WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological transport

  1. Physical and biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of sub-seabed waste disposal, it is necessary to consider the results of leakage or accidental failure to emplace the canister within the deep-sea sediments. Such accidental release is possible for any waste disposal option, and the associated risks must be evaluated so that comparisons between options can be made. Therefore, one must be able to trace the migration of escaped radionuclides from the canister site within the sediments (or possibly elsewhere for various accident events), through the sediments, water column, and ecosystem to man. Only in this way can the environmental impact of sub-seabed nuclear waste disposal be quantitatively evaluated. A mathematical model which describes this migration of radionuclides through the various transport mechanisms of the sea must be written in order to quantify the release of a given amount of waste material. This model is directed towards answering two questions. What is the effect upon the marine environment, and what is the effect upon man. These questions require a predictive capability for the levels of radioactivity in the marine biota and for the dose to man

  2. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo; Artina, Marco; Foransier, Massimo; Markowich, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation

  3. Lithium transport across biological membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1990-01-01

    Li+ is actively transported out of cells, and across different epithelia of both mammalian and amphibian origin. Due to the low affinity of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase for Li+, the transport is most likely energized by exchange and/or cotransport processes. The detailed mechanism by which Li+ is reabsorb...

  4. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo

    2015-09-15

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation and angiogenesis) and ion transportation networks (e.g., neural networks) is explained in detail and basic analytical features like the gradient flow structure of the fluid transportation network model and the impact of the model parameters on the geometry and topology of network formation are analyzed. We also present a numerical finite-element based discretization scheme and discuss sample cases of network formation simulations.

  5. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  6. Estimation of light transport parameters in biological media using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimation of light transport parameters in biological media using coherent backscattering ... backscattered light for estimating the light transport parameters of biological media has been investigated. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  7. Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, E C; Soncini, R M; Weiland, L M

    2013-01-01

    Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems. (paper)

  8. Howard Brenner's Legacy for Biological Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This talk discusses the manner in which Howard Brenner's theoretical contributions have had, and long will have, strong and direct impact on the understanding of transport processes occurring in biological systems. His early work on low Reynolds number resistance/mobility coefficients of arbitrarily shaped particles, and particles near walls and in pores, is an essential component of models of hindered diffusion through many types of membranes and tissues, and convective transport in microfluidic diagnostic systems. His seminal contributions to macrotransport (coarse-graining, homogenization) theory presaged the growing discipline of multiscale modeling. For biological systems they represent the key to infusing diffusion models of a wide variety of tissues with a sound basis in their microscopic structure and properties, often over a hierarchy of scales. Both scientific currents are illustrated within the concrete context of diffusion models of drug/chemical diffusion through the skin. This area of theory, which is key to transdermal drug development and risk assessment of chemical exposure, has benefitted very directly from Brenner's contributions. In this as in other areas, Brenner's physicochemical insight, mathematical virtuosity, drive for fully justified analysis free of ad hoc assumptions, quest for generality, and impeccable exposition, have consistently elevated the level of theoretical understanding and presentation. We close with anecdotes showing how his personal qualities and warmth helped to impart high standards of rigor to generations of grateful research students. Authors are Johannes M. Nitsche, Ludwig C. Nitsche and Gerald B. Kasting.

  9. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text.

  10. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text

  11. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  12. Frontiers in Cancer Nanomedicine: Directing Mass Transport through Biological Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The physics of mass transport within body compartments and across biological barriers differentiates cancers from healthy tissues. Variants of nanoparticles can be manufactured in combinatorially large sets, varying only one transport-affecting design parameter at a time. Nanoparticles can also be used as building blocks for systems that perform sequences of coordinated actions, in accordance to a prescribed logic. These are referred to as Logic-Embedded Vectors “(LEV)” in the following. Nanoparticles and LEVs are ideal probes for the determination of mass transport laws in tumors, acting as imaging contrast enhancers, and can be employed for the lesion-selective delivery of therapy. Their size, shape, density and surface chemistry dominate convective transport in the blood stream, margination, cell adhesion, selective cellular uptake, as well as sub-cellular trafficking and localization. As argued here, the understanding of transport differentials in cancer, termed ‘transport oncophysics’ unveils a new promising frontier in oncology: the development of lesion-specific delivery particulates that exploit mass transport differentials to deploy treatment of greater efficacy and reduced side effects. PMID:20079548

  13. A multiscale description of growth and transport in biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a growing biological tissue as an open biphasic mixture with mass exchange between phases. The solid phase is identified with the matrix of a porous medium, while the fluid phase is comprised of water, together with all the dissolved chemical substances coexisting in the pore space. We assume that chemical substances evolve according to transport mechanisms determined by kinematical and constitutive relations, and we propose to consider growth as a process able to influence transport by continuously varying the thermo-mechanic state of the tissue. By focusing on the case of anisotropic growth, we show that such an influence occurs through a continuous rearrangement of the tissue material symmetries. In order to illustrate this interaction, we restrict ourselves to diffusion-dominated transport, and we assume that the time-scales associated with growth and the transport process of interest are largely separated. This allows for performing an asymptotic analysis of the "field equations" of the system. In this framework, we provide a formal solution of the transport equation in terms of its associated Green's function, and we show how the macroscopic concentration of a given chemical substance is "modulated" by anisotropic growth. .

  14. Biological transport of curium-243 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1979-04-01

    Lactating cows and goats were used to examine the biological transport of curium-243 in dairy animals. After either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses were administered, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 144-hr priod, and the curium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of curium was estimated to be 0.02 and 0.006% of the oral dose for cows and goats, respectively. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.6 x 10 -4 and 1.9 x 10 -3 , respectively, for a cow and 2.7 x 10 -4 and 1.6 x 10 -4 , respectively, for goats. Plasma concentrations of curium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected curium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 2, 8, and 1, respectively, for a cow and 2, 5, and 5, respectively, for goats. All animals were sacrificed one week after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose and the next highest was the liver. However, in all three intravenously dosed goats the liver contained the greatest amount of curium. Nuclide deposition in bone and liver was essentially equal for two of the three orally dosed goats while the skeleton contained the most curium in the other animal. Comparisons are presented between curium-243 and americium-241 transport in dairy cows

  15. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The biological transport of radionuclides in grassland and freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, S.A.

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examines the biological transport of radionuclides through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with particular reference to radiocaesium. The semi-natural grassland habitat was located at Drigg, W. Cumbria, contaminated primarily by radioactive fallout, from several sources over the past decade. Advantage was made of the deposition of radionuclides from the Chernobyl reactor incident, which occurred during the early stages of the investigation. The study examined the distribution of radiocaesium for the major components of the grassland ecosystem, within the soil-plant-invertebrate-small mammal food chain. Data concerning temporal fluctuation of radionuclide transfer factors between food chain components are presented. The final section examines the spatial distribution of radiocaesium in sediment and the freshwater eel (Anguilla anguilla) in a small stream contaminated by radioactive effluent. The relationship between activity levels in eels and the sediments in which they rest and forage was investigated. Factors influencing uptake of radiocaesium in freshwater fish were also examined. (author)

  17. Ecological aspects of using biological diesel oil in railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Lingaitis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of various transport facilities used in Europe is rapidly growing. They release a big amount of pollutants into the atmosphere. Therefore, environment protection from these pollutants ejected by internal combustion engines is a key problem facing us today and which will be acute in the future. Biofuel is the only effective and widely used alternative fuel which can reduce pollution of the environment. The main aim of the present paper is to perform a comparative analysis of burnt gases of engines using rapeseed oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel oil and to determine ecological effectiveness of biofuel used in diesel locomotive engines in railway transport.

  18. A Glimpse of Membrane Transport through Structures-Advances in the Structural Biology of the GLUT Glucose Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nieng

    2017-08-18

    The cellular uptake of glucose is an essential physiological process, and movement of glucose across biological membranes requires specialized transporters. The major facilitator superfamily glucose transporters GLUTs, encoded by the SLC2A genes, have been a paradigm for functional, mechanistic, and structural understanding of solute transport in the past century. This review starts with a glimpse into the structural biology of membrane proteins and particularly membrane transport proteins, enumerating the landmark structures in the past 25years. The recent breakthrough in the structural elucidation of GLUTs is then elaborated following a brief overview of the research history of these archetypal transporters, their functional specificity, and physiological and pathophysiological significances. Structures of GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT5 in distinct transport and/or ligand-binding states reveal detailed mechanisms of the alternating access transport cycle and substrate recognition, and thus illuminate a path by which structure-based drug design may be applied to help discover novel therapeutics against several debilitating human diseases associated with GLUT malfunction and/or misregulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, J. L.; Cunningham, D.; Gilberry, J.; Kim, S.; Smith, E. E.; Ratnesar-Shumate, S.; Quizon, J.

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

  20. Ion transport through biological membranes an integrated theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Michael C

    1975-01-01

    This book illustrates some of the ways physics and mathematics have been, and are being, used to elucidate the underlying mechan­ isms of passive ion movement through biological membranes in general, and the membranes of excltable cells in particular. I have made no effort to be comprehensive in my introduction of biological material and the reader interested in a brief account of single cell electro­ physlology from a physically-oriented biologists viewpoint will find the chapters by Woodbury (1965) an excellent introduction. Part I is introductory in nature, exploring the basic electrical properties of inexcitable and excitable cell plasma membranes. Cable theory is utilized to illustrate the function of the non-decrementing action potential as a signaling mechanism for the long range trans­ mission of information in the nervous system, and to gain some in­ sight into the gross behaviour of neurons. The detailed analysis of Hodgkin and Huxley on the squid giant axon membrane ionic conductance properties...

  1. Molecular cell biology and physiology of solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Michael J.; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Zhang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review An enormous body of research has been focused on exploring the mechanisms through which epithelial cells establish their characteristic polarity. It is clear that under normal circumstances cell–cell contacts mediated by the calcium-dependent adhesion proteins of the intercellular adhesion junctions are required to initiate complete polarization. Furthermore, formation of the tight, or occluding, junctions that limit paracellular permeability has long been thought to help to establish polarity by preventing the diffusion of membrane proteins between the two plasmalemmal domains. This review will discuss several selected kinases and protein complexes and highlight their relevance to transporting epithelial cell polarization. Recent findings Recent work has shed new light on the roles of junctional complexes in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. In addition, work from several laboratories, suggests that the formation of these junctions is tied to processes that regulate cellular energy metabolism. Summary Junctional complexes and energy sensing kinases constitute a novel class of machinery whose capacity to generate and modulate epithelial cell polarity is likely to have wide ranging and important physiological ramifications. PMID:18695392

  2. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  3. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  4. Glucose Transport in Cultured Animal Cells: An Exercise for the Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…

  5. Waste management practices to control biological transport of radioactivity at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the goals of waste management in the Hanford Site 200 Areas is to prevent biological intrusion into, and transport from, waste storage and disposal sites. Practices established to achieve these goals include the elimination of deep-rooted vegetation on waste sites to prevent plant root intrusion into radioactivity, selective herbicide application to prevent regrowth of these plants, planting of shallow-rooted plants to successfully compete with deep-rooted plants for moisture, surface stabilization, and environmental surveillance. Past biological transport incidents have included transport by Russian thistle by way of physiological plant processes, bird access into exposed contamination, and animals burrowing into radioactive waste disposal sites. Rockwell Hanford Operations, through mitigative actions and continued surveillance, has made significant progress in eliminating, or better isolating source terms, thus preventing or inhibiting problems from recurring. Approximately 60% of source term acreage requiring stabilization or decontamination has been completed

  6. Generalized Fokker-Planck theory for electron and photon transport in biological tissues: application to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrant, Edgar; Frank, Martin

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we study a deterministic method for particle transport in biological tissues. The method is specifically developed for dose calculations in cancer therapy and for radiological imaging. Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory [Leakeas and Larsen, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 137 (2001), pp. 236-250] has been developed to improve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation in cases where scattering is forward-peaked and where there is a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering. We compare grid-based numerical solutions to FP and GFP in realistic medical applications. First, electron dose calculations in heterogeneous parts of the human body are performed. Therefore, accurate electron scattering cross sections are included and their incorporation into our model is extensively described. Second, we solve GFP approximations of the radiative transport equation to investigate reflectance and transmittance of light in biological tissues. All results are compared with either Monte Carlo or discrete-ordinates transport solutions.

  7. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: subsurface transport program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobber, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    Because natural processes associated with the release and the transport of organic compounds, trace metals, and radionuclides are incompletely understood, research in this area is critical if the long term scientific uncertainties about contaminant transport are to be resolved. The processes that control mobilization and attenuation of energy residuals in soils and geological strata, their hydrological transport to and within ground water regimes, and their accumulation in biological systems require research attention. A summary of DOE's core research program is described. It is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical hydrological, and biophysical mechanics that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in natural systems can be understood

  8. Prevention of biological transport of radioactivity in the Hanford 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Wheeler, R.E.; Elder, R.E.; Osborne, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental surveillance in the Hanford 200 Areas is conducted, in part, to determine the potential impact on the environment following biological intrusion into, and transport from, radioactive waste containment systems; and to initiate mitigative action to decontaminate the environment, eliminate the source term, and/or prevent future intrusion. Biological transport incidents have included assimilation by Russian thistle via physiological plant processes and subsequent dispersal by winds, bird access into exposed contamination, and animals burrowing into radioactive waste disposal sites. Rockwell Hanford Operations, through mitigative actions and continued surveillance, has made significant progress in eliminating, or better isolating, source terms, thus preventing such incidents from recurring. Approximately 60% of source-term acreage requiring stabilization or decontamination has been completed. 5 references, 3 tables

  9. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  10. Ion Transport across Biological Membranes by Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelczak, Marcin P; Danks, Stephen P; Klipp, Robert C; Belic, Domagoj; Zaulet, Adnana; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Bradley, Dan F; Tsukuda, Tatsuya; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Abramson, Jonathan J; Brust, Mathias

    2017-12-26

    Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2-3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made either with a potentiostat in an electrochemical cell or by competition with another partitioning ion, for example, potassium in the presence of its specific transporter valinomycin. Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles have a ligand shell full of voids, which stem from the packing of near spherical ligands on a near spherical metal core. These voids are normally filled with sodium or potassium ions, and the charge is overcompensated by excess electrons in the metal core. The anionic particles are therefore able to take up and release a certain payload of cations and to adjust their net charge accordingly. It is demonstrated by potential-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy that polarized phospholipid membranes of vesicles can be depolarized by ion transport mediated by the particles. It is also shown that the particles act as alkali-ion-specific transporters across free-standing membranes under potentiostatic control. Magnesium ions are not transported.

  11. Evaluating biological transport of radionuclides at low-level waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the long-term impact of biological processes at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. As part of this effort, we developed order-of-magnitude estimates of dose-to-man resulting from animal burrowing activity and plant translocation of radionuclides. Reference low-level waste sites in both arid and humid areas of the United States were examined. The results of our evaluation for generalized arid LLW burial site are presented here. Dose-to-man estimates resulting from biotic transport are compared with doses calculated from human intrusion exposure scenarios. Dose-to-man estimates, as a result of biotic transport, are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at LLW sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by our findings. These results indicate that biotic transport has the long-term potential to mobilize radionuclides. Therefore, biotic transport should be carefully evaluated during burial site assessment

  12. Suitability of Commercial Transport Media for Biological Pathogens under Nonideal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Hubbard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive data to support the use of commercial transport media as a stabilizer for known clinical samples; however, there is little information to support their use outside of controlled conditions specified by the manufacturer. Furthermore, there is no data to determine the suitability of said media for biological pathogens, specifically those of interest to the US military. This study evaluates commercial off-the-shelf (COTS transport media based on sample recovery, viability, and quality of nucleic acids and peptides for nonpathogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, in addition to ricin toxin. Samples were stored in COTS, PBST, or no media at various temperatures over an extended test period. The results demonstrate that COTS media, although sufficient for the preservation of nucleic acid and proteinaceous material, are not capable of maintaining an accurate representation of biothreat agents at the time of collection.

  13. Structural Biology Meets Drug Resistance: An Overview on Multidrug Resistance Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman

    2017-01-01

    . Research on the underlying causes of multidrug resistance in cancerous cells and later on in infectious bacteria revealed the involvement of integral membrane transporters, capable of recognizing a broad range of structurally different molecules as substrates and exporting them from the cell using cellular...... superfamilies, viz., ATP-binding cassette superfamily, major facilitator superfamily and resistance nodulation division superfamily are presented. Further, the future role of structural biology in improving our understanding of drug-transporter interactions and in designing novel inhibitors against MDR pump...... century, mankind has become aware and confronted with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In parallel to the failure of antibiotic therapy against infectious pathogens, there had been continuous reports of cancerous cells not responding to chemotherapy with increase in the duration of therapy...

