,Iocoregional therapy,systemic therapy,and complication control has become popular in academic centers around the world.The optimal application of the multiple systemic therapeutic modalities is under development; efficacy,safety,availability,and cost should be considered when treating a specific patient.The clinical presentation,diagnosis,and treatment of specific types of PNETs and familial PNET syndromes,including the novel Mahvash disease,are summarized.

  11. Biological treatment of colored wastewater by Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntić, A V; Pavlović, M D; Šiler-Marinković, S S; Dimitrijević-Branković, S I

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the biological processes related to the biodegradable potential of growing microbial cells for contaminated water treatment. Thus, the use of the Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7 (CKS7) has been evaluated for decolorizing efficiency of a solution containing a cationic triphenylmethane dye, crystal violet. The color reduction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis, through changes in their absorption spectrum and comparing the results with those of the respective controls. It was found that the CKS7 performed well and reached up to 100% effectiveness. The required process parameters have been apparently mild and include the reaction temperature of 27-30 °C, 10% inoculum size, under shaking conditions, whereas the time course of decolorization had been concentration dependent. A possible mechanism for removing dye from the working medium was accomplished in two steps: the binding of the dye on the bacterial cell surface, in addition to the dye biodegradation by the bacterial intracellular enzymes. After one cycle of the complete dye removal, the adapted culture was successfully reused for the same purpose. The phytotoxicity analysis revealed that non-toxic compounds were present in decolorized medium, indicating that the CKS7 bacteria seem to be a promising application for contaminated water treatment.

  12. Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

    2013-10-15

    In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to μg/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

  13. Neural network models for biological waste-gas treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Eldon R; Estefanía López, M; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2011-12-15

    This paper outlines the procedure for developing artificial neural network (ANN) based models for three bioreactor configurations used for waste-gas treatment. The three bioreactor configurations chosen for this modelling work were: biofilter (BF), continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTB) and monolith bioreactor (MB). Using styrene as the model pollutant, this paper also serves as a general database of information pertaining to the bioreactor operation and important factors affecting gas-phase styrene removal in these biological systems. Biological waste-gas treatment systems are considered to be both advantageous and economically effective in treating a stream of polluted air containing low to moderate concentrations of the target contaminant, over a rather wide range of gas-flow rates. The bioreactors were inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus, and their performances were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRT), and at different inlet styrene concentrations (C(i)). The experimental data from these bioreactors were modelled to predict the bioreactors performance in terms of their removal efficiency (RE, %), by adequate training and testing of a three-layered back propagation neural network (input layer-hidden layer-output layer). Two models (BIOF1 and BIOF2) were developed for the BF with different combinations of easily measurable BF parameters as the inputs, that is concentration (gm(-3)), unit flow (h(-1)) and pressure drop (cm of H(2)O). The model developed for the CSTB used two inputs (concentration and unit flow), while the model for the MB had three inputs (concentration, G/L (gas/liquid) ratio, and pressure drop). Sensitivity analysis in the form of absolute average sensitivity (AAS) was performed for all the developed ANN models to ascertain the importance of the different input parameters, and to assess their direct effect on the bioreactors performance. The performance of the models was estimated by the regression

  14. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  15. Delisting strategy for the Hanford Site 242-A Evaporator PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the strategy that the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office intends to use in preparing the delisting petition for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Because the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility will not be operational until 1994, the delisting petition will be structured as an up-front petition based on the ''multiple waste treatment facility'' approach outline in the 1985 US Environmental Protection Agency's Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste. The 242-A evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility effluent characterization data will not be available to support the delisting petition, because the delisting petition will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency before start-up of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Therefore, the delisting petition will be based on data collected during the pilot plant testing for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. This pilot plant testing will be conducted on synthetic waste. The composition of the synthetic waste will be based on: (1) constituents of regulatory concern, and (2) on process knowledge. The pilot plant testing will be performed to determine the removal efficiencies of the process equipment at concentrations greater than reasonably could be expected in the actual waste. This strategy document also describes the logic used to develop the synthetic waste, to develop the pilot plant testing program, and to prepare the delisting petition. This strategy document also described how full-scale operating data will be collected during initial operation of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility to verify information presented in the delisting petition

  16. Argonne-West facility requirements for a radioactive waste treatment demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), near Idaho Falls, Idaho, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used and/or modified to meet the environmental and waste management research needs of DOE. One example is the use of an Argonne-West facility to conduct a radioactive waste treatment demonstration through a cooperative project with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. The Plasma Hearth Process (PBP) project will utilize commercially-adapted plasma arc technology to demonstrate treatment of actual mixed waste. The demonstration on radioactive waste will be conducted at Argonne's Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). Utilization of an existing facility for a new and different application presents a unique set of issues in meeting applicable federal state, and local requirements as well as the additional constraints imposed by DOE Orders and ANL-W site requirements. This paper briefly describes the PHP radioactive demonstrations relevant to the interfaces with the TREAT facility. Safety, environmental design, and operational considerations pertinent to the PHP radioactive demonstration are specifically addressed herein. The personnel equipment, and facility interfaces associated with a radioactive waste treatment demonstration are an important aspect of the demonstration effort. Areas requiring significant effort in preparation for the PBP Project being conducted at the TREAT facility include confinement design, waste handling features, and sampling and analysis considerations. Information about the facility in which a radioactive demonstration will be conducted, specifically Argonne's TREAT facility in the case of PHP, may be of interest to other organizations involved in developing and demonstrating technologies for mixed waste treatment

  17. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  18. Implementing Trauma-Informed Treatment for Youth in a Residential Facility: First-Year Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Ricky; Siradas, Lynn; Schmitt, Thomas A.; Reslan, Summar; Fierle, Julia; Sande, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Training in the Fairy Tale model of trauma-informed treatment was provided to clinical and direct care staff working with 53 youth in a residential treatment facility. Compared to the year prior to training, in the year of the training the average improvement in presenting problems was increased by 34%, time to discharge was reduced by 39%, and…

  19. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  20. Recycling of dyehouse effluents by biological and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, R.; Doepkens, E. [Inst. of Biochemical Engineering, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The introduction of the production integrated environmental protection by closing raw material cycles is shown exemplary for the textile finishing industry. Colored process water with a high content of dissolved organic dyes has always been a non-trivial problem for the sewage engineering sector. The recycling of process water of textile mills is often hindered by remaining color of water-soluable azo dyes after conventional wastewater treatment. Rising costs of emitted wastewater, lawful limits and restricted availability of water makes it of great interest to introduce sophisticated techniques helping to purify dye effluents and to recycle process water. A combined biological and chemical process of purification and recycling of residual dyehouse split flows into the production was developed, investigated and installed by a textile finishing company which produces 330,000 m{sup 3} colored wastewater effluents per year. The process contains anaerobic dye-cleavage, aerobic mineralization of cleavage-products and the decolorization and partial oxidation of traces of dyeresiduals by advanced oxidation. (orig.)

  1. Dose calculation and treatment planning for the Brookhaven NCT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.B.; Brugger, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Consistency of the calculated to measured fluxes and doses in phantoms is important for confidence in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Two phantoms have been used to measure the thermal and epithermal flux and gamma dose distributions for irradiations at the BMRR and these are compared to MCNP calculations. Since MCNP calculations in phantoms or models would be lengthy if the calculations started each time with fission neutrons from the reactor core, a neutron source plane, which was verified by spectrum and flux measurements at the irradiation port, was designed. Measured doses in phantoms are especially important to verify the simulated neutron source plane. Good agreement between the calculated and measured values has been achieved and this neutron source plane is now used to predict flux and dose information for oncologists to form treatment plans as well as designing collimator and room shielding. In addition, a program using MCNP calculated results as input has been developed to predict reliable flux and dose distributions in the central coronal section of a head model for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Dosimetric comparisons and treatment examples are presented.

  2. Dose calculation and treatment planning for the Brookhaven NCT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.B.; Brugger, R.M.

    1992-12-31

    Consistency of the calculated to measured fluxes and doses in phantoms is important for confidence in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Two phantoms have been used to measure the thermal and epithermal flux and gamma dose distributions for irradiations at the BMRR and these are compared to MCNP calculations. Since MCNP calculations in phantoms or models would be lengthy if the calculations started each time with fission neutrons from the reactor core, a neutron source plane, which was verified by spectrum and flux measurements at the irradiation port, was designed. Measured doses in phantoms are especially important to verify the simulated neutron source plane. Good agreement between the calculated and measured values has been achieved and this neutron source plane is now used to predict flux and dose information for oncologists to form treatment plans as well as designing collimator and room shielding. In addition, a program using MCNP calculated results as input has been developed to predict reliable flux and dose distributions in the central coronal section of a head model for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Dosimetric comparisons and treatment examples are presented.

  3. Development of an Integrated Leachate Treatment Solution for the Port Granby Waste Management Facility - 12429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Port Granby Project (the Project) is located near the north shore of Lake Ontario in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, Canada. The Project consists of relocating approximately 450,000 m3 of historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and contaminated soil from the existing Port Granby Waste Management Facility (WMF) to a proposed Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) located adjacent to the WMF. The LTWMF will include an engineered waste containment facility, a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP), and other ancillary facilities. A series of bench- and pilot-scale test programs have been conducted to identify preferred treatment processes to be incorporated into the WTP to treat wastewater generated during the construction, closure and post-closure periods at the WMF/LTWMF. (authors)

  4. Development of an Integrated Leachate Treatment Solution for the Port Granby Waste Management Facility - 12429

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin W. [Golder Associates Inc., Lakewood, Colorado (United States); Vandergaast, Gerald [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Port Granby Project (the Project) is located near the north shore of Lake Ontario in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, Canada. The Project consists of relocating approximately 450,000 m{sup 3} of historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and contaminated soil from the existing Port Granby Waste Management Facility (WMF) to a proposed Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) located adjacent to the WMF. The LTWMF will include an engineered waste containment facility, a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP), and other ancillary facilities. A series of bench- and pilot-scale test programs have been conducted to identify preferred treatment processes to be incorporated into the WTP to treat wastewater generated during the construction, closure and post-closure periods at the WMF/LTWMF. (authors)

  5. Treatment of high strength leachate by biological nutrient removal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the performance of a pilot-scale A/O system with respect to not only conventional wastewater quality parameters, but also specific volatile and semi-volatile organics. Hydraulic loadings were increased from 1.0 to 3.0 m3/d in two stages. The leachate was characterized by highly variable BOD, COD, TKN, and NH3-N concentrations ranging from 540-7185, 2040-8470, 501-1294, and 321-1000 mg/l respectively with over 91% of the BOD and 95% of the COD in soluble form. Concentrations of VOCs primarily benzene, chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, m and p-xylene, 1,1-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene ranging from 0.2 to 81.4 μg/l were reduced to below detection levels in the A/O system. At the three loadings investigated in the study i.e. 1, 2, and 3 m3 /d, the system affected excellent removals of organics and nitrogen, with reductions of soluble BOD (SBOD), total BOD, soluble COD (SCOD), COD, TKN, NH3-N, and total nitrogen of 91-100%, 87-97%, 65-93%, 57-91%, 84-96%, 99.96-99.97%, and 81-90% respectively. At the various loadings investigated in this study, effluent concentrations of SBOD, BOD,COD, SCOD, TKN, NH3-N, and nitrates as low as 4, 56, 685, 608, 35.2, 0.6, and 28.8 mg/l respectively were routinely achieved. Furthermore, despite operating at high mixed liquor solids in the 5000-6500 mg/l range, and the adversely long hydraulic residence time in the clarifier of 2 days, effluent total and volatile suspended solids concentrations of about 50 and 30 mg/l were achieved. The A/O system was not only capable of achieving the required sewer discharge criteria but it also demonstrated the achievability of surface discharge criteria, thus eliminating the need for additional treatment at the municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The system operated in a very stable fashion resisting the wide fluctuations in influent quality. (author)

  6. Facile Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some New Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporating a Biologically Active Sulfamoyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and convenient synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents was reported. The precursor 3-oxo-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylpropionamide was coupled smoothly with arenediazonium salt producing hydrazones which reacted with malononitrile or triethylorthoformate affording pyridazine and triazine derivatives, respectively. Also, the reactivity of the same precursor with DMF-DMA was followed by aminotriazole; aromatic aldehydes was followed by hydrazine hydrate, triethylorthoformate, or thiourea affording triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, pyrazole, acrylamide, and dihydropyrimidine derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of the precursor propionamide with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt which was treated with dilute HCl followed by 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone affording carboxamide derivative. While the same intermediate salt reacted in situ with chloroacetone, ethyl 2-chloroacetate, 3-(2-bromoacetyl-2H-chromen-2-one, methyl iodide, or 2-oxo-N-phenylpropane hydrazonoyl chloride afforded the thiophene, ketene N,S-acetal, and thiadiazole derivatives, respectively. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out whereby four compounds were found to have moderate activities and one compound showed the highest activity.

  7. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  8. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described

  9. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  10. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  11. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Nichola M.

    There is an alarming increase of a variety of new chemicals that are now being discharged into the wastewater system causing increased concern for public health and safety because many are not removed by typical wastewater treatment practices. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a heterogeneous photocatalytic material that rapidly and completely mineralizing organics without harmful byproducts. TiO2 is synthesized by various methods, which lack the necessary control of crystal size, phase, and morphological features that yield optimized semiconductor materials. Mineralizing organisms demonstrate how nature can produce elegant structures at room temperature through controlled organic-mineral interactions. Here, we utilize biologically-inspired scaffolds to template the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials such as TiO2, which aid in controlling the size and phase of these particles and ultimately, their properties. Nanosized rutile and anatase particles were synthesized under solution conditions at relatively low temperatures and mild pH conditions. The effects of reaction conditions on phase and grain size were investigated and discussed from coordination chemistry and coarsening mechanisms. Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 phase mixtures was performed to investigate their synergistic effect. The suspension conditions of these catalytic nanomaterials were modulated to optimize the degradation rate of organic analytes. Through the addition of an organic scaffold during the synthesis reaction, a mechanically robust (elastic) composite material containing TiO2 nanoparticles was produced. This composite was subsequently heat-treated to produce a porous, high surface area TiO2 nanoparticulate membrane. Processing conditions were investigated to characterize the growth and phase transformation of TiO2, which ultimately impacts photocatalytic performance. These bulk porous TiO2 structures can be fabricated and tailored to act as stand-alone photocatalytic membranes

  12. Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    White, Colin P.; DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.

  13. The biological treatment of petroleum tank draw waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jose L. [Envirosystems Supply, Inc., Hollywood, FL (United States); Stephens, Greg [Plantation Pipeline, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This work reviews and summarizes the performance of a biological process (followed by the state-of-the-art) for the removal of organic compounds in petroleum tank draw waters. Trickling filter and the extended aeration modification of activated sludge were selected as the biological processes tested in pilot units. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Key Factors Controlling the Growth of Biological Soil Crusts: Towards a Protocol to Produce Biocrusts in Greenhouse Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; María Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole; Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (= biocrusts) are topsoil communities comprise of, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses that grow intimately associated with soil particles in drylands. Biocrusts have central ecological roles in these areas as sources of carbon and nutrients, and efficiently retain water and prevent soil erosion, which improves soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, human activities, such as cattle grazing, hiking or military training, are rapidly striking biocrusts. Although it is well known that the inoculation with cyanobacteria or lichens can enhance the recovery of biocrusts in degraded soils, little is known about the factors that control their growth rates. Using soil and inocula from four different sites located in one cold desert (Utah) and in one hot desert (New Mexico), we performed a fractional factorial experiment involving seven factors (water, light, P, N, calcium carbonate, trace metals and type of inoculum) to screen their effects on the growth of biocrusts. After four months, we measured the concentration of chlorophyll a, and we discovered that water, light and P, N or P+N were the most important factors controlling the growth of biocrusts. In the experimental treatments involving these three factors we measured a similar concentration of chlorophyll a (or even higher) to this found in the field locations. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene segment using universal bacteria primers revealed a microbial community composition in the biocrusts grown that closely corresponds to initial measurements made on inocula. In summary, based on our success in obtaining biocrust biomass from natural communities in greenhouse facilities, without significantly changing its community composition at the phylum and cyanobacterial level, we are paving the road to propose a protocol to produce a high quality-nursed inoculum aiming to assist restoration of arid and semi-arid ecosystems affected by large-scale disturbances.

  15. Structural biology facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s high flux beam reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korszun, Z.R.; Saxena, A.M.; Schneider, D.K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The techniques for determining the structure of biological molecules and larger biological assemblies depend on the extent of order in the particular system. At the High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Biology Department operates three beam lines dedicated to biological structure studies. These beam lines span the resolution range from approximately 700{Angstrom} to approximately 1.5{Angstrom} and are designed to perform structural studies on a wide range of biological systems. Beam line H3A is dedicated to single crystal diffraction studies of macromolecules, while beam line H3B is designed to study diffraction from partially ordered systems such as biological membranes. Beam line H9B is located on the cold source and is designed for small angle scattering experiments on oligomeric biological systems.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization

  18. Investigating the robustness of ion beam therapy treatment plans to uncertainties in biological treatment parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Boehlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Fossati, P; Haberer, T; Mairani, A; Patera, V

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in determining clinically used relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for ion beam therapy carry the risk of absolute and relative misestimations of RBE-weighted doses for clinical scenarios. This study assesses the consequences of hypothetical misestimations of input parameters to the RBE modelling for carbon ion treatment plans by a variational approach. The impact of the variations on resulting cell survival and RBE values is evaluated as a function of the remaining ion range. In addition, the sensitivity to misestimations in RBE modelling is compared for single fields and two opposed fields using differing optimization criteria. It is demonstrated for single treatment fields that moderate variations (up to +/-50\\%) of representative nominal input parameters for four tumours result mainly in a misestimation of the RBE-weighted dose in the planning target volume (PTV) by a constant factor and only smaller RBE-weighted dose gradients. Ensuring a more uniform radiation quality in the PTV...