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of trans-3-phenyl-1-indanamines as potential norepinephrine transporter imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConathy, Jonathan; Owens, Michael J.; Kilts, Clinton D.; Malveaux, Eugene J.; Votaw, John R.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of radioligands suitable for studying the central nervous system (CNS) norepinephrine transporter (NET) in vivo will provide important new tools for examining the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Towards this end, a series of trans-3-phenyl-1-indanamine derivatives were prepared and evaluated in vitro. The biological properties of the most promising compound, [ 11 C]3-BrPA, were investigated in rat biodistribution and nonhuman primate PET studies. Despite high in vitro affinity for the human NET, the uptake of [ 11 C]3-BrPA in the brain and the heart was not displaceable with pharmacological doses of NET antagonists

  15. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport

  16. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  17. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat

    2014-06-01

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-05-04

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  19. Tracking of Short Distance Transport Pathways in Biological Tissues by Ultra-Small Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segmehl, Jana S.; Lauria, Alessandro; Keplinger, Tobias; Berg, John K.; Burgert, Ingo

    2018-03-01

    In this work, ultra-small europium-doped HfO2 nanoparticles were infiltrated into native wood and used as trackers for studying penetrability and diffusion pathways in the hierarchical wood structure. The high electron density, laser induced luminescence, and crystallinity of these particles allowed for a complementary detection of the particles in the cellular tissue. Confocal Raman microscopy and high-resolution synchrotron scanning wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements were used to detect the infiltrated particles in the native wood cell walls. This approach allows for simultaneously obtaining chemical information of the probed biological tissue and the spatial distribution of the integrated particles. The in-depth information about particle distribution in the complex wood structure can be used for revealing transport pathways in plant tissues, but also for gaining better understanding of modification treatments of plant scaffolds aiming at novel functionalized materials.

  20. Transport phenomena and kinetic theory applications to gases, semiconductors, photons, and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabetta, Ester

    2007-01-01

    The study of kinetic equations related to gases, semiconductors, photons, traffic flow, and other systems has developed rapidly in recent years because of its role as a mathematical tool in many applications in areas such as engineering, meteorology, biology, chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, and pharmacy. Written by leading specialists in their respective fields, this book presents an overview of recent developments in the field of mathematical kinetic theory with a focus on modeling complex systems, emphasizing both mathematical properties and their physical meaning. The overall presentation covers not only modeling aspects and qualitative analysis of mathematical problems, but also inverse problems, which lead to a detailed assessment of models in connection with their applications, and to computational problems, which lead to an effective link of models to the analysis of real-world systems. "Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory" is an excellent self-study reference for graduate students, re...

  1. Metal-like transport in proteins: A new paradigm for biological electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvankar, Nikhil; Vargas, Madeline; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Electron flow in biologically proteins generally occurs via tunneling or hopping and the possibility of electron delocalization has long been discounted. Here we report metal-like transport in protein nanofilaments, pili, of bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens that challenges this long-standing belief [1]. Pili exhibit conductivities comparable to synthetic organic metallic nanostructures. The temperature, magnetic field and gate-voltage dependence of pili conductivity is akin to that of quasi-1D disordered metals, suggesting a metal-insulator transition. Magnetoresistance (MR) data provide evidence for quantum interference and weak localization at room temperature, as well as a temperature and field-induced crossover from negative to positive MR. Furthermore, pili can be doped with protons. Structural studies suggest the possibility of molecular pi stacking in pili, causing electron delocalization. Reducing the disorder increases the metallic nature of pili. These electronically functional proteins are a new class of electrically conductive biological proteins that can be used to generate future generation of inexpensive and environmentally-sustainable nanomaterials and nanolectronic devices such as transistors and supercapacitors. [1] Malvankar et al. Nature Nanotechnology, 6, 573-579 (2011)

  2. A multiscale analysis of nutrient transport and biological tissue growth in vitro

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dea, R. D.

    2014-10-15

    © The authors 2014. In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenization method to accommodate explicitly the influence of the underlying microscale structure of the material, and its evolution, on the macroscale dynamics. Such methods have been widely used to study porous and poroelastic materials; however, a distinguishing feature of biological tissue is its ability to remodel continuously in response to local environmental cues. Here, we present the derivation of a model broadly applicable to tissue engineering applications, characterized by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in porous scaffolds used within tissue culture systems, which we use to study coupling between fluid flow, nutrient transport, and microscale tissue growth. Attention is restricted to surface accretion within a rigid porous medium saturated with a Newtonian fluid; coupling between the various dynamics is achieved by specifying the rate of microscale growth to be dependent upon the uptake of a generic diffusible nutrient. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Darcy-type equation governing fluid flow, with flow characteristics dictated by the assumed periodic microstructure and surface growth rate of the porous medium, coupled to an advection-reaction equation specifying the nutrient concentration. Illustrative numerical simulations are presented to indicate the influence of microscale growth on macroscale dynamics, and to highlight the importance of including experimentally relevant microstructural information to correctly determine flow dynamics and nutrient delivery in tissue engineering applications.

  3. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  4. Transport of biologically important nutrients by wind in an eroding cold desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Benner, Shawn G.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion following fire is an important landscape process that can result in the redistribution of ecologically important soil resources. In this study we evaluated the potential for a fire patch in a desert shrubland to serve as a source of biologically important nutrients to the adjacent, downwind, unburned ecosystem. We analyzed nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al) in wind-transported sediments, and soils from burned and adjacent unburned surfaces, collected during the first to second growing seasons after a wildfire that burned in 2007 in Idaho, USA in sagebrush steppe; a type of cold desert shrubland. We also evaluated the timing of potential wind erosion events and weather conditions that might have contributed to nutrient availability in downwind shrubland. Findings indicated that post-fire wind erosion resulted in an important, but transient, addition of nutrients on the downwind shrubland. Aeolian sediments from the burned area were enriched relative to both the up- and down-wind soil and indicated the potential for a fertilization effect through the deposition of the nutrient-enriched sediment during the first, but not second, summer after wildfire. Weather conditions that could have produced nutrient transport events might have provided increased soil moisture necessary to make nutrients accessible for plants in the desert environment. Wind transport of nutrients following fire is likely important in the sagebrush steppe as it could contribute to pulses of resource availability that might, for example, affect plant species differently depending on their phenology, and nutrient- and water-use requirements.

  5. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  6. Biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelghani, A.; Hartley, W.; Bart, H.; Ide, C.; Ellgaard, E.; Sherry, T.; Devall, M.; Thien, L.; Horner, E.; Mizell, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the cluster investigators is to develop a dynamic model for the evaluation of the biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity from multiple chemical contamination of the Mississippi River Basin. To develop this environmental model, FY 93-94 most of cluster investigators focused on Devil's Swamp Site (DSS), a cypress swamp which lies just Northwest of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, adjacent to the Mississippi River. The DSS which includes a man-made lake has contaminated sediment, water and biota. The DSS receives flood water from the Mississippi River during high flow periods and the Baton Rouge Bayou drains through the DSS. The DSS receives toxic substances and hazardous waste from a wide variety of surrounding industrial operations including an abandoned hazardous waste disposal facility. In addition, some investigators studied Bayou Trepangnier. This research cluster will continue studying Devil Swamp. The large number of investigators in this cluster resulted from incorporating related research proposals based on reviewer recommendations. The specific aims of the cluster for the first year were to conduct a physical, chemical, ecological survey and baseline toxicological characterization of the DSS from existing databases maintained by State and federal agencies, field studies (assessment) of sediment, air, water and biota, and laboratory screening studios. This assessment will provide critical information and focus for the next two years in-depth studies of critical transport and fate processes, ecotoxicity, biomarkers of effect, and uptake, metabolism and distribution of toxicants. The primary significant outcome of the cluster researchers will be the development of an ecological risk assessment model combining biotic and physical/chemical variables for DSS with a projection of model reliability and accuracy for use at other typical Mississippi River Basin sites

  7. Summer nitrogenous nutrient transport and its fate in the Taiwan Strait: A coupled physical-biological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hong, Huasheng; Jiang, Yuwu; Chai, Fei; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the fate of nutrients in the Taiwan Strait during summer, we built a coupled physical-biological numerical ocean model, which can capture the basic hydrographic and biological features within the strait. The nutrient that we chose to model is dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The model includes individual reservoirs for nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4). Both the observational evidence and model results show that NO3 in the strait originates primarily from the upwelling subsurface water in the northern South China Sea (SCS) that enters the strait via the eastern and western routes separated by the Taiwan Bank. The coupled physical and biological effects on the NO3 transport at these two routes are highlighted in the study. For the western route, the shallow topography and the coastal upwelling intensify the biological uptake of NO3 in the whole water column. Consequently, the nitrogenous contribution by this route is mainly in form of the particulate organic nitrogen (PON). In contrast, NO3 is transported conservatively below the nitricline at the deep eastern route, contributing the whole NO3 supply in the TWS. The model estimates the fluxes of DIN and PON into the TWS, from the northern SCS, are 1.8 and 4 kmol s-1, respectively. Over half (˜1 kmol s-1) of the DIN is synthesized into PON by the phytoplankton in the strait. Overall, this study estimates the physical and biological effects on the nutrient transport in the TWS during summer.

  8. Permeating disciplines: Overcoming barriers between molecular simulations and classical structure-function approaches in biological ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Delemotte, Lucie; Hellmich, Ute A; Rothberg, Brad S

    2018-04-01

    Ion translocation across biological barriers is a fundamental requirement for life. In many cases, controlling this process-for example with neuroactive drugs-demands an understanding of rapid and reversible structural changes in membrane-embedded proteins, including ion channels and transporters. Classical approaches to electrophysiology and structural biology have provided valuable insights into several such proteins over macroscopic, often discontinuous scales of space and time. Integrating these observations into meaningful mechanistic models now relies increasingly on computational methods, particularly molecular dynamics simulations, while surfacing important challenges in data management and conceptual alignment. Here, we seek to provide contemporary context, concrete examples, and a look to the future for bridging disciplinary gaps in biological ion transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary; Erikson, Li H.; Wan, Elmira; Powell, Charles; Maddocks, Rosalie F.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although conventional sediment parameters (mean grain size, sorting, and skewness) and provenance have typically been used to infer sediment transport pathways, most freshwater, brackish, and marine environments are also characterized by abundant sediment constituents of biological, and possibly anthropogenic and volcanic, origin that can provide additional insight into local sedimentary processes. The biota will be spatially distributed according to its response to environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon content, grain size, and intensity of currents and tidal flow, whereas the presence of anthropogenic and volcanic constituents will reflect proximity to source areas and whether they are fluvially- or aerially-transported. Because each of these constituents have a unique environmental signature, they are a more precise proxy for that source area than the conventional sedimentary process indicators. This San Francisco Bay Coastal System study demonstrates that by applying a multi-proxy approach, the primary sites of sediment transport can be identified. Many of these sites are far from where the constituents originated, showing that sediment transport is widespread in the region. Although not often used, identifying and interpreting the distribution of naturally-occurring and allochthonous biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic sediment constituents is a powerful tool to aid in the investigation of sediment transport pathways in other coastal systems.

  10. Estimates of direct biological transport of radioactive waste in the deep sea with special reference to organic carbon budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, G.T.; Shepherd, J.; Needler, G.; Hargrave, B.; Marietta, M.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations can be made for the maximum theoretical transport of pollutants such as radionuclides by movement of organisms out of a deep-sea benthic boundary layer dump site based on a presumption of a steady state organic carbon budget and estimated biological concentration factors. A calculated flux rate depends on the difference between a limiting input of organic matter and that carbon used by the biota or accumulating in the sediment. On average, the potential biological mass transport is low compared to physical transport. Exceptions to this generalization are possible in the far field after spatial gradients are obliterated or if natural mass migrations or periodic spawning concentrations occur in the near field. Biologically mediated fluxes of contaminants due to mixing of sediments by bioturbation or vertical flux due to scavenging by sinking particles are significant for movements of pollutants to and from sediments. These pathways contribute to the direct input of contaminants into food webs which may contain harvestable species. These fluxes are unimportant for mass transfers in the ocean but they determine the exposure of critical groups to contaminants

  11. Quantitative Modeling of Membrane Transport and Anisogamy by Small Groups Within a Large-Enrollment Organismal Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Haag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative modeling is not a standard part of undergraduate biology education, yet is routine in the physical sciences. Because of the obvious biophysical aspects, classes in anatomy and physiology offer an opportunity to introduce modeling approaches to the introductory curriculum. Here, we describe two in-class exercises for small groups working within a large-enrollment introductory course in organismal biology. Both build and derive biological insights from quantitative models, implemented using spreadsheets. One exercise models the evolution of anisogamy (i.e., small sperm and large eggs from an initial state of isogamy. Groups of four students work on Excel spreadsheets (from one to four laptops per group. The other exercise uses an online simulator to generate data related to membrane transport of a solute, and a cloud-based spreadsheet to analyze them. We provide tips for implementing these exercises gleaned from two years of experience.

  12. Unconventional transport routes of soluble and membrane proteins and their role in developmental biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pompa, A.; De Marchis, F.; Pallotta, M. T.; Benitez-Alfonso, Y.; Jones, A.; Schipper, K.; Moreau, K.; Žárský, Viktor; Di Sansebastiano, G. P.; Bellucci, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 703. E-ISSN 1422-0067 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Autophagy * Exosomes * Intercellular channels * Leaderless proteins * Protein secretion * Trafficking mechanisms * Unconventional secretion Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  13. Zebrafish as a visual and dynamic model to study the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across the biological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tongkai; Yi, Xiang; Wang, Ruibing; Zhao, Haitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Xueqing; Zheng, Ying

    2017-08-01

    With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations. Based on our previously established coumarin 6 nanocrystals (C6-NCs), which have two different sizes, the present study investigates the transportation of C6-NCs across four biological barriers, including the chorion, blood brain barrier (BBB), blood retinal barrier (BRB) and gastrointestinal (GI) barrier, using zebrafish embryos and larvae as in vivo models. The biodistribution and elimination of C6 from different organs were quantified in adult zebrafish. The results showed that compared to 200nm C6-NCs, 70nm C6-NCs showed better permeability across these biological barriers. A FRET study suggested that intact C6-NCs together with the free dissolved form of C6 were absorbed into the larval zebrafish. More C6 was accumulated in different organs after incubation with small sized NCs via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis in adult zebrafish, which is consistent with the findings from in vitro cell monolayers and the zebrafish larvae model. C6-NCs could be gradually eliminated in each organ over time. This study demonstrated the successful application of zebrafish as a simple and dynamic model to simultaneously assess the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across several biological barriers and biodistribution in different organs, especially in the brain, which could be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug and delivery system screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  14. Additional transport channel of carbon ions for biological research at the Nuclotron of JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, I.P.; Panasik, V.A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction of the 12 C +6 beam transport line for biomedical research at the Nuclotron accelerator complex, JINR. We have studied the scheme and modes of magneto-optical elements of the channel. The results of calculations of the investigated beam transport of carbon ions are presented. The algorithms to control the carbon ion beam in the transportation system are discussed. The choice of the magneto-optical system is motivated. The graphs of the beam envelopes in the channel are given. The scanning control beam functions are considered

  15. Additional transport channel of carbon ions for biological research at the Nuclotron of JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, I.P.; Panasik, V.A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction of the beam 12 C +6 transport line for biomedical research at the Nuclotron accelerator complex, JINR. We have studied the scheme and modes of magneto-optical elements of the channel. The results of calculations of the investigated beam transport of carbon ions are presented. The algorithms to control the carbon ion beam in the transportation system are discussed. The choice of the magneto-optical system is motivated. The graphs of the beam envelopes in the channel are given. The scanning control beam functions are considered

  16. A multiscale analysis of nutrient transport and biological tissue growth in vitro

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dea, R. D.; Nelson, M. R.; El Haj, A. J.; Waters, S. L.; Byrne, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    © The authors 2014. In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenization method to accommodate explicitly the influence

  17. Simulation of biological flow and transport in complex geometries using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebotich, David

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simulation capability to model multiscale flow and transport in complex biological systems based on algorithms and software infrastructure developed under the SciDAC APDEC CET. The foundation of this work is a new hybrid fluid-particle method for modeling polymer fluids in irregular microscale geometries that enables long-time simulation of validation experiments. Both continuum viscoelastic and discrete particle representations have been used to model the constitutive behavior of polymer fluids. Complex flow environment geometries are represented on Cartesian grids using an implicit function. Direct simulation of flow in the irregular geometry is then possible using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods without loss of geometric detail. This capability has been used to simulate biological flows in a variety of application geometries including biomedical microdevices, anatomical structures and porous media

  18. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E≥ 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author)

  19. Fluctuation-Driven Transport in Biological Nanopores. A 3D Poisson–Nernst–Planck Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Aguilella-Arzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Living systems display a variety of situations in which non-equilibrium fluctuations couple to certain protein functions yielding astonishing results. Here we study the bacterial channel OmpF under conditions similar to those met in vivo, where acidic resistance mechanisms are known to yield oscillations in the electric potential across the cell membrane. We use a three-dimensional structure-based theoretical approach to assess the possibility of obtaining fluctuation-driven transport. Our calculations show that remarkably high voltages would be necessary to observe the actual transport of ions against their concentration gradient. The reasons behind this are the mild selectivity of this bacterial pore and the relatively low efficiencies of the oscillating signals characteristic of membrane cells (random telegraph noise and thermal noise.

  20. Determination of biological transport of oxygen-15 and carbon-11 generated in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambeau, B.; Bennett, G.W.; Archambeau, J.O.

    1976-02-01

    The distribution of induced 15 O and 11 C activity in live and dead rats was determined following local irradiation with a 32 MeV proton beam. Results indicate that rapid biological redistribution of some of the induced activity occurs within a minute following irradiation. Sufficient activity remains, bound in the intracellular water, to define the proton beam in tissue. Thus, mapping of the induced 15 O activity proves to be a valid means of beam localization

  1. Review of biokinetic and biological transport of transuranic radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Cross, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Present understanding of the uptake, retention, and loss of transuranic radionuclides by marine biota is limited. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that for certain species assimilation of plutonium and americium from labeled food is an efficient process and that direct uptake from seawater is important in the bioaccumulation of all transuranic radionuclides studied to date. Organisms appear to play an important role in the vertical transport of these radioelements from the surface layers of the ocean to greater depths

  2. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  3. Water versus DNA A new deal for proton transport modeling in biological matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, C; Quinto, M A; Monti, J M; Galassi, M E; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D; Week, P F

    2015-01-01

    Water vapor is a common surrogate of DNA for modeling the proton-induced ionizing processes in living tissue exposed to radiations. The present study aims at scrutinizing the validity of this approximation and then revealing new insights into proton-induced energy transfers by a comparative analysis between water and realistic biological medium. In this context, self-consistent quantum mechanical modeling of the ionization and electron capture processes is reported within the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state framework for both isolated water molecules and DNA components impacted by proton beams. (paper)

  4. Preparation, characterization, biological activity, and transport study of polystyrene based calcium–barium phosphate composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Mohammad Mujahid Ali; Rafiuddin,, E-mail: rafi_amu@rediffmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Calcium–barium phosphate (CBP) composite membrane with 25% polystyrene was prepared by co-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the membrane. The membrane was found to be crystalline in nature with consistent arrangement of particles and no indication of visible cracks. The electrical potentials measured across the composite membrane in contact with univalent electrolytes (KCl, NaCl and LiCl), have been found to increase with decrease in concentrations. Thus the membrane was found to be cation-selective. Transport properties of developed membranes may be utilized for the efficient desalination of saline water and more importantly demineralization process. The antibacterial study of this composite membrane shows good results for killing the disease causing bacteria along with waste water treatment. Highlights: • Transport properties of composite membrane are evaluated. • The composite membrane was found to be stable in all media. • TMS method is used for electrochemical characterization. • The membrane was found to be cation selective. • The order of surface charge density was found to be LiCl < NaCl < KCl.

  5. Divalent Metal Ion Transport across Large Biological Ion Channels and Their Effect on Conductance and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Giménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological characterization of large protein channels, usually displaying multi-ionic transport and weak ion selectivity, is commonly performed at physiological conditions (moderate gradients of KCl solutions at decimolar concentrations buffered at neutral pH. We extend here the characterization of the OmpF porin, a wide channel of the outer membrane of E. coli, by studying the effect of salts of divalent cations on the transport properties of the channel. The regulation of divalent cations concentration is essential in cell metabolism and understanding their effects is of key importance, not only in the channels specifically designed to control their passage but also in other multiionic channels. In particular, in porin channels like OmpF, divalent cations modulate the efficiency of molecules having antimicrobial activity. Taking advantage of the fact that the OmpF channel atomic structure has been resolved both in water and in MgCl2 aqueous solutions, we analyze the single channel conductance and the channel selectivity inversion aiming to separate the role of the electrolyte itself, and the counterion accumulation induced by the protein channel charges and other factors (binding, steric effects, etc. that being of minor importance in salts of monovalent cations become crucial in the case of divalent cations.

  6. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  7. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  8. Biological transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to Lake Ellasjoeen, Bjoernoeya (Bear Island), Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A.; Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva, Tromso (Norway); Kallenborn, R. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Herzke, D. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Tromso (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    During recent years, multidisciplinary studies have been carried out on Bjoernoeya (Bear Island, Norway), elucidating the fate and the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in this pristine Arctic environment. High concentrations of POPs, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-dichlorethane (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been measured in sediment and biota from Ellasjoeen, a lake located in the southern, mountainous part of Bjoernoeya. In Lake Oeyangen, located only 6 km north of Ellasjoeen on the central plains of the island, levels of POPs are several times lower than in Ellasjoeen. One reason for the different POP contamination levels in Ellasjoeen and Oeyangen is probably differences in precipitation regime between the southern mountainous part of the island and the central plains further north, leading to differences in the deposition of air transported contaminants. Another possible source for contaminants to Ellasjoeen is the large colonies of seabirds (mainly kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), little auk (Alle alle) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)), which are situated close to the lake during the ice-free period (early June - October). These seabirds feed in the marine environment, and deposit large amounts of guano (excrements) directly into the lake or in the catchment area of the lake. Oeyangen is not influenced by seabirds. There are two ways in which input from seabirds can lead to higher levels of POPs in Ellasjoeen: direct input of POPs through allochthonous material (guano, bird remains) a change in trophic state of the lake as a result of nutrient loadings from the seabirds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of guano as a transport medium for POPs to Ellasjoeen. Two main approaches were followed: an investigation of the trophic status of Ellasjoeen, as well as the reference lake, Oeyangen, through analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, analyses of selected

  9. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal; Hicks, Kristin A.; Barlaz, Morton A.; De Los Reyes, Francis Delos De Los

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  12. Giant larvaceans: biologically equivalent flapping flexible foils exhibit bending modes that enhance fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, Kakani; Sherman, Alana; Robison, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet remains one of the least explored. Little-known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed life strategies that contribute to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. A group of midwater organisms, known as giant larvaceans (genus Bathochordaeus), beat their tails to drive food and particle-laden water through complex, mucus filtering structures to feed. Giant larvaceans, whose motion and kinematics resemble flapping flexible foils, range in size from 1 to 10 cm in length, and can be found between the surface and 400 m. Using remotely-operated vehicles and DeepPIV, an instrument that enables in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, the filtration rates and kinematics of giant larvaceans were investigated. These measurements yielded filtration rates for giant larvaceans as high as 80 L/hr, which exceeds expected filtration rates by a factor of 2 when compared with other larvacean groups. Comparing tail kinematics between Bathochordeaus and smaller larvaceans reveals differences in tail bending modes, where a hinge is present throughout the tail beat in giant larvaceans. Using laboratory PIV measurements with swimming animals and soft-bodied mechanical mimics, we reveal how these differences in tail kinematics can lead to enhanced fluid transport. This work has been supported by the Packard Foundation.

  13. FOB-SH: Fragment orbital-based surface hopping for charge carrier transport in organic and biological molecules and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.; Gajdos, F.; Blumberger, J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a fragment orbital-based fewest switches surface hopping method, FOB-SH, designed to efficiently simulate charge carrier transport in strongly fluctuating condensed phase systems such as organic semiconductors and biomolecules. The charge carrier wavefunction is expanded and the electronic Hamiltonian constructed in a set of singly occupied molecular orbitals of the molecular sites that mediate the charge transfer. Diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian (site energies) are obtained from a force field, whereas the off-diagonal or electronic coupling matrix elements are obtained using our recently developed analytic overlap method. We derive a general expression for the exact forces on the adiabatic ground and excited electronic state surfaces from the nuclear gradients of the charge localized electronic states. Applications to electron hole transfer in a model ethylene dimer and through a chain of ten model ethylenes validate our implementation and demonstrate its computational efficiency. On the larger system, we calculate the qualitative behaviour of charge mobility with change in temperature T for different regimes of the intermolecular electronic coupling. For small couplings, FOB-SH predicts a crossover from a thermally activated regime at low temperatures to a band-like transport regime at higher temperatures. For higher electronic couplings, the thermally activated regime disappears and the mobility decreases according to a power law. This is interpreted by a gradual loss in probability for resonance between the sites as the temperature increases. The polaron hopping model solved for the same system gives a qualitatively different result and underestimates the mobility decay at higher temperatures. Taken together, the FOB-SH methodology introduced here shows promise for a realistic investigation of charge carrier transport in complex organic, aqueous, and biological systems.

  14. FOB-SH: Fragment orbital-based surface hopping for charge carrier transport in organic and biological molecules and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.; Gajdos, F.; Blumberger, J., E-mail: j.blumberger@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-14

    We introduce a fragment orbital-based fewest switches surface hopping method, FOB-SH, designed to efficiently simulate charge carrier transport in strongly fluctuating condensed phase systems such as organic semiconductors and biomolecules. The charge carrier wavefunction is expanded and the electronic Hamiltonian constructed in a set of singly occupied molecular orbitals of the molecular sites that mediate the charge transfer. Diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian (site energies) are obtained from a force field, whereas the off-diagonal or electronic coupling matrix elements are obtained using our recently developed analytic overlap method. We derive a general expression for the exact forces on the adiabatic ground and excited electronic state surfaces from the nuclear gradients of the charge localized electronic states. Applications to electron hole transfer in a model ethylene dimer and through a chain of ten model ethylenes validate our implementation and demonstrate its computational efficiency. On the larger system, we calculate the qualitative behaviour of charge mobility with change in temperature T for different regimes of the intermolecular electronic coupling. For small couplings, FOB-SH predicts a crossover from a thermally activated regime at low temperatures to a band-like transport regime at higher temperatures. For higher electronic couplings, the thermally activated regime disappears and the mobility decreases according to a power law. This is interpreted by a gradual loss in probability for resonance between the sites as the temperature increases. The polaron hopping model solved for the same system gives a qualitatively different result and underestimates the mobility decay at higher temperatures. Taken together, the FOB-SH methodology introduced here shows promise for a realistic investigation of charge carrier transport in complex organic, aqueous, and biological systems.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of transmembrane transport of chemical components in Chinese herbs and the function of platycodin D in a biological membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Yang

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The Martini force field was successfully applied to the study of the interaction between herbal compounds and a biological membrane. By combining the dynamics equilibrium morphology, the distribution of drugs inside and outside the biomembrane, and the interaction sites of drugs on the DPPC bilayer, factors influencing transmembrane transport of drugs were elucidated and the function of platycodin D in a biological membrane was reproduced.

  16. Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological monitoring of the deposition and transport of radioactive aerosol particles in the Chernobyl NPP zone of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorova, N.V.; Garger, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Plants are one of the main links in the trophic chains of radionuclide transport. The role of plants in such transport was studied mainly in relation to soluble compounds of radionuclides, or to global fallout in which radionuclides were in soluble or exchangeable forms. The specifics of the Chernobyl accident led to the radioactivity occurring in particular forms, and the kinetics of radionuclide migration within trophic chains sometimes vary considerably from what was established in earlier experiments. It is important to study the interaction between plants and ''hot particles'', whose physico-chemical properties determine their non-solubility, which is characteristic, for example, of the carbides and oxides of some metals. When particles come into contact with plant surface tissues, ''dissolving'' factors come into play such as changes in the acidity of the solution or interaction with complex-forming compounds and organic materials exuded by the leaves of some plants. Thanks to these factors, many plants are capable of extracting compounds of low solubility from the soil minerals. Making use of macro- and micro-radioautography, we set out to estimate the rate of conversion of low-solubility radionuclide particles into biologically mobile forms of radionuclides accessible to plants; to study the density of fuel particle fallout in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere and to assess how this varies at different distances from the fallout source over time (during the four years following the accident, 1986-1989); to study the size of the particles deposited on the leaves of plants at various strata, their activity, morphology and behaviour when kept in the form of herbarium exhibits; and to assess the contribution of alpha-active particles to the general amount of fallout and how it changes over time. (author)

  18. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  19. Biologic and epigenetic impact of commuting to work by car or using public transportation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo; Zhang, Fang Fang; Kappil, Maya A; Flory, Janine; Mirer, Frank E; Santella, Regina M; Wolff, Mary; Markowitz, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Commuting by public transportation (PT) entails more physical activity and energy expenditure than by cars, but its biologic consequences are unknown. In 2009-2010, we randomly sampled New York adults, usually commuting either by car (n=79) or PT (n=101). Measures comprised diet and physical activity questionnaires, weight and height, white blood cell (WBC) count, C reactive protein, (CRP) gene-specific methylation (IL-6), and global genomic DNA methylation (LINE-1 methylation). Compared to the 101 PT commuters, the 79 car drivers were about 9 years older, 2 kg/m(2) heavier, more often non-Hispanic whites, and ate more fruits and more meats. The 2005 guidelines for physical activity were met by more car drivers than PT users (78.5% vs. 65.0%). There were no differences in median levels of CRP (car vs. PT: 0.6 vs. 0.5mg/dl), mean levels of WBC (car vs. PT: 6.7 vs. 6.5 cells/mm(3)), LINE-1 methylation (car vs. PT: 78.0% vs. 78.3%), and promoter methylation of IL-6 (car vs. PT: 56.1% vs. 58.0%). PT users were younger and lighter than car drivers, but their commute mode did not translate into a lower inflammatory response or a higher DNA methylation, maybe because, overall, car drivers were more physically active. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synopsis of the 48 annual meeting of the Lake Cumberland Biological Transport Group and the second biannual meeting of the Pendrin Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossena, Silvia; Nofziger, Charity; Morabito, Rossana; Adragna, Norma C; Paulmichl, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Ion transporters are the molecular basis for ion homeostasis of the cell and the whole organism. The anion exchanger pendrin is only one of a number of examples where a complete or partial loss of function and/or deregulation of expression of ion transporters may lead or contribute to pathological conditions in humans. A complete understanding of the function of ion transporters in health and disease may pave the way for the identification of new and focused therapeutic approaches. Exchange of knowledge and connectivity between the experts in the feld of transport physiology is essential in facing these challenging tasks. The Lake Cumberland Biological Transport Group and the Pendrin Consortium are examples of scientific forums where investigators combine their efforts towards a better understanding of molecular pathophysiology of ion transport. This issue discusses the versatility of ion transporters involved in the regulation of cellular volume and other functions, such as the solute carrier (SLC) 12A gene family members SLC12A4-7, encoding the Na(+)-independent cation-chloride cotransporters commonly known as the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters KCC1-4, and the betaine/γ-aminobutyric acid transport system (BGT1, SLC6A12), just to name a few. The issue further addresses the pathophysiology of intestinal and respiratory epithelia and related therapeutic tools and techniques to investigate interactions between proteins and proteins and small compounds. Finally, the current knowledge and new findings on the expression, regulation and function of pendrin (SLC26A4) in the inner ear, kidney, airways and blood platelets are presented. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Synopsis of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Lake Cumberland Biological Transport Group and the Second Biannual Meeting of the Pendrin Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dossena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion transporters are the molecular basis for ion homeostasis of the cell and the whole organism. The anion exchanger pendrin is only one of a number of examples where a complete or partial loss of function and/or deregulation of expression of ion transporters may lead or contribute to pathological conditions in humans. A complete understanding of the function of ion transporters in health and disease may pave the way for the identification of new and focused therapeutic approaches. Exchange of knowledge and connectivity between the experts in the feld of transport physiology is essential in facing these challenging tasks. The Lake Cumberland Biological Transport Group and the Pendrin Consortium are examples of scientific forums where investigators combine their efforts towards a better understanding of molecular pathophysiology of ion transport. This issue discusses the versatility of ion transporters involved in the regulation of cellular volume and other functions, such as the solute carrier (SLC 12A gene family members SLC12A4-7, encoding the Na+-independent cation-chloride cotransporters commonly known as the K+-Cl- cotransporters KCC1-4, and the betaine/γ-aminobutyric acid transport system (BGT1, SLC6A12, just to name a few. The issue further addresses the pathophysiology of intestinal and respiratory epithelia and related therapeutic tools and techniques to investigate interactions between proteins and proteins and small compounds. Finally, the current knowledge and new findings on the expression, regulation and function of pendrin (SLC26A4 in the inner ear, kidney, airways and blood platelets are presented.

  2. Describing the role of Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporters in insecticide biology using CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Shane; Fusetto, Roberto; Batterham, Philip

    2017-12-01

    ABC transporters have a well-established role in drug resistance, effluxing xenobiotics from cells and tissues within the organism. More recently, research has been dedicated to understanding the role insect ABC transporters play in insecticide toxicity, but progress in understanding the contribution of specific transporters has been hampered by the lack of functional genetic tools. Here, we report knockouts of three Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporter genes, Mdr49, Mdr50, and Mdr65, that are homologous to the well-studied mammalian ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). Each knockout mutant was created in the same wild type background and tested against a panel of insecticides representing different chemical classes. Mdr65 knockouts were more susceptible to all neuroactive insecticides tested, but Mdr49 and Mdr50 knockouts showed increased susceptibility or resistance depending on the insecticide used. Mdr65 was chosen for further analysis. Calculation of LC 50 values for the Mdr65 knockout allowed the substrate specificity of this transporter to be examined. No obvious distinguishing structural features were shared among MDR65 substrates. A role for Mdr65 in insecticide transport was confirmed by testing the capacity of the knockout to synergize with the ABC inhibitor verapamil and by measuring the levels of insecticide retained in the body of knockout flies. These data unambiguously establish the influence of ABC transporters on the capacity of wild type D. melanogaster to tolerate insecticide exposure and suggest that both tissue and substrate specificity underpin this capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  4. Dinitrosyl iron complexes and S-nitrosothiols are two possible forms for stabilization and transport of nitric oxide in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, A F

    1998-07-01

    The physicochemical properties, mechanisms of synthesis and decomposition of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) with thiol-containing ligands and of S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), and the potential role of these compounds in storage and transport of NO in biological systems are reviewed. Special attention is given to the phenomenon of mutual transformation of DNIC and RS-NO catalyzed by Fe2+. Each Fe2+ binds two neutral NO molecules in the DNICs, catalyzes their mutual oxidation--reduction with formation of nitrous oxide and nitrosonium ions appearing in the DNICs. These ions S-nitrosate thiol-compounds with RS-NO formation. Fe2+ binds two RS-NO molecules and catalyzes their mutual oxidation--reduction followed by decomposition of the resulting molecules. Mutual conversion of DNICs and RS-NO regulated by iron, thiol, and NO levels is suggested to provide NO transport in cells and tissues.