  19. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  20. Calibration of model constants in a biological reaction model for sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Ken; Kageyama, Kohji; Watanabe, Shoji; Takemoto, Takeshi

    2002-02-01

    Various biological reaction models have been proposed which estimate concentrations of soluble and insoluble components in effluent of sewage treatment plants. These models should be effective to develop a better operation system and plant design, but their formulas consist of nonlinear equations, and there are many model constants, which are not easy to calibrate. A technique has been proposed to decide the model constants by precise experiments, but it is not practical for design engineers or process operators to perform these experiments regularly. Other approaches which calibrate the model constants by mathematical techniques should be used. In this paper, the optimal regulator method of modern control theory is applied as a mathematical technique to calibrate the model constants. This method is applied in a small sewage treatment testing facility. Calibration of the model constants is examined to decrease the deviations between calculated and measured concentrations. Results show that calculated values of component concentrations approach measured values and the method is useful for actual plants. PMID:11848341

  1. Application of the biological forced air soil treatment (BIOFAST trademark) technology to diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A subsurface Biological Forced Air Soil Treatment (BIOFAST trademark) system was constructed at the Yellow Freight System, Inc. (Yellow Freight) New Haven facility in Connecticut as a means of expediting the remediation of soils impacted by a diesel fuel release. Prior to beginning construction activities the soils were evaluated for the feasibility of bioremediation based on soil characteristics including contaminant degrading bacteria, moisture content, and pH. Based on results of stimulant tests with oxygen and nutrients, the addition of fertilizer during the construction of the cell was recommended. Following the removal of underground storage tanks, the bioremediation cell was constructed by lining the enlarged excavation with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and backfilling alternating layers of nutrient-laden soil and pea gravel. Passive and active soil vapor extraction (SVE) piping was included in the gravel layers and connected to a blower and vapor treatment unit, operated intermittently to supply oxygen to the subsurface cell. Operating data have indicated that the bacteria are generating elevated levels of CO2, and the SVE unit is evacuating the accumulated CO2 from the soils and replacing it with fresh air. These data suggest that the bioremediation process is active in the soils. Soil samples collected from within the soil pit subsequent to installation and again after 10 months of operation indicate that TPH concentrations have decreased by as much as 50%

  2. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe the development of cementitious waste forms for evaporated Hanford waste waters from several sources. Basin 42 waste water and simulants of proposed Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary wastes and Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System secondary wastes were solidified in cementitious matrices termed ''dry cementitious formulation.'' Solidification of these brines was difficult to deal with because of high sulfate contents. Two approaches were explored. The first was based on compositions similar to sulphoaluminate-belite cements. The main component of these cements is 4CaO · 2Al2O3 · SO4. When hydrating in the presence of sulfate, these cements rapidly form ettringite. The goal was to consume the sulfate by rapidly forming ettringite. Forming ettringite before the mixture has filly set minimizes the potential for deleterious expansion at a later date. These formulations were developed based on mixtures of calcium-aluminate cement, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class F fly ash, and Portland cement. A second approach was based on using high alumina cement like ciment fondu. In this case the grout was a mixture of ciment fondu, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class f fly ash, and Portland cement. The literature shows that for concretes based on equal amounts of ciment fondu and blast furnace slag, cured at either 20 C or 38 C, the compressive strength increased continuously over a period of 1 year. In this second approach, enough reactive calcium aluminate was added to fully consume the sulfate at an early age. The results of this study will be presented. Included will be results for expansion and bleed water testing, adiabatic temperature rise, microstructure development, and the phase chemistry of the hydrated materials. The results of

  3. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-10-14

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides.

  4. Thermal treatment for radioactive HEPA filter media generated from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive HEPA filter wastes are generated from the high radioactive facilities in operation, improvement and repair, and under decommissioning. Spent filter wastes of about 1,500 drums have been stored in the waste storage facility of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since its operation. In the future, a lot of HEPA filters in high radioactivity will be occurred from pyroprocessing which is treatment facility for used nuclear fuel. Therefore, the technology development for the radioactive HEPA filter treatment is necessary for effective management and safe disposal for HEPA filter wastes. The thermal treatment has been known as one of the most effective technologies for volume reduction and recycling of metallic radioactive wastes. In this study, the thermal treatment for radioactive HEPA filter media was conducted for the volume reduction. The volatility and leachability for heavy metals and radionuclides in radioactive HEPA filter media were analyzed to investigate the volatilization during thermal treatment and stability after thermal treatment for safe disposal, respectively. The knowledge gained from this study will aid in the development of thermal treatment for HEPA filter media

  5. Biologic therapy with or without topical treatment in psoriasis: what does the current evidence say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J Daniel; Delcambre, Macey Renault; Nguyen, Gloria; Sami, Naveed

    2014-10-01

    Biologic therapy represents a relatively new class of drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and are used with increasing frequency in order to control this chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. However, it is unclear what role there is for combination therapy of biologics with traditional topical agents. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on the role of topical agents as adjuvants to biological treatments in the treatment of psoriasis and identify areas for further research. A MEDLINE search was performed in order to identify English-language publications from 1996 to 2014 examining combination biologic therapy with topical medications in the treatment of psoriasis. Data from these clinical studies are summarized and the outcomes are discussed. In general, the addition of adjuvant topical therapy to systemic biologic therapy allowed for a reduction in dosage and side effects of both agents, maintenance of initial response to biologics, treatment of recalcitrant lesions in partial responders, and potential acceleration of response to biologic therapies. The current data, though limited, suggest that using topical therapies as adjunct treatment to biologics is a well tolerated and effective means of controlling psoriasis and improving quality of life for patients. However, the treating physician should remain attentive to signs of adverse events and seek opportunities to reduce the dose or treatment frequency during chronic use.

  6. Staff Perspectives of Precipitants to Aggressive Behavior of Adolescents in Residential Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Davarya, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 18 staff in a public psychiatric adolescent residential treatment facility were conducted to obtain an inductive approach to their understanding of what leads to aggressive behavior among adolescents. Staff's views of the precipitants of aggressive behavior centered on three themes: understanding of the…

  7. 9 CFR 166.5 - Licensed garbage-treatment facility standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensed garbage-treatment facility standards. 166.5 Section 166.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.5...

  8. Safety assessments for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralized waste treatment and disposal facility Puspokszilagy is a shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. The site, together with its geographic, geological and hydrogeological characteristics, is described. Data are given on the radioactive inventory. The operational safety assessment and the post-closure safety assessment is outlined. (author)

  9. Training the Staff of a Drug Addiction Treatment Facility: A Case Study of Hogar De Encuentro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Andrew A.; Leske, M. Cristina

    1977-01-01

    This paper, presented at the American Public Health Association meeting; Chicago, November 1975, discusses a staff training program at a drug addiction treatment facility established for Spanish-speaking (and other) drug addicts. Staff improved counseling skills and knowledge of drug addiction, but changed little in attitudes toward drug use and…

  10. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  11. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with a pilot-scale bioaugmented biological treatment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In solving the deterioration of biological treatment system treating petrochemical wastewater under low temperatures,bioaugmentation technology was adopted by delivering engineering bacteria into a pilot-scale two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O)process based on previous lab-scale study. Experimental results showed that when the concentrations of COD and NH4+-N of the influent were 370~910 mg/L and 10~70 mg/L, the corresponding average concentrations of those of effluent were about 80 mg/L and 8 mg/L respectively, which was better than the Level I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). According to GC-MS analysis of the effluents from both the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the pilot system, there were 68 kinds of persistent organic pollutants in the WWTP effluent, while there were only 32 in that of the pilot system. In addition, the amount of the organics in the effluent of the pilot system reduced by almost 50% compared to that of the WWTP. As a whole, after bioaugmentation, the organic removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment system obviously increased.

  12. Interpersonal amplification of risk? Citizen discussions and their impact on perceptions of risks and benefits of a biological research facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Brossard, Dominique; Gunther, Albert C

    2011-02-01

    Much risk communication research has demonstrated how mass media can influence individual risk perceptions, but lacks a comprehensive conceptual understanding of another key channel of communication: interpersonal discussion. Using the social amplification of risk as a theoretical framework, we consider the potential for discussions to function as amplification stations. We explore this possibility using data from a public opinion survey of residents living in potential locations for a new biological research facility in the United States. Controlling for a variety of key information variables, our results show that two dimensions of discussion-frequency and valence-have impacts on residents' perceptions of the facility's benefits and its risks. We also explore the possibility that an individual's overall attitude moderates the effect of discussion on their perceptions of risks and benefits. Our results demonstrate the potential for discussions to operate as amplifiers or attenuators of perceptions of both risks and benefits. PMID:21039705

  13. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 20-month pilot-scale study was conducted to examine the impact of temperature on the performance of an anaerobic biological contactor used to treat perchlorate-contaminated water. The contactor was successfully acclimated with indigenous micro-organisms. Influent temperatures...

  14. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

  15. Removal of plutonium from drinking water by community water treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium removal factors (RF) averaged 14 +- 10 during a study of the effectiveness of three drinking-water treatment plants for removing Pu from Savannah River water. Plutonium concentrations between 0.1 and 3.5 femtocurie/l were measured in raw and finished water samples. From 50 to 10,000 liter samples of water were concentrated by ion exchange techniques and processed to determine the concentrations of 239Pu and 240Pu and to derive Pu RF's. The similarity between RF's observed for both Pu and suspended solids suggests a colloidal behavior for Pu. Plutonium RF's may be limited by low-level buildup on the treatment facility filters and subsequent bleeding into finished water, and thus may be higher during abnormal Pu releases to the environment. Flocculation and filtration appear to be the primary factors in the water treatment process contributing to Pu removal. The similarity between the plutonium contents of finished water from treatment facilities upstream and downstream of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) indicates that there is no measurable dose-to-man from SRP Pu releases in the water. The 70-year bone dose commitment to an individual from consumption for one year of 1.65 liters per day of treated Savannah River water, based on the Pu concentrations of finished waters from the three treatment facilities, is 5 x 10-5 em

  16. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  17. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McClenahan, Robert L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  18. [Odor Emission Characteristics from Biochemical Treatment Facilities of Kichen Waste in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yuan-gang; Lu, Zhi-qiang; Han, Meng; Shang, Xi-bin; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Xining, Ningbo and Beijing were closen as the representative cities about biochemical treatment of kichen waste. The treatment facilities of these cities were investigated and set as the sampling points. The main compositions and the material contents were analyzed by GC/MS, the odor concertration was obtained by the Triangle odor bag method. The results showed that oxygenated hydrocarbons including alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, ester were higher than others in the odor gases, however, the largest contribution to odor pollution were sulfocompounds and the 2nd materials were terpenes; According to the research of the three enterprises, ethyl alcohol, limonene, sulfuretted hydrogen, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate were likely to be considered as the typical odorants from the biochemical treatment facilities of kichen waste.

  19. Reducing the price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis through the Global Drug Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Keravec, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Many countries have limited experience of securing the best prices for drugs and have little negotiating power. This is particularly true for the complex, lengthy and expensive regimens used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Approach The Stop TB Partnership’s Global Drug Facility is dedicated to improving worldwide access to antituberculosis medicines and diagnostic techniques that meet international quality standards. Local setting The Global Drug Facility is able to secure price reductions through competitive tendering among prequalified drug manufacturers and by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes. Consolidating the market in this way increases the incentives for suppliers of quality-assured medicines. Relevant changes In 2013 the Global Drug Facility reduced the price of the second-line drugs it supplies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the overall cost of the longest and most expensive treatment regimen for a patient decreased by 26% – from 7890 United States dollars (US$) in 2011 to US$ 5822 in 2013. Lessons learnt The price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis supplied by the Global Drug Facility was reduced by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes, by international, competitive bidding and by the existence of donor-funded medicine stockpiles. The rise in the number of suppliers of internationally quality-assured drugs was also important. The savings achieved from lower drug costs could be used to increase the number of patients on high-quality treatment. PMID:26229192

  20. Use of biological molecules in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Seidelin, J B; Munck, Lars Kristian;

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of biological agents (i.e. antitumour necrosis factor-a and anti-integrin treatments) for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis] has led to a substantial change in the treatment algorithms and guidelines, especially...... in CD. However, many questions still remain about the true efficacy and the best treatment regimens. Thus, a need for further treatment options still exists as up to 40% of IBD patients treated with the presently available biologicals do not have positive clinical responses. Better patient selection...... of biologicals; therefore, in this review, we focus on considerations that might lead to a more rational strategy for antitumour necrosis factor-a agents in IBD, emphasizing the situations in which the risks may outweigh the benefits. Finally, the need for an appropriate strategy for stopping biological...

  1. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint; John K. Hartwell; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica Trivillin; Jorge Castillo; Luis Wentzeis; Patrick Sloan; Charles A. Wemple

    2004-10-01

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  2. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Hartwell, J.K.; Heber, E.M.; Trivillin, V.; Castillo, J.; Wentzeis, L.; Sloan, P.; Wemple, C.A.

    2004-10-04

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  3. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  4. Review of mass transfer aspects for biological gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, N.J.R.; Rocha-Rios, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the mass transfer aspects of biotechnological processes for gas treatment, with an emphasis on the underlying principles and technical feasible methods for mass transfer enhancements. Understanding of the mass transfer behavior in bioreactors for gas treatment will result i

  5. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD)

  6. 26 CFR 1.274-7 - Treatment of certain expenditures with respect to entertainment-type facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of certain expenditures with respect to entertainment-type facilities. 1.274-7 Section 1.274-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Treatment of certain expenditures with respect to entertainment-type facilities. If deductions...

  7. Gaseous pollutants emitted from a mechanical biological treatment plant for municipal solid waste: odor assessment and photochemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingjing; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Na; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations and chromatographic profiles of gaseous pollutants emitted from a municipal solid waste (MSW) biological treatment plant were investigated to identify the major odor substances and atmospheric photochemical reactive species (PRS). Four methods were used to measure different gaseous pollutants in this study, including colorimetric tubes, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection/pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-MS/FID/PFPD) preceded by cold trap concentration, GC-FID preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after derivation by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Seventy-five gaseous compounds belonging to nine groups (nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, alcohols, carbonyls, and volatile fatty acids [VFAs]) were identified. In the pre-biotreatment facility, the total concentration of the gaseous pollutants reached the maximum value on day 7 (317 ppm). During the post-biotreatment process, the total concentration of gaseous pollutants decreased from 331 ppm at the beginning to 162 ppm in the end. The group with the greatest decrease was carbonyls, from 64 to 7.4 ppm, followed by alcohols, from 40 to 4.5 ppm, which were both oxygenated compounds. The proportion of aromatics was notably high in the pre-mechanical treatment facility, accounting for 50.6% of the total, revealing the xenobiotic compounds disseminated by stirring and agitating the waste in the initial stage. The proportions of nitrogen compounds were lower in the pre- and post-mechanical treatment facilities (1.5% and 6.9%) than in the pre- and post-biotreatment facilities (11.9% and 13:8%), suggesting that their generation was closely associated with waste degradation. The major odor compounds in the facilities were acetic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, and dimethyl sulfide. The major PRS in the facilities were aromatics, acetaldehyde

  8. Treatment of relapsing polychondritis in the era of biological agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Eoghan M

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder, often requiring high doses of immunosuppressive therapy to control its potentially life-threatening consequences. The advent of biological agents has added to the armamentarium available to treat RP, but the lack of controlled trials, along with the small numbers of patients and disease heterogeneity means that new therapies are prescribed without the benefits of rigorous clinical research. Thus, information on individual cases is of value in expanding our knowledge of the use of biologic agents in rare conditions. We report on the use of rituximab in a patient who subsequently developed catastrophic aortic incompetence, and we review the literature in relation to the use of this drug in RP.

  9. Wastewater Treatment in a Hybrid Biological Reactor (HBR) :Nitrification Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; LI-BO WU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nitrifying characteristics of both suspended- and attached- biomass in a hybrid bioreactor. Methods The hybrid biological reactor was developed by introducing porous ceramic particles into the reactor to provide the surface for biomass attachment. Microorganisms immobilized on the ceramics were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analyses were performed in accordance with standard methods. Results The suspended- and attached-biomass had approximately the same nitrification activity. The nitrifying kinetic was independent of the initial biomass concentration, and the attached-biomass had a stronger ability to resist the nitrification inhibitor. Conclusion The attached biomass is superior to suspended-biomass for nitrifying wastewater, especially that containing toxic organic compounds. The hybrid biological reactor consisting of suspended- and attached-biomass is advantageous in such cases.

  10. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dogaru Gabriela; Crăciun Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flo...

  11. Biological treatment of the liquid effluents of a paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of the microorganisms Candida utilis and Candida tropicalis in the reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the liquid effluents of a producing factory of paper kraft type, by means of fermentations made to pH of 5 and a 30 centigrade degrees during 6 days. The biological processing is preceded by a physicochemical process of directed acidulation to reduce pH of the effluent (liquor black) from its initial value, of approximately 13, to 5, in order to it is adapted for the growth of yeast. In this process, which forms precipitated, that is necessary to eliminate by centrifugation and filtration to facilitate the growth of the microorganisms, with is obtained one first removal of the COD of the order of 70 %. With the biological processing obtains for both yeasts a percentage of removal of 45 -50% of the COD surplus. The total removal of the COD, that is to say, obtained with the pre-cure and the fermentation it is of the order of 84% for the yeast. Additionally the possibility studied of implementing some complementary procedures to the biological processing, with a view to obtaining greater growth of yeast in the black liquor and thus obtaining additional reductions in the OCD of the same one

  12. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    89Sr, 90Sr, 134CS and 137Cs. Biological treatments can involve either aerobic (with oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen) processes. All dairy effluent plants (DEPs) in the UK operate aerobically, whereas sewage treatment works (STWs) utilise a combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes. This study was confined to these two types of facility. Other manufacturing processes can generate waste water that is in many cases treated biologically. However, these do not lend themselves to the treatment of milk because the feedstock would have a high COD compared with that handled normally. Biological treatment is technically feasible. Anaerobic digestion is well- established in the UK as a means of treating sewage sludge. Aerobic processes are also in common use for treating dairy effluents. However, in both cases the high organic matter content of raw milk means that the amount that can be accepted by a single treatment plant is limited. Overloading treatment plants would affect the performance of the process, and particularly for STWs it is important that they continue to operate normally. For both aerobic and anaerobic treatments, partial degradation of the organic content in the milk would ensure that the liquid effluent discharged to water bodies would have an acceptably low BOD. In addition, the residual sludge contains organic mater and nutrients that would be of benefit when applied to agricultural land. Sludge could also be placed in a landfill site or incinerated. Overall, the environmental impact of biological treatment of whole milk should be small

  13. Permitting mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities: A mixed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (FFCAct) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to make a comprehensive national inventory of its mixed wastes (i.e., wastes that contain both a hazardous component that meets the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste and a radioactive component consisting of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA)), and of its mixed waste treatment technologies and facilities. It also requires each DOE facility that stores or generates mixed waste to develop a treatment plan that includes, in part, a schedule for constructing units to treat those wastes that can be treated using existing technologies. Inherent in constructing treatment units for mixed wastes is, of course, permitting. This paper identifies Federal regulatory program requirements that are likely to apply to new DOE mixed waste treatment units. The paper concentrates on showing how RCRA permitting requirements interrelate with the permitting or licensing requirements of such other laws as the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Documentation needed to support permit applications under these laws are compared with RCRA permit application documentation. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements are also addressed, and throughout the paper, suggestions are made for managing the permitting process

  14. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced.

  15. Biological treatment of industrial wastewater for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is a method of degradation that converts approximately 90% of the available chemical energy (in the form of organic material), into gas methane. Apart from the economic value of the methane gas produced, anaerobic treatment has many advantages over traditional aerobic treatment processes, such as less biomass produced per unit of substrate utilized; higher organic loadings are possible as anaerobic processes are not limited by oxygen transfer rates, and the lower cons...

  16. Integrated omics for the identification of key functionalities in biological wastewater treatment microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanasamy, Shaman; Muller, Emilie; Sheik, Abdul; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment plants harbour diverse and complex microbial communities which prominently serve as models for microbial ecology and mixed culture biotechnological processes. Integrated omic analyses (combined metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics) are currently gaining momentum towards providing enhanced understanding of community structure, function and dynamics in situ as well as offering the potential to discover novel biological functionalitie...