  5. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  6. Factors Determining the Oxygen Permeability of Biological Membranes: Oxygen Transport Across Eye Lens Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold Karol; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-label oximetry allows the oxygen permeability coefficient to be evaluated across homogeneous lipid bilayer membranes and, in some cases, across coexisting membrane domains without their physical separation. The most pronounced effect on oxygen permeability is observed for cholesterol, which additionally induces the formation of membrane domains. In intact biological membranes, integral proteins induce the formation of boundary and trapped lipid domains with a low oxygen permeability. The effective oxygen permeability coefficient across the intact biological membrane is affected not only by the oxygen permeability coefficients evaluated for each lipid domain but also by the surface area occupied by these domains in the membrane. All these factors observed in fiber cell plasma membranes of clear human eye lenses are reviewed here.

  7. Hydrology in Lichens: How Biological Architecture is Used to Regulate Water Access to Support Drought Resilience and Nutrient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Dismukes, G. C.; Ananyev, G.

    2017-12-01

    Lichens are Nature's masters at controlling water and air flux within a symbiotic organism comprised of an algal photobiont and its fungal host. Here we investigated the equilibrium partitioning and kinetic transport of water between the symbionts in the lichen flavoparmelia species. Lichens have developed a unique strategy to recover after deep dehydration, that otherwise would kill the majority of free living phototrophs. By measuring both kinetics of water content and chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicative of algal charge separation and water oxidation) during dehydration, we identified 3 distinct temporal stages and mapped these to physical zones by confocal microscopy using a combination of hydro-philic/-phobic dyes. Below a critical level of water content, controlled by the greater hydrophilicity of fungal tissues, algal photosynthesis rapidly turns off. We show that the distinct stages in dehydration mirror the 3D architecture of lichen tissue (the thallus). We provide evidence that control of water distribution is achieved by capillary forces within ordered zones of physical space possessing different hydro-phobic/-philic characteristics. This strategy ensures that photosynthetic capacity is protected from and can quickly recover after desiccation. The fungal host controls the onset and extent of photosynthesis in the enslaved alga, presumably to ensure transport of algal derived sugars and oxygen (O2) to the fungal host only when sufficient water exists for transport. Lichen architecture provides Nature's solution to gas-water transport that is self-regulated by humidity. It offers novel lessons for designing practical devices such as fuel cell membranes and dialysis membranes. Supported by the US Dept of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Physical Biosciences Division.

  8. Behavior on flowers, structures associated to pollen transport and nesting biology of Perditomorpha brunerii and Cephalurgus anomalus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Andrenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesting and foraging behavior were studied in Cephalurgus anomalus and Perditomorpha brunerii, two oligolectic bee species on Malvaceae flowers, in the University of São Paulo campus, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Bees were monitored on flowers of Sida, Malvastrum, Gaya and Wissadula. Perditomorpha brunerii females collect pollen with the forelegs and abdomen to transport it in short-branched hairs on the hind tibia and metasomal sterna; males patrol flowers and spend the night in closed flowers of Sida cerradoensis and Sida sp. C. anomalus females lean the dorsal region of the body against the petals and collect pollen with the forelegs, accumulating the grains on the mesepisterna before placing them into sparse unbranched hairs on the anterior outer side of the hind tibiae; males patrol and wait for females in flowers, where the copulate throughout the foraging season. Both species nest in the soil among the host plants. P. brunerii bees build solitary nests; whereas in C. anomalus one or more foraging females are associated with an individual nest. The nests, in both species, consist of a descent straight main tunnel and cells arranged singly and horizontally at the end of the branches, which are filled with soil. The efficient foraging behavior, location of the nests among the host plants and scopal setae that allow the transport of large pollen grains in large amounts indicate an intimate association between these two bee species and Malvaceae flowers.

  9. Therapeutic and biological importance of getting nucleotides out of cells: a case for the ABC transporters, MRP4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masashi; Reid, Glen; Schuetz, John D

    2002-11-18

    The energy dependent transport of drugs contributes to cellular resistance and is undoubtedly a prime suspect in chemotherapeutic failure of a variety of disease processes. Early studies focused on a single gene, the multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, as a main contributor to chemotherapeutic failure. However, the multifaceted nature of cellular resistance lead to the discovery of the MRP gene. This pivotal finding and the concurrent rapid development of gene databases lead to the expansion of the MRP gene family. The purpose of this review is to discuss two of the recently described MRP family members that were orphans until their role in drug resistance was discovered. This review will provide an overview of the current state of our understanding of MRP4 and 5.

  10. Behavior of plutonium and other long-lived radionuclides in Lake Michigan. I. Biological transport, seasonal cycling, and residence times in the water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Marshall, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Eight operating nuclear reactors are situated on the shores of Lake Michigan, but their releases of radioactivity have been much less than that entering the lake from stratospheric fallout. Measurements of 239 , 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs from the latter source have been made in order to study biological transport, seasonal cycling, and residence times of long-lived radionuclides in the lake. The apparent turnover times for the residual fallout 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs, which are present as nonfilterable, ionic forms, are about 3 to 4 y. Resuspension may be occurring at a low rate, probably through the feeding activities of benthic organisms. Transport by settling of phytodetritus and zooplankton fecal pellets is postulated to be the cause of the rapid decline of the concentration of 239 , 240 Pu in surface waters observed during summer thermal stratification of the lake, while the concentration of 137 Cs remained almost constant. Concentration factors for fallout 239 , 240 Pu, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at various trophic levels in the food chain in Lake Michigan have been measured. Analyses of biological samples taken at various distances from the Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Plant and of plant waste discharge show that any plutonium possibly released from the recycle plutonium test fuel is too low to be detectable in the presence of fallout plutonium. Measurements of 239 , 240 Pu, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr on a comparison set of surface water and net plankton samples from all five Great Lakes indicate generally consistent behavior patterns in these lakes. (U.S.)

  11. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Kim, Grace E.; Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy; Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin; Yanik, Gregory A.; Kreissman, Susan G.; Hogarty, Michael; DuBois, Steven G.

    2016-01-01

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  12. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  13. A planar conducting micro-loop structure for transportation of magnetic beads: An approach towards rapid sensing and quantification of biological entities

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic beads are utilized effectively in a wide variety of medical applications due to their small size, biocompatibility and large surface to volume ratio. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, which utilize magnetic beads, are promising tools for accurate and rapid cell sorting and counting. Effective manipulation of beads is a critical factor for the performance of LOC devices. In this paper we propose a planar conducting micro-loop structure to trap, manipulate and transport magnetic beads. Current through the micro-loops produces magnetic field gradients that are proportional to the force required to manipulate the beads. Numerical analyses were performed to study the magnetic forces and their spatial distributions. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could not only be transported towards a target region, e.g., for sensing purposes, but also the trapping rate could be increased by switching current between the different loops in the micro-loop structure. This method could lead to rapid and accurate quantification of biological entities tagged with magnetic beads. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

  14. General Biology Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott; Watthews, Thomas

    This syllabus has been developed as an alternative to Regents biology and is intended for the average student who could benefit from an introductory biology course. It is divided into seven major units dealing with, respectively: (1) similarities among living things; (2) human biology (focusing on nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion, and…

  15. Two problems in multiphase biological flows: Blood flow and particulate transport in microvascular network, and pseudopod-driven motility of amoeboid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-11-01

    In this talk, two problems in multiphase biological flows will be discussed. The first is the direct numerical simulation of whole blood and drug particulates in microvascular networks. Blood in microcirculation behaves as a dense suspension of heterogeneous cells. The erythrocytes are extremely deformable, while inactivated platelets and leukocytes are nearly rigid. A significant progress has been made in recent years in modeling blood as a dense cellular suspension. However, many of these studies considered the blood flow in simple geometry, e.g., straight tubes of uniform cross-section. In contrast, the architecture of a microvascular network is very complex with bifurcating, merging and winding vessels, posing a further challenge to numerical modeling. We have developed an immersed-boundary-based method that can consider blood cell flow in physiologically realistic and complex microvascular network. In addition to addressing many physiological issues related to network hemodynamics, this tool can be used to optimize the transport properties of drug particulates for effective organ-specific delivery. Our second problem is pseudopod-driven motility as often observed in metastatic cancer cells and other amoeboid cells. We have developed a multiscale hydrodynamic model to simulate such motility. We study the effect of cell stiffness on motility as the former has been considered as a biomarker for metastatic potential. Funded by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  17. Simulation with Phast of the pore water chemistry experiment results (Mont Terri Url, Switzerland), including transport, thermodynamics, kinetics, and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.; Pearson, F.J.; Mettler, S.; Wersin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Pore water Chemistry (PC-)experiment was initially designed to determine the processes that control the redox properties of pore water in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri URL. However, changes in isotopic data and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, dissolved methane, acetate and sulphate concentrations indicated unexpected microbial activity. The origin of the bacteria is not clear. In the light of published data, an indigenous origin cannot be ruled out. A combined biological and reactive transport model has been developed with the parallel PHAST software to simulate the processes that determine pore water chemistry. The influence of bacterial activity on the system is successfully modelled by considering different reaction pathways scenarios including aceto-genesis, methano-genesis, and methane/acetate oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction. Several conclusions can be clearly stated in the light of the simulation results: - The measured redox potentials (redox electrode) are in line with the S(-II)/S(+VI) redox system. - In the undisturbed pore water, S(-II) and S(+VI) activities are controlled by a mineral assemblage containing pyrite and a Fe carbonate (siderite or ankerite). pH is buffered by mineral phases and SO 4 2- concentration is inherited from the marine sedimentary rock. - Some local redox potentials in the sedimentary rock do not correspond to the measured redox potential; for instance, organic matter/HCO 3 - and CH 4 /HCO 3 - systems are not at equilibrium with the measured redox potential. - Redox disequilibrium can be exploited by micro-organisms as a source of energy for their metabolism. In this experiment CH 4 , acetate and other organic acids were produced and SO 4 2- was reduced to HS - . The redox properties of the system are then governed by kinetics rather than by thermodynamic equilibrium. The unexpected persistence of acetate in the borehole water is one of the consequences of these

  18. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  19. Synthesis and biological characterization of (3R,4R)-4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol and its stereoisomers for monoamine transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkar, Prashant S.; Batman, Angela M.; Zhen, Juan; Beardsley, Patrick M.; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we describe synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of asymmetric 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol based dihydroxy compounds where the hydroxy groups are located both on the piperidine ring and also on the N-phenylethyl side chain exo-cyclically. In vitro uptake inhibition data indicates high affinity of these molecules for the dopamine transporter (DAT) in addition to their moderate to high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Interestingly, compounds 9b and 9d exhibited affinities for all three monoamine transporters with highest potency at DAT and NET and moderate potency at the serotonin transporter (SERT) (Ki 2.29, 78.4 and 155 nM for 9b and 1.55, 14.1 and 259 nM for 9d, respectively). Selected compounds, 9a, 9d and 9d’ were tested for their locomotor activity effects in mice, and for their ability to occasion the cocaine discriminative stimulus in rats. These test compounds generally exhibited a much longer duration of action than cocaine for elevating locomotor activity, and dose-dependently completely generalized the cocaine discriminative stimulus. PMID:19449323

  20. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  1. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    With the goal of real time electrical detection of chemical and biological species, nanowires have shown great promise with high sensitivity due to their large surface to volume ratio. While the focus of such electrical detection has shifted to one dimensional semiconductor nanostuctures, Silicon...

  2. A planar conducting micro-loop structure for transportation of magnetic beads: An approach towards rapid sensing and quantification of biological entities

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    tools for accurate and rapid cell sorting and counting. Effective manipulation of beads is a critical factor for the performance of LOC devices. In this paper we propose a planar conducting micro-loop structure to trap, manipulate and transport magnetic

  3. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  4. Synthesis and biological characterization of (3R,4R)-4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol and its stereoisomers for activity toward monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkar, Prashant S; Batman, Angela M; Zhen, Juan; Beardsley, Patrick M; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2009-07-01

    A novel series of optically active molecules based on a 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol template were developed. Depending on stereochemistry, the compounds exhibit various degrees of affinity for three dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. These molecules have the potential for treating several neurological disorders such as drug abuse, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Herein we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of asymmetric 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol-based dihydroxy compounds in which the hydroxy groups are located on both the piperidine ring and the N-phenylethyl side chain. In vitro uptake inhibition data of these molecules indicate high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) in addition to moderate to high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Interestingly, compounds 9 b and 9 d exhibit affinities for all three monoamine transporters, with highest potency at DAT and NET, and moderate potency at the serotonin transporter (SERT) (K(i): 2.29, 78.4, and 155 nM for 9 b and 1.55, 14.1, and 259 nM for 9 d, respectively). Selected compounds 9 a, 9 d, and 9 d' were tested for their locomotor activity effects in mice and for their ability to occasion the cocaine-discriminative stimulus in rats. These test compounds generally exhibit a much longer duration of action than cocaine for elevating locomotor activity, and completely generalize the cocaine-discriminative stimulus in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. A new statistical method for transfer coefficient calculations in the framework of the general multiple-compartment model of transport for radionuclides in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F; Arruda-Neto, J D; Manso, M V; Helene, O M; Vanin, V R; Rodriguez, O; Mesa, J; Likhachev, V P; Filho, J W; Deppman, A; Perez, G; Guzman, F; de Camargo, S P

    1999-10-01

    A new and simple statistical procedure (STATFLUX) for the calculation of transfer coefficients of radionuclide transport to animals and plants is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. By using experimentally available curves of radionuclide concentrations versus time, for each animal compartment (organs), flow parameters were estimated by employing a least-squares procedure, whose consistency is tested. Some numerical results are presented in order to compare the STATFLUX transfer coefficients with those from other works and experimental data.

  6. A new statistical method for transfer coefficient calculations in the framework of the general multiple-compartment model of transport for radionuclides in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Manso, M.V.; Rodriguez, O.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Helene, O.M.; Vanin, V.R.; Likhachev, V.P.; Pereira Filho, J.W.; Deppman, A.; Perez, G.; Guzman, F.; Camargo, S.P. de

    1999-01-01

    A new and simple statistical procedure (STATFLUX) for the calculation of transfer coefficients of radionuclide transport to animals and plants is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. By using experimentally available curves of radionuclide concentrations versus time, for each animal compartment (organs), flow parameters were estimated by employing a least-squares procedure, whose consistency is tested. Some numerical results are presented in order to compare the STATFLUX transfer coefficients with those from other works and experimental data. (author)

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of I-125/I-123-labelled analogues of citalopram and escitalopram as potential radioligands for imaging of the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Elfving, Betina; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel radioligands for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-2) and S-[I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-(S)-2) were synthesized in a ...... of the radioligand in imaging cortical SERT distribution in vivo. These data suggest that the iodine-labelled derivatives of citalopram and escitalopram are not superior to another SPECT tracer for the SERT, namely [I-123] ADAM....

  8. Biological and Clinical Study of 6-Deoxy-6-Iodo-D-Glucose: a iodinated tracer of glucose transport and of insulin-resistance in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone-Rochette, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), characterized by a depressed cellular sensitivity to insulin in insulin-sensitive organs, is a central feature to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus and leads to increase cardiovascular diseases, particularly heart failure. All these events are today serious public health problems. But actually, there is no simple tool to measure insulin resistance. The gold standard technique remains the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. However, the complexity and length of this technique render it unsuitable for routine clinical use. Many methods or index have been proposed to assess insulin resistance in human, but none have shown enough relevance to be used in clinical use. The U1039 INSERM unit previously has validated a new tracer of glucose transport, radiolabelled with 123 iodine and has developed a fast and simple imaging protocol with a small animal gamma camera, which allows the obtaining of an IR index for each organ, showing more discriminating for the heart. The project of my thesis was the human transfer of this measurement technique, perfectly validated in animal. The first part of this thesis evaluated to tolerance, in vivo kinetics, distribution and dosimetry of novel tracer of glucose transport, the [ 123 I]-6DIG. The safeties of new tracer and measurement technique were adequate. There were no adverse effects with excellent tolerance of the whole protocol. 6DIG eliminating was fast, primarily in the urine and complete within 72 h. The effective whole-body absorbed dose for a complete scan with injection of 92.5 * 2 MBq was between 3 to 4 mSv. The second part of this thesis evaluated in human feasibility and reproducibility of the measurement technique validated in animal. The third part showed techniques used to allow human transfer of this method. The study protocol was applied on 12 subjects (healthy volunteers (n=6) and type 2 diabetic patients (n=6)). With a method adapted to measure in humans, we determined an

  9. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  10. Targeting Type 2 Diabetes with C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcones as Selective Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Ana R; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Marques, Ana P; Dore, Timothy M; Rauter, Amélia P

    2017-01-26

    Inhibiting glucose reabsorption by sodium glucose co-transporter proteins (SGLTs) in the kidneys is a relatively new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 over SGLT1 is critical for minimizing adverse side effects associated with SGLT1 inhibition. A library of C-glucosyl dihydrochalcones and their dihydrochalcone and chalcone precursors was synthesized and tested as SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors using a cell-based fluorescence assay of glucose uptake. The most potent inhibitors of SGLT2 (IC 50 = 9-23 nM) were considerably weaker inhibitors of SGLT1 (IC 50 = 10-19 μM). They showed no effect on the sodium independent GLUT family of glucose transporters, and the most potent ones were not acutely toxic to cultured cells. The interaction of a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone with a POPC membrane was modeled computationally, providing evidence that it is not a pan-assay interference compound. These results point toward the discovery of structures that are potent and highly selective inhibitors of SGLT2.

  11. Fast Neutron Transport in the Biological Shielding Model and Other Regions of the VVER-1000 Mock-Up on the LR-0 Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košťál Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of benchmark experiments was carried out in the full scale VVER-1000 mock-up on the reactor LR-0 in order to validate neutron transport calculation methodologies and to perform the optimization of the shape and locations of neutron flux operation monitors channels inside the shielding of the new VVER-1000 type reactors. Compared with previous experiments on the VVER-1000 mock-up on the reactor LR-0, the fast neutron spectra were measured in the extended neutron energy interval (0.1–10 MeV and new calculations were carried out with the MCNPX code using various nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B VII.0, JEFF 3.1, JENDL 3.3, JENDL 4, ROSFOND 2009, and CENDL 3.1. Measurements and calculations were carried out at different points in the mock-up. The calculation and experimental data are compared.

  12. Solving the transport equation by Monte Carlo method and application for biological shield calculations; Resavanje transportne jednacine Monte Carlo metodom i njena primena u zadacima proracuna bioloskog stita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1977-07-01

    General sampling Monte Carlo scheme for neutron transport equation has been described. Programme TRANSFER for neutron beam transmission analysis has been used to calculate the neutron leakage spectrum, detector efficiency and neutron angular distribution of the example problem (author) [Serbo-Croat] U radu se najpre razmatraju osnovni problemi resavanja transportne jednacine i nacin kako Monte Karlo metoda omogucuje da se prevazidju neki od njih: visedimenzionalnost zadatka, problem dubokog prodiranja i dovoljno fino tretiranje efikasnih preseka. Dalje, govori se o iskustvima sa primenom Monte Karlo metode u Laboratoriji za nuklearnu energetiku i tehnicku fiziku i o primeni ove metode na probleme zastite. Na kraju dati su i analizirani ilustrativni primeri proracuna transporta neutrona kroz ravan sloj zastitnog materijala koriscenjem Monte Karlo programa TRANSFER (author)

  13. Biological nitrate transport in sediments on the Peruvian margin mitigates benthic sulfide emissions and drives pelagic N loss during stagnation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Bourbonnais, A.; Wallmann, K.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic N cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) was investigated at ten stations along 12 °S from the middle shelf (74 m) to the upper slope (1024 m) using in situ flux measurements, sediment biogeochemistry and modeling. Middle shelf sediments were covered by mats of the filamentous bacteria Thioploca spp. and contained a large 'hidden' pool of nitrate that was not detectable in the porewater. This was attributed to a biological nitrate reservoir stored within the bacteria to oxidize sulfide during 'dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium' (DNRA). The extremely high rates of DNRA on the shelf (15.6 mmol m-2 d-1 of N), determined using an empirical steady-state model, could easily supply all the ammonium requirements for anammox in the water column. The model further showed that denitrification by foraminifera may account for 90% of N2 production at the lower edge of the OMZ. At the time of sampling, dissolved oxygen was below detection limit down to 400 m and the water body overlying the shelf had stagnated, resulting in complete depletion of nitrate and nitrite. A decrease in the biological nitrate pool was observed on the shelf during fieldwork concomitant with a rise in porewater sulfide levels in surface sediments to 2 mM. Using a non-steady state model to simulate this natural anoxia experiment, these observations were shown to be consistent with Thioploca surviving on a dwindling intracellular nitrate reservoir to survive the stagnation period. The model shows that sediments hosting Thioploca are able to maintain high ammonium fluxes for many weeks following stagnation, potentially sustaining pelagic N loss by anammox. In contrast, sulfide emissions remain low, reducing the economic risk to the Peruvian fishery by toxic sulfide plume development.

  14. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications; Simulation du transport d`un faisceau d`ions lourds relativistes dans la matiere: contribution du processus de fragmentation et implication sur le plan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnouzahir, M

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E{>=} 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author).

  15. Structural biology of the sequestration and transport of heavy metal toxins: NMR structure determination of proteins containing the -Cys-X-Y-Cys-metal binding motifs. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opella, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall goal of the research is to apply the methods of structural biology, which have been previously used primarily in biomedical applications, to bioremediation. The authors are doing this by using NMR spectroscopy to determine the structures of proteins involved in the bacterial mercury detoxification system. The research is based on the premise that the proteins encoded in the genes of the bacterial detoxification system are an untapped source of reagents and, more fundamentally, chemical strategies that can be used to remove heavy metal toxins from the environment. The initial goals are to determine the structures of the proteins of the bacterial mercury detoxification systems responsible for the sequestration and transport of the Hg(II) ions in to the cell where reduction to Hg(O) occurs. These proteins are meP, which is water soluble and can be investigated with multidimensional solution NMR methods, and merT, the transport protein in the membrane that requires solid-state NMR methods. As of June 1998, this report summarizes work after about one and half years of the three-year award. The authors have made significant accomplishments in three aspects of the NMR studies of the proteins of the bacterial mercury detoxification system.'

  16. Iodine-129: a study of its transport in the environment and distribution in biological systems. Progress report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, O.K.

    1976-02-01

    During this second year of our study on the transport and distribution of 129 I, most of our efforts have been given to analyses of iodine in representative samples of milk, surface water, precipitation, plants, and mineral iodine. The results of our earlier analyses on 129 I and 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals have been reported in a manuscript which is to appear in Health Physics. The results of recent analyses on 129 I in two iodine-rich minerals, iodyrite (AgI) and marshite (CuI), establish limits on the initial isotopic composition of iodine, 1.5 x 10 -14 less than or equal to 129 I/ 127 I less than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -13 , present when the minerals formed. These results have been reported in a manuscript submitted to the Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. Our 100 additional analyses have been made on 129 I and 127 I in various types of mammalian thyroid glands from this area, in milk, precipitation, and surface water, and in interlaboratory monitors. A program has been established for systematic sampling of 129 I in milk, surface waters, and precipitation. This program will permit us to look for evidence of the spring fallout peak and thus provide information on the stratospheric contribution of 129 I to this area

  17. Optimization of Monte Carlo particle transport parameters and validation of a novel high throughput experimental setup to measure the biological effects of particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshana; Bronk, Lawrence; Guan, Fada; Peeler, Christopher R; Brons, Stephan; Dokic, Ivana; Abdollahi, Amir; Rittmüller, Claudia; Jäkel, Oliver; Grosshans, David; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe

    2017-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of particle beams requires increased systematic in vitro studies with human cell lines with care towards minimizing uncertainties in biologic assays as well as physical parameters. In this study, we describe a novel high-throughput experimental setup and an optimized parameterization of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique that is universally applicable for accurate determination of RBE of clinical ion beams. Clonogenic cell-survival measurements on a human lung cancer cell line (H460) are presented using proton irradiation. Experiments were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with support from the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Germany using a mono-energetic horizontal proton beam. A custom-made variable range selector was designed for the horizontal beam line using the Geant4 MC toolkit. This unique setup enabled a high-throughput clonogenic assay investigation of multiple, well defined dose and linear energy transfer (LETs) per irradiation for human lung cancer cells (H460) cultured in a 96-well plate. Sensitivity studies based on application of different physics lists in conjunction with different electromagnetic constructors and production threshold values to the MC simulations were undertaken for accurate assessment of the calculated dose and the dose-averaged LET (LET d ). These studies were extended to helium and carbon ion beams. Sensitivity analysis of the MC parameterization revealed substantial dependence of the dose and LET d values on both the choice of physics list and the production threshold values. While the dose and LET d calculations using FTFP_BERT_LIV, FTFP_BERT_EMZ, FTFP_BERT_PEN and QGSP_BIC_EMY physics lists agree well with each other for all three ions, they show large differences when compared to the FTFP_BERT physics list with the default electromagnetic constructor. For carbon ions, the dose corresponding to the largest LET d

  18. Physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author points out that the coupling between physics and biology is becoming closer as time goes on. He tries to show that physical studies on biological systems not only yield insight into biology but also provide results of interest to physics. Biological systems are extremly complex system. Ideally one would like to understand the behavior of such systems in terms of the behavior of its constituent atoms. Since in small organisms this may be 10 20 atoms, it is clear these are not simple many-body systems. He reviews the basic elements of cells and then considers the broader questions of structure, complexity, and function, which must be looked at on levels from the cell to the organism. Despite the vast amount of observational material already in existence, biophysics and biological physics are only at a beginning. We can expect that physics will continue to interact strongly with biology. Actually, the connection also includes chemistry and mathematics. New tools that become available in physics will continue to be applied to biological problems. We can expect that the flow of information will not be one way; biological systems will provide new information on many old and new parts of physics, from reaction theory and transport phenomena to complexity, cooperativity, and nonlinear processes

  19. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  20. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  1. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  2. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  3. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  4. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  5. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  6. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  7. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  8. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  9. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  10. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  11. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  12. Abstracts of the 27. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  13. Abstracts of the 26. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  14. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  15. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  16. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  17. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  18. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  19. Continuum Modeling of Biological Network Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo; Burger, Martin; Haskovec, Jan; Markowich, Peter A.; Schlottbom, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of recent analytical and numerical results for the elliptic–parabolic system of partial differential equations proposed by Hu and Cai, which models the formation of biological transportation networks. The model describes

  20. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  1. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  2. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  3. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  4. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  5. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  6. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  7. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  8. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  9. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  10. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  11. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  12. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  13. Physics of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    The biological membrane is a complex system consisting of an aqueous biomolecular planar aggregate of predominantly lipid and protein molecules. At physiological temperatures, the membrane may be considered a thin (˜50Å) slab of anisotropic fluid characterized by a high lateral mobility of the various molecular components. A substantial fraction of biological activity takes place in association with membranes. As a very lively piece of condensed matter, the biological membrane is a challenging research topic for both the experimental and theoretical physicists who are facing a number of fundamental physical problems including molecular self-organization, macromolecular structure and dynamics, inter-macromolecular interactions, structure-function relationships, transport of energy and matter, and interfacial forces. This paper will present a brief review of recent theoretical and experimental progress on such problems, with special emphasis on lipid bilayer structure and dynamics, lipid phase transitions, lipid-protein and lipid-cholesterol interactions, intermembrane forces, and the physical constraints imposed on biomembrane function and evolution. The paper advocates the dual point of view that there are a number of interesting physics problems in membranology and, at the same time, that the physical properties of biomembranes are important regulators of membrane function.

  14. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  15. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  16. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  17. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  18. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  19. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  1. The genetics of axonal transport and axonal transport disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Duncan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurons are specialized cells with a complex architecture that includes elaborate dendritic branches and a long, narrow axon that extends from the cell body to the synaptic terminal. The organized transport of essential biological materials throughout the neuron is required to support its growth, function, and viability. In this review, we focus on insights that have emerged from the genetic analysis of long-distance axonal transport between the cell body and the synaptic terminal. We also discuss recent genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that disruptions in axonal transport may cause or dramatically contribute to neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  3. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  4. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  5. WE-H-BRA-09: Application of a Modified Microdosimetric-Kinetic Model to Analyze Relative Biological Effectiveness of Ions Relevant to Light Ion Therapy Using the Particle Heavy Ion Transport System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, M [Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Palmer, T [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose and biological effectiveness of various ions that could potentially be used for actively scanned particle therapy. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo code paired with a microscopic analytical function was used to determine probability distribution functions of the lineal energy in 0.3µm diameter spheres throughout a water phantom. Twenty million primary particles for 1H beams and ten million particles for 4He, 7Li, 10B, 12C, 14N, 16O, and 20Ne were simulated for 0.6cm diameter pencil beams. Beam energies corresponding to Bragg peak depths of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300mm were used and evaluated transversely every millimeter and radially in annuli with outer radius of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 4.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 25.0mm. The acquired probability distributions were reduced to dose-mean lineal energies and applied to the modified microdosimetric kinetic model for five different cell types to calculate relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to 60Co beams at the 10% survival threshold. The product of the calculated RBEs and the simulated physical dose was taken to create biological dose and comparisons were then made between the various ions. Results: Transversely, the 10B beam was seen to minimize relative biological dose in both the constant and accelerated dose change regions, proximal to the Bragg Peak, for all beams traveling greater than 50mm. For the 50mm beam, 7Li was seen to provide the most optimal biological dose profile. Radially small fluctuations (<4.2%) were seen in RBE while physical dose was greater than 1% for all beams. Conclusion: Even with the growing usage of 12C, it may not be the most optimal ion in all clinical situations. Boron was calculated to have slightly enhanced RBE characteristics, leading to lower relative biological doses.

  6. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  7. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  8. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  9. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  10. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  11. Students' Conceptions of Water Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang; Schonborn, Konrad J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding diffusion of water into and out of the cell through osmosis is fundamental to the learning and teaching of biology. Although this process is thought of as occurring directly across the lipid bilayer, the majority of water transport is actually mediated by specialised transmembrane water-channels called aquaporins. This study…

  12. Water and Solute Mass Transport in Soils Developed on glacial Drift: A Br Tracer Investigation Using Instrumented Soil Monoliths at an Agricultural Long Term Ecological Research Site (Kellogg Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Southern Michigan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Hamilton, S. K.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrologic processes control the residence time of water in the soil column. This is of central importance in understanding mineral weathering rates in terms of reaction kinetics and solute transport. In order to better quantify the coupling between water and solute mass transport and to better define controls on carbonate and aluminosilicates weathering rates, we have conducted bromide-tracer introduction experiments at four replicate soil monoliths (4 m3 volume) instrumented and managed by the KBS-LTER. Monolith soils are developed on the pitted outwash plain of the morainic system left by the last retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, around 12,000 years ago. Soil profiles from the monolith sections extend to 200 cm and they were sampled and characterized texturally and mineralogically. Quartz and feldspar are dominant throughout the soil profile, while carbonates and hornblende occur only in deeper soil horizons. The four replicate monoliths are instrumented with gas and soil water sampling devices (Prenart tension lysimeters) at various depths. The monoliths also have a large capacity tray at the bottom, which permits collection of water for weight and chemical determinations. A bromide tracer solution (as lithium bromide) was applied to coincide as closely as possible with a major snowmelt event (2/27/04). The saturated and unsaturated transport of bromide through the four monoliths was followed as a function of time and soil profile depth for the duration of the snowmelt as well as intermittent rain events. Because the soil was saturated at the time of bromide application, the bromide solution is expected to move rapidly through macropores, followed by slower movement into micropores. The unsaturated transport of bromide is largely controlled by the intensity and duration of the rains if it is dominated by piston flow as opposed to preferential channel flow. In general, the tracer moved through the shallow soils very quickly, which is shown by early sharp

  13. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  14. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  15. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  16. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  17. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  18. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  19. Nonlinear transport of accelerator beam phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xi; Xia Jiawen

    1995-01-01

    Based on the any order analytical solution of accelerator beam dynamics, the general theory for nonlinear transport of accelerator beam phase space is developed by inverse transformation method. The method is general by itself, and hence can also be applied to the nonlinear transport of various dynamic systems in physics, chemistry and biology

  20. Abstracts of the 26. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Resumos da 26. reuniao anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology.

  1. Abstracts of the 27. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Resumos da 27. reuniao anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology.

  2. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  3. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  4. In Vitro Analysis of Metabolite Transport Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Marc-Sven; Kuhnert, Franziska; Zamani-Nour, Shirin; Weber, Andreas P M

    2017-01-01

    The photorespiratory cycle is distributed over four cellular compartments, the chloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Shuttling of photorespiratory intermediates between these compartments is essential to maintain the function of photorespiration. Specific transport proteins mediate the transport across biological membranes and represent important components of the cellular metabolism. Although significant progress was made in the last years on identifying and characterizing new transport proteins, the overall picture of intracellular metabolite transporters is still rather incomplete. The photorespiratory cycle requires at least 25 transmembrane transport steps; however to date only plastidic glycolate/glycerate transporter and the accessory 2-oxoglutarate/malate and glutamate/malate transporters as well as the mitochondrial transporter BOU1 have been identified. The characterization of transport proteins and defining their substrates and kinetics are still major challenges.Here we present a detailed set of protocols for the in vitro characterization of transport proteins. We provide protocols for the isolation of recombinant transport protein expressed in E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the extraction of total leaf membrane protein for in vitro analysis of transporter proteins. Further we explain the process of reconstituting transport proteins in artificial lipid vesicles and elucidate the details of transport assays.

  5. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  6. TU-EF-304-10: Efficient Multiscale Simulation of the Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB) Induction and Bio-Effective Dose in the FLUKA Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, V; Tsiamas, P; Axente, M; Farr, J [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Stewart, R [University of Washington, Seattle, WA. (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: One of the more critical initiating events for reproductive cell death is the creation of a DNA double strand break (DSB). In this study, we present a computationally efficient way to determine spatial variations in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton therapy beams within the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Methods: We used the independently tested Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) developed by Stewart and colleagues (Radiat. Res. 176, 587–602 2011) to estimate the RBE for DSB induction of monoenergetic protons, tritium, deuterium, hellium-3, hellium-4 ions and delta-electrons. The dose-weighted (RBE) coefficients were incorporated into FLUKA to determine the equivalent {sup 6}°60Co γ-ray dose for representative proton beams incident on cells in an aerobic and anoxic environment. Results: We found that the proton beam RBE for DSB induction at the tip of the Bragg peak, including primary and secondary particles, is close to 1.2. Furthermore, the RBE increases laterally to the beam axis at the area of Bragg peak. At the distal edge, the RBE is in the range from 1.3–1.4 for cells irradiated under aerobic conditions and may be as large as 1.5–1.8 for cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. Across the plateau region, the recorded RBE for DSB induction is 1.02 for aerobic cells and 1.05 for cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. The contribution to total effective dose from secondary heavy ions decreases with depth and is higher at shallow depths (e.g., at the surface of the skin). Conclusion: Multiscale simulation of the RBE for DSB induction provides useful insights into spatial variations in proton RBE within pristine Bragg peaks. This methodology is potentially useful for the biological optimization of proton therapy for the treatment of cancer. The study highlights the need to incorporate spatial variations in proton RBE into proton therapy treatment plans.