  17. Water-immiscible solvents for the biological treatment of waste gases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    In conventional biological systems for the treatment of waste gases, contaminants are transferred directly to the aqueous phase and then converted by the micro-organisms. When poorly water-soluble pollutants are to be removed, biological degradation is often limited by the slow transport from the ga

  18. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  19. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  20. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Vieno, N.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic + aero

  1. Environmental impacts of post-consumer material managements: recycling, biological treatments, incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, F

    2010-11-01

    The environmental impacts of recycling, mechanical biological treatments (MBT) and waste-to-energy incineration, the main management strategies to respond to the increasing production of post-consumer materials are reviewed and compared. Several studies carried out according to life-cycle assessment (LCA) confirm that the lowest environmental impact, on a global scale, is obtained by recycling and by biological treatments (composting and anaerobic fermentations) if compost is used in agriculture. The available air emission factors suggest that, on a local scale, mechanical biological treatments with energy recovery of biogas, may be intrinsically safer than waste-to-energy incinerators. Several studies confirm the capability of biological treatments to degrade many toxic xenobiotic contaminating urban wastes such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an important property to be improved, for safe agricultural use of compost. Further LCA studies to compare the environmental impact of MBTs and of waste-to-energy incinerators are recommended.

  2. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... Factors When you're told that you have skin cancer, it's natural to wonder what may have caused ...

  3. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter, and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents.

  4. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo trademark ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance

  5. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site, The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents originating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The Filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically unproved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance. (author)

  6. Neuroprotection: the emerging concept of restorative neural stem cell biology for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Barbara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Rossi, Ferdinando

    2011-06-01

    During the past decades Neural Stem Cells have been considered as an alternative source of cells to replace lost neurons and NSC transplantation has been indicated as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, the current understanding of NSC biology suggests that, far from being mere spare parts for cell replacement therapies, NSCs could play a key role in the pharmacology of neuroprotection and become protagonists of innovative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review this new emerging concept of NSC biology.

  7. Micropollutant removal from municipal wastewater: from conventional treatments to advanced biological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Many micropollutants present in municipal wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and may generate adverse effects on aquatic life. The objective of this thesis was to study and develop various options to improve micropollutant removal from municipal wastewaters. Various technologies were investigated, from conventional biological treatments to advanced physico-chemical and biological processes such as ozonati...

  8. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh eSinghal; Octavio ePerez-Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes...

  9. Decision criteria for the selection of wet oxidation and conventional biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2012-07-15

    The suitability of wet oxidation or biological treatments for the degradation of industrial wastewaters is here discussed. Advantages of these operations, either singly or in combination, are discussed on the basis of previous experimental results from laboratory and industry. Decision diagrams for the selection of conventional biological treatment, wet oxidation or a combination of both techniques are suggested according to the type of pollutant, its concentration and the wastewater flow rate.

  10. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Alvarez-Gallego; Luis Alberto Fdez-Güelfo; María de los Angeles Romero Aguilar; Luis Isidoro Romero García

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matt...

  11. The biological dressing versus conventional treatment in massive burns: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini S.N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Today biological dressings have become an integral part of modern burn care. Using this method, in otherwise healthy young adults, the size of burn relative to the total body surface area (TBSA correlating with a 50% mortality rate has increased from 30% to 80%. Due to a lack of experience and an interest in using biological dressings in Iran, as a developing country, the aim of this study was to compare patient outcome using the biological dressing vs. conventional treatment in patients with massive burns.Methods: In this clinical trial study, 118 burn patients (30 to 75% TBSA were enrolled. The patients were divided in two groups. Those in the conventional treatment group had not accepted treatment with a biological dressing.  The second group agreed to treatment with biological dressing, a pig skin xenograft known as Xenoderm. Significant differences were evaluated using the unpaired Student's t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the χ2 test.  Results: Mortality rates in the conventional treatment group (n=53 and biological dressing group (n=65 were 35% (19 and 10.8% (7, respectively (p=0.001. Excluding those patients who died, the mean hospital stay was 31.3 days in the conventional treatment group versus 18.2 days in the biological dressing group (p=0.0005, and number of dressings was 22.1 versus 9.9 (p=0.0005, respectively. Three patients in the conventional treatment group were transferred to a tertiary-care hospital after three weeks of treatment. The most commonly burned areas were the upper limb, lower limb and trunk.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that biological dressings give a better outcome and decrease the hospital stay and the number of dressings. A randomized clinical trial is warranted.

  12. Microbeam radiation therapy. Physical and biological aspects of a new cancer therapy and development of a treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is a novel treatment strategy against cancer. Highly brilliant synchrotron radiation is collimated to parallel, a few micrometre wide, planar beams and used to irradiate malignant tissues with high doses. The applied peak doses are considerably higher than in conventional radiotherapy, but valley doses between the beams remain underneath the established tissue tolerance. Previous research has shown that these beam geometries spare normal tissue, while being effective in tumour ablation. In this work physical and biological aspects of the therapy were investigated. A therapy planning system was developed for the first clinical treatments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble (France) and a dosimetry method based on radiochromic films was created to validate planned doses with measurements on a micrometre scale. Finally, experiments were carried out on a cellular level in order to correlate the physically planned doses with the biological damage caused in the tissue. The differences between Monte Carlo dose and dosimetry are less than 10% in the valley and 5% in the peak regions. Developed alternative faster dose calculation methods deviate from the computational intensive MC simulations by less than 15% and are able to determine the dose within a few minutes. The experiments in cell biology revealed an significant influence of intercellular signalling on the survival of cells close to radiation boundaries. These observations may not only be important for MRT but also for conventional radiotherapy.

  13. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  14. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  15. Cocurrent biological nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, M.

    1998-11-01

    Repetitive conditioning of recycle activated sludge (RAS) under strict anaerobic conditions gradually changes the products of ammonia oxidation from nitrite and nitrate to nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}). Nitrite inhibits oxygen respiration of anaerobically conditioned sludge; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is then oxidized by nitrite, which is reduce to N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. When anaerobic RAS conditioning is initially imposed on a nitrifying system, Nitrobacter species continue to oxidize nitrite to nitrate and thus reduce the nitrite available to oxidize BOD. However, Nitrobacter in the mixed liquor gradually tend to wash out because the sole source of Nictrobacter energy, the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, is diminished to the extent that nitrite is reduced. Incorporation of an RAS conditioning zone to the activate-sludge process results in evolution of a nonfilamentous biomass, which affects both cocurrent biological nitrification and denitrification (CBND) and biological phosphorus removal (BPR). The initial feed zone may be either aerobic or anaerobic. A final anoxic denitrification zone is desirable for removal of residual nitrite plus nitrate (NO{sub x}) from aeration effluent. Nitrous oxide, the main reaction product of CBND, promotes both global warming and destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  16. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  17. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratory, Idaho National

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State ofldaho Division of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL, now the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The permit expires August 7, 1999. In addition to the renewal application, this report was prepared to provide the following information as requested by DEQ.

  18. Sewage treatment in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik, A.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Klapwijk, A.

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of domestic wastewater at a temperature of 12¿24°C was investigated in an RBC system. The RBC consists of a two stage system connected in series. The system was operated at different organic loading rates (OLR's) and hydraulic retntion times (HRT's) in order to optimize the RBC perform

  19. Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F.H.

    1990-02-01

    Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

  20. Biological Water Processor and Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah; Meyer, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Biological Water Processor (BWP) is to remove 90% organic carbon and 75% ammonium from an exploration-based wastewater stream for four crew members. The innovative design saves on space, power and consumables as compared to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) by utilizing microbes in a biofilm. The attached-growth system utilizes simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to mineralize organic carbon and ammonium to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas, which can be scrubbed in a cabin air revitalization system. The BWP uses a four-crew wastewater comprised of urine and humidity condensate, as on the ISS, but also includes hygiene (shower, shave, hand washing and oral hygiene) and laundry. The BWP team donates 58L per day of this wastewater processed in Building 7.

  1. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  2. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment ampersand storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage ampersand treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory's storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations

  3. Psoriasis in the US Medicare Population: Prevalence, Treatment, and Factors Associated with Biologic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junko; Gelfand, Joel M; Li, Penxiang; Pinto, Lionel; Yu, Xinyan; Rao, Preethi; Viswanathan, Hema N; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily of the skin. Despite an aging population, knowledge of the epidemiology of psoriasis and its treatments among the elderly is limited. We examined the prevalence of psoriasis and its treatments, with a focus on biologics and identification of factors associated with biologic use, using a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2011. On the basis of several psoriasis identification algorithms, the claims-based prevalence for psoriasis in the United States ranged from 0.51 to 1.23%. Treatments used for moderate-to-severe psoriasis (phototherapy, oral systemic, or biologic therapies) were received by 27.3% of the total psoriasis sample, of whom 37.2% used biologics. Patients without a Medicare Part D low-income subsidy (LIS) had 70% lower odds of having received biologics than those with LIS (odds ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.46). Similarly, the odds of having received biologics were 69% lower among black patients compared with white patients (0.31; 0.16-0.60). This analysis identified potential financial and racial barriers to receipt of biologic therapies and underscores the need for additional studies to further define the epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis among the elderly.

  4. Psoriasis in the U.S. Medicare population: prevalence, treatment, and factors associated with biologic use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junko; Gelfand, Joel M.; Li, Penxiang; Pinto, Lionel; Yu, Xinyan; Rao, Preethi; Viswanathan, Hema N.; Doshi, Jalpa A.

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily of the skin. Despite an aging population, knowledge of the epidemiology of psoriasis and its treatments among the elderly is limited. We examined the prevalence of psoriasis and its treatments, with a focus on biologics and identification of factors associated with biologic use, using a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2011. Based on several psoriasis identification algorithms, the claims-based prevalence for psoriasis in the United States ranged from 0.51% to 1.23%. Treatments employed for moderate to severe psoriasis (phototherapy, oral systemic, or biologic therapies) were received by 27.3% of the total psoriasis sample, of whom 37.2% used biologics. Patients without Medicare Part D low-income subsidies had 70% lower odds of having received biologics than those with low-income subsidies (odds ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.19– 0.46). Similarly, the odds of having received biologics was 69% lower among black patients than white patients (0.31; 0.16–0.60). This analysis identified potential financial and racial barriers to receipt of biologic therapies and underscores the need for additional studies to further define the epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis among the elderly. PMID:26214380

  5. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  6. Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla A Abdel-Aziz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Mounir M El-Adawy; Luis M Camacho; Ahmed E Kholif; Mona M Y Elghandour; Borhami E Borhami

    2015-01-01

    As a result of agriculture practices, mil ion tons of agriculture are produced as a secondary or by-products;however, with low nutritive values. Many methods are applied to improve the nutritive value and increase its utilization in ruminant’s nutrition. The biological treatments are the most common with more safe-treated products. In most cases, the biological treatments are paral eled with decreased crude ifber and ifber fractions content with increased crude protein content. Direct-fed micro-bial and exogenous enzymes to animal are other ways of biological methods for improving nutritive value of feeds. Here in this review, we wil try to cover the biological treatments of by-products from different sides view with different types of animals and different animal end-products.

  7. Microbial Characterization of Biological Filters Used for Drinking Water Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Deborah M.; Summers, R. Scott; Breen, Alec

    1998-01-01

    The impact of preozonation and filter contact time (depth) on microbial communities was examined in drinking water biofilters treating Ohio River water which had undergone conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation) or solutions of natural organic matter isolated from groundwater (both ozonated and nonozonated). With respect to filter depth, compared to filters treating nonozonated waters, preozonation of treated water led to greater differences in community phospholipid...

  8. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-10-15

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value.

  9. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value

  10. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its...

  11. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its...

  12. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flow through the enhancement of local vascularization. This research aimed to investigate the biological effects of exposure to pulsed short waves at different doses on the adrenal glands of experimental animals, by structural and ultrastructural studies. The study included 35 animals assigned to 4 groups. Group I included 10 experimental animals exposed to radiation at a dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, group II, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, group III, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 6/600 impulses/sec, for 10 min/day, and the control group consisted of 5 unexposed animals. Structural and ultrastructural changes of adrenal glands induced by the dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, compared to the unexposed control group and the dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, include an intensification of protein synthesis processes, an enhancement of energy metabolism in providing the energy required for an increased production of hormones, an intensification of collagen fiber synthesis processes in the capsule, necessary for healing. It was demonstrated that this dose induced an intensification of hormone synthesis and secretion, a stimulation of adrenal function. At the dose of 6/600 cycles/sec, a slight diminution of hormone synthesis and secretion activity was found, which was not below the limits existing in the unexposed control group, but was comparable to group II. This dose is probably too strong for experimental animals, inducing them a state of stress. The

  13. Medical irradiation facilities of HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the accelerator facilities and the HIMAC buildings started in 1988; the entire HIMAC facility will be completed in 1993. After the initial dosimetry and the mandatory verification of the biological effects of HIMAC beams, clinical trials of the heavy ion beams will start in early 1994 using the HIMAC radiation oncological facilities. The design of this facility, the only medically dedicated heavy-ion accelerator under construction in the world, has been based on the various medical requirements. After becoming operational the HIMAC facility will be opened for domestic and international research collaboration as well as the treatment of patients. (author)

  14. Mantle cell lymphoma: biological insights and treatment advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Williams, Michael E; Goy, Andre; Grant, Steven; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Rosen, Steve T; Sweetenham, John W

    2009-08-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exhibits considerable molecular heterogeneity and complexity, and is regarded as one of the most challenging lymphomas to treat. With increased understanding of the pathobiology of MCL, it is proposed that MCL is the result of 3 major converging factors, namely, deregulated cell cycle pathways, defects in DNA damage responses, and dysregulation of cell survival pathways. In the present era of targeted therapies, these biologic insights have resulted in the identification of several novel rational targets for therapeutic intervention in MCL that are undergoing active clinical testing. To date, there is no standard of care in MCL. Several approaches including conventional anthracycline-based therapies and intensive high-dose strategies with and without stem cell transplantation have failed to produce durable remissions for most patients. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity of MCL, it is increasingly being recognized that risk-adapted therapy might be a relevant therapeutic approach in this disease. At the first and second Global Workshops on Mantle Cell Lymphoma, questions addressing advances in the pathobiology of MCL, optimization of existing therapies, assessment of current data with novel therapeutic strategies, and the identification of molecular or phenotypic risk factors for utilization in risk-adapted therapies were discussed and will be summarized herein. PMID:19717376

  15. Are we giving biologics too much time? When should we stop treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edouard Louis; J Belaiche; C Reenaers

    2008-01-01

    The optimal duration of biological treatment, particularly anti-TNF, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a very important question both for patients and physicians. There is no published evidence to clearly and definitely answer this question. However data on natural history of IBD, long term safety of biologics, immunosuppressors (IS) cessation and some preliminary studies on biologics cessation may help us to discuss this topic. The decision to stop a biological treatment is currently based on a compromise between the benefits and risks associated with the prolongation of this treatment. IBD, more particularly CD, are characterized by the development of complications and the need for recurrent hospitalizations and surgeries in approximately 2/3 of cases. In these patients potentially in need of biological treatments, it is probable that, as it has been demonstrated for IS, the longer a stable remission has be achieved under treatment, the lower the risk of relapse is after treatment cessation. Further prospective studies should now aim at disclosing patient characteristics associated with a low risk of relapse to implement this strategy.

  16. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Petersen, Per H.; Nielsen, Peter D.;

    2015-01-01

    for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest...... on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials...

  17. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  18. Characteristics of U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities adopting buprenorphine in its initial stage of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R

    2006-07-27

    This study examined the adoption of buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependence among U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities and their characteristics at the time of the initial availability of the medication. Data come from a 2003 national survey of all substance abuse treatment facilities in the U.S. Out of our sample of 13,060 facilities, 5.5% of facilities reported they offered buprenorphine. Not unexpectedly, the prevalence was higher in certified opioid treatment programs (11.3%) compared to other facilities (4.6%). For opioid treatment programs, offering Naltrexone (OR=8.34, 95% CI=5.53, 12.58) and offering medically supervised withdrawal (OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.38, 5.52) were independent and robust predictors of offering buprenorphine. These same variables were independent predictors for the non-opioid treatment programs as well (Naltrexone, OR=14.32, 95% CI=7.85, 26.10; and medically supervised withdrawal services, OR=4.42, 95% CI=3.01, 6.49). Our results suggest that the adoption of buprenorphine soon after the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for treatment of opioid dependence and the shipping of the medication commenced was associated with facilities already offering pharmacotherapies such as Naltrexone and medically assisted withdrawal. These findings provide baseline data to track the adoption of buprenorphine by substance abuse treatment programs in future years.

  19. American Youths' Access to Substance Abuse Treatment: Does Type of Treatment Facility Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examines whether several social exclusion and psychological factors affect adolescents' receipt of substance abuse treatment. Multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to analyze data. The study asked how the specified factors provide pathways to receipt of…

  20. Long-term safety of biologics in the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal MR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Manisha R Panchal,1 Helen Coope,2 D John McKenna,3 Anton B Alexandroff31Department of Dermatology, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, Kingsmill Hospital, Nottinghamshire, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd, West Sussex, 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKAbstract: Biologics are novel and important agents in the treatment of severe psoriasis. These agents block specific molecular steps in the inflammatory cascade, thereby reducing activation and proliferation of keratinocytes. Prescreening for biologic agents and careful monitoring of patients is important. There are four biologics currently licensed and used in the treatment of psoriasis in the European Union. This is an evidence-based review examining clinical trials and focusing on the long-term safety data for four biologic agents. Current British Association of Dermatology guidance for the use of biologics in psoriasis and guidelines on the management of psoriasis from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have been used. Advances on safety information since 2009 in clinical trials are reviewed. The results show that overall there is no statistical significance in the incidence of adverse effects of biologics versus placebo. However, there are serious adverse effects that are reported for biologics that need to be assessed for and addressed promptly. Results of studies discussing major adverse cardiovascular events are also reviewed.Keywords: psoriasis, biologic agents, safety profile, major cardiovascular events

  1. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  2. Research on rural sewage treatment using biological-ecological coupling process

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Chang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chun; Zaixing LI; Gen WU; Yang, Jingliang

    2016-01-01

    Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW) are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) is investigated. The removal of nitrogen ...

  3. Removal of priority and emerging substances by biological and tertiary treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Mailler, Romain; Gasperi, Johnny; Rocher, Vincent; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    10 p. International audience My researches are divided in two principal parts. The first part concerns the fate of micropollutants in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) composed by primary and biological treatments. Different studies have been held by OPUR research program on primary treatments, conventional activated sludge (CAS) and biofiltration (BF), the thesis will synthesize them and add data from measurement campaigns on industrial scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) un...

  4. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document

  5. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document.