  7. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  8. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  9. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  10. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  11. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  12. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  13. Structural biology of the sequestration and transport of heavy metal toxins: NMR structure determination of proteins containing the -Cys-X-Y-Cys-metal binding motifs. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opella, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    'There are enormous amounts of heavy metals in the environment, much of it in the form of organometallic compounds resulting from various types of industrial and military waste. Nearly all of these metals and compounds are highly toxic to biological organisms including humans. However, some bacteria thrive in the presence of high concentrations of heavy metal toxins because they possess efficient mechanisms for the detoxification of these metals and compounds. Heavy metals appear to be universally toxic because of their non-selective chemistry, for example Hg(II) reacts with essentially all exposed sulfhydryl groups on proteins, thus, it may seem surprising that any organism at all can survive these chemical insults much less those that grow in a toxic milieu. However, the prebiotic environment was undoubtedly heavily polluted with heavy metals from geological processes, and the most primitive organisms simply had to evolve mechanisms for dealing with them if they were going to be able to utilize Cys, His, and the other amino acids that contribute to metal binding sites in their proteins. Genes associated with bacterial resistance to Ag, AsO 2 , AsO 4 , Bi, Cd, Co, CrO 4 , Cu, Hg, iNi, TeO 3 , TI, Pb, Zn, and other metals of environmental concern have been described (Silver, 1992; Silver and Walderhaug, 1995).'

  14. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  15. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  16. Bituminization of biologically harmful wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Magyar, M.; Mozes, G.; Csikos, R.; Kristof, M.; Toth, L.; Hima, G.

    1977-01-01

    The invention claims the bitumenization of biologically harmful wastes, such as industrial wastes containing radioactive materials. These wastes containing water are transported from sludge basins, this either by gravity or by mechanical stirrino. into a suitably adapted absorption zone or to several parallel zones filled with bitumen heated to 100 to 250 degC. An inert gas is forced into the system foaming the zone contents. The foam phase is decomposed by the action of heat while water is evaporated and condensed. Bitumen containing dry matter of the radioactive wastes is discharged from the bottom part of the absorption zone and stored in a tank. (Kr)

  17. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  18. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological effects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the thermal effects on proliferation activity in the intestinal epithelium of the goldfish acclimated at different temperatures (stationary state). The cell division occurs only at certain phases of the circadian cycle when the proliferative activity is synchronized or trained by an environmental factor such as light-dark cycle. Another aspect of the project is the study of the biological effects, non-stochastic, on cell kinetics in animals chronically exposed to low dose rates or tritium and gamma rays from 60 CO, used as a standard radiation. The influence on the accumulated dose per cell and cycle cell in function of the duration of the cell cycle at different acclimation temperatures should be considered. To calculate the risk of tritium contamination from nuclear power plants (radiation exposure), the organic tissue-bond is of decisive importance due to the long turnover of the organic tissue-bond in organisms favouring transport of tritium to other organisms of the ecosystem and to man. (author)

  20. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  1. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  2. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  3. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  4. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  5. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  7. Fish larval transport in the coastal waters through ecological modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.

    are as follows: (i) to find out the influence of environmental parameters on the biology of the given ecosystem (ii) to track larval transport and biological abundance in relation to environmental vari- ables (iii) to compare biological abundance and fish larval... include the following investigations: (i) analysis of satellite chlorophyll data along the southwest coastal waters of India to derive a biological calender for sardine (ii) tracking the larval survival and establish a link between food and sardine inter...

  8. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  9. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend

  10. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  11. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...

  12. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  13. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  14. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  15. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  16. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  17. Modelo numérico do transporte de nitrogênio no solo. Parte II: Reações biológicas durante a lixiviação Numerical model of nitrogen transport in the soil. Part II: Biological reaction during leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizardo A. Rocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar o efeito da temperatura e umidade do solo nos processos de mineralização e nitrificação do nitrogênio e comparar as concentrações de nitrato e amônio, simuladas pelo modelo SIMASS-C, com aquelas obtidas experimentalmente, foi o objetivo que norteou o presente trabalho, razão por que se conduziram dois experimentos, o primeiro em câmeras de incubação, variando temperatura e teor de água do solo, e um segundo, em colunas de lixiviação montadas em laboratório. A temperatura e a umidade afetaram as transformações de nitrogênio, cujos efeitos foram mais pronunciados a partir de 15 dias de incubação, sobretudo nas temperaturas acima de 25 °C e umidades superiores à capacidade de campo. Ao se estimular as reações biológicas sofridas pelo nitrogênio, altos teores de água no solo causaram maiores erros entre as concentrações de nitrato e amônio simuladas e observadas.This work aimed at analyzing the effect of temperature and humidity of the soil on mineralization and nitrification processes of the nitrogen, as well as to compare nitrate and ammonium concentrations, simulated by the model SIMASS-C, with those observed. Two experiments were performed: the first in biological incubation camara, varying temperature and water content of the soil and the second, in columns in laboratory. The temperature and water content affected the transformations of nitrogen, and the effects were more pronounced after 15 days of incubation, mainly at temperatures above 25 °C and for water content higher than field capacity. By estimates of the biological reactions of nitrogen, higher levels of soil water caused larger errors between observed and simulated nitrate and ammonium concentrations.

  18. Biological Potential in Serpentinizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of the microbial substrate hydrogen during serpentinization, the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks, has focused interest on the potential of serpentinizing systems to support biological communities or even the origin of life. However the process also generates considerable alkalinity, a challenge to life, and both pH and hydrogen concentrations vary widely across natural systems as a result of different host rock and fluid composition and differing physical and hydrogeologic conditions. Biological potential is expected to vary in concert. We examined the impact of such variability on the bioenergetics of an example metabolism, methanogenesis, using a cell-scale reactive transport model to compare rates of metabolic energy generation as a function of physicochemical environment. Potential rates vary over more than 5 orders of magnitude, including bioenergetically non-viable conditions, across the range of naturally occurring conditions. In parallel, we assayed rates of hydrogen metabolism in wells associated with the actively serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite, which includes conditions more alkaline and considerably less reducing than is typical of serpentinizing systems. Hydrogen metabolism is observed at pH approaching 12 but, consistent with the model predictions, biological methanogenesis is not observed.

  19. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  20. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  1. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  2. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  3. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  4. Chemistry and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  5. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  6. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  7. 78 FR 60755 - Hazardous Materials: Enhanced Enforcement Procedures-Resumption of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... material,'' we envisioned etiological agents, such as biological products, infectious substances, medical... accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material. In order to achieve a uniform... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...

  8. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 450 - Linking the Transportation Planning and NEPA Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quality, and biology). Senior managers at transportation and partner agencies can arrange a variety of... strengthened link of the transportation planning and NEPA processes. Formal and informal mentoring on an intra...

  9. Multidrug transporters from bacteria to man : similarities in structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Konings, WN

    Organisms ranging from bacteria to man possess transmembrane transporters which confer resistance to toxic corn pounds. Underlining their biological significance, prokaryotic and eukaryotic multidrug transport proteins are very similar in structure and function. Therefore, a study of the factors

  10. Evaluation of Triple Containment Method for Air Transport of Contaminated Human

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, J

    2003-01-01

    A triple containment system intended for transport of biologically contaminated human remains was tested for its ability to maintain integrity during exposure to altitude changes representative of air transport...

  11. Optimising Transport in a Homogeneous Network

    OpenAIRE

    WEAIRE, DENIS LAWRENCE

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Many situations in physics, biology, and engineering consist of the transport of some physical quantity through a network of narrow channels. The ability of a network to transport such a quantity in every direction can be described by the average conductivity associated with it. When the flow through each channel is conserved and derives from a potential function, we show that there exists an upper bound of the average conductivity and explicitly give the expression f...

  12. Optimizing transport in a homogeneous network

    OpenAIRE

    WEAIRE, DENIS LAWRENCE

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Many situations in physics, biology, and engineering consist of the transport of some physical quantity through a network of narrow channels. The ability of a network to transport such a quantity in every direction can be described by the average conductivity associated with it. When the flow through each channel is conserved and derives from a potential function, we show that there exists an upper bound of the average conductivity and explicitly give the expression f...

  13. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  14. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  15. Advances in methods for identification and characterization of plant transporter function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo; Xu, Deyang; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Transport proteins are crucial for cellular function at all levels. Numerous importers and exporters facilitate transport of a diverse array of metabolites and ions intra- and intercellularly. Identification of transporter function is essential for understanding biological processes at both......-based approaches. In this review, we highlight examples that illustrate how new technology and tools have advanced identification and characterization of plant transporter functions....

  16. Single liposome analysis of peptide translocation by the ABC transporter TAPL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zollmann, Tina; Moiset Coll, Gemma; Tumulka, Franz; Tampé, Robert; Poolman, Bert; Abele, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to drive solute transport across biological membranes. Members of this superfamily have crucial roles in cell physiology, and some of the transporters are linked to severe diseases. However, understanding of the transport mechanism, especially of human

  17. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  18. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  19. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  20. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  1. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  2. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  4. Estimation of light transport parameters in biological media using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *Current address: Theoretical Physics and Optics Group, Raman Research ... Monte-Carlo simulations to fit experimental measurements and have ... particle scattering cross-section ( ×) and the density of scatterers ( ) (the probability of a.

  5. Symposium on Biophysics and Physiology of Biological Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capraro, V; Porter, K; Robertson, J

    1967-01-01

    The study of cell membranes began to attract increasing interest before the turn of the present century with the observations of 0 verton. Since that time many investigators have become interested in the broad problem of structure and function of the membrane and today we find ourselVes at a stage in which several branches of research, particularly physical chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, physiology and pharmacology have come together, leading to the possibility of obtaining a better perspective of the overall problems. The purpose of this Symposium was to assemble in an orderly sequence representations of the knowledge of membranes achieved to date in the areas of the various disciplines. It was thought that to bring together many points of view on a problem should allow the conferees to see better what had been accomplished, what has been overlooked and what needs further development. It is to be hoped that efforts of this type have and will fulfill the desired purpose. This volume contains the majorit...

  6. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  7. Space Synthetic Biology (SSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focused on employing advanced biological engineering and bioelectrochemical reactor systems to increase life support loop closure and in situ resource...

  8. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  9. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  10. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  11. Regulation of auxin transport during gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, A.; Brady, S.; Kirpalani, N.; Buer, C.; Muday, G.

    phosphorylation of auxin transport proteins as well as synthesis of ligands that control the activity of these proteins. (This work is support by NASA grant NAG2-1507 and the NSCORT in Plant Biology at NCSU.)

  12. Workshop Introduction: Systems Biology and Biological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    As we consider the future of toxicity testing, the importance of applying biological models to this problem is clear. Modeling efforts exist along a continuum with respect to the level of organization (e.g. cell, tissue, organism) linked to the resolution of the model. Generally,...

  13. Synthetic biology and the technicity of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The principal existing real-world application of synthetic biology is biofuels. Several 'next generation biofuel' companies-Synthetic Genomics, Amyris and Joule Unlimited Technologies-claim to be using synthetic biology to make biofuels. The irony of this is that highly advanced science and engineering serves the very mundane and familiar realm of transport. Despite their rather prosaic nature, biofuels could offer an interesting way to highlight the novelty of synthetic biology from several angles at once. Drawing on the French philosopher of technology and biology Gilbert Simondon, we can understand biofuels as technical objects whose genesis involves processes of concretisation that negotiate between heterogeneous geographical, biological, technical, scientific and commercial realities. Simondon's notion of technicity, the degree of concretisation of a technical object, usefully conceptualises this relationality. Viewed in terms of technicity, we might understand better how technical entities, elements, and ensembles are coming into being in the name of synthetic biology. The broader argument here is that when we seek to identify the newness of disciplines, their newness might be less epistemic and more logistic. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The

  15. Fungal ABC Transporter Deletion and Localization Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Weber, S.S.; Nijland, J.G.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological

  16. Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2007-01-01

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, cell biology, and biomedical engineering, this wide-ranging text bridges the gap between introductory physics and its application to the life and biomedical sciences. This extensively revised and updated fourth edition reflects new developments at the burgeoning interface between physics and biomedicine. Among the many topics treated are: forces in the skeletal system; fluid flow, with examples from the circulatory system; the logistic equation; scaling; transport of neutral particles by diffusion and by solvent drag; membranes and osmosis; equipartition of energy in statistical mechanics; the chemical potential and free energy; biological magnetic fields; membranes and gated channels in membranes; linear and nonlinear feedback systems; nonlinear phenomena, including biological clocks and chaotic behavior; signal analysis, noise and stochastic resonance detection of weak signals; image formation and...

  17. Micro/nanofabricated environments for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C Patrick; Simpson, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of how confinement, crowding and reduced dimensionality modulate reactivity and reaction dynamics will aid in the rational and systematic discovery of functionality in complex biological systems. Artificial microfabricated and nanofabricated structures have helped elucidate the effects of nanoscale spatial confinement and segregation on biological behavior, particularly when integrated with microfluidics, through precise control in both space and time of diffusible signals and binding interactions. Examples of nanostructured interfaces for synthetic biology include the development of cell-like compartments for encapsulating biochemical reactions, nanostructured environments for fundamental studies of diffusion, molecular transport and biochemical reaction kinetics, and regulation of biomolecular interactions as functions of microfabricated and nanofabricated topological constraints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  19. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  20. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  1. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  2. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  3. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  4. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  5. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  6. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  7. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  8. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  9. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  10. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    of multiscale biological systems have been investigated and new research methods for automated Rietveld refinement and diffraction scattering computed tomography developed. The composite nature of biological materials was investigated at the atomic scale by looking at the consequences of interactions between...

  11. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  12. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  13. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  14. Pembangunan Kebun Biologi Wamena*[establishment of Wamena Biological Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmansyah, M; Latupapua, HJD

    2003-01-01

    The richness of biological resources (biodiversity) in mountainous area of Papua is an asset that has to be preserved.Exploitation of natural resources often cause damage on those biological assets and as genetic resources.Care has to be taken to overcome the situation of biological degradation, and alternate steps had been shaped on ex-situ biological conservation. Wamena Biological Gardens, as an ex-situ biological conservation, has been established to keep the high mountain biological and ...

  15. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  16. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  17. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  18. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  19. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  20. Anthropic principle in biology and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif'ev, A. P.; Degtyarev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was suggested to add the anthropic principle of the Universe according to which the physical constants of fundamental particles of matter and the laws of their counteraction are those that an appearance of man and mind becomes possible and necessary, with some biological constants to the set of fundamental constants. With reparation of DNA as an example it was shown how a cell ran some parameters of Watson-Crick double helix. It was pointed that the concept of the anthropic principle of the Universe in its full body including biological constants was a key to developing of a unified theory of evolution of the Universe within the limits of scientific creationism [ru

  1. Subsurface transport program: Research summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Transport logistics in pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2013-07-01

    Cellular organelles move within the cellular volume and the effect of the resulting drag forces on the liquid causes bulk movement in the cytosol. The movement of both organelles and cytosol leads to an overall motion pattern called cytoplasmic streaming or cyclosis. This streaming enables the active and passive transport of molecules and organelles between cellular compartments. Furthermore, the fusion and budding of vesicles with and from the plasma membrane (exo/endocytosis) allow for transport of material between the inside and the outside of the cell. In the pollen tube, cytoplasmic streaming and exo/endocytosis are very active and fulfill several different functions. In this review, we focus on the logistics of intracellular motion and transport processes as well as their biophysical underpinnings. We discuss various modeling attempts that have been performed to understand both long-distance shuttling and short-distance targeting of organelles. We show how the combination of mechanical and mathematical modeling with cell biological approaches has contributed to our understanding of intracellular transport logistics.

  3. Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Engineering Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joshua B; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Gersbach, Charles A

    2017-06-21

    The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These tools have been critical for the expansion of synthetic biology techniques from prokaryotic and lower eukaryotic hosts to mammalian systems. Recent progress in the development of genome and epigenome editing tools and in the engineering of designer cells with programmable genetic circuits is expanding approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease and to establish personalized theranostic strategies for next-generation medicines. This review summarizes the development of these enabling technologies and their application to transforming mammalian synthetic biology into a distinct field in research and medicine.