  6. Degradation of Some Textile Dyes using Biological and Physical Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of twenty samples composed of ten samples of decaying eucalyptus leaves and ten soil samples were collected from El-Kanater El-Khairia district. All isolates were purified and identified to the species level. They found to be belonging to two main genera: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The obtained fungal isolates were screened for testing their ability to decolorize Isolan dyes. The strain Aspergillus niger ES-5 was chosen for its highest ability to decolorize the four Isolan dyes. The biological decolorization of the textile metal azo dye was investigated under co-metabolic conditions. The decolorization capacity of the strain was influenced by the presence and/or absence of media components. The majority of decolorization was growth related, where resulted in 90.4%, 99.6%, 95.0% and 94.6% for I.Y, I.R, I.N and I.G, respectively after 72 h, only 2.5, 1.3, 1.4 and 3.0% for I.Y, I.R, I.N and I.G, respectively were desorbed, while negligible decolorization was detected using extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as using dead pellets. The addition of the dye to fungal cultures didn’t affect the extracellular GOD production while intracellular GOD production exhibited a different profile. Pictures of the mycelia represent dye uptake over the 72 h period of decolorization. The metal detection using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of the outer fungal mycelium wall and ECF were both below detection level after the decolorization process took place. Thus, decolorization process and the removal of the elements by A. niger ES-5 involve initial adsorption followed by entrapment of the adsorbed dye inside the fungal biomass. Gamma rays increase color intensity in I.Y, while the other three Isolan dyes showed negative decolorization efficiency till 2.5 kGy after which, slow increase in the decolorization was observed.

  7. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  8. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting.

  9. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  10. Biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater from the antibiotics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, O; Shi, X; Wu, C H; Ng, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical wastewater generated by an antibiotics (penicillin) company was treated by aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). At a low organic loading rate of 0.22 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1), both types of reactors were capable of treating the wastewater such that the treated effluent met the discharge regulation except for the total dissolved solids. However, when the loading rate was increased to 2.92 kg-COD m(-3)d(-1), foaming issues resulted in unstable performance. Overall, the MBRs achieved better solid removal but the SBRs performed better in regards to the degradation of aromatic compounds, as determined by UV absorbance (UVA). Finally, ozonation was applied on two different streams and showed promise on the strong stream - that corresponds to the formulation effluent and contains most of the biorefractory compounds. Ozonation successfully reduced the UVA, lowered the pH and increased the biochemical oxygen demand : chemical oxygen demand (BOD5 : COD) ratio of the strong stream. However, it was less efficient on the effluent having undergone pre-treatment by a biofilter due to a lack of selectivity towards refractory compounds.

  11. Risk of serious infection in biological treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Cameron, Chris; Noorbaloochi, Shahrzad;

    2015-01-01

    infection was the primary measure of treatment effect and calculated 95% credible intervals using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. FINDINGS: The systematic review identified 106 trials that reported serious infections and included patients with rheumatoid arthritis who received biological drugs. Compared......BACKGROUND: Serious infections are a major concern for patients considering treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence is inconsistent as to whether biological drugs are associated with an increased risk of serious infection compared with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs......Trials.gov from their inception to Feb 11, 2014. Search terms included "biologics", "rheumatoid arthritis" and their synonyms. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they included any of the approved biological drugs and reported serious infections. We assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool...

  12. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of dementias in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihl, Ralf; Bunevicius, Robertas; Frölich, Lutz;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a practice guideline for biological treatment of dementias for general practitioners in primary care. METHODS: This paper is a short and practical summary of the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the Biological treatment of Alzheimer's disease...

  13. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-30

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).

  14. Preliminary study for treatment methodology establishment of liquid waste containing uranium in refining facility lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Ahn, Byung Gil; Shim, Joon Bo

    1999-12-01

    The preliminary study which establishes the treatment methodology of the sludge waste containing uranium in the conversion facility lagoon was performed. The property of lagoon liquid waste such as the initial water content, the density including radiochemical analysis results were obtained using the samples taken from the lagoon. The objective of this study is to provide some basically needed materials for selection of the most proper lagoon waste treatment methodology by reviewing the effective processes and methods for minimizing the secondary waste resulting from the treatment and disposition of large amount of radioactive liquid waste according to the facility closing. The lagoon waste can be classified into two sorts, such as supernatant and precipitate. The supernatants contain uranium less than 5 ppm and their water content are about 35 percent. Therefore, supernatants are solutions composed of mainly salt components. However, the precipitates have lots of uranium compound contained in the coagulation matrix, and are formed as two kinds of crystalline structures. The most proper method minimizing the secondary waste would be direct drying and solidification of the supernatants and precipitates after separation of them by filtering. (author)

  15. Preliminary study for treatment methodology establishment of liquid waste containing uranium in refining facility lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary study which establishes the treatment methodology of the sludge waste containing uranium in the conversion facility lagoon was performed. The property of lagoon liquid waste such as the initial water content, the density including radiochemical analysis results were obtained using the samples taken from the lagoon. The objective of this study is to provide some basically needed materials for selection of the most proper lagoon waste treatment methodology by reviewing the effective processes and methods for minimizing the secondary waste resulting from the treatment and disposition of large amount of radioactive liquid waste according to the facility closing. The lagoon waste can be classified into two sorts, such as supernatant and precipitate. The supernatants contain uranium less than 5 ppm and their water content are about 35 percent. Therefore, supernatants are solutions composed of mainly salt components. However, the precipitates have lots of uranium compound contained in the coagulation matrix, and are formed as two kinds of crystalline structures. The most proper method minimizing the secondary waste would be direct drying and solidification of the supernatants and precipitates after separation of them by filtering. (author)

  16. Water-immiscible solvents for the biological treatment of waste gases.

    OpenAIRE

    Cesario, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    In conventional biological systems for the treatment of waste gases, contaminants are transferred directly to the aqueous phase and then converted by the micro-organisms. When poorly water-soluble pollutants are to be removed, biological degradation is often limited by the slow transport from the gas to the aqueous phase. This transport limitation can be circumvented by contacting the gas directly with an intermediate water-immiscible organic solvent with a high affinity for these contaminant...

  17. Electrochemical Oxidation Using BDD Anodes Combined with Biological Aerated Filter for Biotreated Coking Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C.R.; Hou, Z. F.; M. R. Zhang; J. Qi; Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coking wastewater is characterized by poor biodegradability and high microorganism toxicity. Thus, it is difficult to meet Grade I of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China by biological treatment technology; specifically, COD cannot meet above standard due to containing refractory organics. A novel coupling reactor, electrochemical oxidation using BDD anodes and biological aerated filter (BAF), has been developed for carbon and nitrogen removal from biotreated coking wastewater, f...

  18. A strategy for xenobiotic removal using photocatalytic treatment, microbial degradation or integrated photocatalytic-biological process

    OpenAIRE

    Lapertot, Miléna; Pulgarin, César

    2007-01-01

    According to the limited natural resources and due to the risks of anthropogenic pollution, it appears necessary to react efficiently in order to remove existing contaminations and avoid the creation of new ones. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to propose a sustainable strategy for treating problematic pollutants with the most adequate process. First, an overview of the different treatment processes has been given. In particular, biological, photocatalytic and integrated biological-p...

  19. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  20. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  1. Characterization of compost-like outputs from mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Sally M; Bateson, Thomas; Gronow, Jan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the world, most municipal solid waste consists of biodegradable components. The most abundant biological component is cellulose, followed by hemicellulose and lignin. Recycling of these components is important for the carbon cycle. In an attempt to reduce the environmental impacts of biodegradable wastes, mechanical biological treatments (MBTs) are being used as a waste management process in many countries. MBT plants attempt to mechanically separate the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable components. The nonbiodegradable components are then sent for reprocessing or landfilled, whereas the biodegradable components are reduced in biological content through composting or anaerobic digestion, leaving a compost-like output (CLO). The further use of these partially degraded residues is uncertain, and in many cases it is likely that they will be landfilled. The implications of this for the future of landfill management are causing some concern because there is little evidence that the long-term emissions tail will be reduced. In this study, the CLOs from four different biological treatment processes were characterized for physical contamination through visual inspection and for biological content using a sequential digestion analysis. The results indicate that the composition of the incoming waste, dependent on the way the waste was collected/segregated, was the factor that influenced biological content most, with length of treatment process the second most important. PMID:20564995

  2. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  3. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p < 0.001. Detected concentrations of airborne fungi ranged 2×102–1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF method, and 3×102–6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS method. Conclusions: Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

  4. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  5. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  6. Recent progress of heavy-ion treatment facility i-ROCK in Kanagawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Kanagawa 'Challenge-10-year strategy to cancer' it was decided in March 2005 to establish a carbon-ion therapy system at the Kanagawa Cancer Center (KCC). From around 2009, the basic design and the foundational planning of the facility were considered and in January 2012 a contract was made with the Toshiba Corp. In December of the same year, construction of the main building for the acceleration and treatment devices has been started and completed in October 2014. Currently, the KCC is in a commissioning phase with the aim to start treatment in December this year. Various treatments for cancer, which include the present photon LINAC for the radiation therapy, will be provided to patients in cooperation with our cancer center hospital. In addition, we will combine a compact dissemination treatment system of carbon-ion therapy to the pencil beam 3D scanning technique designed by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The treatment experience with the carbon-ion scanning technique is expected to be the second in the country following NIRS. (author)

  7. Training and supervision of residential staff in Community-based Treatment Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axer, Andrzej

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oregon’s Public Mental Health System employs a large number of unlicensed personnel with limited formal mental health training, both in state hospitals and in residential treatment programs. These mentalhealth paraprofessionals often have the most frequent and direct contact with seriously mentally ill individuals, and therefore have significant impact on their lives. The authors describe organization as well as clinical and administrative supervision of a mostly paraprofessional team working with severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI criminal offenders. The purpose of this article is to delineate the most important factors allowing for effective and safe utilization of the fairy unsophisticated personnel in the community based-secure treatment facility for individuals under criminal commitment, conditionally released from Oregon State Hospital.

  8. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  9. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Closure Plan - Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment Unit Glovebox HA-20MB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This closure plan describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) glovebox HA-20MB that housed an interim status ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' (RCRA) of 1976 treatment unit. This closure plan is certified and submitted to Ecology for incorporation into the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (HF RCRA Permit) in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement; TPA) Milestone M-83-30 requiring submittal of a certified closure plan for ''glovebox HA-20MB'' by July 31, 2003. Glovebox HA-20MB is located within the 231-5Z Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Currently glovebox HA-20MB is being used for non-RCRA analytical purposes. The schedule of closure activities under this plan supports completion of TPA Milestone M-83-44 to deactivate and prepare for dismantlement the above grade portions of the 234-5Z and ZA, 243-Z, and 291-Z and 291-Z-1 stack buildings by September 30, 2015. Under this closure plan, glovebox HA-20MB will undergo clean closure to the performance standards of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 with respect to all dangerous waste contamination from glovebox HA-20MB RCRA operations. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP treatment unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. Any information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. Clearance form only sent to

  10. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity.

  11. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. PMID:27423927

  12. Experimental research on exhaust gas purifying facilities in incinerating treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the research on the incinerating treatment of combustible low level wastes, three items, that is, combustible low level radioactive wastes and incinerating treatment method, wet type exhaust gas purifying facilities and ceramic filter type dry exhaust gas purifying facilities, were selected, and experimental research was carried out on the main theme of exhaust gas purification in the incineration of low level radioactive wastes. The definition of combustible low level radioactive wastes was decided, and the wastes conforming to this criteria were investigated and classified. The combustible low level wastes generated in the Tokai Research Establishment were classified and weighed, and the results reflected well the state of activities. The change of radioactive wastes to radioactive aerosol, radioactive gas and residue by incineration was investigated. The effect of volume reduction by incineration was studied. The decontamination performance of wet purifying system, the release of tritium steam, the cooling capacity of scrubbers and their corrosion, the construction of the test incinerator using ceramic filters, and the various tests on ceramic filters are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M; Fitzhenry, K; O'Flaherty, V; Dore, W; Keaveney, S; Cormican, M; Rowan, N; Clifford, E

    2016-10-15

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9J/cm(2) (6900mJ/cm(2)) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV.

  14. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman@yahoo.com [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340 (Indonesia); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L{sup -1}, each: 25 mg L{sup -1}). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h{sup -1}, whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h{sup -1}. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO{sub 2} particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  15. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L-1, each: 25 mg L-1). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h-1, whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h-1. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  16. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  17. Risk of infections in bronchiectasis during disease-modifying treatment and biologics for rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geri Guillaume

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchiectasis is frequently associated (up to 30% with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and leads to lower respiratory tract infections. Data are lacking on the risk of lower respiratory tract infections in patients treated with biologic agents. Methods Monocenter, retrospective systematic study of all patients with a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease and concomitant bronchiectasis, seen between 2000 and 2009. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evidence predictive factors of the number of infectious respiratory events. Results 47 patients were included (mean age 64.1 ± 9.1 years, 33 (70.2% women, with a mean follow-up per patient of 4.3 ± 3.1 years. Rheumatoid arthritis was the main rheumatic disease (90.1%. The mean number of infectious events was 0.8 ± 1.0 event per patient-year. The factors predicting infections were the type of treatment (biologic vs. non biologic disease-modifying treatments, with an odds ratio of 8.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-43.4 and sputum colonization by any bacteria (odds ratio 7.4, 2.0-26.8. In multivariate analysis, both factors were independently predictive of infections. Conclusion Lower respiratory tract infectious events are frequent among patients receiving biologics for chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease associated with bronchiectasis. Biologic treatment and pre-existing sputum colonization are independent risk factors of infection occurrence.

  18. Biological hazard evaluation of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after a photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Mendoza-Zepeda, Arisbeht; Natividad, Reyna; Romero, Rubi; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological hazard of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after treatment. For the former, the determined 96h-LC50 value was 1.2%. The photo-Fenton treatment catalyzed with an iron-pillared clay reduced this parameter by 341.7%. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (PPCT, oxidative stress, genotoxic damage and LC50 in Hyalella azteca. PMID:27392336

  19. Biological and chemical treatment of Cedrela fissilis seeds for controlling Rhizoctonia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Lazarotto; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Rafael Beltrame; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos; Jucéli Müller; Maristela Machado Araújo

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the effect of a fungicide and a biological product, singly and combined, for the control of pathogens, especially Rhizoctonia sp., in seeds of Cedrela fissilis. Before the seeds treatment, the inoculation of Rhizoctonia sp., isolated from C. fissilis seeds in blotter-test and considered pathogenic for the specie, was done on half of the seeds used. After, the seeds were subjected to treatments with powder organic product based on Trichoderma spp. (singly), powder fungi...

  20. Biological hazard evaluation of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after a photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Mendoza-Zepeda, Arisbeht; Natividad, Reyna; Romero, Rubi; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological hazard of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after treatment. For the former, the determined 96h-LC50 value was 1.2%. The photo-Fenton treatment catalyzed with an iron-pillared clay reduced this parameter by 341.7%. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (Pphoto-Fenton process decreases the presence of PCT, oxidative stress, genotoxic damage and LC50 in Hyalella azteca.

  1. Optimization of the treatment with immunosuppressants and biologics in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Renna, S; Cottone, M; Orlando, A

    2014-01-01

    Many placebo controlled trials and meta-analyses evaluated the efficacy of different drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including immunosuppressants and biologics. Their use is indicated in moderate to severe disease in non responders to corticosteroids and in steroid-dependent patients, as induction and maintainance treatment. Infliximab, as well as cyclosporine, is considered a second line therapy in the case of severe ulcerative colitis, or non-responders to intra...

  2. Characterization and Aerobic Biological Treatment of MSW: A Case Study of Hyderabad City

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Safar Korai; Rasool Bux Mahar; Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) generated in Hyderabad city for its suitability to make compost product through AB (Aerobic Biological) treatment. Assessment of MSW regarding its generation rate, quantification and characterization decides its suitability for composting process. Three AB treatment reactors R1 (natural air circulation and manually mixed reactor), R2 (compressed air circulation and manually mixed reactor) and R3 (compressed air circulation and...

  3. Understanding the biology of cancer: has this any impact on treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P B

    1994-01-01

    Rapid advances in laboratory techniques in the last two decades and, what is more important, in the last 5-7 years have significantly increased our knowledge and understanding on many fronts. We have learned much about (a) the basic biological processes of growth control and its aberrations, (b) the possible mechanisms involved in genetic initiation, progression and suppression, (c) the complexity of the multistep carcinogenesis induced by viruses, chemicals, hormones and other iatrogenic factors, (d) the secrets of immunological defence mechanisms and a host of other fundamental processes, (e) the application of molecular biology techniques to clinical problems, etc. The list is unending and often leads the uninitiated clinician to believe that the resolution of the mystery of the cancer cell and its successful control and cure are almost at hand. He or she often comes to believe that conventional principles in cancer treatment have radically changed from the 1960 and 1970 and that a new era in cancer treatment, based on our recent biological understanding, has already arrived. There is little doubt that the treatment scenario has changed significantly and that there is more hope for a cancer patient today than ever before-especially in certain types of paediatric and lymphoproliferative disorders; however, the unfortunate fact is that this cautiously optimistic therapeutic scenario has come about not because of any great understanding of the biological processes, which continue to confound us, but because of the intense interaction of various therapeutic disciplines and sophisticated technology now available for early diagnosis and more efficient therapeutic procedures in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. The author presents evidence and data here to show that, while treatment results have improved, we have a long way to go in understanding the biological processes before our knowledge can have a significant impact on the overall treatment methods in

  4. Combining biologic and phototherapy treatments for psoriasis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnik B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Farahnik,1 Viraat Patel,2 Kourosh Beroukhim,3 Tian Hao Zhu,4 Michael Abrouk,2 Mio Nakamura,5 Rasnik Singh,3 Kristina Lee,5 Tina Bhutani,5 John Koo5 1University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT; 2School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 4University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, 5Department of Dermatology, Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: The efficacy and safety of biologic and phototherapy in treating moderate-to-severe psoriasis is well known. However, some patients may not respond well to biologic agents or phototherapy on their own and may require combination therapy. Skillfully combining a biologic agent and phototherapy may provide an additive improvement without much increase in risks.Objective: To summarize the current state of evidence for the efficacy and safety of combining biologics with phototherapy in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.Methods: We conducted an extensive search on Pubmed database for English language literature that evaluated the use of a combination of biologic and phototherapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis through January 2016. The search included the following keywords: psoriasis, etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, biologics, phototherapy, and combination therapy.Results: The primary literature included randomized controlled trials, a head-to-head study, open-label controlled and uncontrolled trials, case series, and case reports. Etanercept was used in over half of the reported cases, but other biologic agents used included ustekinumab, adalimumab, and infliximab. The vast majority of phototherapy was narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB radiation. Most cases reported enhanced improvement with combination therapy. Serious adverse events throughout the study duration

  5. FiBi - A French network of facilities for irradiation in biology: The organisation of the network and the research opportunities associated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Coffigny, H.; Poncy, J.L. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Authier, N.; Verrey, B. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is sur Tille (France); Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France); Baldacchino, G.; Bordy, J.M.; Carriere, M.; Leplat, J.J.; Pin, S.; Pommeret, S.; Thuret, J.Y.; Renault, J.P. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cortella, I. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. Etudes des Reacteurs (DER), 38 (France); Duval, D. [Schering-CIS bio International, 91 - Saclay (France); Khodja, H.; Testard, I. [Atomic Energy Commission, 14 - Caen (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission has developed a national network of available irradiation facilities for biological studies. One aim is to optimise the irradiation of biological samples, through a compendium of existing facilities allowing for the preserving and the irradiation of these samples in good conditions, and for providing an appropriate and reliable dosimetry. Given the high cost of the facilities and their specialization (nature and precision of irradiation on a cell scale, dose and dose rate), closeness is no longer the only criteria of choice for biologists. Development is leaning towards the implementation of irradiation platforms gathering irradiation tools associated with specific methods belonging to biology: cell culture, molecular biology and even animal care houses. The aim is to be able to offer biologists the most appropriate experimental tools, and to modify them according to the changing needs of radiobiology. This work is currently in progress and the database is still not exhaustive and shall be implemented as and when new documents are drawn up and new facilities are opened. (author)

  6. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  7. Partial Closure Report for the Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abri, M

    2005-05-02

    The purpose of this partial closure report is to inform the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) of the status of final closure of the Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility (Area 514) and fulfill the DTSC requirements to proceed with the implementation of the interim action. Area 514 is located at the Livermore main site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated jointly by DOE and the University of California. LLNL received its permit to operate hazardous waste facilities from DTSC in 1997. The hazardous waste treatment and storage operations of Area 514 were transferred to a newly constructed complex, the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), in 2003. Once the DWTF was operational, the final closure of Area 514 began in accordance with the DTSC-approved closure plan in June 2004. Abri Environmental Engineering, Inc., was retained by LLNL to observe the A514 closure process and prepare this partial closure report and certification. Prior to closure, the configuration of the Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility consisted of Building 514, the Area 514-1 Container Storage and Treatment unit, the Area 514-2 Container Storage Unit (CSU), the Area 514-3 CSU, Building 513, the Wastewater Treatment Tank Farm unit, and the associated Area 514 yard area. The fenced area of Area 514 included approximately 27,350 ft2 on the LLNL Livermore site. To date, except for the 514-3 CSU, all of the other Area 514 structures have been demolished; and sampling and analysis have taken place. The non-hazardous wastes have been disposed of. At the time of writing this report, the hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes are in the process of profiling for final disposition. Once the disposition of all wastes has been finalized, the implementation of the approved closure plan will be completed. As a part of the closure process, LLNL is required to submit a closure report and a

  8. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  9. Advances in the Management of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis : The coming of age of biologic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Anink (Janneke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The main aim of this thesis was the evaluation of advances in the management of JIA. It focused on developments in the biologic treatment of JIA, using data from the ABC register. Additionally, it explored new biomarkers and methods for monitoring the disease activity,

  10. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Abbas, B.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Muyzer, G.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  11. Radiation oncology--linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D- conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology.

  12. Treatment of anaerobically pre-treated domestic sewage by a rotating biological contactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik, A.; Klapwijk, A.; el-Gohary, F.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for the post-treatment of the effluent of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was the subject of this study. Different hydraulic and organic loading rates have been investigated. The removal efficiencies of CODtotal, CODsuspended, CODco

  13. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  14. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Graaff; M.F.M. Bijmans; B. Abbas; G.J.W. Euverink; G. Muijzer; A.J.H. Janssen

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na+ = 0.8 M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  15. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, Marco de; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Abbas, Ben; Euverink, Gert-J.W.; Muyzer, Gerard; Janssen, Albert J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na+ = 0.8 M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80–90% saturation) at

  16. Biological treatment in rheumatic diseases: results from a longitudinal surveillance: adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, L; Honkanen, V; Uotila, T; Pöllänen, J; Waahtera, M; Romu, M; Puolakka, K; Vasala, M; Karjalainen, A; Luukkainen, R; Nordström, D C

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of biologicals in a clinical setting. Data on adverse events (AEs) have been collected over a 5-year period by means of detailed reports sent in to the National Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) and validated by information collected by the National Agency for Medicines. Three hundred and eight reports on AEs were filed, concerning a total of 248 patients; this corresponds to 17% of all patients in the ROB-FIN register who started biological treatments. Skin reactions and infections comprised 35 and 28% of the AEs, respectively. Some cases of tuberculosis and other infections, heart failure and demyelinating conditions were seen. Our work demonstrates no unexpected AEs in a Finnish patient cohort consisting of rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthropathy patients, although many of them were treated with combination treatments in common use in Finland. Biological treatment appears safe in the hands of the Finnish rheumatologists.

  17. Biological treatment in rheumatic diseases: results from a longitudinal surveillance: adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, L; Honkanen, V; Uotila, T; Pöllänen, J; Waahtera, M; Romu, M; Puolakka, K; Vasala, M; Karjalainen, A; Luukkainen, R; Nordström, D C

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of biologicals in a clinical setting. Data on adverse events (AEs) have been collected over a 5-year period by means of detailed reports sent in to the National Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) and validated by information collected by the National Agency for Medicines. Three hundred and eight reports on AEs were filed, concerning a total of 248 patients; this corresponds to 17% of all patients in the ROB-FIN register who started biological treatments. Skin reactions and infections comprised 35 and 28% of the AEs, respectively. Some cases of tuberculosis and other infections, heart failure and demyelinating conditions were seen. Our work demonstrates no unexpected AEs in a Finnish patient cohort consisting of rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthropathy patients, although many of them were treated with combination treatments in common use in Finland. Biological treatment appears safe in the hands of the Finnish rheumatologists. PMID:16402217

  18. História dos tratamentos biológicos Biologicals treatments's history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Paulo Rigonatti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Trata-se de uma discussão de como surgiram os tratamentos biológicos no decorrer da história da psiquiatria.Context: It's about a discussion on how begun the biological treatment throughout Psychiatry History.

  19. GIS based location optimization for mobile produced water treatment facilities in shale gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwadkar, Amol Hanmant

    Over 60% of the nation's total energy is supplied by oil and natural gas together and this demand for energy will continue to grow in the future (Radler et al. 2012). The growing demand is pushing the exploration and exploitation of onshore oil and natural gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing has proven to not only create jobs and achieve economic growth, but also has proven to exert a lot of stress on natural resources---such as water. As water is one of the most important factors in the world of hydraulic fracturing, proper fluids management during the development of a field of operation is perhaps the key element to address a lot of these issues. Almost 30% of the water used during hydraulic fracturing comes out of the well in the form of flowback water during the first month after the well is fractured (Bai et. al. 2012). Handling this large amount of water coming out of the newly fractured wells is one of the major issues as the volume of the water after this period drops off and remains constant for a long time (Bai et. al. 2012) and permanent facilities can be constructed to take care of the water over a longer period. This paper illustrates development of a GIS based tool for optimizing the location of a mobile produced water treatment facility while development is still occurring. A methodology was developed based on a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to optimize the location of the mobile treatment facilities. The criteria for MCDA include well density, ease of access (from roads considering truck hauls) and piping minimization if piping is used and water volume produced. The area of study is 72 square miles east of Greeley, CO in the Wattenberg Field in northeastern Colorado that will be developed for oil and gas production starting in the year 2014. A quarterly analysis is done so that we can observe the effect of future development plans and current circumstances on the location as we move from quarter to quarter. This will help the operators to

  20. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  1. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment.

  2. Effective and sustainable biologic treatment of psoriasis: what can we learn from new clinical data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, R G

    2012-03-01

    The introduction of the biologic agents, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab, has provided more options for the short- and long-term treatment of patients with psoriasis. Physicians are now able to achieve and maintain effective disease control in more patients using biologic therapies. Newly published clinical data support the introduction of novel optimization strategies to further improve outcomes in patients with psoriasis. Recent randomized controlled clinical trials have provided data on the efficacy of conventional therapies, including systemic agents, and biologics at specific time points. Switching from methotrexate to a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist after 16 weeks can improve response rates, as demonstrated in a study of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, while the benefit of long-term methotrexate use remains unclear. In a separate study, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) ≥ 75 response rates were maintained over time (>3 years for adalimumab), suggesting that long-term biologic therapy is an effective and sustainable treatment option for psoriasis. For each individual patient, the benefit of a particular treatment needs to be balanced with the risks. The lack of head-to-head trials of antipsoriatic therapies, particularly biologic therapies, does not help with making individualized treatment decisions. However, a benefit-risk assessment of TNF-α antagonists calculated from an integrated analysis of published literature in moderate-to-severe psoriasis can be used to aid clinical practice. The number needed to treat, number needed to harm and number of patient years of observation to detect an adverse event have been determined for adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab. The benefit-risk profiles generated demonstrated that, during the initial year of treatment, likelihood of success with TNF-α antagonists was several orders of magnitude greater than the likelihood of serious toxicity. PMID:22356632

  3. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane; Tamouza, Ryad; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leweke, Markus; Lewis, Shôn; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sommer, Iris E; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Kapur, Shitij; Kahn, René S; Rujescu, Dan; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-05-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligible rate of patients does not respond to any treatment or may develop side effects that affect adherence to the treatments as well as negatively impact physical health. Thus, there clearly is a pressing need for defining biomarkers that may be helpful to predict response to treatment and sensitivity to side effects in first-episode psychosis. The present systematic review provides (1) trials that assessed biological markers associated with antipsychotic response or side effects in first-episode psychosis and (2) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances that may guide the choice of conventional treatments or the prescription of innovative treatments. Trials including first-episode psychoses are few in number. Most of the available data focused on pharmacogenetics markers with so far only preliminary results. To date, these studies yielded-beside markers for metabolism of antipsychotics-no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been associated with treatment response. In addition to pharmacogenetics, further efforts should focus on the association of emergent biomarkers with conventional treatments or with innovative therapies efficacy, where some preliminary data suggest promising results. PMID:25759473

  4. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  5. Properties, treatment and utilization of biological sludges from the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.

    1987-01-01

    A new problem related to the purification of wastewaters has arisen in the pulp and paper industry. The treatment and disposal of aqueous waste sludges, in particular the biological sludges formed in purification processes, are both laborious and expensive. As much as 50% of the total cost of wastewater treatment may be due to sludge treatment and disposal. About 100 000 t/a of excess biological sludge (dry matter), equal to about 5 million t/a of sludge with a moisture content of 98%, is expected to be produced by the Finnish pulp and paper industry by the year 2000. Alternatives among efficient sludge treatment methods include: a) new, more efficient dewatering methods, the dried sludge can be used as a fuel, for land improvement, or as raw material, for example in fodder production, b) anaerobic digestion, the product biogas can be used as a fuel and the digested sludge can be incinerated or used for land improvement, c) wet oxidation of a mixture of biological and primary sludge with recovery of the filler material and production of low-pressure steam as a byproduct. The development of the optimal sludge treatment and disposal method for a particular plant requires experiments with the sludge in question, as well as detailed characterization of the sludge.

  6. Studies on urine treatment by biological purification using Azolla and UV photocatalytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min; Bian, Zuliang; Liu, Chung-Chu

    The amount of water consumed in space station operations is very large. In order to reduce the amount of water which must be resupplied from Earth, the space station needs to resolve the problems of water supply. For this reason, the recovery, regeneration and utilization of urine of astronauts are of key importance. Many investigations on this subject have been reported. Our research is based on biological absorption and, purification using UV photocatalytic oxidation techniques to achieve comprehensive treatment for urine. In the treatment apparatus we created, the urine solution is used as part of the nutrient solution for the biological components in our bioregenerative life support system. After being absorbed, the nutrients from the urine were then decomposed, metabolized and purified which creates a favorable condition for the follow-up oxidation treatment by UV photocatalytic oxidation. After these two processes, the treated urine solution reached Chinese national standards for drinking water quality (GB5749-1985).

  7. Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) wastewater by internal electrolysis--biological contact oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X Z; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant wastewater is usually difficult to treat due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. A separate physico-chemical or biochemical treatment method achieves a satisfactory effect with difficulty. In this study, treatment of the wastewater collected from a daily chemical plant by the combination processes of Fe/C internal electrolysis and biological contact oxidation was investigated. For the internal electrolysis process, the optimal conditions were: pH = 4-5, Fe/C = (10-15):1, air-water ratio = (10-20):1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT)= 2 h. For the biological contact oxidation process, the optimal conditions were: HRT = 12 h, DO = 4.0-5.0 mg/L. Treated by the above combined processes, the effluent could meet the I-grade criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The results provide valuable information for full-scale linear alkylbenzene sulfonate wastewater treatment. PMID:22053469

  8. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  9. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  10. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination

  11. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson-Waters, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination.

  12. Persistence with biologic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, Jörg; Sruamsiri, Rosarin

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess persistence rates of biologic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Methods Based on Japanese claims data of 16,214 patients between 2012 and 2014, 6-, 12-, and 18-month persistence rates of different biologic agents were calculated. Determinants of persistence were assessed by means of a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was performed with different definitions of persistence and parametric survival analysis. Results Overall persistence rates in Japan are high and reach 86% after 1 year in the entire sample. The persistence rate for the biologic-naïve subpopulation is above 95%. Persistence is higher for older patients (hazard ratio 0.60 [95% confidence interval 0.40–0.91] for >75 years compared to ≤60 years) and lower for patients with a high comorbidity score (hazard ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.70 for Charlson Comorbidity Index score 3–5 compared to ≤2). We found a high variation of persistence between different drugs. Conclusion Japanese rheumatoid arthritis patients have a high persistence rate of biologic treatments. However, multiple factors affect the persistence rate of Japanese patients, including age, comorbidities, and patient type. Naïve patients tend to have a higher persistence rate than continuing biologic patients. PMID:27540283

  13. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odes S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing role in altering the natural history of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and is improving patient prognosis. However, indications for treatment and issues with drug costs and value for money remain unclear. Also, when to perform early intervention with biologic agents is at present unclear. We performed an extensive literature search and review to address these issues. The biologics provide better care for many patients. The choice of biologic agent, the indications for its use, the switch between agents, and the considerations of cost are outlined, with a view to guiding the treating physician in managing these cases. Outstanding issues and anticipated future developments are defined.Keywords: biologic therapy, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cost-effectiveness

  14. Remediation of copper-contaminated topsoils from a wood treatment facility using in situ stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bes, C. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, University of Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RdC Est, gate 002, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mench, M. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, University of Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RdC Est, gate 002, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: mench@bordeaux.inra.fr

    2008-12-15

    Five organic matters, three phosphate compounds, zerovalent iron grit (ZVIG, 2% by soil weight), two alkaline compounds, and two commercial formulations were incorporated, singly and some combined with ZVIG, into a highly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P7, 2600 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) from a wood treatment facility. Formulations and two composts were also singly incorporated into a slightly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P10, 118 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) from the facility surrounding. This aimed to reduce the labile pool of Cu and its accumulation in beans cultivated on potted soils in a climatic chamber. Lowest Cu concentration in soil solution occurred in P7 soils amended with activated carbon (5%) and ZVIG, singly and combined. Basic slag (3.9%) and compost of sewage sludge (5%) combined with ZVIG promoted shoot production and limited foliar Cu accumulation. For amended P10 soils, no changes occurred in soil solution and foliar Cu concentrations, but one compost increased shoot production. - Three soil amendments, iron grit with compost, calcium oxide, and basic slags, decreased the phytotoxicity of a Cu-contaminated soil.

  15. Remediation of copper-contaminated topsoils from a wood treatment facility using in situ stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five organic matters, three phosphate compounds, zerovalent iron grit (ZVIG, 2% by soil weight), two alkaline compounds, and two commercial formulations were incorporated, singly and some combined with ZVIG, into a highly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P7, 2600 mg Cu kg-1) from a wood treatment facility. Formulations and two composts were also singly incorporated into a slightly Cu-contaminated topsoil (Soil P10, 118 mg Cu kg-1) from the facility surrounding. This aimed to reduce the labile pool of Cu and its accumulation in beans cultivated on potted soils in a climatic chamber. Lowest Cu concentration in soil solution occurred in P7 soils amended with activated carbon (5%) and ZVIG, singly and combined. Basic slag (3.9%) and compost of sewage sludge (5%) combined with ZVIG promoted shoot production and limited foliar Cu accumulation. For amended P10 soils, no changes occurred in soil solution and foliar Cu concentrations, but one compost increased shoot production. - Three soil amendments, iron grit with compost, calcium oxide, and basic slags, decreased the phytotoxicity of a Cu-contaminated soil

  16. Update on the use of systemic biologic agents in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasadhika S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirichai Pasadhika,1 James T Rosenbaum2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Southern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Legacy Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Noninfectious uveitis may be associated with other systemic conditions, such as human leukocyte antigen B27-related spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation or prevent non-ophthalmic complications in refractory patients. Off-label use of biologic response modifiers has been studied as primary and secondary therapeutic agents. They are very useful when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed or has been poorly tolerated, or to treat concomitant ophthalmic and systemic inflammation that might benefit from these medications. Biologic therapy, primarily infliximab, and adalimumab, have been shown to be rapidly effective for the treatment of various subtypes of refractory uveitis and retinal vasculitis, especially Behçet's disease-related eye conditions and the uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Other agents such as golimumab, abatacept, canakinumab, gevokizumab, tocilizumab, and alemtuzumab may have great future promise for the treatment of uveitis. It has been shown that with proper monitoring, biologic therapy can significantly improve quality of life in patients with uveitis, particularly those with concurrent systemic symptoms. However, given high cost as well as the limited long-term safety data, we do not routinely recommend biologics as first-line therapy for noninfectious uveitis in most patients. These agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present

  17. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries.

  18. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. PMID:23735721

  19. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  20. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  1. Composition and uses of anaerobic digestion derived biogas from wastewater treatment facilities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian C; Peppley, B; Champagne, P; Maier, A

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the current knowledge of biogas production and its use at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across North America. Information was provided by municipal WWTPs across Canada and the US. It was determined that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and silicon (Si) compounds had sufficient variability to be of concern. The only biogas production trend that could be identified was a possible seasonal relationship with sludge input and biogas production. Secondary analysis was performed to observe trends in biogas usage in urban areas larger than 150,000 in the US and 50,000 in Canada; 66% of facilities had anaerobic digestion systems and, of those, only 35% had an energy recovery system. Climatic, population, and socio-political influences on the trends were considered. The primary conclusion was that more data is required to perform significant analyses on biogas production and composition variation.

  2. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  3. Biological fluidized-bed treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench- and pilot-scale biological treatability studies were performed as part of a comprehensive study for developing an on-site treatment system for contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site. The bench-scale work, which included evaluations of activated sludge and fluidized-bed biological processes, indicated that a carbon-based fluidized-bed process was most appropriate. The process was then demonstrated on a pilot level at the site. The bench and pilot studies demonstrated significant reductions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and all target organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  4. Tracing the limits of organic micropollutant removal in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falås, Per; Wick, Arne; Castronovo, Sandro; Habermacher, Jonathan; Ternes, Thomas A; Joss, Adriano

    2016-05-15

    Removal of organic micropollutants was investigated in 15 diverse biological reactors through short and long-term experiments. Short-term batch experiments were performed with activated sludge from three parallel sequencing batch reactors (25, 40, and 80 d solid retention time, SRT) fed with synthetic wastewater without micropollutants for one year. Despite the minimal micropollutant exposure, the synthetic wastewater sludges were able to degrade several micropollutants present in municipal wastewater. The degradation occurred immediately after spiking (1-5 μg/L), showed no strong or systematic correlation to the sludge age, and proceeded at rates comparable to those of municipal wastewater sludges. Thus, the results from the batch experiments indicate that degradation of organic micropollutants in biological wastewater treatment is quite insensitive to SRT increases from 25 to 80 days, and not necessarily induced by exposure to micropollutants. Long-term experiments with municipal wastewater were performed to assess the potential for extended biological micropollutant removal under different redox conditions and substrate concentrations (carbon and nitrogen). A total of 31 organic micropollutants were monitored through influent-effluent sampling of twelve municipal wastewater reactors. In accordance with the results from the sludges grown on synthetic wastewater, several compounds such as bezafibrate, atenolol and acyclovir were significantly removed in the activated sludge processes fed with municipal wastewater. Complementary removal of two compounds, diuron and diclofenac, was achieved in an oxic biofilm treatment. A few aerobically persistent micropollutants such as venlafaxine, diatrizoate and tramadol were removed under anaerobic conditions, but a large number of micropollutants persisted in all biological treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that certain improvements in biological micropollutant removal can be achieved by combining different

  5. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  6. Improving adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Uganda with a low-resource facility-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Obua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of facility-based interventions using existing resources to improve overall patient attendance and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART at ART-providing facilities in Uganda. Methods: This was an interventional study which tracked attendance and treatment adherence of two distinct cohorts: experienced patients who had been on treatment for at least 12 months prior to the intervention and patients newly initiated on ART before or during the intervention. The interventions included instituting appointment system, fast-tracking, and giving longer prescriptions to experienced stable patients. Mixed-effects models were used to examine intervention effects on the experienced patients, while Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the intervention effects on time until newly treated patients experienced gaps in medication availability. Results: In all, 1481 patients’ files were selected for follow-up from six facilities – 720 into the experienced cohort, and 761 into the newly treated cohort. Among patients in the experienced cohort, the interventions were associated with a significant reduction from 24.4 to 20.3% of missed appointments (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.59–0.77; a significant decrease from 20.2 to 18.4% in the medication gaps of three or more days (AOR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60–0.79; and a significant increase from 4.3 to 9.3% in the proportion of patients receiving more than 30 days of dispensed medication (AOR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.91–2.89. Among newly treated patients, the interventions were associated with significant reductions of 44% (adjusted hazard rate (AHR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42–0.74 and 38% (AHR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45–0.85 in the hazards of experiencing a medication gap of 7 and 14 days or more, respectively. Conclusions: Patients’ adherence was improved with low-cost and easily implemented interventions using existing health facilities

  7. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  8. Optimizing Methotrexate Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Case for Subcutaneous Methotrexate Prior to Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Scott, David G I

    2015-11-01

    Methotrexate is the most common disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current evidence supports its efficacy in the treatment of RA, resulting in improved short-term disease control and long-term outcomes in terms of radiographic progression. Oral methotrexate has traditionally been used first-line due to various reasons, including ease of administration, low cost and easy availability. A methotrexate dose of >15 mg/week is generally required for disease control but oral methotrexate may be only partially effective or poorly tolerated in some patients. The rationale for using subcutaneous (SC) methotrexate is based on its improved bioavailability at higher doses and better tolerability in some patients who have side effects when receiving oral methotrexate. Current guidance advocates 'treating to target', with the aim of inducing remission in RA patients. In some patients, this can be achieved using methotrexate alone or in combination with other traditional DMARDs. Patients who have not responded to two DMARDs, including methotrexate, are eligible for biological therapy as per current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance in the UK. Biological treatments are expensive and using SC methotrexate can improve disease control in RA patients, thus potentially avoiding or delaying the requirement for future biological treatment.

  9. Critical review of the influences of nanoparticles on biological wastewater treatment and sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), with at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are substantially employed in consumer and industrial products due to their specific physical and chemical properties. The wide uses of engineered NPs inevitably cause their release into the environment, especially wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, it is essential to systematically assess their potential impact on biological wastewater treatment and subsequent sewage sludge digestion. This review aims to provide such support. First, this paper reviews the recent advances on the analytical developments and nano-bio interface of NPs in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. The effects of NPs on biological wastewater treatment and sewage sludge digestion and related mechanisms are discussed in detail. Finally, the key questions that need to be answered in the future are pointed out, which include on-line revelation of the changes of NPs in sewage and sludge environments, in situ assessment of the variations of microorganisms involved in these biological systems after they are exposed to NPs. Differentiation of the contribution of individual toxicity mechanisms to these systems, and the identification of under what conditions the nanoparticle-induced toxicity will be increased or decreased are also considered. PMID:26036277

  10. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, G.; Nieto, J. [Environmental Science Center EULA - Chile, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H.D. [Lab. of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bornhardt, C. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pre-treatment. The relationships of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L.d. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. (orig.)

  11. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  12. Biological and chemical treatment of Cedrela fissilis seeds for controlling Rhizoctonia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lazarotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effect of a fungicide and a biological product, singly and combined, for the control of pathogens, especially Rhizoctonia sp., in seeds of Cedrela fissilis. Before the seeds treatment, the inoculation of Rhizoctonia sp., isolated from C. fissilis seeds in blotter-test and considered pathogenic for the specie, was done on half of the seeds used. After, the seeds were subjected to treatments with powder organic product based on Trichoderma spp. (singly, powder fungicide Captan (also singly, combination of two products in a maximum dose considered (100% and combination of half dose of both products, besides the control. After the seeds treatments the following tests were done: germination, emergence in vermiculite, with evaluations of seedlings and sanitary by blotter-test. No treatment could eradicate Rhizoctonia sp. inoculated seed, but the treatment with 100% of the dose of both products reduced its incidence. The combination of chemical and biological products can be a viable alternative for the treatment of C. fissililis seeds, especially in the control of Rhizoctonia sp.

  13. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.

  14. Mechanical biological treatment of organic fraction of MSW affected dissolved organic matter evolution in simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Silvia; Scaglia, Barbara; di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the evolution of DOM during 1 year of observation in simulated landfill, of aerobically treated vs. untreated organic fraction of MSW. Results obtained indicated that aerobic treatment of organic fraction of MSW permitted getting good biological stability so that, successive incubation under anaerobic condition in landfill allowed biological process to continue getting a strong reduction of soluble organic matter (DOM) that showed, also, an aromatic character. Incubation of untreated waste gave similar trend, but in this case DOM decreasing was only apparent as inhibition of biological process in landfill did not allow replacing degraded/leached DOM with new material coming from hydrolysis of fresh OM. PMID:23743423

  15. Upgrading of a mechanical biological treatment plant with a solid anaerobic digestion batch: a real case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    The energetic and treatment efficiency analysis of an existing mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant shows that more than 60% of the 25 kWh consumed per each tonne of non-differentiated waste (NDW) treated is due to the electric fans. About 7.5 kWh per tonne of NDW is used for supplying the process air for stabilizing the waste organic fraction (WOF). Exploitation of the solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) for processing the WOF before it enters the aerobic section of the MBT leads to the production of biogas and, when subsequently fed to a gas engine, electric power at a magnitude of about 150 kWh per tonne of WOF, resulting in an energy surplus of about 48 kWh per tonne of NDW treated by the MBT facility. The SADB can also reduce the organic load rate at which the aerobic section operates up to 40%, leading to further positive effects on the whole MBT process. PMID:22751849

  16. The procurement landscape of pediatric tuberculosis treatment: a Global Drug Facility perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C; Gardiner, E; de Lucia, A

    2015-12-01

    Simple, quality-assured, child-friendly formulations of existing first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in the correct dosages are now becoming available. Efforts are currently underway by the TB Alliance, the World Health Organization (WHO), and its partners to make appropriate medicines available to treat children diagnosed with TB. The functioning of the current market and the distribution pathways in pediatric TB drugs now require characterization and understanding in order to develop appropriate strategies for delivery of these and other future pediatric TB medicines. The Stop TB Partnership's Global Drug Facility (GDF) plays a major role in supplying pediatric TB medications worldwide. GDF is considered to be the largest procurer of pediatric TB treatment and the largest supplier to national TB programs of quality pediatric drugs. Between 2007 and 2013, the GDF delivered more than 580, 000 treatments to children in over 50 countries, 14 of which are among the 22 high TB burden countries. We analyzed this data set in the context of WHO estimates of pediatric TB as well as other available information to assess the functioning of the current market, lessons learnt from the GDF experience in the market, and opportunities for future products. PMID:26564536

  17. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D and D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D and D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D and D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  18. Influence of methanethiol on biological sulphide oxidation in gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Pawel; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic and organic sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and thiols (RSH) are unwanted components in sour gas streams (e.g. biogas and refinery gases) because of their toxicity, corrosivity and bad smell. Biological treatment processes are often used to remove H2S at small and medium scales (principles have been further studied by assessing the effect of methanethiol on the biological conversion of H2S under a wide range of redox conditions covering not only sulphur but also sulphate-producing conditions. Furthermore, our experiments were performed in an integrated system consisting of a gas absorber and a bioreactor in order to assess the effect of methanethiol on the overall gas treatment efficiency. This study shows that methanethiol inhibits the biological oxidation of H2S to sulphate by way of direct suppression of the cytochrome c oxidase activity in biomass, whereas the oxidation of H2S to sulphur was hardly affected. We estimated the kinetic parameters of biological H2S oxidation that can be used to develop a mathematical model to quantitatively describe the biodesulphurization process. Finally, it was found that methanethiol acts as a competitive inhibitor; therefore, its negative effect can be minimized by increasing the enzyme (biomass) concentration and the substrate (sulphide) concentration, which in practice means operating the biodesulphurization systems under low redox conditions. PMID:26652658

  19. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in the wastewater treatment plant of Bunnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, H.P. de; Rensink, J.H.

    1989-02-01

    At several sewage treatment plants in the Netherlands there has been continuously found a remarkable high phosphorus removal rate, without using chemical additions. In Bunnik this is up to 90%. In the effluent we will mostly find less than 1 mg P/l. At the Bunnik plant we deal with biological excess phosphorus removal. Biological phosphorus removal is based on the luxury uptake of phosphorus by some bacteria. On certain circumstances micro-organisms of the genius Acinetobacter stored excess amounts of phosphates in their cells. In 1984 a project started, financed by the institute for inland waters and wastewater treatment (DBW/RIZA). The purpose of this research project was to find factors which were, responsible for the remarkable enhanced phosphorus removal in the Bunnik plant.

  20. New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Xinrun; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Faming

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adsorption on the biological treatment process of wastewater. In the absence of substrate in the water, activated sludge developed well in the first hour, indicating that the growth of microorganism was not directly related to substrate concentration and the dissolved organic matter in the water assays were performed, no organic matter was detected out, revealing that there was no desorption in the activated sludge adsorption process. Activated sludge batch growth experiments in the presence of different adsorption capacities indicated that specific growth rate increased as specific adsorption capacity increased. The experiment on the relationship of adsorption capacity and substrate concentration or sludge concentration was also carried out. Specific adsorption capacity increased as sludge load increased, presenting linear correlation. The experiment results showed that adsorption should be taken into account in the study of the biological treatment process of wastewater.

  1. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge. PMID:27364381

  2. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen;

    2013-01-01

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly...... biodegradable fraction of the waste as well as recovering recyclables from mixed waste streams. In this study the environmental performance of eight MBT-based waste management scenarios in Spain was assessed by means of life cycle assessment. The focus was on the technical and environmental performance...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...

  3. Current Status of Biological Therapies for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyi; Eldabaje, Robert; Yang, Lixi

    2016-07-01

    Compared to early-stage melanoma when surgical excision is possible, metastatic disease continues to offer a much grimmer prognosis as traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens offer relatively little survival benefit. This has led to changes in treatment approaches over the preceding two decades as contemporary methods for the treatment of advanced or metastatic melanoma now involve a number of biological modalities, which include immunotherapeutic approaches, targeted therapies and epigenetic modification therapies. Clinically available immunotherapeutic agents include interleukin 2 (IL-2), as well as drugs targeting the important immune checkpoint molecules, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). The targeted therapeutic agents modulate specific pro-oncogenic mutations such as v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), receptor tyrosine kinases, MEK inhibitors and potential future therapeutic targets, such as the CDK4/CDK6, PTEN and GNAQ/GNA11 genes. Additionally, an increasing understanding of the role of epigenetic alterations in the development and progression of melanoma now offers a new potential drug target. Several of these agents have shown promising results; however, in many investigations, combinations of different therapeutic approaches, each with different mechanisms of action, have yielded improved outcomes as treatment regimens continue to be further optimized by active research and patient disease sub-group analyses. This review summarizes the novel biological agents and new treatments, directly contributing to the significant improvement of biological therapies and markedly advancing knowledge of clinical application of newly approved and developed therapies in treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:27354579

  4. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants:Influence of Mathematical Model Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP...

  5. Biological treatment of wastewaters from a dye manufacturing company using a trickling filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaros, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori St., 26500 Patras (Greece)]. E-mail: kornaros@chemeng.upatras.gr; Lyberatos, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori St., 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2006-08-10

    The aim of this work was to assess the effectiveness of a biological trickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing organic dyes and varnishes. The combined wastewater effluent was fed to a pilot-scale trickling filter in two feeding modes, continuously and as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The biodegradability of the diluted wastewaters that were subjected to physicochemical treatment, using Ca(OH){sub 2} and FeSO{sub 4}, was initially studied using a continuously operated trickling filter. The system efficiency ranged up to 60-70% for a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day and up to 80-85% for a hydraulic loading 0.6 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day. A stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 60-70% was achieved even in the case of undiluted wastewater at a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day. The effectiveness of biological treatment of a mixture of the company's main wastewater streams was also examined. The microorganisms developed in the trickling filter were able to efficiently remove COD levels up to 36,000 mg/L, under aerobic conditions at pH values between 5.5 and 8.0. Depending on the operating conditions of the system, about 30-60% of the total COD removal was attributed to air stripping caused by the air supply at the bottom of the filter, whereas the rest of the COD was clearly removed through biological action. The proposed biological treatment process based on a trickling filter, which was operated either continuously or even better in an SBR mode, appears as a promising pretreatment step for coping with dye manufacturing wastewaters in terms of removing a significant portion of the organic content.

  6. Solid recovered fuel production through the mechanical-biological treatment of wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Velis, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) from municipal solid waste using mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plants. It describes the first in-depth analysis of a UK MBT plant and addresses the fundamental research question: are MBT plants and their unit operations optimised to produce high quality SRF in the UK? A critical review of the process science and engineering of MBT provides timely insights into the quality management and standa...

  7. Biological treatment of wastewaters from a dye manufacturing company using a trickling filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to assess the effectiveness of a biological trickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing organic dyes and varnishes. The combined wastewater effluent was fed to a pilot-scale trickling filter in two feeding modes, continuously and as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The biodegradability of the diluted wastewaters that were subjected to physicochemical treatment, using Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4, was initially studied using a continuously operated trickling filter. The system efficiency ranged up to 60-70% for a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m3/m2 day and up to 80-85% for a hydraulic loading 0.6 m3/m2 day. A stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 60-70% was achieved even in the case of undiluted wastewater at a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m3/m2 day. The effectiveness of biological treatment of a mixture of the company's main wastewater streams was also examined. The microorganisms developed in the trickling filter were able to efficiently remove COD levels up to 36,000 mg/L, under aerobic conditions at pH values between 5.5 and 8.0. Depending on the operating conditions of the system, about 30-60% of the total COD removal was attributed to air stripping caused by the air supply at the bottom of the filter, whereas the rest of the COD was clearly removed through biological action. The proposed biological treatment process based on a trickling filter, which was operated either continuously or even better in an SBR mode, appears as a promising pretreatment step for coping with dye manufacturing wastewaters in terms of removing a significant portion of the organic content

  8. Biological Treatment of a Synthetic Dye Water and an Industrial Textile Wastewater Containing Azo Dye Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Trevor Haig

    2001-01-01

    In this research, the ability of anaerobic and aerobic biological sludges to reduce and stabilize azo dye compounds was studied. Synthetic dye solutions and an industrial textile wastewater were both treated using anaerobic and aerobic biomass, separately and in sequential step-treatment processes. The primary objective was to reduce the wastewater color to an intensity that complies with the Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit level. This level is set at 300 Ame...

  9. The Next Wave of Biological Agents for the Treatment of IBD: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Reena; Chande, Nilesh; Vermeire, Séverine; Sandborn, William J; Parker, Claire E; Feagan, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Multiple new biological treatments for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are becoming available. Specifically, vedolizumab and ustekinumab are monoclonal antibodies that target molecular pathways relevant to disease pathogenesis. What can Cochrane reviews tell us about the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of these new agents? A Cochrane inflammatory bowel disease group symposium held at the 2015 Digestive Diseases Week annual meeting addressed these questions. This article reviews the data presented at that session. PMID:27306074

  10. Toxicity evaluation of leachate of solid waste after biological and photocatalitical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini; Simoni Micheti Geraldo; Juliana Graciani Carniato

    2007-01-01

    The final disposition of urban solid wastes is a practice that still causes serious environmental impacts generating several pollutant subproducts, such as the landfill leachate. The toxicity tests are used in the pollution control with the scope of finding the permissive concentrations of a chemical agent for the development survival of particular alive organisms. This work aims the toxicity evaluation study in leachate samples of in natura solid wastes, after biological treatment through sl...

  11. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Odes S; Greenberg D

    2014-01-01

    Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing ...

  12. High Blood Pressure in Panama: Prevalence, Sociodemographic and Biologic Profile, Treatment, and Control (STROBE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J.; Motta Borrel, Jorge A.; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E.; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A.; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was u...

  13. Optimizing biologic treatment in IBD: objective measures, but when, how and how often?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Horin, Shomron; Mao, Ren; Chen, Minhu

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of biologic agents for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was accompanied in parallel with emerging understanding of persisting underlying inflammation and ensuing bowel damage that can occur even in patients with seeming clinical remission. This lead to the concepts of mucosal healing and deep remission gaining acceptance as the more desired goals for therapy within an ambitious disease-control therapeutic approach, namely, treat-to-target strategy. Howev...

  14. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    D. Weichgrebe; S. Maerker; T. Böning; H. Stegemann

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic...

  15. On-site assessment of methods to measure gaseous emissions from biological treatment of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, N.; Mallard, Pascal; Bour, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Landfilling of biodegradable waste must decrease to fulfil the Council Directive 99/31/EC on landfills, in order to reduce the emission of gaseous and liquid pollutants during the landfill lifetime. Therefore, pre-treatment of the organic fraction of municipal waste prior to landfilling is being developed in several countries. In France, the organic fraction is either separated and treated through selective collection of biowaste, or through mechanical sorting in the plant followed by biologi...

  16. Biodrying for mechanical-biological treatment of wastes: A review of process science and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Velis, C.A.; Longhurst, Philip J.; Drew, Gillian H; Smith, Richard; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition, used within mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants to dry and partially stabilise residual municipal waste. Biodrying MBT plants can produce a high quality solid recovered fuel (SRF), high in biomass content. Here, process objectives, operating principles, reactor designs, parameters for process monitoring and control, and their effect on biodried output quality are critically examined. Within the biodrying reactors, w...

  17. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials...... for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different...... scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT...

  18. Olive oil mill wastewater purification by combination of coagulation- flocculation and biological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouani, A; Vanthournhout, M; Penninckx, M J

    2005-06-01

    In order to define an efficient pre-treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) to overcome major obstacles to biological treatment, various organic and mineral coagulants have been tested. In particular, the application of quicklime until a pH around 12 - 12.4 was reached, allowed the reduction of almost 37% of the initial COD, and approximately 88% and 71% of the colour and phenolic content of the waste. Hence, further biological treatments with an adapted aerobic consortium (AC) and a white rot fungus (WRF) strain were improved. The WRF Coriolopsis polyzona was more efficient than AC to reduce colour and polyphenols when the waste was prior diluted or pre-treated; however, it was less effective in COD removal. The combined treatment: lime - AC of OOMW having initial COD of 102 g l(-1) led to the elimination of about 77, 91 and 63%, of the COD, phenols and colour, respectively. Interestingly, the opposite combination AC - lime permitted better COD, phenols and colour reduction to respectively, 21, 11 and 11% of the initial values. This latter condition is technically recommended since only one step separation was needed and no pH correction was necessary before undergoing aerobic treatment. Moreover, the process would produce a sludge potentially rich in organic matter, and consequently, useful as an agricultural amendment or/and as an additive in animal nutrition.

  19. Effects of different temperature treatments on biological ice nuclei in snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazutaka; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Matsuki, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The heat tolerance of biological ice nucleation activity (INA) depends on their types. Different temperature treatments may cause varying degrees of inactivation on biological ice nuclei (IN) in precipitation samples. In this study, we measured IN concentration and bacterial INA in snow samples using a drop freezing assay, and compared the results for unheated snow and snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C. At a measured temperature of -7 °C, the concentration of IN in untreated snow was 100-570 L-1, whereas the concentration in snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C was 31-270 L-1 and 2.5-14 L-1, respectively. In the present study, heat sensitive IN inactivated by heating at 40 °C were predominant, and ranged 23-78% of IN at -7 °C compared with untreated samples. Ice nucleation active Pseudomonas strains were also isolated from the snow samples, and heating at 40 °C and 90 °C inactivated these microorganisms. Consequently, different temperature treatments induced varying degrees of inactivation on IN in snow samples. Differences in the concentration of IN across a range of treatment temperatures might reflect the abundance of different heat sensitive biological IN components.

  20. Treatment of waste metalworking fluid by a hybrid ozone-biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadevan, Sheeja; Graham, Nigel J; Thompson, Ian P

    2013-01-15

    In metal machining processes, the regulation of heat generation and lubrication at the contact point are achieved by application of a fluid referred to as metalworking fluid (MWF). MWFs inevitably become operationally exhausted with age and intensive use, which leads to compromised properties, thereby necessitating their safe disposal. Disposal of this waste through a biological route is an increasingly attractive option, since it is effective with relatively low energy demands. However, successful biological treatment is challenging since MWFs are chemically complex, and include biocides specifically to retard microbial deterioration whilst the fluids are operational. In this study remediation of the recalcitrant component of a semi-synthetic MWF by a novel hybrid ozone-bacteriological treatment, was investigated. The hybrid treatment proved to be effective and reduced the chemical oxygen demand by 72% (26.9% and 44.9% reduction after ozonation and biological oxidation respectively). Furthermore, a near-complete degradation of three non-biodegradable compounds (viz. benzotriazole, monoethanolamine, triethanolamine), commonly added as biocides and corrosion inhibitors in MWF formulations, under ozonation was observed. PMID:23274939

  1. Energy production from mechanical biological treatment and Composting plants exploiting solid anaerobic digestion batch: An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This work quantifies the Italian Composting and MBT facilities upgradable by SADB. ► The bioCH4 from SADB of source and mechanical selected OFMSW is of 220–360 Nl/kg VS. ► The upgrading investment cost is 30% higher for Composting than for MBT. ► Electricity costs are 0.11–0.28 €/kW h, not influenced by differentiate collection. ► Electrical energy costs are constant for SADB treating more than 30 ktons/year. - Abstract: The energetic potential of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste processed in both existing Composting plants and Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, can be successfully exploited by retrofitting these plants with the solid anaerobic digestion batch process. On the basis of the analysis performed in this study, about 50 MBT plants and 35 Composting plants were found to be suitable for retrofitting with Solid Anaerobic Digestion Batch (SADB) facilities. Currently the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) arising from the MBT facilities is about 1,100,000 tons/year, whereas that arising from differentiated collection and treated in Composting plants is about 850,000 tons/year. The SADB performances were analyzed by the aid of an experimental apparatus and the main results, in agreement with literature data, show that the biogas yield ranged from 400 to 650 Nl/kg of Volatile Solids (VS), with a methane content ranging from 55% to 60% v/v. This can lead to the production of about 500 GW h of renewable energy per year, giving a CO2 reduction of about 270,000 tons/year. From the economic point of view, the analysis shows that the mean cost of a kW h of electrical energy produced by upgrading MBT and Composting facilities with the SADB, ranges from 0.11 and 0.28 €/kW h, depending on the plant size and the amount of waste treated.

  2. Rotating biological contractor treatment of 2-nitrophenol and 2-chlorophenol containing hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) have a number of advantages over other biological treatment systems. For example, they can provide high treatment efficiencies of activated sludge systems with much lower energy inputs. Organic shock loads are handled well because large biomass is present. No bulking, foaming, or floating of sludge occurs and sludge has good settleability and dewaterability. Another advantage of RBC systems is the minimal labor requirement for operation and maintenance. Even though RBC systems have these advantages, their acceptance was slow mainly due to operational problems with the earlier units (such as shaft failures) and the lack of considerable design and operation data. A review of literature shows that there is only limited information available on the wastewater treatment with RBCs. Recently, there has been considerable contributions to the knowledge on RBC technology. However, information on the treatment of organic hazardous wastes using RBCs is still very limited. This paper reports that a considerable number of studies on the biological treatment of organic hazardous compounds was sponsored by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For example, an EPA sponsored study examined the effect of such compounds on the performance of activated sludge process. Bench-scale continuous-flow and batch units were used. Influent was settled municipal wastewater to which toxic compounds were added. In batch operations, 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol caused an increase in the effluent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) at an influent concentration of 5 mg/L. No adverse effect of 2-nitrophenol on the batch system was reports. 2-Chlorophenol was one of the compounds that upset the performance of continuous-flow activated sludge units, yielding higher than normal levels of effluent suspended solids

  3. Addiction Treatment Within U.S. Correctional Facilities: Bridging the Gap Between Current Practice and Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Rich, Josiah D

    2015-01-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners. This epidemic of incarceration is largely due to the "War on Drugs," which has resulted in criminalization of the disease of addiction. Half of prisoners have an active substance use disorder yet a minority receives formal treatment. Opioid agonist maintenance is among the most effective treatments for opioid use disorder. Maintenance treatment reduces illicit opioid use, crime, recidivism, and cost, yet few correctional facilities provide this lifesaving treatment. Increased access to opioid agonist maintenance as well as reexamination of drug policy is necessary to address this costly and morbid incarceration epidemic. PMID:26076211

  4. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  5. Influence of methanethiol on biological sulphide oxidation in gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Pawel; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic and organic sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and thiols (RSH) are unwanted components in sour gas streams (e.g. biogas and refinery gases) because of their toxicity, corrosivity and bad smell. Biological treatment processes are often used to remove H2S at small and medium scales (<50 tons per day of H2S). Preliminarily research by our group focused on achieving maximum sulphur production from biological H2S oxidation in the presence of methanethiol. In this paper the underlying principles have been further studied by assessing the effect of methanethiol on the biological conversion of H2S under a wide range of redox conditions covering not only sulphur but also sulphate-producing conditions. Furthermore, our experiments were performed in an integrated system consisting of a gas absorber and a bioreactor in order to assess the effect of methanethiol on the overall gas treatment efficiency. This study shows that methanethiol inhibits the biological oxidation of H2S to sulphate by way of direct suppression of the cytochrome c oxidase activity in biomass, whereas the oxidation of H2S to sulphur was hardly affected. We estimated the kinetic parameters of biological H2S oxidation that can be used to develop a mathematical model to quantitatively describe the biodesulphurization process. Finally, it was found that methanethiol acts as a competitive inhibitor; therefore, its negative effect can be minimized by increasing the enzyme (biomass) concentration and the substrate (sulphide) concentration, which in practice means operating the biodesulphurization systems under low redox conditions.

  6. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  7. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  8. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  9. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Thauera sp. Strain SWB20, Isolated from a Singapore Wastewater Treatment Facility Using Gel Microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Karen W.; Li, Po-E; Ahmed, Sanaa A.; Daligault, Hajnalka; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Kunde, Yuliya; McMurry, Kim; Lo, Chien-Chi; Reitenga, Krista G.; Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Shen, Xiaohong; Frietze, Seth; Wang, Dongping; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Schuster, Stephan; Chain, Patrick S.; Han, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species. PMID:25792053

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Thauera sp. Strain SWB20, Isolated from a Singapore Wastewater Treatment Facility Using Gel Microdroplets

    OpenAIRE

    Dichosa, Armand E. K.; Davenport, Karen W.; Li, Po-E; Ahmed, Sanaa A.; Daligault, Hajnalka; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Kunde, Yuliya; McMurry, Kim; Lo, Chien-Chi; Reitenga, Krista G.; Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Shen, Xiaohong; Frietze, Seth; WANG, Dongping; Johnson, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species.

  12. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  13. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  14. Dosimetric and Biologic Differences in Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam Treatment Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yue; Bassetti, Michael; Du, Kaifang; Saenz, Daniel; Harari, Paul; Paliwal, Bhudatt R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the dosimetric and biologic differences in treatment plans from flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam for three anatomic cancer sites. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy beams and volumetric modulated arc therapy beams were generated for 13 patients for both the flattened beam and the FFF beam of the TrueBeam system. Beam energies of 6 MV and 10 MV were chosen for planning. A total of 104 treatment plans were generated in 13 patients. In order to analyze the biological effectiveness of treatment plans, dose volume histograms (DVH) were utilized. Flattened and FFF beam plans are quantitatively compared. Results: In head and neck cases, for VMAT plans, dose reduction in the FFF beam plans compared to the flattened beam in left cochlea, right submandibular gland and right parotid gland reached up to 2.36 Gy, 1.21 Gy and 1.45 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for static IMRT plans, the dose reduction of the FFF beam plans com...

  15. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S; Silva, L B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepa showed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

  16. The impact of tumor biology on cancer treatment and multidisciplinary strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molls, Michael [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Vaupel, Peter [University Medical Center, Mainz (Germany). Inst. of Physiology and Pathophysiology; Nieder, Carsten [Nordlandssykehuset HF Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Internal Medicine - Oncology; Anscher, Mitchell S. (eds.) [Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2009-07-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals of tumor biology and the influence of various biologic factors, including inhomogeneity of cancer cells, microenvironment, and host factors, on the design of therapeutic strategies and the outcome of established and emerging treatments. Particular attention is devoted to multidisciplinary combined modality therapy. The topics reviewed include tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, physiology of malignant tissues, adhesion and invasion, development of metastases, and the role of the immune system in cancer development. Subsequent chapters focus on cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. The principles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapy are discussed, treatment resistance is explained, and strategies for rational combinations are provided, including the design of translational studies. Furthermore, the principles and clinical implications of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, such as gene expression profiling, gene transfer and silencing, proteomics, and molecular imaging, are presented. The chapters in this book have been written by an outstanding group of basic scientists, clinical researchers, and cancer professionals with long experience in the field. Their aim is to educate and inspire all those who devote most of their work to research into cancer and its treatment. (orig.)

  17. COD FRACTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF MECHANICAL-BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the COD fraction thereof in sewage and their changes in the effluent after further treatment processes. The study was conducted in a sewage treatment plant in Bialystok (RLM> 100000. In sewage the highest concentrations occurred in the suspension of the organic fractions slowly biodegradable XS (303.7 mg O2/l and dissolved organic compounds readily biodegradable SS (263 mg O2/l. The lower amounts were irreducible fractions dissolved in sewage and suspended SI (56 mg O2/l and XI (101.2 mg O2/l. Almost 80% of the total COD fractions were biodegradable (SS + XS. In the treated wastewater soluble fraction SI-biodegradable (56 mg O2/l occurred in the highest concentration. The flow of wastewater by components of sewage treatment plant resulted the complete removal of biologically degradable fraction of dissolved SS. More than 94.5% of the total COD in waste water purified fractions were biologically decomposable (SI + XI. Moreover, based on the analysis of studies the following soil removal was found: BOD5 – 99.4%, COD – 92.9%, total nitrogen – 93.4%, total phosphorus – 92%. After waste water treatment, ammonia nitrogen was completely removed while the nitrate concentration increased to 4.6 mg N/dm3.

  18. Mass balance to assess the efficiency of a mechanical-biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using mechanical-biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste, it is possible to significantly lower landfill volume and gas and leachate emissions. Moreover, the landfill characteristics are improved. The performance of the Mende (France) mechanical-biological treatment plant is assessed via mass balances coupled with manual sorting according to the MODECOMTM methodology and biochemical methane potential after 90 days of incubation. The site includes mechanical sorting operations, a rotary sequential bioreactor, controlled aerobic stabilisation corridors, maturation platforms, and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. Results showed that several steps could be improved: after a first sieving step, about 12% of the potentially biodegradable matter is landfilled directly without any treatment; mechanical disintegration of papers and cardboards in the rotary sequential bioreactor is insufficient and leads to a high proportion of papers and cardboards being landfilled without further treatment. Two fine fractions go through stabilisation and maturation steps. At the end of the maturation step, about 54% of the potentially biodegradable matter is degraded. The biochemical methane potential after 90 days of incubation is reduced by 81% for one of the two fine fractions and reduced by 88% for the other one. Considering the whole plant, there is a reduction of nearly 20% DM of the entering residual municipal solid waste

  19. Monitoring Drug and Antidrug Levels: A Rational Approach in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Biologic Agents Who Experience Inadequate Response While Being on a Stable Biologic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mazilu

    2014-01-01

    and ETN regarding EULAR response (P=0.002 and P=0.023, DAS28 score (P=0.002 and P=0.003, and SDAI score (P=0.001 and P=0.026. Detectable biologic drug levels correlated with a better clinical response in patients experiencing their first RA inadequate response while being on a stable biologic treatment with RTX, IFX, and ETN.

  20. Patient Preferences for Treatment of Psoriasis with Biologicals: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kromer

    Full Text Available Treatment dissatisfaction and non-adherence are common among patients with psoriasis, partly due to discordance between individual preferences and recommended treatments. However, patients are more satisfied with biologicals than with other treatments. The aim of our study was to assess patient preferences for treatment of psoriasis with biologicals by using computer-based conjoint analysis. Biologicals approved for psoriasis in Germany were decomposed into outcome (probability of 50% and 90% improvement, time until response, sustainability of success, probability of mild and severe adverse events (AE, probability of American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20 response and process attributes (treatment location, frequency, duration and delivery method. Impact of sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics and disease severity on Relative Importance Scores (RIS of each attribute was assessed with analyses of variance, post hoc tests, and multivariate regression. Averaged across the cohort of 200 participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, preferences were highest for avoiding severe AE (RIS = 17.3, followed by 90% improvement (RIS = 14.0 and avoiding mild AE (RIS = 10.5. Process attributes reached intermediate RIS (8.2-8.8. Men were more concerned about efficacy than women (50% improvement: RIS = 6.9 vs. 9.5, p = 0.008; β = -0.191, p = 0.011 in multivariate models; 90% improvement: RIS = 12.1 vs. 15.4, p = 0.002; β = -0.197, p = 0.009. Older participants judged the probability of 50% and 90% improvement less relevant than younger ones (50% improvement: Pearson's Correlation (PC = -0.161, p = 0.022; β = -0.219, p = 0.017; 90% improvement: PC = -0.155, p = 0.028; β = -0.264, p = 0.004 but worried more about severe AE (PC = 0.175, p = 0.013; β = 0.166, p = 0.082. In summary, participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were most interested in safety of biologicals, followed by efficacy, but preferences varied with sociodemographic

  1. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  2. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Inza, Isabel; Figueras, María J; Domingo, José L

    2009-09-01

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment. PMID:19346120

  3. Treatment of wastewater for removal of soluble uranium species at Cameco's Port Hope Conversion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange (IX) resin processes have been used for many years in the uranium mining industry for the recovery of uranium from both acid and alkaline leach solutions. More recently, IX processes have been shown to be an effective approach to control the uranium levels in non-process waters, such as mine water, public drinking water supply and well water. Bench scale and mini-pilot plant tests were conducted at the Cameco's Port Hope Conversion Facility to demonstrate the economic and technical viability of an IX process as an uranium remediation treatment for trace amounts of uranium in non-process laundry water. In the mini-pilot plant study, waste laundry water containing between 10 mg U/L and 200 mg U/L was treated at a rate ranging from 120 L/h to 240 L/h, using a typical 'merry-go-round' fixed-bed ion exchange system with three ion exchange columns. Each column contained 14 L of strongly basic Purolite A300 resin type II. The results indicated that the breakthrough limit, set at 0.1 mg U/L was obtained after a minimum of 1,200 equivalent bed volumes, while saturation was obtained at 3,300 equivalent bed volumes. Recovery parameters are discussed along with feed and effluent stream quality and modifications to the upstream operation. (author)

  4. GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study conducted using the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS) to analyze the criteria used for site selection for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of the analyses was to determine, based on predefined criteria, the areas on the INEL that best satisfied the criteria. The coverages used in this study were produced by importing the AutoCAD files that produced the maps for a pre site selection draft report into the GIS. The files were then converted to Arc/Info{reg_sign} GIS format. The initial analysis was made by considering all of the criteria as having equal importance in determining the areas of the INEL that would best satisfy the requirements. Another analysis emphasized four of the criteria as ``must`` criteria which had to be satisfied. Additional analyses considered other criteria that were considered for, but not included in the predefined criteria. This GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the IWPF and MLLWTF provides a logical, repeatable, and defensible approach to the determination of candidate locations for the facilities. The results of the analyses support the location of the Candidate Locations.

  5. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  6. Biologically relevant 3D tumor arrays: treatment response and the importance of stromal partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Imran; Celli, Jonathan P.; Xu, Feng; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Muzikansky, Alona; Elrington, Stefan A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Demirci, Utkan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-02-01

    The development and translational potential of therapeutic strategies for cancer is limited, in part, by a lack of biological models that capture important aspects of tumor growth and treatment response. It is also becoming increasingly evident that no single treatment will be curative for this complex disease. Rationally-designed combination regimens that impact multiple targets provide the best hope of significantly improving clinical outcomes for cancer patients. Rapidly identifying treatments that cooperatively enhance treatment efficacy from the vast library of candidate interventions is not feasible, however, with current systems. There is a vital, unmet need to create cell-based research platforms that more accurately mimic the complex biology of human tumors than monolayer cultures, while providing the ability to screen therapeutic combinations more rapidly than animal models. We have developed a highly reproducible in vitro three-dimensional (3D) tumor model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer (OvCa), which in conjunction with quantitative image analysis routines to batch-process large datasets, serves as a high throughput reporter to screen rationally-designed combination regimens. We use this system to assess mechanism-based combination regimens with photodynamic therapy (PDT), which sensitizes OvCa to chemo and biologic agents, and has shown promise in clinic trials. We show that PDT synergistically enhances carboplatin efficacy in a sequence dependent manner. In printed heterocellular cultures we demonstrate that proximity of fibroblasts enhances 3D tumor growth and investigate co-cultures with endothelial cells. The principles described here could inform the design and evaluation of mechanism-based therapeutic options for a broad spectrum of metastatic solid tumors.