  4. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  5. A timeless biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F; Chafin, Clifford; De Falco, Domenico; Torday, John S

    2018-05-01

    Contrary to claims that physics is timeless while biology is time-dependent, we take the opposite standpoint: physical systems' dynamics are constrained by the arrow of time, while living assemblies are time-independent. Indeed, the concepts of "constraints" and "displacements" shed new light on the role of continuous time flow in life evolution, allowing us to sketch a physical gauge theory for biological systems in long timescales. In the very short timescales of biological systems' individual lives, time looks like "frozen" and "fixed", so that the second law of thermodynamics is momentarily wrecked. The global symmetries (standing for biological constrained trajectories, i.e. the energetic gradient flows dictated by the second law of thermodynamics in long timescales) are broken by local "displacements" where time is held constant, i.e., modifications occurring in living systems. Such displacements stand for brief local forces, able to temporarily "break" the cosmic increase in entropy. The force able to restore the symmetries (called "gauge field") stands for the very long timescales of biological evolution. Therefore, at the very low speeds of life evolution, time is no longer one of the four phase space coordinates of a spacetime Universe: it becomes just a gauge field superimposed to three-dimensional biological systems. We discuss the implications in biology: when assessing living beings, the underrated role of isolated "spatial" modifications needs to be emphasized, living apart the evolutionary role of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  7. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  8. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  9. Neutron in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10 2 to 10 3 times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  10. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  11. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  12. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  13. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  15. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  16. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  17. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  18. Biologic Medications for Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open('/content/cro/en/health/prescription-drugs/best-buy-drugs/Biologics_For_Psoriasis.print.html','win2','status=no, ... we recommend the following as Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs . Adalimumab (Humira) Etanercept (Enbrel) Studies show that for ...

  19. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  20. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  1. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  2. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  3. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  4. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  5. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  6. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  7. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  8. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  9. Introduction to bioengineering: melding of engineering and biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat A

    2005-04-01

    Engineering has traditionally focused on the external extensions of organisms, such as transportation systems, high-rise buildings, and entertainment systems. In contrast, bioengineering is concerned with inward processes of biologic organisms. Utilization of engineering principles and techniques in the analysis and solution of problems in medicine and biology is the basis for bioengineering. This article discusses subspecialties in bioengineering and presents examples of projects in this discipline.

  10. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  12. Two Dogmas of Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonore Fleming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem with reductionism in biology is not the reduction, but the implicit attitude of determinism that usually accompanies it. Methodological reductionism is supported by deterministic beliefs, but making such a connection is problematic when it is based on an idea of determinism as fixed predictability. Conflating determinism with predictability gives rise to inaccurate models that overlook the dynamic complexity of our world, as well as ignore our epistemic limitations when we try to model it. Furthermore, the assumption of a strictly deterministic framework is unnecessarily hindering to biology. By removing the dogma of determinism, biological methods, including reductive methods, can be expanded to include stochastic models and probabilistic interpretations. Thus, the dogma of reductionism can be saved once its ties with determinism are severed. In this paper, I analyze two problems that have faced molecular biology for the last 50 years—protein folding and cancer. Both cases demonstrate the long influence of reductionism and determinism on molecular biology, as well as how abandoning determinism has opened the door to more probabilistic and unconstrained reductive methods in biology.

  13. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines.” Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, ...

  14. Development trend of radiation biology research-systems radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation biology research has past 80 years. We have known much more about fundamentals, processes and results of biology effects induced by radiation and various factors that influence biology effects wide and deep, however many old and new scientific problems occurring in the field of radiation biology research remain to be illustrated. To explore and figure these scientific problems need systemic concept, methods and multi dimension view on the base of considerations of complexity of biology system, diversity of biology response, temporal and spatial process of biological effects during occurrence, and complex feed back network of biological regulations. (authors)

  15. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  16. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  17. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Directed Fluid Transport with Biomimetic ``Silia'' Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A. R.; Evans, B. A.; Carstens, B. L.; Falvo, M. R.; Washburn, S.; Superfine, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present results on the long-range, directed fluid transport produced by the collective beating of arrays of biomimetic ``silia.'' Silia are arrays of free-standing nanorods roughly the size of biological cilia, which we fabricate from a polymer-magnetic nanoparticle composite material. With external permanent magnets we actuate our silia such that their motion mimics the beating of biological cilia. Biological cilia have evolved to produce microscale fluid transport and are increasingly being recognized as critical components in a wide range of biological systems. However, despite much effort cilia generated fluid flows remain an area of active study. In the last decade, cilia-driven fluid flow in the embryonic node of vertebrates has been implicated as the initial left-right symmetry breaking event in these embryos. With silia we generate directional fluid transport by mimicking the tilted conical beating of these nodal cilia and seek to answer open questions about the nature of particle advection in such a system. By seeding fluorescent microparticles into the fluid we have noted the existence of two distinct flow regimes. The fluid flow is directional and coherent above the tips of the silia, while between the silia tips and floor particle motion is complicated and suggestive of chaotic advection.

  19. Understanding Biological Regulation Through Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashor, Caleb J; Collins, James J

    2018-03-16

    Engineering synthetic gene regulatory circuits proceeds through iterative cycles of design, building, and testing. Initial circuit designs must rely on often-incomplete models of regulation established by fields of reductive inquiry-biochemistry and molecular and systems biology. As differences in designed and experimentally observed circuit behavior are inevitably encountered, investigated, and resolved, each turn of the engineering cycle can force a resynthesis in understanding of natural network function. Here, we outline research that uses the process of gene circuit engineering to advance biological discovery. Synthetic gene circuit engineering research has not only refined our understanding of cellular regulation but furnished biologists with a toolkit that can be directed at natural systems to exact precision manipulation of network structure. As we discuss, using circuit engineering to predictively reorganize, rewire, and reconstruct cellular regulation serves as the ultimate means of testing and understanding how cellular phenotype emerges from systems-level network function. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biophysics Volume 47 is May 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...

  1. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  2. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  3. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deen, M; de Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Scheper, RJ; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette ( ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein ( P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 ( MRP1) and

  4. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  5. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  6. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  7. Paleoreconstruction by biological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, W K; Moldowan, J M

    1981-06-01

    During diagenesis and conversion of the original lipid fraction of biological systems to petroleum hydrocarbons, the following four basic events needed for paleoreconstruction may be monitored by biological markers: (1) sourcing, (2) maturation, (3) migration and (4) biodegradation. Actual cases of applying biological markers to petroleum exploration problems in different parts of the world are demonstrated. Cretaceous- and Phosphoria-sourced oils in the Wyoming Thrust Belt can be distinguished from one another by high quality source fingerprinting of biomarker terpanes using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Identification of recently discovered biological markers, head-to-head isoprenoids, allows source differentiation between some oils from Sumatra. The degree of crude oil maturation in basins from California, Alaska, Russia, Wyoming and Louisiana can be assessed by specific biomarker ratios (20S/20R sterane epimers). Field evidence from such interpretation is augmented by laboratory pyrolysis of the rock. Extensive migration is documented by biomarkers in several oils. Biological marker results are consistent with the geological setting and add a dimension in assisting the petroleum explorationist towar paleoreconstruction.

  8. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  9. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  10. Efficient Long-Range Hole Transport Through G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingyuan; Meng, Zhenyu; Lu, Yunpeng; Shao, Fangwei

    2017-10-09

    DNA offers a means of long-range charge transport for biology and electric nanodevices. Here, a series of tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes were assembled within a dendritic DNA architecture to explore oxidative charge transport (hole transport) through the G-quadruplex. Efficient charge transport was achieved over 28 Å upon UV irradiation. Over a longer G-quadruplex bridge, hole transport was escalated to a higher efficiency, which resulted in a higher yield than that of the optimal duplex DNA for charge transport, that is, the adenine tract. Efficient long-range hole transport suggests tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes, instead of an oxidation hotspot, hold better potential as an electron conduit than duplex DNA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  12. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  13. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  14. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  15. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  16. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  17. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  18. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  19. Biological flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H.; Wijte, G.; Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P.; Hartog, H.A.J. den [Paper B.V. Blak (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    A new biological flue gas desulfurization process (BIO-FGD) producing sulphur as a by-product was invented by Paques BV and Hoogens Technical Services in 1993. Sulphur dioxide is absorbed from flue gas using a combination of a sodium based scrubber and two biological reactors, an anaerobic and an aerobic biological reactor. The article describes the process and its evaluation in a pilot plant at 2 MW scale, designed to remove 6 kg/hr SO{sub 2} of the 2 million m{sup 3}/hr of flue gas produced at the 600 MW coal fired power station Amer-8 situated in Geertruidenberg in the south of the Netherlands. Research so far has proved the process works successfully and at low cost. A second pilot plant due to start-up in May 1995 will provide data on scale up and further information on sulphur recovery. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  1. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  2. Identification and characterization of jasmonate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertz, Sophie Konstanze

    of the stimulus but also in distal tissues. The systemic accumulation has been the focus of many studies, which proposed that jasmonate is transported over long and short distances to induce defense responses. However, our knowledge of jasmonate transporting elements is marginal. In this thesis, two jasmonate...... Spodoptera littoralis and the fungus Botrytis cinerea was tested. Wounding assays indicate that the JEFFs are involved in systemic induction of the defense compounds glucosinolates, which may be caused by a JEFF mediated shift of jasmonate precursors to the biologically active form of jasmonates. Further...

  3. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Cybernetics and biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F

    2013-01-01

    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  5. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  6. Biological radiolesions and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In 7 chapters, the book answers the following questions: 1) What reactions are induced in biological matter by absorption of radiation energy. 2) In what parts of the cell do the radiation-induced reactions with detectable biological effects occur. 3) In which way are these cell components changed by different qualities of radiation. 4) What are the cell mechanisms by which radiation-induced changes can be repaired. 5) What is the importance of these repair processes for man, his life and evolution. At the end of each chapter, there is a bibliography of relevant publications in this field. (orig./MG) [de

  7. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: yamil@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  8. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  9. Understanding transporter specificity and the discrete appearance of channel-like gating domains in transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE eDIALLINAS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are ubiquitous proteins mediating the translocation of solutes across cell membranes, a biological process involved in nutrition, signaling, neurotransmission, cell communication and drug uptake or efflux. Similarly to enzymes, most transporters have a single substrate binding-site and thus their activity follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Substrate binding elicits a series of structural changes, which produce a transporter conformer open towards the side opposite to the one from where the substrate was originally bound. This mechanism, involving alternate outward- and inward-facing transporter conformers, has gained significant support from structural, genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. Most transporters are specific for a given substrate or a group of substrates with similar chemical structure, but substrate specificity and/or affinity can vary dramatically, even among members of a transporter family that show high overall amino acid sequence and structural similarity. The current view is that transporter substrate affinity or specificity is determined by a small number of interactions a given solute can make within a specific binding site. However, genetic, biochemical and in silico modeling studies with the purine transporter UapA of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans have challenged this dogma. This review highlights results leading to a novel concept, stating that substrate specificity, but also transport kinetics and transporter turnover, are determined by subtle intramolecular interactions between a major substrate binding site and independent outward- or cytoplasmically-facing gating domains, analogous to those present in channels. This concept is supported by recent structural evidence from several, phylogenetically and functionally distinct transporter families. The significance of this concept is discussed in relationship to the role and potential exploitation of transporters in drug action.

  10. Bioenergetics molecular biology, biochemistry, and pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Ozawa, Takayuki

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of the Biochemical Sciences is underlined by the FAOB symposium in Seoul and highlighted by this Satellite meeting on the "New Bioenergetics. " Classical mitochondrial electron transfer and energy coupling is now complemented by the emerging molecular biology of the respiratory chain which is studied hand in hand with the recognition of mitochondrial disease as a major and emerging study in the basic and clinical medical sciences. Thus, this symposium has achieved an important balance of the fundamental and applied aspects of bioenergetics in the modern setting of molecular biology and mitochondrial disease. At the same time, the symposium takes note not only of the emerging excellence of Biochemical Studies in the Orient and indeed in Korea itself, but also retrospectively enjoys the history of electron transport and energy conservation as represented by the triumvirate ofYagi, King and Slater. Many thanks are due Drs. Kim and Ozawa for their elegant organization of this meeting and its juxtapo...

  11. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  12. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  13. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  14. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  15. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  16. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  17. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  18. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  19. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  20. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  1. Biological Psychiatry Congress 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Temmingh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available List of Abstract Titles and authors: 1. Psychosis: A matter of mental effort? M Borg, Y Y van der Zee, J H Hsieh, H Temmingh, D J Stein, F M Howells 2.In search of an affordable, effective post-discharge intervention: A randomised control trial assessing the influence of a telephone-based intervention on readmissions for patients with severe mental illness in a developing country U A Botha, L Koen, M Mazinu, E Jordaan, D J H Niehaus 3. The effect of early abstinence from long-term methamphetamine use on brain metabolism using 1H-magnetic resonance spectro-scopy (1H-MRS A Burger, S Brooks, D J Stein, F M Howells 4. The effect of in utero exposure to methamphetamine on brain metabolism in childhood using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS A Burger, A Roos, M Kwiatkowski, D J Stein, K A Donald, F M Howells 5. A prospective study of clinical, biological and functional aspects of outcome in first-episode psychosis: The EONKCS Study B Chiliza, L Asmal, R Emsley 6. Stimulants as cognitive enhancers - perceptions v. evidence in a very real world H M Clark 7. Pharmacogenomics in antipsychotic drugs Ilse du Plessis 8. Serotonin in anxiety disorders and beyond Ilse du Plessis 9. HIV infection results in ventral-striatal reward system hypo-activation during cue processing S du Plessis, M Vink, J A Joska, E Koutsilieri, A Bagadia, D J Stein, R Emsley 10. Disease progression in schizophrenia: Is the illness or the treatment to blame? R Emsley, M J Sian 11. Serotonin transporter variants play a role in anxiety sensitivity in South African adolescents  S M J Hemmings, L I Martin, L van der Merwe, R Benecke, K Domschke, S Seedat 12. Iron deficiency in two children diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: Report on whole exom sequencing S Janse van Rensburg, R van Toorn, J F Schoeman, A Peeters, L R Fisher, K Moremi, M J Kotze 13. Benzodiazepines: Practical pharmacokinetics P Joubert 14. What to consider when prescribing psychotropic medications G Lippi 15

  2. Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenrong; Thordarson, Pall; Gooding, J Justin; Ringer, Simon P; Braet, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, researchers have been exploring their potential in biological and biomedical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification and bio-functionalization methods have made it possible to generate a new class of bioactive carbon nanotubes which are conjugated with proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids. The modification of a carbon nanotube on a molecular level using biological molecules is essentially an example of the 'bottom-up' fabrication principle of bionanotechnology. The availability of these biomodified carbon nanotube constructs opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of chemical biology, finally aiming to target and to alter the cell's behaviour at the subcellular or molecular level. This review covers the latest advances of bio-functionalized carbon nanotubes with an emphasis on the development of functional biological nano-interfaces. Topics that are discussed herewith include methods for biomodification of carbon nanotubes, the development of hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes and biomolecules for bioelectronics, and carbon nanotubes as transporters for a specific delivery of peptides and/or genetic material to cells. All of these current research topics aim at translating these biotechnology modified nanotubes into potential novel therapeutic approaches. (topical review)

  3. Electromagnetic effects - From cell biology to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W; Monsees, Thomas; Ozkucur, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In this review we compile and discuss the published plethora of cell biological effects which are ascribed to electric fields (EF), magnetic fields (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF). In recent years, a change in paradigm took place concerning the endogenously produced static EF of cells and tissues. Here, modern molecular biology could link the action of ion transporters and ion channels to the "electric" action of cells and tissues. Also, sensing of these mainly EF could be demonstrated in studies of cell migration and wound healing. The triggers exerted by ion concentrations and concomitant electric field gradients have been traced along signaling cascades till gene expression changes in the nucleus. Far more enigmatic is the way of action of static MF which come in most cases from outside (e.g. earth magnetic field). All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology.

  4. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Thorleifson, E.; Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D.; Qutob, S.; Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-01

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  5. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T M; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S; Mullins, D [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  6. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  7. Applications of NMR in biological metabolic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Jiarui; Li Xiuqin; He Chunjian

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance has become a powerful means of studying biological metabolism in non-invasive and non-destructive way. Being used to study the metabolic processes of living system in normal physiological conditions as well as in molecular level, the method is better than other conventional approaches. Using important parameters such as NMR-chemical shifts, longitudinal relaxation time and transverse relaxation time, it is possible to probe the metabolic processes as well as conformation, concentration, transportation and distribution of reacting and resulting substances. The NMR spectroscopy of 1 H, 31 P and 13 C nuclei has already been widely used in metabolic researches

  8. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  9. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  10. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  11. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Conversely, the average life-span, which is inverse to the ... Some find the catchy “life has an added dimension” (West et al ... works argument, which applies even outside biology, has .... While accounting for the (– 1/4) power, the thread of.

  12. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  13. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  14. Biophysics and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2010-03-13

    Biophysics at the systems level, as distinct from molecular biophysics, acquired its most famous paradigm in the work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who integrated their equations for the nerve impulse in 1952. Their approach has since been extended to other organs of the body, notably including the heart. The modern field of computational biology has expanded rapidly during the first decade of the twenty-first century and, through its contribution to what is now called systems biology, it is set to revise many of the fundamental principles of biology, including the relations between genotypes and phenotypes. Evolutionary theory, in particular, will require re-assessment. To succeed in this, computational and systems biology will need to develop the theoretical framework required to deal with multilevel interactions. While computational power is necessary, and is forthcoming, it is not sufficient. We will also require mathematical insight, perhaps of a nature we have not yet identified. This article is therefore also a challenge to mathematicians to develop such insights.

  15. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  17. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  18. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  19. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  20. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  1. Engineering a Biological Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Susan

    2017-01-26

    The new field of synthetic biology promises to change health care, computer technology, the production of biofuels, and more. Students participating in the International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition are on the front lines of this revolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  3. Isotopes in molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, P.S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in molecular biology, with particular reference to the structure and functions of DNA, RNA and the cellular synthesis of proteins, is discussed. The use of labelled DNA and RNA in diagnostic techniques is presented. (U.K.)