  7. Treatment of complex biological mixtures with pulsed electric fields An energy transfer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a complex biological mixture and a problematic by-product because of valorisation restrictions. In order to limit its production, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were studied because of their biological effects and their potentially physico-chemical action. This work demonstrated a paradoxical phenomenon: cell lysis triggered a respirometric activation followed by a delayed lethality. This phenomenon was related to the leakage of internal compounds which were immediately bio-assimilated. At high energy expense, the plasmic membrane permeabilization led to cell death. Practically, with the technical configuration of the equipment, no hydrolysis was detected. This limitation decreases the interest for excess sludge reduction, but for the same reason, PEF cold sterilization technique can be assessed as a promising process. The representation of the electric energy transfer from electrodes to cell was exchanged by the study of mass transfer from the biological cell to the surrounding media under an electromotive force. Thus, the survival rate was modelled by a Sherwood number taking account of electrical, biological and hydraulic parameters. (author)

  8. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals.

  9. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals. PMID:26837833

  10. [Innovation in adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer: new biologic parameters, a perspective for treatment tailoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacémi, Y

    2009-01-01

    In the adjuvant setting, whole breast radiation therapy (RT) delivering 50 Gy in 5 weeks with or without a boost to the tumor bed remains the standard of care. RT indications and volume definition are generally dependant on existing prognostic factors. Except in particular cases, RT technique does not vary according to the patient or tumor biology profiles in terms of total dose, dose per fraction, fractionation, and RT duration. The challenge is to define new parameters or tumor biology profiles that will allow patient selection for more tailored RT than the 5 to 7 week standard schedules. The future issue is to define biological markers able to screen patients and tumors according to their high metastatic potential (in which the primary therapeutic challenge may not be locoregional control) and those patients that have a particular radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation for higher benefit/risk ratio. Thus, it is probable that patient profiles, tumor biology markers and gene expression profiling could provide in future an added value to conventional markers to predict patients at high-risk of local and distant recurrences who need tailored treatment or a particular sequence of adjuvant therapy.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview of Immune Mechanisms and Biological Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Bruno Rafael Ramos; Garcia, Maellin Pereira Gracindo; Nogueira, Julia Bier; Paiatto, Lisiery Negrini; Albuquerque, Cassia Galdino; Souza, Caique Lopes; Fernandes, Luís Gustavo Romani; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Simioni, Patricia Ucelli

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract associated with an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the most widely known types of IBD and have been the focus of attention due to their increasing incidence. Recent studies have pointed out genes associated with IBD susceptibility that, together with environment factors, may contribute to the outcome of the disease. In ulcerative colitis, there are several therapies available, depending on the stage of the disease. Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and cyclosporine are used to treat mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively. In Crohn's disease, drug choices are dependent on both location and behavior of the disease. Nowadays, advances in treatments for IBD have included biological therapies, based mainly on monoclonal antibodies or fusion proteins, such as anti-TNF drugs. Notwithstanding the high cost involved, these biological therapies show a high index of remission, enabling a significant reduction in cases of surgery and hospitalization. Furthermore, migration inhibitors and new cytokine blockers are also a promising alternative for treating patients with IBD. In this review, an analysis of literature data on biological treatments for IBD is approached, with the main focus on therapies based on emerging recombinant biomolecules. PMID:26339135

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT.

  13. Evaluation of treatment response for breast cancer: are we entering the era of "biological complete remission"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bian; Tao Wang; Yi Liu; Hui-Qiang Zhang; Jin-Jie Song; Shao-Hua Zhang; Shi-Kai Wu; San-Tai Song; Ze-Fei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women.The post-operative recurrence and metastasis are the leading causes of breast cancer-related mortality.In this study,we tried to explore the role of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection combination PET/CT technology evaluating the prognosis and treatment response of patients with breast cancer; meanwhile,we attempted to assess the concept of "biological complete remission" (bCR) in this regard.A 56-year-old patient with breast cancer (T2N1M1,stage Ⅳ left breast cancer,with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and lungs) received 6 cycles of salvage treatment with albumin-bound paclitaxel plus capecitabine and trastuzumab.Then,she underwent CTC detection and PET/CT for efficacy evaluation.CTC detection combination PET/CT is useful for the evaluation of the biological efficacy of therapies for breast cancer.The bCR of the patient appeared earlier than the conventional clinical imaging complete remission and promised the histological (pathological) complete remission.The integrated application of the concepts including bCR,imageological CR,and histological CR can achieve the early and accurate assessment of biological therapeutic reponse and prognosis of breast cancer.

  14. Treatment of textile effluent by chemical (Fenton's Reagent) and biological (sequencing batch reactor) oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of organic compounds and colour from a synthetic effluent simulating a cotton dyeing wastewater was evaluated by using a combined process of Fenton's Reagent oxidation and biological degradation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The experimental design methodology was first applied to the chemical oxidation process in order to determine the values of temperature, ferrous ion concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration that maximize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour removals and increase the effluent's biodegradability. Additional studies on the biological oxidation (SBR) of the raw and previously submitted to Fenton's oxidation effluent had been performed during 15 cycles (i.e., up to steady-state conditions), each one with the duration of 11.5 h; Fenton's oxidation was performed either in conditions that maximize the colour removal or the increase in the biodegradability. The obtained results allowed concluding that the combination of the two treatment processes provides much better removals of DOC, BOD5 and colour than the biological or chemical treatment alone. Moreover, the removal of organic matter in the integrated process is particularly effective when Fenton's pre-oxidation is carried out under conditions that promote the maximum increase in wastewater biodegradability.

  15. A novel process of dye wastewater treatment by linking advanced chemical oxidation with biological oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Haiming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF system to further remove organic substances in terms of discharge requirement. The results showed that 97.6% of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by the combination process was achieved at the optimum process parameters: pH of 3.5, H2O2 of 2.0 mL/L, Fe(II of 500 mg/L, 2.0 h treatment time in the Fenton’s oxidation process and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 5 h in the BAF system. Under these conditions, COD concentration of effluent was 72.6 mg/L whereas 3020 mg/L in the influent, thus meeting the requirement of treated dye wastewater discharge performed by Chinese government (less than 100 mg/L. These results obtained here suggest that the new process combining Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation may provide an economical and effective alternative for treatment of non-biodegradable industrial wastewater.

  16. Reductions of bacterial antibiotic resistance through five biological treatment processes treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Wei, Wu-Ji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are hot spots for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, limited studies have been conducted to compare the reductions of ARB and ARGs by various biological treatment processes. The study explored the reductions of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six groups of antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine) and corresponding resistance genes (vanA, aacC1, ereA, ampC, tetA, and sulI) by five bench-scale biological reactors. Results demonstrated that membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) significantly reduced ARB abundances in the ranges of 2.80∼3.54 log and 2.70∼3.13 log, respectively, followed by activated sludge (AS). Biological filter (BF) and anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) techniques led to relatively low reductions. In contrast, ARGs were not equally reduced as ARB. AS and SBR also showed significant potentials on ARGs reduction, whilst MBR and UASB could not reduce ARGs effectively. Redundancy analysis implied that the purification of wastewater quality parameters (COD, NH4 (+)-N, and turbidity) performed a positive correlation to ARB and ARGs reductions. PMID:27384166

  17. Biological groundwater treatment for chromium removal at low hexavalent chromium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Kavallari, Ioanna; Nyktari, Eleni; Kaldis, Apostolos; Panousi, Eleni; Nikitopoulos, George; Antoniou, Kornilia; Nasioka, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate biological groundwater treatment systems that will achieve hexavalent chromium reduction and total chromium removal from groundwater at hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) groundwater concentrations in the 0-200 μg/L range. Three lab-scale units operated, as sequencing batch reactors (SBR) under aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic conditions. All systems received groundwater with a Cr(VI) content of 200 μg/L. In order to support biological growth, groundwater was supplemented with milk, liquid cheese whey or a mixture of sugar and milk to achieve a COD concentration of 200 mg/L. The results demonstrate that a fully anaerobic system or an anaerobic-aerobic system dosed with simple or complex external organic carbon sources can lead to practically complete Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III). The temperature dependency of maximum Cr(VI) removal rates can be described by the Arrhenius relationship. Total chromium removal in the biological treatment systems was not complete because a significant portion of Cr(III) remained in solution. An integrated system comprising of an anaerobic SBR followed by a sand filter achieved more than 95% total chromium removal thus resulting in average effluent total and dissolved chromium concentrations of 7 μg/L and 3 μg/L, respectively. PMID:26971177

  18. Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hye Park

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA, hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF, humic-like fluorescence (HLF, the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  20. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview of Immune Mechanisms and Biological Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rafael Ramos de Mattos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract associated with an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota. Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are the most widely known types of IBD and have been the focus of attention due to their increasing incidence. Recent studies have pointed out genes associated with IBD susceptibility that, together with environment factors, may contribute to the outcome of the disease. In ulcerative colitis, there are several therapies available, depending on the stage of the disease. Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and cyclosporine are used to treat mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively. In Crohn’s disease, drug choices are dependent on both location and behavior of the disease. Nowadays, advances in treatments for IBD have included biological therapies, based mainly on monoclonal antibodies or fusion proteins, such as anti-TNF drugs. Notwithstanding the high cost involved, these biological therapies show a high index of remission, enabling a significant reduction in cases of surgery and hospitalization. Furthermore, migration inhibitors and new cytokine blockers are also a promising alternative for treating patients with IBD. In this review, an analysis of literature data on biological treatments for IBD is approached, with the main focus on therapies based on emerging recombinant biomolecules.

  1. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrist Brigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%; an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%; higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96% and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs. Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%. The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An

  2. Development of methods for treatment and conditioning of biological radioactive waste in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration of biological radioactive waste was performed in a facility manufactured in the Czech Republic for combustion of burnable, radioactive and non-radioactive residues. The equipment has shown an adequate capability for combustion of biological waste. Basic technical parameters of the incinerator SP-603 can guarantee combustion of majority of wastes from different radionuclide users in the country. To ensure proper further handling with the resulting ash, three conditioning options were studied, the bituminization process, incorporation into cement, and embedding of ash into a mixture of bituminous and cementitious materials. Mechanical properties of the conditioned ash were in good compliance with those published elsewhere. Bituminized ash exhibits lowest leachibility, followed by the ash conditioned by means of the mixed process. Potential abnormal operation conditions were evaluated and their consequences assessed. The evaluation encompassed sensitivity analysis of the consequences potentially affecting the operating staff, nearby population and the environment. Cost estimate was carried out using a national approach for the calculation. From the results it can be seen that there are no large differences between the conditioning and disposal of wastes resulting from different conditioning processes. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  3. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR.

  4. Nitrification-denitrification via nitrite pathway in biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-Bing; PENG Yong-Zhen; MENG Xiang-Sheng; YU De-shuang

    2008-01-01

    Pilot-scale studies on biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater at low temperature were conduc-ted and results showed that seawater salinity had a strong negative effect on notronomonas and nitrobacter growth, but much more on the nitrobacter. The nitrification action was mainly accomplished by nitrosomonas. Bench-scale experiments using two SBRs were carried out for further investigation under different conditions of salinities, ammonia loadings and temperatures. Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite pathway from wastewater containing 30 percent seawater was achieved, but the ammonia removal efficiency was strongly related not only to the influent ammonia loading at different salinities but also to temperatures. When the ratio of seawater to wastewater was 30 percent, and the ammonia loading was below the critical value of 0. 15 kgNH4+-N/( kgMLSS and 20℃ when the influent ammonia concentration was 60-80 mg/L and pH was 7.5-8.0.

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  6. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  7. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  8. Uranium-Loaded Water Treatment Resins: 'Equivalent Feed' at NRC and Agreement State-Licensed Uranium Recovery Facilities - 12094

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community Water Systems (CWSs) are required to remove uranium from drinking water to meet EPA standards. Similarly, mining operations are required to remove uranium from their dewatering discharges to meet permitted surface water discharge limits. Ion exchange (IX) is the primary treatment strategy used by these operations, which loads uranium onto resin beads. Presently, uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be disposed as a waste product or processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities if that licensed facility has applied for and received permission to process 'alternate feed'. The disposal of uranium-loaded resin is costly and the cost to amend a uranium recovery license to accept alternate feed can be a strong disincentive to commercial uranium recovery facilities. In response to this issue, the NRC issued a Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) to clarify the agency's policy that uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities without the need for an alternate feed license amendment when these resins are essentially the same, chemically and physically, to resins that licensed uranium recovery facilities currently use (i.e., equivalent feed). NRC staff is clarifying its current alternate feed policy to declare IX resins as equivalent feed. This clarification is necessary to alleviate a regulatory and financial burden on facilities that filter uranium using IX resin, such as CWSs and mine dewatering operations. Disposing of those resins in a licensed facility could be 40 to 50 percent of the total operations and maintenance (O and M) cost for a CWS. Allowing uranium recovery facilities to treat these resins without requiring a license amendment lowers O and M costs and captures a valuable natural resource. (authors)

  9. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs.

  11. Treatment of Municipal Wastewater by using Rotating Biological Contractors (Rbc’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A.Kadu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotating biological contactor process offers the specific advantages of a biofilm system in treatment of wastewater for removal of soluble organic substances. It is a unique adaptation of the movingmedium biofilm system which facilitates easy and effective oxygen transfer. Media in the form of several large flat or corrugated discs with biofilm attached to the surface is mounted on a common shaft partially submerged in the wastewater and rotated through contoured tanks in which wastewater flows on a continuous basis. The compactness of the system and its economical operation makes it a viable option specially suited for decentralized wastewater treatment technologies. The process optimisation and adaptability under different environmental conditions and influent characteristics remain challenging tasks for the efficient use of this technology. Oxygen is accepted to be one of the most important and often limiting substrates in an aerobic treatment process. Oxygen transfer through the water film developed on a rotating disc revealed that the oxygen transfer coefficient varies with the rotational speed and the location on the exposed disc surface. Increase of ambient temperature resulted in decrease of the oxygen mass transfer rate. The biofilm model was implemented for a three stage rotating biological contactor based on a laboratory-scale experimental set-up. The process kinetics was adopted from the Activated Sludge which represents a mixed culture biomass environment.

  12. Biological treatment of whey in an UASFF bioreactor following a three-stage RBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiye Ebrahimi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of a high strength chesses whey wastewater was investigated in a series of aerobic-anaerobic experiments. The aerobic treatment of the wastewater was conducted in a three-stage rotating biological contactor (NRBC, while the anaerobic process was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film (UASFF bioreactor. Various concentrations of wastewater with influent COD of 40 to 70 g/L were introduced into the NRBC system. Treatability of the samples at various HRTs of 8, 12 and 16 h was evaluated in the NRBC reactor. The effluent streams of the NRBC system were introduced into a UASFF bioreactor. The anaerobic treatment of pretreated samples was investigated in the UASFF at the same HRTs of 8, 12 and 16 h. The obtained results revealed that more than 53, 69 and 78% of the influent COD (50 g/L were removed in the NRBC reactor at HRTs of 8, 12 and 16 h, respectively. Maximum COD removal efficiencies of 96, 96.8, 97.4 and 96.4% were achieved in the combined systems at total HRT of 32 h for the influent COD of 40, 50, 60 and 70 g/L, respectively.

  13. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795

  14. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca2+, Na+, or NH4+ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required

  15. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  16. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  17. Postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten Irradiation Facility (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is based on the reaction occurring between the isotope 10B and thermal neutrons. A low energy neutron is captured by the nucleus and it disintegrates into two densely ionising particles, Li nucleus and He nucleus (α particle), with high biological effectiveness. On the basis of comprehensive preclinical investigations in the frame of the European Collaboration with Na2B12H11SH (BSH), as boron delivery agent, the first European phase I, clinical trial was designed at the only available epithermal beam in Europe, at the High Flux Reactor, Petten, in the Netherland. The goal of this study is to establish the safe BNCT dose for cranial tumors under defined conditions. BNCT is applied as postoperative radiotherapy in 4 fractions, after removal of the tumor for a group of patients suffering from glioblastoma, who would have no benefit from conventional treatment, but have sufficient life expectancy to detect late radiation morbidity due to BNCT. The starting dose is set at 80% of the dose where neurological effects occured in preclinical large animal experiments following a single fraction. The radiation dose will be escalated, by constant boron concentration in blood, in 4 steps for cohorts of ten patients, after an observation period of at least 6 months after the end of BNCT of the last patient of a cohort. The adverse events on healthy tissues due to BSH and due to the radiotherapy will be analysed in order to establish the maximal tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicity. Besides of the primary aim of this study the survival will be recorded. The first patient was treated in October 1997, and further four patients have been irradiated to date. The protocol design proved to be well applicable, establishing the basis for scientific evaluation, for performance of safe patient treatment in a very complex situation and for opening the possibility to perform further clinical research work on BNCT. (orig.)

  18. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and the associated occupational hygiene in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special feature of waste management in Finland has been the emphasis on the source separation of kitchen biowaste (catering waste); more than two-thirds of the Finnish population participates in this separation. Source-separated biowaste is usually treated by composting. The biowaste of about 5% of the population is handled by mechanical-biological treatment. A waste treatment plant at Mustasaari is the only plant in Finland using digestion for kitchen biowaste. For the protection of their employees, the plant owners commissioned a study on environmental factors and occupational hygiene in the plant area. During 1998-2000 the concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins and noise levels were investigated to identify possible problems at the plant. Three different work areas were investigated: the pre-processing and crushing hall, the bioreactor hall and the drying hall. Employees were asked about work-related health problems. Some problems with occupational hygiene were identified: concentrations of microbes and endotoxins may increase to levels harmful to health during waste crushing and in the bioreactor hall. Because employees complained of symptoms such as dry cough and rash or itching appearing once or twice a month, it is advisable to use respirator masks (class P3) during dusty working phases. The noise level in the drying hall exceeded the Finnish threshold value of 85 dBA. Qualitatively harmful factors for the health of employees are similar in all closed waste treatment plants in Finland. Quantitatively, however, the situation at the Mustasaari treatment plant is better than at some Finnish dry waste treatment plants. Therefore is reasonable to conclude that mechanical sorting, which produces a dry waste fraction for combustion and a biowaste fraction for anaerobic treatment, is in terms of occupational hygiene better for employees than combined aerobic treatment and dry waste treatment

  19. Use of Biologic Agents in Combination with Other Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cather, Jennifer C.; Crowley, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which is associated with a significant negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. Traditional therapies for psoriasis are often not able to meet desired treatment goals, and high-dose and/or long-term use is associated with toxicities that can result in end-organ damage. An improved understanding of the involvement of cytokines in the etiology of psoriasis has led to the development of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF...

  20. Biological Treatments: New Weapons in the Management of Monogenic Autoinflammatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vitale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, an expanding group of hereditary diseases characterized by apparently unprovoked recurrent episodes of inflammation, without high-titre autoantibodies or antigen-specific T cells, has been revolutionized by the discovery that several of these conditions are caused by mutations in proteins involved in the mechanisms of innate immune response, including components of the inflammasome, cytokine receptors, receptor antagonists, and oversecretion of a network of proinflammatory molecules. Aim of this review is to synthesize the current experience and the most recent evidences about the therapeutic approach with biologic drugs in pediatric and adult patients with monogenic autoinflammatory disorders.