  4. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  5. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  6. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  7. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Application to biological data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is ...

  9. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biochemical information has been crucial for the development of evolutionary biology. On the one hand, the sequence information now appearing is producing a huge increase in the amount of data available for phylogenetic analysis; on the other hand, and perhaps more fundamentally, it allows understanding of the ...

  10. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  11. Male mating biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  12. Systems biology and medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    work could potentially provide us with ways to identify drug ... appropriately balance cause, effect, and context of a given clinical ... would not provide answers/solutions to multitude of tasks that were ... a major challenge of contemporary biology is to embark on an ... nificantly govern the life and responsiveness of cells.

  13. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  14. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  15. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  16. Biology task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The accomplishments of the task group studies over the past year are reviewed. The purposes of biological investigations, in the context of subseabed disposal, are: an evaluation of the dose to man; an estimation of effects on the ecosystem; and an estimation of the influence of organisms on and as barriers to radionuclide migration. To accomplish these ends, the task group adopted the following research goals: (1) acquire more data on biological accumulation of specific radionuclides, such as those of Tc, Np, Ra, and Sr; (2) acquire more data on transfer coefficients from sediment to organism; (3) Calculate mass transfer rates, construct simple models using them, and estimate collective dose commitment; (4) Identify specific pathways or transfer routes, determine the rates of transfer, and make dose limit calculations with simple models; (5) Calculate dose rates to and estimate irradiation effects on the biota as a result of waste emplacement, by reference to background irradiation calculations. (6) Examine the effect of the biota on altering sediment/water radionuclide exchange; (7) Consider the biological data required to address different accident scenarios; (8) Continue to provide the basic biological information for all of the above, and ensure that the system analysis model is based on the most realistic and up-to-date concepts of marine biologists; and (9) Ensure by way of free exchange of information that the data used in any model are the best currently available

  17. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    been questioned, based on data from fluvial sediment transport in rivers (Haff 2000). And, while efficiency and optimality are irresistibly tempting to physicists, they may not have much relevance to the evolution of bio- logical structures and mechanisms. 2. Poiseuille's law for fluid flow. We proceed differently here, tying a few ...

  18. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  19. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  20. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  1. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  2. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  3. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  4. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  5. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  6. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  7. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics

  8. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L., E-mail: umbertofulco@gmail.com; Albuquerque, E. L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil)

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  9. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  10. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  11. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  12. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  13. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  14. Integrating cell biology and proteomic approaches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef

    2017-10-03

    Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of

  15. Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Troina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.

  16. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  18. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  19. Preliminary physical, nutrients, biological, meteorological, and other data from bottle casts, CTD casts, ADCP casts, moored current meters, and meteorological sensors from the GYRE from as part of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study (LATEX PART A) from 04 November 1992 to 05 August 1994 (NODC Accession 9500054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary physical, nutrients, biological, meteorological, and other data from bottle casts, CTD casts, ADCP casts, and meteorological sensors from the GYRE from...

  20. Mathematics, structuralism and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P T

    1988-01-01

    A new approach is gaining ground in biology, one that has much in common with the structuralist tradition in other fields. It is very much in the spirit of an earlier view of biology and indeed of science in general. It is also, though this is not generally recognized, in the spirit of twentieth century physics. As in modern physics, however, it is not a question of ignoring all the progress that has been made within the former paradigm. On the contrary, the aim is to use it as a basis for setting out in a somewhat different direction. Complex phenomena do not generally lend themselves to reductionist analyses which seek explanation only in terms of detailed mechanisms, but a proper scientific discussion of structure must make full use of what we have already learned - by whatever means - about the processes that underly the phenomena we are trying to understand.

  1. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  2. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoszcze, M.

    2007-01-01

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  3. Biologic Therapy and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Ravi K; Busse, William W

    2018-02-01

    Although airway inflammation is an intrinsic and key feature of asthma, this response varies in its intensity and translation to clinical characteristics and responsiveness to treatment. The observations that clinical heterogeneity is an important aspect of asthma and a feature that likely dictates and determines responses to treatment in severe asthma, patient responsiveness to medication is incomplete, and risks for exacerbation are increased. The development of biologics, which target selected and specific components of inflammation, has been a promising advance to achieve asthma control in patients with severe disease. This article reviews the current biologics available and under development and how their use has affected asthma and which subpopulations appear to benefit the greatest. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  5. Biological (flue) gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [PAQUES, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar CV, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Groep BV, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Biotechnological research has been carried out to find new micro-organisms and processes to make useful products, and to reveal new ways and biotechnological mechanisms to produce elemental sulfur in waste water treatment. Biotechnological development work has been carried out and the first commercial installation (on 300 m{sup 3}/hr scale) to produce sulfur from polluted waste water was started up in 1992. The importance of this recent research and development in the area of waste water treatment was recognized. In an intensive cooperation between Hoogovens Technical Services and PACQUES the concept for a totally new Biological Flue Gas Desulfurization process (BIO-FGD), producing sulfur as by-product, was invented. It consists of the combination of a sodium scrubber with two biological reactors resulting in a very attractive new concept for a gas cleaning process. A description of the process is given and the pilot plant results are outlined. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Multiplexed Engineering in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jameson K; Church, George M

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology is the manufacturing technology of the future. However, engineering biology is complex, and many possible genetic designs must be evaluated to find cells that produce high levels of a desired drug or chemical. Recent advances have enabled the design and construction of billions of genetic variants per day, but evaluation capacity remains limited to thousands of variants per day. Here we evaluate biological engineering through the lens of the design–build–test cycle framework and highlight the role that multiplexing has had in transforming the design and build steps. We describe a multiplexed solution to the ‘test’ step that is enabled by new research. Achieving a multiplexed test step will permit a fully multiplexed engineering cycle and boost the throughput of biobased product development by up to a millionfold.

  7. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  8. Indoor biological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2000-01-01

    Inside buildings - besides the umpteen toxic substances emanating from materials and appliances used daily for the most assorted activities - there are may be a number of different pathogenic micro-organisms able to cause diseases and respiratory system infections. Indoor pollution caused by biological agents may be due not only to living microorganisms, but also to dead ones or to the produce of their metabolism as well as to allergens. The most efficient precautionary measure against biological agents is to ventilate the rooms one lives in. In case of air-conditioning, it's good rule to keep air pipes dry and clean, renewing filters at regular intervals in order to avoid fungi and bacteria from settling in [it

  9. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  10. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  11. Serpins in arthropod biology

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Kanost, Michael R.; Michel, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are ...

  12. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  13. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We investigated design concepts of neutron scattering capabilities for structural biology at spallation sources. This included the analysis of design parameters for protein crystallography as well as membrane diffraction instruments. These instruments are designed to be general user facilities and will be used by scientists from industry, universities, and other national laboratories

  14. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  15. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  16. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  17. Membrane transporter engineering in industrial biotechnology and whole cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Swainston, Neil; Pir, Pınar; Oliver, Stephen G

    2015-04-01

    Because they mainly do not involve chemical changes, membrane transporters have been a Cinderella subject in the biotechnology of small molecule production, but this is a serious oversight. Influx transporters contribute significantly to the flux towards product, and efflux transporters ensure the accumulation of product in the much greater extracellular space of fermentors. Programmes for improving biotechnological processes might therefore give greater consideration to transporters than may have been commonplace. Strategies for identifying important transporters include expression profiling, genome-wide knockout studies, stress-based selection, and the use of inhibitors. In addition, modern methods of directed evolution and synthetic biology, especially those effecting changes in energy coupling, offer huge opportunities for increasing the flux towards extracellular product formation by transporter engineering. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis.

  19. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Satoru; Niimura, Nobuo.

    1993-01-01

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  20. Probabilistic biological network alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between molecules are probabilistic events. An interaction may or may not happen with some probability, depending on a variety of factors such as the size, abundance, or proximity of the interacting molecules. In this paper, we consider the problem of aligning two biological networks. Unlike existing methods, we allow one of the two networks to contain probabilistic interactions. Allowing interaction probabilities makes the alignment more biologically relevant at the expense of explosive growth in the number of alternative topologies that may arise from different subsets of interactions that take place. We develop a novel method that efficiently and precisely characterizes this massive search space. We represent the topological similarity between pairs of aligned molecules (i.e., proteins) with the help of random variables and compute their expected values. We validate our method showing that, without sacrificing the running time performance, it can produce novel alignments. Our results also demonstrate that our method identifies biologically meaningful mappings under a comprehensive set of criteria used in the literature as well as the statistical coherence measure that we developed to analyze the statistical significance of the similarity of the functions of the aligned protein pairs.

  1. Water-immiscible solvents for the biological treatment of waste gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    In conventional biological systems for the treatment of waste gases, contaminants are transferred directly to the aqueous phase and then converted by the micro-organisms. When poorly water-soluble pollutants are to be removed, biological degradation is often limited by the slow transport

  2. Modeling Dispersion of Chemical-Biological Agents in Three Dimensional Living Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William S. Winters

    2002-01-01

    This report documents a series of calculations designed to demonstrate Sandia's capability in modeling the dispersal of chemical and biological agents in complex three-dimensional spaces. The transport of particles representing biological agents is modeled in a single room and in several connected rooms. The influence of particle size, particle weight and injection method are studied

  3. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  4. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  5. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies...

  6. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  7. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  8. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and Heme oxygenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number of transporters of heme and heme synthesis intermediates have been described. Here we review aspects of heme metabolism and discuss our current understanding of heme transporters, with emphasis on the function of the cell-surface heme exporter, FLVCR. Knockdown of Flvcr in mice leads to both defective erythropoiesis and disturbed systemic iron homeostasis, underscoring the critical role of heme transporters in mammalian physiology. PMID:21238504

  9. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    the talk of Sergey Leikin [11]. No matter which aspect of DNA research was discussed at the conference, the physical chemistry of solution, particularly the role of counterions, was found to be extraordinarily important. Loren Williams (Georgia Tech) presented decisive synchrotron x-ray 3d-maps of distribution of the most important class of adsorbed counterions between the major and minor grooves of DNA or phosphates. Purely physical methods were used to obtain them with the results crucial for understanding the resulting charge patterns of DNA (including the adsorbed counterions) that determine DNA physical behaviour and DNA-DNA helix specific forces. The conference has shown substantial progress in the characterization, understanding of physics, geometry and topology of DNA-supercoiling, as well as its biological implementations, and a set of lectures was devoted to its modeling and experimental characterization. New techniques were also the center of attention, such as DNA transport through solid-state pores. In particular, Serge Lemay (Kavli Institute, TU Delft, now at Twente) has shown a number of new developments related to a combination of magnetic tweezers techniques and transport, allowing him to precisely characterize the trapping of DNA in the pores and revealing what can be learned from it. Amit Meller (BU) reported an intriguing result showing that DNA capture rate increases with its length for medium long DNA whereas there is no length dependence for longer molecules. Statistical physics of polymers was needed to explain this, revealing also a crucial role of electrostatics. Creation of salt gradients across the pore is providing a tool that increases the sensitivity of this popular new method by an order of magnitude. A unique single molecule technique to study the effect of RNA polymeraze backtracking, using a dual trap optical tweezers assay, was reported by Stephan Grill (Max-Plank Institute, Dresden). Many theoretical models reported at the

  10. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  11. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  14. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  15. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  16. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  17. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  18. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and heme oxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number...

  19. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  20. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  1. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Issues AIBS Position Statements Funding for the Biological Sciences Supporting Scientific Collections Advocating for Research Policy ... Public Policy Leadership Award Graduate students in the biological sciences who have demonstrated initiative and leadership in ...

  2. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO_3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  3. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  4. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  5. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  6. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  7. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  8. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  9. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  10. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  11. Thermostability of biological systems: fundamentals, challenges, and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the fundamentals and challenges in engineering/understanding the thermostability of biological systems over a wide temperature range (from the cryogenic to hyperthermic regimen). Applications of the bio-thermostability engineering to either destroy unwanted or stabilize useful biologicals for the treatment of diseases in modern medicine are first introduced. Studies on the biological responses to cryogenic and hyperthermic temperatures for the various applications are reviewed to understand the mechanism of thermal (both cryo and hyperthermic) injury and its quantification at the molecular, cellular and tissue/organ levels. Methods for quantifying the thermophysical processes of the various applications are then summarized accounting for the effect of blood perfusion, metabolism, water transport across cell plasma membrane, and phase transition (both equilibrium and non-equilibrium such as ice formation and glass transition) of water. The review concludes with a summary of the status quo and future perspectives in engineering the thermostability of biological systems.

  12. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  13. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  14. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  16. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  17. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  18. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  19. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  20. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  1. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  2. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  3. Data warehousing in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, C; Kowalski-Saunders, P; Brusic, V

    2000-05-01

    In the business and healthcare sectors data warehousing has provided effective solutions for information usage and knowledge discovery from databases. However, data warehousing applications in the biological research and development (R&D) sector are lagging far behind. The fuzziness and complexity of biological data represent a major challenge in data warehousing for molecular biology. By combining experiences in other domains with our findings from building a model database, we have defined the requirements for data warehousing in molecular biology.

  4. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  5. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  6. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  7. Building biological foundries for next-generation synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ran; Yuan, YongBo; Zhao, HuiMin

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that takes top-down approaches to understand and engineer biological systems through design-build-test cycles. A number of advances in this relatively young field have greatly accelerated such engineering cycles. Specifically, various innovative tools were developed for in silico biosystems design, DNA de novo synthesis and assembly, construct verification, as well as metabolite analysis, which have laid a solid foundation for building biological foundries for rapid prototyping of improved or novel biosystems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art technologies for synthetic biology and discusses the challenges to establish such biological foundries.

  8. Molecular biology of microbial hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignais, P M; Colbeau, A

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogenases (H2ases) are metalloproteins. The great majority of them contain iron-sulfur clusters and two metal atoms at their active center, either a Ni and an Fe atom, the [NiFe]-H2ases, or two Fe atoms, the [FeFe]-H2ases. Enzymes of these two classes catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen gas (H2 2 H+ + 2 e-) and play a central role in microbial energy metabolism; in addition to their role in fermentation and H2 respiration, H2ases may interact with membrane-bound electron transport systems in order to maintain redox poise, particularly in some photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. Recent work has revealed that some H2ases, by acting as H2-sensors, participate in the regulation of gene expression and that H2-evolving H2ases, thought to be involved in purely fermentative processes, play a role in membrane-linked energy conservation through the generation of a protonmotive force. The Hmd hydrogenases of some methanogenic archaea constitute a third class of H2ases, characterized by the absence of Fe-S cluster and the presence of an iron-containing cofactor with catalytic properties different from those of [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-H2ases. In this review, we emphasise recent advances that have greatly increased our knowledge of microbial H2ases, their diversity, the structure of their active site, how the metallocenters are synthesized and assembled, how they function, how the synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by external signals, and their potential use in biological H2 production.

  9. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  10. Mathematics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.

    1991-06-01

    In India and in so many other countries, the science students are generally separated into two main streams: one opting mathematical sciences, the other studying biological sciences. As a result, medicos and biologists have no adequate knowledge of mathematical sciences. It causes a great drawback to them in order to be perfect and updated in their profession, due to the tremendous application of mathematics in bio-sciences, now-a-days. The main aim of this article is to emphasize on the need of the time to produce the mathematico-biologists in abundance for the better service of mankind. (author)

  11. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  12. Computational biology for ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Daniela; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Thornton, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies have generated a wealth of publicly available data on ageing. Easy access to these data, and their computational analysis, is of great importance in order to pinpoint the causes and effects of ageing. Here, we provide a description of the existing databases and computational tools on ageing that are available for researchers. We also describe the computational approaches to data interpretation in the field of ageing including gene expression, comparative and pathway analyses, and highlight the challenges for future developments. We review recent biological insights gained from applying bioinformatics methods to analyse and interpret ageing data in different organisms, tissues and conditions. PMID:21115530

  13. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  15. Biology of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A working knowledge of the biologic principles underlying radiotherapy for head and neck tumors is desirable for all the disciplines involved in the management of patients with these cancers. Clinical practice is certainly possible without this basic understanding, and historically most clinical advances have been made empirically. However, an understanding of the basic concepts permits a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of various treatment strategies and offers a rational approach for future modifications of techniques so as to improve the outcome of treatment

  16. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  17. Lichens as biological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, H S

    1981-09-15

    Lichens, a symbiotic association of an alga and a fungus, have been used for some years as 'bioindicators', to detect environmental pollution. For this, their property of reacting to certain pollutants with characteristic changes of growth is exploired. With this biological method, continual, sufficiently sensitive measurements over wide areas can often be carried out more simply than with expensive, complicated technical equipment, which requires servicing, as well. This article describes the various possibilities of using lichens as bioindicators, and reviews the methods currently in use for measuring air pollution by means of lichens.

  18. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  19. Biological effects of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Biological effects of hyperthermia and application of hyperthermia to cancer therapy were outlined. As to independent effects of hyperthermia, heat sensitivity of cancer cells, targets of hyperthermia, thermal tolerance of cancer cells, effects of pH on hyperthermic cell survival, effects of hyperthermia on normal tissues, and possibility of clinical application of hyperthermia were described. Combined effect of hyperthermia and x-irradiation to enhance radiosensitivity of cancer cells, its mechanism, effects of oxygen on cancer cells treated with hyperthermia and irradiation, and therapeutic ratio of combined hyperthermia and irradiation were also described. Finally, sensitizers were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines