WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological testing volume

  1. Free radicals in biology. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    This volume covers topics ranging from radiation chemistry to biochemistry, biology, and medicine. This volume attempts to bridge the gap between chemical investigations and the medical applications and implications of free radical reactions. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the technique of radiation chemistry, the thermodynamics and kinetic factors that need be considered, the use of pulse radiolysis and flow techniques, and the application of these methods to free radicals of biological interest. Chapter 3 discusses the mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Chapter 4 reviews the morphological, histochemical, biochemical, and chemical nature of lipofuscin pigments. This chapter brings together the evidence that lipofuscin pigments arise from free radical pathology and that the formation of these pigments proves the presence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Chapter 5 reviews the evidence for production of free (i.e., scavengeable) radicals from the reactions of selected enzymes with their substrates. Chapter 6 discusses one of the systems in which free radical damage is clearly important in vivo, both for man and animal, the damage caused to skin by sunlight. The evidence that free radical reactions can contribute to carcinogenesis dates from the earliest observations that ionizing radiation often produces higher incidences of tumors. A current working hypothesis is that chemical toxins cause damage to DNA and that the repair of this damge may incorporate viral genetic information into the host cell's chromosomes, producing cell transformation and cancer. The mechanism whereby chemical carcinogens become bound to DNA to produce point defects is discussed in Chapter 7.

  2. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  3. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings. Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (11th, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, June 12-16, 1989). Volume 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 10 papers: "Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay" (J. A Johnson);…

  4. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  5. Space Biology Initiative. Trade Studies, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The six studies which are the subjects of this report are entitled: Design Modularity and Commonality; Modification of Existing Hardware (COTS) vs. New Hardware Build Cost Analysis; Automation Cost vs. Crew Utilization; Hardware Miniaturization versus Cost; Space Station Freedom/Spacelab Modules Compatibility vs. Cost; and Prototype Utilization in the Development of Space Hardware. The product of these six studies was intended to provide a knowledge base and methodology that enables equipment produced for the Space Biology Initiative program to meet specific design and functional requirements in the most efficient and cost effective form consistent with overall mission integration parameters. Each study promulgates rules of thumb, formulas, and matrices that serves as a handbook for the use and guidance of designers and engineers in design, development, and procurement of Space Biology Initiative (SBI) hardware and software.

  6. Space Biology Initiative. Trade Studies, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The six studies which are addressed are entitled: Design Modularity and Commonality; Modification of Existing Hardware (COTS) vs. New Hardware Build Cost Analysis; Automation Cost vs. Crew Utilization; Hardware Miniaturization versus Cost; Space Station Freedom/Spacelab Modules Compatibility vs. Cost; and Prototype Utilization in the Development of Space Hardware. The product of these six studies was intended to provide a knowledge base and methodology that enables equipment produced for the Space Biology Initiative program to meet specific design and functional requirements in the most efficient and cost effective form consistent with overall mission integration parameters. Each study promulgates rules of thumb, formulas, and matrices that serves has a handbook for the use and guidance of designers and engineers in design, development, and procurement of Space Biology Initiative (SBI) hardware and software.

  7. Testing of Biologically Inhibiting Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill Madsen, Thomas; Larsen, Erup

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this course is to examine a newly developed biologically inhibiting material with regards to galvanic corrosion and electrochemical properties. More in detail, the concern was how the material would react when exposed to cleaning agents, here under CIP cleaning (Cleaning...

  8. Volume scanning electron microscopy for imaging biological ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Benjamin; Genoud, Christel

    2016-11-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) has been a key imaging method to investigate biological ultrastructure for over six decades. In recent years, novel volume EM techniques have significantly advanced nanometre-scale imaging of cells and tissues in three dimensions. Previously, this had depended on the slow and error-prone manual tasks of cutting and handling large numbers of sections, and imaging them one-by-one with transmission EM. Now, automated volume imaging methods mostly based on scanning EM (SEM) allow faster and more reliable acquisition of serial images through tissue volumes and achieve higher z-resolution. Various software tools have been developed to manipulate the acquired image stacks and facilitate quantitative analysis. Here, we introduce three volume SEM methods: serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM), focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome SEM (ATUM-SEM). We discuss and compare their capabilities, provide an overview of the full volume SEM workflow for obtaining 3D datasets and showcase different applications for biological research.

  9. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume L, Molecular biology of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains contributions by contributors to the 1985 Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This year's theme was Molecular Biology of Development. The volume consists of 104 articles organized by content into sections entitled Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Interactions in Early Development; Lineage and Segmentation/Pattern Formation; Homeotic Mutants; Homeo Boxes; Tissue Specificity/Position Effects; Expression of Genes Introduced into Transgenic Mice; Induced Developmental Defects; Control of Gene Expression; Sex Determination; Cell-cycle Effects; Pluripotent Cells/Oncogenes; Cellular Differentiation; and Developmental Neurobiology.

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume VII : Evaluation of the Compliance Testing Framework for RPA Improvement as Stated in the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Ngouenet, Roger F.

    2001-05-01

    Using the pre-2000 reach survival probabilities reported in the 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion (BO) for three selected stocks: yearling and sub-yearling chinook and steelhead, power curves were constructed for each of the two statistical hypothesis tests suggested in the BO. These power calculation results were interpreted in terms of the ability of the statistical tests to correctly identify the true states of recovery (i.e., fail or succeed in fulfilling RPA expectations). The proposed one-sided tests have a moderate to low probability of correctly assessing the true status of the recovery by the years 2005 and 2008. The relatively poor odds of making the correct decision with the BO proposed Tests 1 and 2 suggest alternative decision rules need to be investigated and developed for assessing RPA compliance. Therefore, we propose to immediately examine alternative decision rules that might maximize the likelihood of correct decisions while minimizing the prospect of incorrect decisions. The Bayesian analysis will incorporate scientific/biological knowledge/expertise.

  11. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark D.; Ghayoomie, S. Vahid; Larson, Stephen D.; Gerkin, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models. PMID:27635225

  12. Testing large volume water treatment and crude oil ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) partnered with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to build the Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) at the INL test site outside of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The WSTB was built using an 8-inch (20 cm) diameter cement-mortar lined drinking water pipe that was previously taken out of service. The pipe was exhumed from the INL grounds and oriented in the shape of a small drinking water distribution system. Effluent from the pipe is captured in a lagoon. The WSTB can support drinking water distribution system research on a variety of drinking water treatment topics including biofilms, water quality, sensors, and homeland security related contaminants. Because the WSTB is constructed of real drinking water distribution system pipes, research can be conducted under conditions similar to those in a real drinking water system. In 2014, WSTB pipe was experimentally contaminated with Bacillus globigii spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for the pathogenic B. anthracis, and then decontaminated using chlorine dioxide. In 2015, the WSTB was used to perform the following experiments: • Four mobile disinfection technologies were tested for their ability to disinfect large volumes of biologically contaminated “dirty” water from the WSTB. B. globigii spores acted as the biological contaminant. The four technologies evaluated included: (1) Hayward Saline C™ 6.0 Chlorination System, (2) Advanced Oxidation Process (A

  13. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume I; Space and Its Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Gazenko, Oleg G.; Grigoryev, Anatoliy I.

    1993-01-01

    and a path to our common future. But for humanity to embark on this path, we need to understand ourselves in a new environment. As such, an understanding of the biological consequences of and opportunities in space flight is essential. In this, the first volume of a joint U.S./Russian series on space biology and medicine, we describe the current status of our understanding of space and present general information that will prove useful when reading subsequent volumes. Since we are witnesses to the beginning of a new era of interplanetary travel, a significant portion of the first volume will concentrate on the physical and ecological conditions that exist in near and outer space, as well as heavenly bodies from the smallest ones to the giant planets and stars. While space exploration is a comparatively recent endeavor, its foundations were laid much more than 30 years ago, and its history has been an eventful one. In the first part of this volume, Rauschenbach, Sokolskiy, and Gurjian address the "Historical Aspects of Space Exploration" from its beginnings to a present-day view of the events of the space age. The nature of space itself and its features is the focus of the second section of the volume. In the first chapter of the part, "Stars and Interstellar Space," the origin and evolution of stars, and the nature of the portions of space most distant from Earth are described by Galeev and Marochnik. In Chapter 2, Pisarenko, Logachev, and Kurt in "The Sun and Interplanetary Space" bring us to the vicinity of our own solar system and provide a description and discussion of the nearest star and its influence on the space environment that our Earth and the other planets inhabit. In our solar system there are many fascinating objects, remnants of the formation of a rather ordinary star in a rather obscure portion of the galaxy. Historical accident has caused us to be much more curious (and knowledgeable) about "The Inner Planets of the Solar System" than about any of

  14. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume XLVII, Part 2. Structures of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 1982 Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The volume contains papers on DNA methylation, DNA replication, gene recombination, organization of genes along DNA, molecular structure and enzymology of DNA.

  15. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen years marked the time between the discovery of the double helix in 1953 and the elucidation of the genetic code in 1966. A similar interval has now passed since the development by Cohen and Boyer of a simple procedure for the cloning of selective DNA fragments. The scientific advances made possible by the subsequent modification and elaboration of these original cloning procedures now amaze, stimulate, and increasingly often overwhelm us. Facts that until recently were virtually unobtainable now flow forth almost effortlessly. Most excitingly, the frenetic pace of these new discoveries, instead of marking the impending end of a glorious moment of learning, give every indication of opening up scientific frontiers that will take hundreds if not thousands of years to explore thoroughly. This new era of enlightenment is nowhere more apparent than in our newfound ability to study ourselves at the molecular level. This volume is the first of two collections of papers submitted by the contributors to the Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology for 1986 - molecular biology of Homo sapiens. Contained in this collection are 80 papers grouped into sessions entitled Human Gene Map, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, and Drugs Made Off Human Genes.

  16. Raise Test Scores: Integrate Biology and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

    This paper presents the results of research that compared the academic achievement of high school students enrolled in an integrated Advanced Placement Biology/Advanced Placement Calculus course with students enrolled in traditional Advanced Placement Biology and Advanced Placement Calculus courses. Study subjects included high school students…

  17. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity

  18. Nevada Test Site Summary 2006 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security-related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  1. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume 54, Immunological recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  2. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume 54, Immunological recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This volume contains the first part of the proceeding of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. Part 1, this volume, contains papers prepared by presenters of the sessions entitled Introduction, Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection, and Recognition by Antibodies, Antigen Recognition by T cells. (DT)

  3. Optimisation of forensic genetics procedures used in disputed paternity testing: adjustment of the PCR reaction volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Bakal, Narcisa; Kovacević, Lejla; Hodzić, Melisa; Haverić, Anja; Haverić, Sanin; Ibrulj, Slavica; Durmić, Adaleta

    2006-05-01

    Standard molecular techniques, with only a slight modification, are very useful in obtaining and interpreting the final results in the field of forensic genetic. Data obtained through such analysis are highly reliable and can be used as a very powerful tool that produces valuable results. However, success and swiftness of DNA typing of biological evidence either that found at a crime scene or used in disputed paternity testing, depends on the optimization of numerous factors. One of the most important and critical phases that ensures reliability of the whole procedure is the choice of the most suitable volume for the amplification protocol. Buccal swabs were collected from volunteers. DNA was extracted by Qiagen Dnaeasy Tissue Kit. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 STR loci by PCR. Amplification was carried out as described previously. The tested total working reaction volumes were 5, 10 and 25 microl. The PCR amplification was carried out in PE Gene Amp PCR System Thermal Cycler (ABI, Foster City, CA). Amplification products were analyzed on an ABI PRISM 377 instrument (ABI, Foster City, CA) in 5% bis-acrilamide gel. Amplification was generally successful for all the tested reaction volumes. Lower partial to complete DNA profiles ratio, the quality of obtained STR profiles, significantly reduced amount of reaction's components give advantage to 5 microl reaction volume over other two tested volumes in this case.

  4. The detection and subsequent volume optimization of biological nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Luft

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and then optimizing initial crystallization conditions is a prerequisite for macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. Improved technologies enable data collection on crystals that are difficult if not impossible to detect using visible imaging. The application of second-order nonlinear imaging of chiral crystals and ultraviolet two-photon excited fluorescence detection is shown to be applicable in a high-throughput manner to rapidly verify the presence of nanocrystals in crystallization screening conditions. It is noted that the nanocrystals are rarely seen without also producing microcrystals from other chemical conditions. A crystal volume optimization method is described and associated with a phase diagram for crystallization.

  5. The detection and subsequent volume optimization of biological nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Joseph R.; Wolfley, Jennifer R.; Franks, Eleanor Cook; Lauricella, Angela M.; Gualtieri, Ellen J.; Snell, Edward H.; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and then optimizing initial crystallization conditions is a prerequisite for macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. Improved technologies enable data collection on crystals that are difficult if not impossible to detect using visible imaging. The application of second-order nonlinear imaging of chiral crystals and ultraviolet two-photon excited fluorescence detection is shown to be applicable in a high-throughput manner to rapidly verify the presence of nanocrystals in crystallization screening conditions. It is noted that the nanocrystals are rarely seen without also producing microcrystals from other chemical conditions. A crystal volume optimization method is described and associated with a phase diagram for crystallization. PMID:26798809

  6. Reliability of brain volume measurements: a test-retest dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaren, Julian; Han, Zhaoying; Vos, Sjoerd B; Fischbein, Nancy; Bammer, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of neurodegenerative disease progression may be assisted by quantification of the volume of structures in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Automated segmentation software has improved the feasibility of this approach, but often the reliability of measurements is uncertain. We have established a unique dataset to assess the repeatability of brain segmentation and analysis methods. We acquired 120 T1-weighted volumes from 3 subjects (40 volumes/subject) in 20 sessions spanning 31 days, using the protocol recommended by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Each subject was scanned twice within each session, with repositioning between the two scans, allowing determination of test-retest reliability both within a single session (intra-session) and from day to day (inter-session). To demonstrate the application of the dataset, all 3D volumes were processed using FreeSurfer v5.1. The coefficient of variation of volumetric measurements was between 1.6% (caudate) and 6.1% (thalamus). Inter-session variability exceeded intra-session variability for lateral ventricle volume (P<0.0001), indicating that ventricle volume in the subjects varied between days.

  7. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G; Brewster, Robert C; Phillips, Rob

    2016-04-18

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features as a means to enable their theoretical description. Here, synthetic biology goes beyond previous efforts to engineer nature and becomes a tool to bend nature to understand it. We discuss various recent and classic experiments featuring applications of this synthetic approach to the elucidation of problems ranging from bacteriophage infection, to transcriptional regulation in bacteria and in developing embryos, to evolution. In all of these examples, synthetic biology provides the opportunity to turn cells into the equivalent of a test tube, where biological phenomena can be reconstituted and our theoretical understanding put to test with the same ease that these same phenomena can be studied in the in vitro setting.

  8. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination.

  9. Volume reduction of solid waste by biological conversion of cellulosics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1981-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the types of cellulosic wastes generated at ORNL can be effectively degraded in an anaerboic bioreactor. The rate and extent of anaerobic microbial digestion of blotter paper, cloth, sanitary napkins, and pine sawdust in various types and sizes of bench-scale anaerobic bioreactors are described. Preliminary tests indicate that the resulting digests are amenable to incorporation into hydrofracture grouts.

  10. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  11. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    122 xii TEST PLAN DEVELOPMENT FOR PLASTIC AM4MINITION CONTAINERS - VOLUME I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project...11 LA 00 Li C:0 z CP -0 133 0( LIE r r ’ D2 U)~ E C IP a g 0- L) LaLn 4’ MOIAIV3H-Q3.~f-trCYin, 20o Tabla 6-D Performance Prediction Model 155ram

  12. Trading Volume and Stock Indices: A Test of Technical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Abbondante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Technical analysis and its emphasis on trading volume has been used to analyze movements in individual stock prices and make investment recommendations to either buy or sell that stock. Little attention has been paid to investigating the relationship between trading volume and various stock indices. Approach: Since stock indices track overall stock market movements, trends in trading volume could be used to forecast future stock market trends. Instead of focusing only on individual stocks, this study will examine movements in major stock markets as a whole. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between trading volume and five popular stock indices using daily data from January, 2000 to June, 2010. A lag of 5 days was used because this represents the prior week of trading volume. The total sample size ranges from 1,534-2,638 to observations. Smaller samples were used to test the investment horizon that explains movements of the indices more completely. Results: The F statistics were significant for samples using 6 and 16 months of data. The F statistic was not significant using a sample of 1 month of data. This is surprising given the short term focus of technical analysis. The results indicate that above-average returns can be achieved using futures, options and exchange traded funds which track these indices. Conclusion: Future research efforts will include out-of-sample forecasting to determine if above-average returns can be achieved. Additional research can be conducted to determine the optimal number of lags for each index.

  13. Current challenges and opportunities in nonclinical safety testing of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Sven; Baumann, Andreas; de Haan, Lolke; Hinton, Heather J; Moggs, Jonathan; Theil, Frank-Peter; Wakefield, Ian; Singer, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Nonclinical safety testing of new biotherapeutic entities represents its own challenges and opportunities in drug development. Hot topics in this field have been discussed recently at the 2nd Annual BioSafe European General Membership Meeting. In this feature article, discussions on the challenges surrounding the use of PEGylated therapeutic proteins, selection of cynomolgus monkey as preclinical species, unexpected pharmacokinetics of biologics and the safety implications thereof are summarized. In addition, new developments in immunosafety testing of biologics, the use of transgenic mouse models and PK and safety implications of multispecific targeting approaches are discussed. Overall, the increasing complexity of new biologic modalities and formats warrants tailor-made nonclinical development strategies and experimental testing.

  14. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate optimal test vial (TV) volume, utility and reliability of TVs, intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C) before cryostorage, cryostorage in nitrogen vapor (VN2) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), and long-term stability of VN2 cryostorage of human semen. DESIGN: Prospec......OBJECTIVE: To investigate optimal test vial (TV) volume, utility and reliability of TVs, intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C) before cryostorage, cryostorage in nitrogen vapor (VN2) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), and long-term stability of VN2 cryostorage of human semen. DESIGN......(S): Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from...

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 6, Physical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for physical testing. Covered are: properties of solutions, slurries, and sludges; rheological measurement with cone/plate viscometer; % solids determination; particle size distribution by laser scanning; penetration resistance of radioactive waste; operation of differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer, and high temperature DTA and DSC; sodium rod for sodium bonded fuel; filling SP-100 fuel capsules; sodium filling of BEATRIX-II type capsules; removal of alkali metals with ammonia; specific gravity of highly radioactive solutions; bulk density of radioactive granular solids; purification of Li by hot gettering/filtration; and Li filling of MOTA capsules.

  16. Translating biological parameters into clinically useful diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Carney, Stuart; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-08-01

    Psychiatry has lagged behind other specialties in developing diagnostic laboratory tests for the purpose of confirming or ruling out a diagnosis. Biological research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has, however, yielded some highly replicable abnormalities that have the potential for development into clinically useful diagnostic tests. To achieve this goal, a process for systematic translation must be developed and implemented. Building on our previous work, we review a proposed process using four clearly defined steps. We conclude that biological parameters currently face challenges in their pathways to becoming diagnostic tests because of both the premature release and premature abandonment of tests. Attention to a systematic translation process aided by these principles may help to avoid these problems.

  17. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 49, Recombination at the DNA level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains full papers prepared by the participants to the 1984 Cold Springs Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. This year's theme is entitled Recombination at the DNA level. The volume consists of 93 articles grouped into subject areas entitled chromosome mechanics, yeast systems, mammalian homologous recombination, transposons, mu, plant transposons/T4 recombination, topoisomerase, resolvase and gyrase, Escherichia coli general recombination, RecA, repair, leukaryotic enzymes, integration and excision of bacteriophage, site-specific recombination, and recombination in vitro.

  18. A new biological test of water toxicity-yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae conductometric test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, Jaroslava; Rumlova, Lubomira

    2014-11-01

    This new biological test of water toxicity is based on monitoring of specific conductivity changes of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension as a result of yeast fermentation activity inhibition in toxic conditions. The test was verified on ten substances with various mechanisms of toxic effect and the results were compared with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhibition (EN ISO 6341) and Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (EN ISO 11348-2) and with the results of the S. cerevisiae lethal test (Rumlova and Dolezalova, 2012). The new biological test - S. cerevisiae conductometric test - is an express method developed primarily for field conditions. It is applicable in case of need of immediate information about water toxicity. Fast completion is an advantage of this test (time necessary for test completion is about 60min), the test is simple and the test organism - dried instant yeast - belongs among its biggest advantages because of its long-term storage life and broad availability.

  19. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume IV. Optical Second Harmonic Generation in Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-17

    efficiency of CC1 4 . The parameter values used in this computacion are listed below. -30 9/2 -1/2a) 8-6.24 x 10 cm erg for f - 1, and assuming imaginary...the desired temperature had been reached. When the samples were immersed in the preheated water, the test nube water temperature remained within + 1C of

  20. Testing of Synthetic Biological Membranes for Forward Osmosis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Mancinelli, Rocco; Kawashima, Brian; Trieu, Serena; Brozell, Adrian; Rosenberg, Kevan

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available forward osmosis membranes have been extensively tested for human space flight wastewater treatment. Despite the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a challenge to produce reliable membranes with anti-fouling properties, chemical resistance, and high flux and selectivity. Synthetic biological membranes that mimic the ones present in nature, which underwent millions of years of evolution, represent a potential solution for further development and progress in membrane technology. Biomimetic forward osmosis membranes based on a polymeric support filter and coated with surfactant multilayers have been engineered to investigate how different manufacturing processes impact the performance and structure of the membrane. However, initial results of the first generation prototype membranes tests reveal a high scatter in the data, due to the current testing apparatus set up. The testing apparatus has been upgraded to improve data collection, reduce errors, and to allow higher control of the testing process.

  1. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  2. Diffusion on a curved surface coupled to diffusion in the volume: Application to cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor L.; Gao, Fei; Choi, Yung-Sze; Resasco, Diana; Schaff, James C.; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2007-10-01

    An algorithm is presented for solving a diffusion equation on a curved surface coupled to diffusion in the volume, a problem often arising in cell biology. It applies to pixilated surfaces obtained from experimental images and performs at low computational cost. In the method, the Laplace-Beltrami operator is approximated locally by the Laplacian on the tangential plane and then a finite volume discretization scheme based on a Voronoi decomposition is applied. Convergence studies show that mass conservation built in the discretization scheme and cancellation of sampling error ensure convergence of the solution in space with an order between 1 and 2. The method is applied to a cell-biological problem where a signaling molecule, G-protein Rac, cycles between the cytoplasm and cell membrane thus coupling its diffusion in the membrane to that in the cell interior. Simulations on realistic cell geometry are performed to validate, and determine the accuracy of, a recently proposed simplified quantitative analysis of fluorescence loss in photobleaching. The method is implemented within the Virtual Cell computational framework freely accessible at http://www.vcell.org.

  3. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. It is presented in two volumes. This second volume provides more detailed information regarding the methods discussed in Volume 1.

  4. Prediction and testing of biological networks underlying intestinal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal N Patel

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer progresses through an accumulation of somatic mutations, some of which reside in so-called "driver" genes that provide a growth advantage to the tumor. To identify points of intersection between driver gene pathways, we implemented a network analysis framework using protein interactions to predict likely connections--both precedented and novel--between key driver genes in cancer. We applied the framework to find significant connections between two genes, Apc and Cdkn1a (p21, known to be synergistic in tumorigenesis in mouse models. We then assessed the functional coherence of the resulting Apc-Cdkn1a network by engineering in vivo single node perturbations of the network: mouse models mutated individually at Apc (Apc(1638N+/- or Cdkn1a (Cdkn1a(-/-, followed by measurements of protein and gene expression changes in intestinal epithelial tissue. We hypothesized that if the predicted network is biologically coherent (functional, then the predicted nodes should associate more specifically with dysregulated genes and proteins than stochastically selected genes and proteins. The predicted Apc-Cdkn1a network was significantly perturbed at the mRNA-level by both single gene knockouts, and the predictions were also strongly supported based on physical proximity and mRNA coexpression of proteomic targets. These results support the functional coherence of the proposed Apc-Cdkn1a network and also demonstrate how network-based predictions can be statistically tested using high-throughput biological data.

  5. Photogrammetry and Laser Imagery Tests for Tank Waste Volume Estimates: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Feasibility tests were conducted using photogrammetry and laser technologies to estimate the volume of waste in a tank. These technologies were compared with video Camera/CAD Modeling System (CCMS) estimates; the current method used for post-retrieval waste volume estimates. This report summarizes test results and presents recommendations for further development and deployment of technologies to provide more accurate and faster waste volume estimates in support of tank retrieval and closure.

  6. Temperature-dependent phase transitions in zeptoliter volumes of a complex biological membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hohlbauch, Sophia; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); King, William P [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Voitchovsky, Kislon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Contera, Sonia Antoranz [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-04

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50-60 deg. C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 {+-} 5 deg. C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  7. Temperature-dependent phase transitions of a complex biological membrane in zeptoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Hohlbauch, Sophia [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; King, William P [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Voitchovsky, K [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Contera, S Antoranz [University of Oxford; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50 60 C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 5 C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  8. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  9. Job Performance Tests for CH-53A/D Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 1. Hands-On Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance test, and a second volume presents the administrative duties and job knowledge tests.... JPM( Job Performance Measurement), Marine Corps personnel, Mechanics, Performance(Human), Performance tests, Test methods....Hands-on performance tests and job knowledge tests were developed for MOS 6113 (CH-53A/D helicopter mechanic) as part of the Marine Corps Job ... Performance Measurement Project. The purpose of this information memorandum is to disseminate these performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers

  10. State Assessment and Testing Programs: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography. Volume I: General References. Volume II: Individual State Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Deborah Elena; Wildemuth, Barbara

    There is a growing body of literature in the ERIC data base pertaining to state educational assessment and testing programs. Volume I of this bibliography includes abstracts of 39 documents and journal articles describing the design and implementation of programs, as well as the technical and political issues which have been addressed by the…

  11. Textiles and Design Library of Test Items. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  12. Testing and Evaluating C3I Systems That Employ AI. Volume 1. Handbook for Testing Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    implements the multiattribute utility analysis ( MAUA ) framework for testing and evaluating expert systems described in Volume 1. Volume 1 is intended as...our methods may wish to skim Chapter 7, "Pulling It All Together," first. He or she may then wish to review the attributes in the MAUA hierarchy...presented in the latter half of Chapter 3, "Proposed MAUA Framework for Testing and Evaluating Expert Systems." A detailed example of the method is given

  13. 77 FR 30887 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Test Requirements for Biological Products; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... manufacturers of biological products greater flexibility, as appropriate, and encourages use of the most appropriate and state-of-the-art test methods for assuring the safety of biological products. The rule...

  14. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report discusses the phase one testing of a data acquisition system for a supercritical water waste oxidation system. The system is designed to destroy a wide range of organic materials in mixed wastes. The design and testing of the MODAR Oxidizer is discussed. An analysis of the optimized runs is included.

  15. Breakdown Tests of Composite Materials, and the Importance of the Volume Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens;

    2005-01-01

    High voltage testing of inhomogeneous composite materials often shows that the stressed volume has a great influence on the result. This paper tries to develop methods of estimating the stressed volume by calculating the theoretical extent of streamer propagation along insulating surfaces...

  16. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  17. Condition-dependent cell volume and concentration of Escherichia coli to facilitate data conversion for systems biology modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkmer, Benjamin; Heinemann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology modeling typically requires quantitative experimental data such as intracellular concentrations or copy numbers per cell. In order to convert population-averaging omics measurement data to intracellular concentrations or cellular copy numbers, the total cell volume and number of cell

  18. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical, biological, and physical... FILL MATERIAL Evaluation and Testing § 230.61 Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing... appropriate physical and chemical environmental characteristics. (d) Physical tests and evaluation. The...

  19. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Light-assisted drying (LAD) of small volume biologics: a comparison of two IR light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Madison A.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2016-03-01

    Protein therapeutics have been developed to treat diseases ranging from arthritis and psoriasis to cancer. A challenge in the development of protein-based drugs is maintaining the protein in the folded state during processing and storage. We are developing a novel processing method, light-assisted drying (LAD), to dehydrate proteins suspended in a sugar (trehalose) solution for storage at supra-zero temperatures. Our technique selectively heats the water in small volume samples using near-IR light to speed dehydration which prevents sugar crystallization that can damage embedded proteins. In this study, we compare the end moisture content (EMC) as a function of processing time of samples dried with two different light sources, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and Thulium fiber (1850 nm) lasers. EMC is the ratio of water to dry weight in a sample and the lower the EMC the higher the possible storage temperature. LAD with the 1064 and 1850 nm lasers yielded 78% and 65% lower EMC, respectively, than standard air-drying. After 40 minutes of LAD with 1064 and 1850 nm sources, EMCs of 0.27+/-.27 and 0.15+/-.05 gH2O/gDryWeight were reached, which are near the desired value of 0.10 gH2O/gDryWeight that enables storage in a glassy state without refrigeration. LAD is a promising new technique for the preparation of biologics for anhydrous preservation.

  1. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary F.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Frances, Someliz; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Resource recovery and recycling waste streams to usable water via biological water processors is a plausible component of an integrated water purification system. Biological processing as a pretreatment can reduce the load of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds entering physiochemical systems downstream. Aerated hollow fiber membrane bioreactors, have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration.

  2. Repetitive Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization Scan Results for Reduced Sample Volume Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMothe, Margaret E. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This report is the compilation of data gathered after repetitively testing simulated tank waste and a radioactive tank waste sample using a cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) test method to determine corrosion resistance of metal samples. Electrochemistry testing of radioactive tank samples is often used to assess the corrosion susceptibility and material integrity of waste tank steel. Repetitive testing of radiological tank waste is occasionally requested at 222-S Laboratory due to the limited volume of radiological tank sample received for testing.

  3. Mechanical testing of advanced coating system, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) coating material has a highly columnar microstructure, and as a result it was expected to have very low tensile strength. To be able to fabricate the required compression and tensile specimens, a substrate was required to provide structural integrity for the specimens. Substrate and coating dimensions were adjusted to provide sufficient sensitivity to resolve the projected loads carried by the EBPVD coating. The use of two distinctively different strain transducer systems, for tension and compression loadings, mandated two vastly different specimen geometries. Compression specimen and tensile specimen geometries are given. Both compression and tensile test setups are described. Data reduction mathematical models are given and discussed in detail as is the interpretation of the results. Creep test data is also given and discussed.

  4. Certification Testing Methodology for Composite Structure. Volume 2. Methodology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    regime. The lesson learned from these experiences is that composite structures are much more sensitive to secondary load induced hot spots than metals...unexpected hot spot failures from secondary out-of-plane loads. A room temperature enviroment is therefore recommended for full scale static test...static strength data. The reliability depends on the maximum spectrum load, the spectrum characteris- tics , SRV and the static failure load. 5. Determine

  5. Vestigial Biological Structures: A Classroom-Applicable Test of Creationist Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Ambrocio, Zenis; Andrade, Julia B.; Foust, Katanya K.; Gaston, Jasmine E.; Lewis, Ryshonda P.; Liniewski, Rachel M.; Ragin, Bobby A.; Robinson, Khanna L.; Stanley, Shane G.

    2015-01-01

    Lists of vestigial biological structures in biology textbooks are so short that some young-Earth creationist authors claim that scientists have lost confidence in the existence of vestigial structures and can no longer identify any verifiable ones. We tested these hypotheses with a method that is easily adapted to biology classes. We used online…

  6. Video and HTML: Testing Online Tutorial Formats with Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cindy L.; Friehs, Curt G.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared two common types of online information literacy tutorials: a streaming media tutorial using animation and narration and a text-based tutorial with static images. Nine sections of an undergraduate biology lab class (234 students total) were instructed by a librarian on how to use the BIOSIS Previews database. Three sections…

  7. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  8. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  9. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  10. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  11. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  12. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume IV - Hydrologic Parameter Data Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-09-01

    Volume IV of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the hydrologic parameter data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  13. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  14. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Contamination Survivability: Material Effects Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Description of test specimen (i.e., surface condition (pretest), paint type, paint thickness (number of coats), paint condition, and surface cleanliness ), with...c. The surface condition, surface cleanliness , corrosion, materials of construction, variance from standard painting, and paint condition will be...and surface cleanliness ), with photographs will be TOP 08-2-502 22 June 2012 22 recorded. The test specimen shall be delivered, constructed

  15. Data Mining Foundations and Intelligent Paradigms Volume 3 Medical, Health, Social, Biological and other Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2012-01-01

    Data mining is one of the most rapidly growing research areas in computer science and statistics. In Volume 3 of this three volume series, we have brought together contributions from some of the most prestigious researchers in applied data mining. Areas of application covered are diverse and include healthcare and finance. Each of the chapters is self contained. Statisticians, applied scientists/ engineers and researchers in bioinformatics will find this volume valuable. Additionally, it provides a sourcebook for graduate students interested in the current direction of research in applied data mining.

  16. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  17. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  18. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  19. 77 FR 15609 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for Certain High Production Volume Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...), Economics, Exposure, and Technology Division (EETD), OPPT, to Greg Schweer, CITB, CCD, OPPT. Review of the... information received since publication of the first test rule for certain high production volume chemical... arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information. Instructions: Direct your comments to...

  20. Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology Treatability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    learned in protocol evaluation, and mindfiil of the expense associated with microcosm studies, the revised protocol will recommend a more limited number...and some additional information regarding bromide tracer testing that was learned at the demonstration sites. The draft protocol recommends the...www.epa.gov/ enviro /html/toxic_releases.html (Page last updated on August 13, 2001.) 146 Woodward-Clyde. 1997. East Gate Disposal Yard Expanded Site

  1. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  2. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 1: The manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. The first volume sets out the Modern Coal Testing Methods in summarised form that can be used as a quick guide to practitioners to assist in selecting the best technique to solve their problems.

  3. Pulmonary function tests correlated with thoracic volumes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Rosenstein, Benjamin E; Johnston, Charles E; Regelmann, Warren E; Nuckley, David J; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Scoliosis deformity has been linked with deleterious changes in the thoracic cavity that affect pulmonary function. The causal relationship between spinal deformity and pulmonary function has yet to be fully defined. It has been hypothesized that deformity correction improves pulmonary function by restoring both respiratory muscle efficiency and increasing the space available to the lungs. This research aims to correlate pulmonary function and thoracic volume before and after scoliosis correction. Retrospective correlational analysis between thoracic volume modeling from plain x-rays and pulmonary function tests was conducted. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients enrolled in a multicenter database were sorted by pre-operative Total Lung Capacities (TLC) % predicted values from their Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT). Ten patients with the best and ten patients with the worst TLC values were included. Modeled thoracic volume and TLC values were compared before and 2 years after surgery. Scoliosis correction resulted in an increase in the thoracic volume for patients with the worst initial TLCs (11.7%) and those with the best initial TLCs (12.5%). The adolescents with the most severe pulmonary restriction prior to surgery strongly correlated with post-operative change in total lung capacity and thoracic volume (r(2)  = 0.839; p pulmonary function, but no correlation was found in cases with normal pulmonary function. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:175-182, 2017.

  4. Impact of 18FDG-PET/CT on biological target volume (BTV) definition for treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Faria, Sergio; Dean, Geoffrey; Lisbona, Robert; Parker, William; Kaufman, Chris; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2007-02-01

    This work represents our effort to test feasibility of FDG-based PET/CT on target volume delineation in radiotherapy treatment planning of NSCLC patients. Different methods have been developed to enable more precise target outlining using PET: Qualitative Visual Method, CTV=2.5 SUV units, linear SUV threshold function method, and CTV=40% Iso of Maximum Uptake Value. We are proposing reconstruction of three biological target volumes: necrotic BTV (same as PTV created by radiation oncologist using CT data), proliferating BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio 1:3) and hypoxic BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio of 1:19). Two IMRT plans were created and compared to the conventional treatment plan: "conservative" IMRT plan delivers 52.5 Gy to the necrotic BTV and 65 Gy to the hypoxic BTV; "radical" IMRT plan delivers 30 Gy to necrotic BTV, 52.5 Gy to proliferating BTV and 65 Gy to hypoxic BTV. Use of BTVs in IMRT plans is attractive because it increases dose to targets considered to need higher doses. It reduces considerably dose to heart and spinal cord, organs considered to limit dose escalation approaches in NSCLC treatment. "Conservative" IMRT approach can be understood as a PET/CT-based concomitant boost to the tumor expressing the highest FDG uptake. "Radical" plan implies deviation from the traditional uniform dose target coverage approach, with the intention of achieving better surrounding tissue sparing and ultimately allowing for dose escalation protocols relying on biologically based treatment planning.

  5. Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This experiment describes the isolation and biological testing of eugenol and neutral compounds from commercially available clove oil. By coupling the chemical separation of the components of clove oil (an experiment described in many introductory organic laboratory textbooks) with a simple antibiotic test, the students "discover" the biologically active compound in clove oil. This experiment models one of the primary methods used in the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents.

  6. Improved method for collection of sputum for tuberculosis testing to ensure adequate sample volumes for molecular diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark; Dolby, Tania; Surtie, Shireen; Omar, Gaironesa; Hapeela, Nchimunya; Basu, Debby; DeWalt, Abby; Kelso, David; Nicol, Mark; McFall, Sally

    2017-04-01

    The quality and quantity of sputum collected has an important impact on the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We conducted a pilot study to assess a new collection cups for the collection of sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The pilot study utilized the standard collection cup in South Africa demonstrating a mean collection volume of 2.86±2.36SDml for 198 samples; 19% of the specimens contained 5ml. We designed and tested two novel sputum cups with a narrow bottom section and clear minimum and maximum markings to allow patients and clinicians to know whether sufficient sputum volume has been produced. The cups differed in their shape and manufacturing approach. The two options also support different mixing approaches being considered for a highly sensitive companion TB-screening assay being developed at Northwestern University (XtracTB assay). Sputum was collected from 102 patients at Nolungile Youth Centre, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa for a total of 204 samples. The mean volumes collected from the two cups were 2.70±0.88SDml and 2.88±0.89SDml. While the mean volumes of current and novel cups are similar, the volume ranges collected with the novel cups were narrower, and 98% of the specimen volumes were within the target range. Only 4 samples contained >5ml, but none were >6ml, and none of the specimens contained <1ml. The number of coughs that produced the samples, patient HIV and TB status plus qualitative descriptions of the sputum specimens were also evaluated.

  7. A New DFT Architecture to Reduce Test Data Volume and Test Application Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Zhang; Jishun, Kuang; Junjin, Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new DFT Architecture that contains three test scan modes. The test data could be interval broadcast to scan chains whenever the data in corresponding locations are compatible. Compared with the conventional broadcast scan architecture, the proposed architecture achieves better compression ratio in all cases, and the test application time is also induced. The hardware overhead is very low. Both theoretical and experimental results prove efficacy and versatility of the pro...

  8. Experimental Work in Biology: Book 1, Food Tests; Book 2, Enzymes; Book 3, Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackean, D. G.

    Laboratory experiments are presented in these first three manuals of a six-volume series for use at the 12- to 16-year-old, or British CSE, level. On the subject of food tests, 17 exercises are prepared in connection with Biuret reactions, starch and emulsion tests, Millon's and Benedict's reagents, reagent sensitivity, and calorific values and…

  9. Verifying seismic design of nuclear reactors by testing. Volume 1: test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-20

    This document sets forth recommendations for a verification program to test the ability of operational nuclear power plants to achieve safe shutdown immediately following a safe-shutdown earthquake. The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to provide assurance by physical demonstration that nuclear power plants are earthquake resistant and to allow nuclear power plant operators to (1) decide whether tests should be conducted on their facilities, (2) specify the tests that should be performed, and (3) estimate the cost of the effort to complete the recommended test program.

  10. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume I. Review of the Literature on Biological Effects of Laser Radiation-to 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-17

    systzn ezloyinr, a ruby laser- an" a closed circuit WTsstm avail:able in Europe , asdescribed by lzcc’auin(z. n1965 Ilzmon Sz-pur, of Space-a;,s, 7Ino...Medical Association Journal by the - ) , , although in the former paper irradiation of carcinoma of the _n :-e -amster cheek pouch was not mentioned...and oral mucosa in vivo and biopsy specimens of oral mucosa. Dental materials tested were amalgum, gold alloy, solder, matrix bands, orthodontic wire

  11. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  12. Job Performance Tests for U/AH-1 Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 1: Hands- On Performance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Hands-on performance tests and job knowledge tests were developed for MOS 6114 (U/AH-1 helicopter mechanic) as part of the Marine Corps Job ... Performance Measurement Project. The purpose of this information memorandum is to disseminate these performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers

  13. Using biological data to test climate change refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, T. L.; Maher, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of refugia has been discussed from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to address how populations persisted during periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, several studies have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify locations that are buffered from climate change effects so as to favor greater persistence of valued resources relative to other areas. Refugia are now being discussed among natural resource agencies as a potential adaptation option in the face of anthropogenic climate change. Using downscaled climate data, we identified hypothetical refugial meadows in the Sierra Nevada and then tested them using survey and genetic data from Belding's ground squirrel (Urocitellus beldingi) populations. We predicted that refugial meadows would show higher genetic diversity, higher rates of occupancy and lower rates of extirpation over time. At each step of the research, we worked with managers to ensure the largest impact. Although no panacea, identifying climate change refugia could be an important strategy for prioritizing habitats for management intervention in order to conserve populations. This research was supported by the California LCC, the Northeast Climate Science Center, and NSF.

  14. Software Reliability, Measurement, and Testing. Volume 2. Guidebook for Software Reliability Measurement and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    test experiments. Of the three static techniques, 200-4 SOFTWARE TEST TECHNIQUES ST Code Review A Error/ Anamoly Detection T I Structure...anomaly is an unforeseen event , which may not be detected by error-protection mechanisms in time to prevent system failure. The existence of extensive... event , the more difficult it is to make a meaningful prediction. As an example, it can be seen that the reliability of an electronic equipment is known

  15. Test methods for evaluating solid waste. Volume 1A through 1C, and Volume 2. Field manual physical/chemical methods (3rd edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This manual provides test procedures that may be used to evaluate those properties of a solid waste that determine whether the waste is a hazardous waste within the definition of Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (PL 94-580). These methods are approved for obtaining data to satisfy the requirement of 40 CFR Part 261, Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste. Volume IA deals with quality control, selection of appropriate test methods, and analytical methods for metallic species. Volume IB consists of methods for organic analytes. Volume IC includes a variety of test methods for miscellaneous analytes and properties for use in evaluating the waste characteristics. Volume II deals with sample acquisition and includes quality control, sampling-plan design and implementation, and field-sampling methods.

  16. Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 3: Space Medicine and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M. (Editor); Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The results of medical and biological research in space are presented. Specific topics discussed include: methods of providing life support systems for astronauts, characteristics of integrated life support systems, protection against adverse factors of space flight, selection and training of astronauts, and future space biomedical research.

  17. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 8. Archeological Test Excavations: 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Analysis Euro-American Settlement Site Testing Rock Shelters Environmental Studies Osage River Sac River Pomme de Terre River Grand River...interpretation of the Euro-American settlement of the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VII is a study of the re- sults of preliminary testing at...several sites in the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VITI contains the results of excavations in rock shelters along the Osage River. Volume

  18. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  19. Testing with Feedback Yields Potent, but Piecewise, Learning of History and Biology Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C.; Gopal, Arpita; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Does correctly answering a test question about a multiterm fact enhance memory for the entire fact? We explored that issue in 4 experiments. Subjects first studied Advanced Placement History or Biology facts. Half of those facts were then restudied, whereas the remainder were tested using "5 W" (i.e., "who, what, when, where",…

  20. Development of a Model Job Performance Test for a Combat Occupational Specialty. Volume I. Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    from a national guard armory In western New Mexico . The unit runs approxlmently 200 men armed with the latest aggressor weapons. They have been...Agcy, Bathasda, ATTN: MOCA -MR 1 USA Concept Anel Agcy, Bethesda, ATTN: MOCA -JF 1 USA Artie Test Ctr, APO Seattle, ATTN: STEAC-MOASL 1 USA Artie

  1. Weibull statistics effective area and volume in the ball-on-ring testing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    to geometries relevant for the application of the material, the effective area or volume for the test specimen must be evaluated. In this work analytical expressions for the effective area and volume of the ball-on-ring test specimen is derived. In the derivation the multiaxial stress field has been accounted...... for by use of the Weibull theory, and the multinomial theorem has been used to handle the integration of multiple terms raised to the power of the Weibull modulus. The analytical solution is verified with a high number of finite element models for various geometric parameters. The finite element model...... was also used to study the difference from other multiaxial failure theories, i.e. the Batdorf theories. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.A.; Bevan, C.; Beyer, B.K. (Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ (United States))

    1992-08-01

    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  3. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume XLVII, Part 1. Structures of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings for the 47th Annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology are presented. This symposium focused on the Structure of DNA. Topics presented covered research in the handedness of DNA, conformational analysis, chemically modified DNA, chemical synthesis of DNA, DNA-protein interactions, DNA within nucleosomes, DNA methylation, DNA replication, gyrases and topoisomerases, recombining and mutating DNA, transcription of DNA and its regulation, the organization of genes along DNA, repetitive DNA and pseudogenes, and origins of replication, centromeres, and teleomeres.

  4. Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings: results at 100 K

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, N; Luke, P; Blackburn, C; Robertson, D J; Dipper, N A; Sharples, R M; Allington-Smith, J R; Tamura, Naoyuki; Murray, Graham J.; Luke, Peter; Blackburn, Colin; Robertson, David J.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2006-01-01

    We present results from cryogenic tests of Volume-Phase Holographic(VPH) gratings at 100 K. The aims of these tests are to see whether the diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength is significantly different at a low temperature from that at room temperature and to see how the performance of a VPH grating is affected by a number of thermal cycles. We have completed 10 cycles between room temperature and 100 $K$, and find no clear evidence that the diffraction efficiency changes with temperature or with successive thermal cycle.

  5. Small Volume Dissolution Testing as a Powerful Method during Pharmaceutical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beyssac

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard compendia dissolution apparatus are the first choice for development of new dissolution methods. Nevertheless, limitations coming from the amount of material available, analytical sensitivity, lack of discrimination or biorelevance may warrant the use of non compendial methods. In this regard, the use of small volume dissolution methods offers strong advantages. The present study aims primarily to evaluate the dissolution performance of various drug products having different release mechanisms, using commercially available small volume USP2 dissolution equipment. The present series of tests indicate that the small volume dissolution is a useful tool for the characterization of immediate release drug product. Depending on the release mechanism, different speed factors are proposed to mimic common one liter vessel performance. In addition, by increasing the discriminating power of the dissolution method, it potentially improves know how about formulations and on typical events which are evaluated during pharmaceutical development such as ageing or scale–up. In this regard, small volume dissolution is a method of choice in case of screening for critical quality attributes of rapidly dissolving tablets, where it is often difficult to detect differences using standard working conditions.

  6. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of such a situated learning approach. What content knowledge do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This study describes the required content knowledge by exploring the educational practice and clinical genetic practices. Nine experienced teachers and 12 respondents representing the clinical genetic practices (clients, medical professionals, and medical ethicists) were interviewed about the biological concepts and ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) of testing they considered relevant to empowering students as future health care clients. The ELSA suggested by the respondents were complemented by suggestions found in the literature on genetic counselling. The findings revealed that the required teacher knowledge consists of multiple layers that are embedded in specific genetic test situations: on the one hand, the knowledge of concepts represented by the curricular framework and some additional concepts (e.g. multifactorial and polygenic disorder) and, on the other hand, more knowledge of ELSA and generic characteristics of genetic test practice (uncertainty, complexity, probability, and morality). Suggestions regarding how to translate these characteristics, concepts, and ELSA into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  7. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  8. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  9. Low energy prompt gamma-ray tests of a large volume BGO detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S.; Raashid, M.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    Tests of a large volume Bismuth Germinate (BGO) detector were carried out to detect low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium-contaminated water samples using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Inspite of strong interference between the sample- and the detector-associated prompt gamma-rays, an excellent agreement has been observed between the experimental and calculated yields of the prompt gamma-rays, indicating successful application of the large volume BGO detector in the PGNAA analysis of bulk samples using low energy prompt gamma-rays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance tests of a portable neutron generator based PGNAA setup for field measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of large volume BGO detector in prompt gamma analysis of bulk samples utilizing low energy prompt-gamma rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of interference of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays from bulk samples with BGO detector background spectrum.

  10. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume 2: FY2002-2004 Performance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Complete research studies for the development of vaccine candidates for WEE virus. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Program...encephalitic alphaviruses. Continue research for the development of vaccine candidates for EEE virus infection. Test promising vaccine candidates for

  11. Impact of 18FDG-PET/CT on biological target volume (BTV) definition for treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devic, Slobodan [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada)]. E-mail: devic@medphys.mcgill.ca; Tomic, Nada [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Faria, Sergio [Radiation Oncology Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Dean, Geoffrey [Nuclear Medicine Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Lisbona, Robert [Nuclear Medicine Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Parker, William [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Kaufman, Chris [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Podgorsak, Ervin B. [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    This work represents our effort to test feasibility of FDG-based PET/CT on target volume delineation in radiotherapy treatment planning of NSCLC patients. Different methods have been developed to enable more precise target outlining using PET: Qualitative Visual Method, CTV=2.5 SUV units, linear SUV threshold function method, and CTV=40% Iso of Maximum Uptake Value. We are proposing reconstruction of three biological target volumes: necrotic BTV (same as PTV created by radiation oncologist using CT data), proliferating BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio 1:3) and hypoxic BTV (based on PET signal to background ratio of 1:19). Two IMRT plans were created and compared to the conventional treatment plan: 'conservative' IMRT plan delivers 52.5 Gy to the necrotic BTV and 65 Gy to the hypoxic BTV; 'radical' IMRT plan delivers 30 Gy to necrotic BTV, 52.5 Gy to proliferating BTV and 65 Gy to hypoxic BTV. Use of BTVs in IMRT plans is attractive because it increases dose to targets considered to need higher doses. It reduces considerably dose to heart and spinal cord, organs considered to limit dose escalation approaches in NSCLC treatment. 'Conservative' IMRT approach can be understood as a PET/CT-based concomitant boost to the tumor expressing the highest FDG uptake. 'Radical' plan implies deviation from the traditional uniform dose target coverage approach, with the intention of achieving better surrounding tissue sparing and ultimately allowing for dose escalation protocols relying on biologically based treatment planning.

  12. Software Mutational Robustness: Bridging The Gap Between Mutation Testing and Evolutionary Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Eric; Fast, Ethan; Forrest, Stephanie; Weimer, Westley

    2012-01-01

    In the mutation testing paradigm, test suite quality is measured by its ability to detect variant programs generated through application of random changes to an original program. In evolutionary biology however, neutral mutations that leave fitness unchanged are considered to be beneficial---improving the system's robustness and ability to discover evolutionary improvements. In this paper, we generate a population of variant programs from an original program by applying lightweight random mutations. We adopt biological terminology and refer to undetected variants as neutral, and the percentage of all variants that are neutral as mutational robustness. Although they are related to equivalent mutants in mutation testing, which are viewed as problematic, we show positive properties of neutral variants which are easily generated and can be used to protect software against unknown defects. Even when mutations are restricted to statements executed by the test suit, we find that mutational robustness is high: 36.75%...

  13. Multivariate imaging-genetics study of MRI gray matter volume and SNPs reveals biological pathways correlated with brain structural differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Khadka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children, adolescents, and adults. Its etiology is not well-understood, but it is increasingly believed to result from diverse pathophysiologies that affect the structure and function of specific brain circuits. Although one of the best-studied neurobiological abnormalities in ADHD is reduced fronto-striatal-cerebellar gray matter volume, its specific genetic correlates are largely unknown. Methods: In this study, T1-weighted MR images of brain structure were collected from 198 adolescents (63 ADHD-diagnosed. A multivariate parallel independent component analysis technique (Para-ICA identified imaging-genetic relationships between regional gray matter volume and single nucleotide polymorphism data. Results: Para-ICA analyses extracted 14 components from genetic data and 9 from MR data. An iterative cross-validation using randomly-chosen sub-samples indicated acceptable stability of these ICA solutions. A series of partial correlation analyses controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity revealed two genotype-phenotype component pairs significantly differed between ADHD and non-ADHD groups, after a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The brain phenotype component not only included structures frequently found to have abnormally low volume in previous ADHD studies, but was also significantly associated with ADHD differences in symptom severity and performance on cognitive tests frequently found to be impaired in patients diagnosed with the disorder. Pathway analysis of the genotype component identified several different biological pathways linked to these structural abnormalities in ADHD. Conclusions: Some of these pathways implicate well-known dopaminergic neurotransmission and neurodevelopment hypothesized to be abnormal in ADHD. Other more recently implicated pathways included glutamatergic and GABA-eric physiological systems

  14. Wind-electric icemaking project: Analysis and dynamometer testing. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, R; Gervorgian, V; Drouilhet, S; Muljadi, E

    1998-07-01

    The wind/hybrid systems group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching the most practical and cost-effective methods for producing ice from off-grid wind-electric power systems. The first phase of the project, conducted in 1993--1994, included full-scale dynamometer and field testing of two different electric ice makers directly connected to a permanent magnet alternator. The results of that phase were encouraging and the second phase of the project was launched in which steady-state and dynamic numerical models of these systems were developed and experimentally validated. The third phase of the project was the dynamometer testing of the North Star ice maker, which is powered by a 12-kilowatt Bergey Windpower Company, Inc., alternator. This report describes both the second and third project phases. Also included are detailed economic analyses and a discussion of the future prospects of wind-electric ice-making systems. The main report is contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of the report appendices, which include the actual computer programs used in the analysis and the detailed test results.

  15. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  16. 77 FR 28281 - Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... issue of March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15609) (FRL-9335-6). If you have questions regarding the applicability of... One High Production Volume Chemical Substance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... production volume chemicals (HPV1). * * * * * (j) * * * Table 2--Chemical Substances and Testing...

  17. Feasibility tests on concrete with very-high-volume supplementary cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Jeon, Yong-Su

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the compressive strength and durability of very high-volume SCM concrete. The prepared 36 concrete specimens were classified into two groups according to their designed 28-day compressive strength. For the high-volume SCM, the FA level was fixed at a weight ratio of 0.4 and the GGBS level varied between the weight ratio of 0.3 and 0.5, which resulted in 70-90% replacement of OPC. To enhance the compressive strength of very high-volume SCM concrete at an early age, the unit water content was controlled to be less than 150 kg/m(3), and a specially modified polycarboxylate-based water-reducing agent was added. Test results showed that as SCM ratio (R SCM) increased, the strength gain ratio at an early age relative to the 28-day strength tended to decrease, whereas that at a long-term age increased up to R SCM of 0.8, beyond which it decreased. In addition, the beneficial effect of SCMs on the freezing-and-thawing and chloride resistances of the concrete decreased at R SCM of 0.9. Hence, it is recommended that R SCM needs to be restricted to less than 0.8-0.85 in order to obtain a consistent positive influence on the compressive strength and durability of SCM concrete.

  18. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk.

  19. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume I: Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Determined that cowpox is the best choice for a surrogate virus for initial testing of therapeutic compounds. "* Identified the drug cidofovir (HPMPC...established that cidofovir treatment during vaccinia vaccination did not interfere with vaccine protection. "* Determined that cidofovir treatment initiated...inhibition of 32 variola strains in two cell lines by cidofovir . Results were sufficient to support the preclinical section of an IND for intravenous

  20. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  1. Cryogenic Tests of Volume-Phase Holographic Gratings: I. Results at 200 K

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, N; Luke, P N; Blackburn, C; Robertson, D J; Dipper, N A; Sharples, R M; Allington-Smith, J R; Tamura, Naoyuki; Murray, Graham J.; Luke, Peter; Blackburn, Colin; Robertson, David J.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from cryogenic tests of a Volume-Phase Holographic (VPH) grating at 200 K measured at near-infrared wavelengths. The aims of these tests were to see whether the diffraction efficiency and angular dispersion of a VPH grating are significantly different at a low temperature from those at a room temperature, and to see how many cooling and heating cycles the grating can withstand. We have completed 5 cycles between room temperature and 200 K, and find that the performance is nearly independent of temperature, at least over the temperature range which we are investigating. In future, we will not only try more cycles between these temperatures but also perform measurements at a much lower temperature (e.g., 80 K).

  2. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  3. Personalized Genetic Testing as a Tool for Integrating Ethics Instruction into Biology Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenny R. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Personalized genetic testing (PGT has been used by some educational institutions as a pedagogical tool for teaching human genetics. While work has been done that examines the potential for PGT to improve students’ interest and understanding of the science involved in genetic testing, there has been less dialogue about how this method might be useful for integrating ethical and societal issues surrounding genetic testing into classroom discussions. Citing the importance of integrating ethics into the biology classroom, we argue that PGT can be an effective educational tool for integrating ethics and science education, and discuss relevant ethical considerations for instructors using this approach. 

  4. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  5. Problems of space biology. Volume 50: Nystagmometry for evaulation of the status of the vestibular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, M. M.; Kislyakov, V. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of nystagmometry are studied, primarily those in which the study of hystagmus serves as a means to learn about the vestibular apparatus. Along with exhaustive published material, the monograph presents data from many years of research on the physioloigical mechanisms of nystagmus, the features of nystagmus when vestibular stimulation is combined with optokinetic, the pole of vertibular afferentation asymmetry in the asymmetry of reactions to optokinetic stimulus, a nystagmometric approach to studying the hydrodynamic interaction among semicircular canals, as well as several other questions. A great deal of attention is given to methods of recording nystagmus, calibrating nystagmograms, quantitative evaluation of nystagmographic material, new nystagmometric characteristics and diagnostic techniques. A diagnostic model is proposed which makes it possible to obtain important information on the condition of the vestibular system from results of vestibular testing.

  6. Research in Drug Development against Viral Diseases of Military Importance (Biological Testing). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    W), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (FT), Sandfly Fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine...the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) were deleted from the primary screen. Also, all in vivo work was discontinued due to military budget cuts...showed confirmed anti-HIV activity versus the Feline leukemia virus, the Simian and Murine AIDS viruses. For in vivo antiviral compound evaluations

  7. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of an educational approach based on situated learning. What expertise do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This article describes the required expertise by exploring the educational practice. Nine experienced teachers were interviewed about the pedagogical content, moral and interpersonal expertise areas concerning how to teach genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing, and the lessons of five of them were observed. The findings showed that the required teacher expertise encompasses specific pedagogical content expertise, interpersonal expertise and a preference for teacher roles and teaching approaches for the moral aspects of teaching in this context. A need for further development of teaching and learning activities for (reflection on) moral reasoning came to the fore. Suggestions regarding how to apply this expertise into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. Phase 3, Final report: Volume 1, Cold checkout test report, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3.

  9. An adapted F-test for homogeneity of variability in follow-on biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Chow, Shein-Chung; Chi, Eric

    2013-02-10

    In recent years, follow-on biological products (biosimilars) have received much attention from both the biotechnology industry and the regulatory agencies, especially after the passage of the 2010 healthcare reform bill. Unlike the traditional small-molecule drug products, the development of biological products is not only more complicated but also sensitive to small changes (both mean and variation) in procedure/environment during the manufacturing process because of some fundamental differences between drug products and biological products. A small change will have an impact on the quality of the product and consequently the treatment effect. Thus, in addition to the assessment of biosimilarity in average, it was suggested that biosimilarity in variability between biological products should be assessed. In this article, we propose an adapted F-test for homogeneity of variances to assess biosimilarity in variability. We study the performance and concordance of the proposed adapted F-test and compare it with probability-based method by extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  11. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project. Phase 3, Final report: Volume 1, Cold checkout test report, Book 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report.

  12. Test Facilities Capability Handbook: Volume 1 - Stennis Space Center (SSC); Volume 2 - Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensarling, Paula L.

    2007-01-01

    The John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is located in Southern Mississippi near the Mississippi-Louisiana state line. SSC is chartered as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center of Excellence for large space transportation propulsion system testing. This charter has led to many unique test facilities, capabilities and advanced technologies provided through the supporting infrastructure. SSC has conducted projects in support of such diverse activities as liquid, and hybrid rocket testing and development; material development; non-intrusive plume diagnostics; plume tracking; commercial remote sensing; test technology and more. On May 30, 1996 NASA designated SSC the lead center for rocket propulsion testing, giving the center total responsibility for conducting and/or managing all NASA rocket engine testing. Test services are now available not only for NASA but also for the Department of Defense, other government agencies, academia, and industry. This handbook was developed to provide a summary of the capabilities that exist within SSC. It is intended as a primary resource document, which will provide the reader with the top-level capabilities and characteristics of the numerous test facilities, test support facilities, laboratories, and services. Due to the nature of continually evolving programs and test technologies, descriptions of the Center's current capabilities are provided. Periodic updates and revisions of this document will be made to maintain its completeness and accuracy.

  13. Fuel combustion test in constant volume combustion chamber with built-in adaptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEONG; DongSoo; CHO; GyuBack; CHOI; SuJin; LEE; JinSoo

    2010-01-01

    Combustion tests of pre-mixture of methane and air in constant volume combustion chamber(CVCC) have been carried out by means of flame propagation photo and gas pressure measurement,the effects of CVCC body temperature,intake pressure of pre-mixture of methane and air,equivalence ratio and location of the built-in adaptor have been investigated.The whole combustion chamber can be divided into two parts,i.e.the upper combustion chamber and the lower combustion chamber,by the built-in adaptor with through hole.Owing to the built-in adaptor with through hole,jet ignition or compression ignition(auto-ignition) phenomena may occur in the lower combustion chamber,which is helpful to getting higher flame propagation velocity,higher combustion peak pressure,low cycle-to-cycle variation and more stable combustion process.

  14. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge.

  15. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  16. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  17. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  18. Testing for phylogenetic signal in biological traits: the ubiquity of cross-product statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoine, Sandrine; Ricotta, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate rates of evolution, to establish tests of correlation between two traits, or to investigate to what degree the phylogeny of a species assemblage is predictive of a trait value so-called tests for phylogenetic signal are used. Being based on different approaches, these tests are generally thought to possess quite different statistical performances. In this article, we show that the Blomberg et al. K and K*, the Abouheif index, the Moran's I, and the Mantel correlation are all based on a cross-product statistic, and are thus all related to each other when they are associated to a permutation test of phylogenetic signal. What changes is only the way phylogenetic and trait similarities (or dissimilarities) among the tips of a phylogeny are computed. The definitions of the phylogenetic and trait-based (dis)similarities among tips thus determines the performance of the tests. We shortly discuss the biological and statistical consequences (in terms of power and type I error of the tests) of the observed relatedness among the statistics that allow tests for phylogenetic signal. Blomberg et al. K* statistic appears as one on the most efficient approaches to test for phylogenetic signal. When branch lengths are not available or not accurate, Abouheif's Cmean statistic is a powerful alternative to K*.

  19. Detecting change in biological rhythms: a multivariate permutation test approach to Fourier-transformed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Salomon, Ronald M; Waller, Niels G

    2009-02-01

    Treatment-related changes in neurobiological rhythms are of increasing interest to psychologists, psychiatrists, and biological rhythms researchers. New methods for analyzing change in rhythms are needed, as most common methods disregard the rich complexity of biological processes. Large time series data sets reflect the intricacies of underlying neurobiological processes, but can be difficult to analyze. We propose the use of Fourier methods with multivariate permutation test (MPT) methods for analyzing change in rhythms from time series data. To validate the use of MPT for Fourier-transformed data, we performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared statistical power and family-wise error for MPT to Bonferroni-corrected and uncorrected methods. Results show that MPT provides greater statistical power than Bonferroni-corrected tests, while appropriately controlling family-wise error. We applied this method to human, pre- and post-treatment, serially-sampled neurotransmitter data to confirm the utility of this method using real data. Together, Fourier with MPT methods provides a statistically powerful approach for detecting change in biological rhythms from time series data.

  20. Volume magnetization for system-level testing of magnetic materials within small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, David T.; Palo, Scott E.

    2016-10-01

    Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is a popular among small satellites due to its low resource cost and simplicity of installation. However, predicting the performance of these systems can be a challenge, chiefly due to the difficulty of measurement and simulation of hysteresis materials. We present a low-cost method of magnetic measurement allowing for characterization of both hard and soft magnetic materials. A Helmholtz cage uniformly magnetizes a 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm test volume. The addition of a thin sense coil allows this system to characterize individual hysteresis rod performance when in close proximity to other hard and/or soft magnetic materials. This test setup is applied to hard and soft magnetic materials used aboard the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE), a 3U CubeSat for space weather investigation which used a PMAC system. The measured hard magnet dipole of 0.80±0.017 A m2 is in good agreement with the dynamics-based satellite dipole moment fits. Five hysteresis rods from the same set as the CSSWE flight rods are tested; significant differences in dampening abilities are found. In addition, a limitation of the widely-used Flatley model is described. The interaction of two hysteresis rods in a variety of relative geometries are tested; perpendicular rods are found to have no significant interaction while parallel rods could have their dampening ability reduced by half, depending on the rod separation distance. Finally, the performance of the hysteresis rods are measured in their flight configuration, with hard and soft magnetic material dispersed as it is on CSSWE itself. For the CSSWE PMAC system design, interactions between rods have a greater affect than the magnetic flux density offset due to the onboard bar magnet.

  1. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. S-2 stage 1/25 scale model base region thermal environment test. Volume 1: Test results, comparison with theory and flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadunas, J. A.; French, E. P.; Sexton, H.

    1973-01-01

    A 1/25 scale model S-2 stage base region thermal environment test is presented. Analytical results are included which reflect the effect of engine operating conditions, model scale, turbo-pump exhaust gas injection on base region thermal environment. Comparisons are made between full scale flight data, model test data, and analytical results. The report is prepared in two volumes. The description of analytical predictions and comparisons with flight data are presented. Tabulation of the test data is provided.

  3. Biomimetic organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings for titanium implants. In vitro and in vivo biological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, R; Sikirić, M Dutour; Lamolle, S; Ronold, H J; Lyngstadass, S P; Liefeith, K; Cuisinier, F; Füredi-Milhofer, H

    2010-12-01

    Recently described organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings of the chemical composition: (PLL/PGA)(10)CaP[(PLL/PGA)(5)CaP](4) (coating A) and (PLL/PGA)(10)CaP[(PLL/PGA)(5)CaP](4)(PLL/PGA)(5) (coating B), applied to chemically etched titanium plates, have been tested by extensive cell culture tests and in vivo biological experiments, with uncoated titanium plates serving as controls. Before testing, coated samples were stored for extended periods of time (from 2 weeks to 8 months) under dry, sterile conditions. Cells of the cell-lines MC3T3-E1 and/or SAOS-2 were used for the following cell culture tests: initial adhesion (4 h) and proliferation (up to 21 days), cell activity (XTT test), morphology, synthesis of collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase activity (all incubation up to 21 days). In addition, coating B was tested against uncoated control in a validated in vivo pull-out model in rabbit tibia. The results of both in vitro and in vivo experiments show excellent biological properties of chemically etched titanium which are even surpassed by surfaces covered with coating B. Thus, after 8 weeks of healing the implants coated with B were significantly better attached to the cortical bone of rabbit thibiae than uncoated titanium controls with more than twice the force needed to detach coated implants. However, coating A (top crystal layer) had an adverse effect on both cell proliferation and activity, which is explained by morphological observations, showing inhibited spreading of the cells on its rough surfaces. The results also show the remarkable stability of the coatings when shelved under dry and sterile conditions.

  4. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Dose Escalation to Biological Tumor Volumes of Prostate Cancer Patients Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermoumi, M; Ngwa, W [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Insitute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States); Sajo, E [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States); Houari, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Insitute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Studies have shown that radiation boosting could help reduce prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence. Biological tumor volumes (BTV) are a high priority for such radiation boosting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of radiation boosting of real patient BTVs using gold nanoparticles (GNP) released from gold-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS) during brachytherapy. Methods: The BTVs of 12 patients having prostate adenocarcinoma identified with positron emission tomography (PET) and CT scanner using C-11 labeled tracer [11C]acetate were investigated. The initial GNP concentration and time to achieve a dose enhancement effect (DEF) of 2 was simulated using the freely downloadable software RAID APP. The investigations were carried out for low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources (BTS) described in AAPM Task Group report 43: Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103. In first case, we used 7 mg/g and 18 mg/g of GNP initial concentrations to estimate the time needed for released GNP to achieve a DEF of 2 for the different BTS, and compare with clinically relevant treatment times. In second case, we calculated the initial concentration of GNPs needed to achieve a DEF of 2 during the time the BTS would typically deliver 50%, 70% and 90% of the total dose. Results: For an initial concentration of 18 mg/g, when using Cs-131, and Pd-103, a DEF of 2 could only be achieved for BTV of 3.3 cm3 and 1 cm3 respectively. Meanwhile a DEF of 2 could be achieved for all 12 BTVs when using I-125. To achieve a DEF of 2 for all patients using Cs-131 and Pd-103, much higher initial concentrations would have to be used than have been typically employed in pre-clinical studies. Conclusion: The I-125 is the most viable BTS that can be employed with GBS to guide dose painting treatment planning for localized PCa.

  5. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  6. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  7. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume III - Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Data Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume III of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the data covering groundwater recharge and discharge. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  8. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  9. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  10. Electrophoresis tests on STS-3 and ground control experiments - A basis for future biological sample selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Static zone electrophoresis is an electrokinetic method of separating macromolecules and small particles. However, its application for the isolation of biological cells and concentrated protein solutions is limited by sedimentation and convection. Microgravity eliminates or reduces sedimentation, floatation, and density-driven convection arising from either Joule heating or concentration differences. The advantages of such an environment were first demonstrated in space during the Apollo 14 and 16 missions. In 1975 the Electrophoresis Technology Experiment (MA-011) was conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flight. In 1979 a project was initiated to repeat the separations of human kidney cells. One of the major objectives of the Electrophoresis Equipment Verification Tests (EEVT) on STS-3 was to repeat and thereby validate the first successful electrophoretic separation of human kidney cells. Attention is given to the EEVT apparatus, the preflight electrophoresis, and inflight operational results.

  11. Gene expression-based biological test for major depressive disorder: an advanced study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shin-ya Watanabe,1 Shusuke Numata,1 Jun-ichi Iga,2 Makoto Kinoshita,1 Hidehiro Umehara,1 Kazuo Ishii,3 Tetsuro Ohmori1 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Molecules and Function, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 3Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Recently, we could distinguished patients with major depressive disorder (MDD from nonpsychiatric controls with high accuracy using a panel of five gene expression markers (ARHGAP24, HDAC5, PDGFC, PRNP, and SLC6A4 in leukocyte. In the present study, we examined whether this biological test is able to discriminate patients with MDD from those without MDD, including those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Patients and methods: We measured messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of the aforementioned five genes in peripheral leukocytes in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with bipolar disorder using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and we combined these expression data with our previous expression data of 25 patients with MDD and 25 controls. Subsequently, a linear discriminant function was developed for use in discriminating between patients with MDD and without MDD.Results: This expression panel was able to segregate patients with MDD from those without MDD with a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 67.9%, respectively.Conclusion: Further research to identify MDD-specific markers is needed to improve the performance of this biological test. Keywords: depressive disorder, biomarker, gene expression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  12. In silico model-based inference: a contemporary approach for hypothesis testing in network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Inductive inference plays a central role in the study of biological systems where one aims to increase their understanding of the system by reasoning backwards from uncertain observations to identify causal relationships among components of the system. These causal relationships are postulated from prior knowledge as a hypothesis or simply a model. Experiments are designed to test the model. Inferential statistics are used to establish a level of confidence in how well our postulated model explains the acquired data. This iterative process, commonly referred to as the scientific method, either improves our confidence in a model or suggests that we revisit our prior knowledge to develop a new model. Advances in technology impact how we use prior knowledge and data to formulate models of biological networks and how we observe cellular behavior. However, the approach for model-based inference has remained largely unchanged since Fisher, Neyman and Pearson developed the ideas in the early 1900s that gave rise to what is now known as classical statistical hypothesis (model) testing. Here, I will summarize conventional methods for model-based inference and suggest a contemporary approach to aid in our quest to discover how cells dynamically interpret and transmit information for therapeutic aims that integrates ideas drawn from high performance computing, Bayesian statistics, and chemical kinetics.

  13. Gene expression-based biological test for major depressive disorder: an advanced study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shin-ya; Numata, Shusuke; Iga, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Recently, we could distinguished patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from nonpsychiatric controls with high accuracy using a panel of five gene expression markers (ARHGAP24, HDAC5, PDGFC, PRNP, and SLC6A4) in leukocyte. In the present study, we examined whether this biological test is able to discriminate patients with MDD from those without MDD, including those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Patients and methods We measured messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of the aforementioned five genes in peripheral leukocytes in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with bipolar disorder using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and we combined these expression data with our previous expression data of 25 patients with MDD and 25 controls. Subsequently, a linear discriminant function was developed for use in discriminating between patients with MDD and without MDD. Results This expression panel was able to segregate patients with MDD from those without MDD with a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 67.9%, respectively. Conclusion Further research to identify MDD-specific markers is needed to improve the performance of this biological test. PMID:28260899

  14. Maximum tolerated volume in drinking tests with water and a nutritional beverage for the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aldo Monta(n)o-Loza; Max Schmulson; Sergio Zepeda-Gómez; Jose Maria Remes-Troche; Miguel Angel Valdovinos-Diaz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recently, drinking load tests with water or nutritional beverages have been proposed as diagnostic tools for functional dyspepsia (FD), therefore we sought to reproduce if these tests can discriminate between FD patients and controls in a Mexican population. METHODS: Twenty FD-Rome Ⅱ patients were matched by age and gender with 20 healthy controls. All underwent both drinking tests at a 15 mL/min rate, randomly, 7 d apart. Every 5 min within each test, four symptoms were evaluated (satiety, bloating, nausea and pain) by Likert scales. Maximum tolerated volume (MTV) was defined as the ingested volume when a score of 5 was reached for any symptom or when the test had to be stopped because the patients could not tolerate more volume. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. RESULTS: FD patients had higher symptom scores for both tests compared to controls (water: t= 4.1, P= 0.001 <0.01; Nutren(R): t= 5.2, P= 0.001<0.01). The MTV forwater and Nutren(R) were significantly lower in FD (water: 1014±288 vs 1749±275 mL; t = 7.9, P = 0.001<0.01;Nutren(R): 652±168 vs 1278±286 mL; t= 6.7, P = 0.001<0.01). With the volume tolerated by the controls, the percentile 10 was determined as the lower limit fortolerance. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 0.95 for water and 0.95, 0.95 for Nutren(R) tests.CONCLUSION: A drinking test with water or a nutritional beverage can discriminate between FD patients and healthy subjects in Mexico, with high sensitivity and specificity. These tests could be used as objective, noninvasive, and safe diagnostic approaches for FD patients.

  15. Chaste: A test-driven approach to software development for biological modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Pitt-Francis, Joe

    2009-12-01

    Chaste (\\'Cancer, heart and soft-tissue environment\\') is a software library and a set of test suites for computational simulations in the domain of biology. Current functionality has arisen from modelling in the fields of cancer, cardiac physiology and soft-tissue mechanics. It is released under the LGPL 2.1 licence. Chaste has been developed using agile programming methods. The project began in 2005 when it was reasoned that the modelling of a variety of physiological phenomena required both a generic mathematical modelling framework, and a generic computational/simulation framework. The Chaste project evolved from the Integrative Biology (IB) e-Science Project, an inter-institutional project aimed at developing a suitable IT infrastructure to support physiome-level computational modelling, with a primary focus on cardiac and cancer modelling. Program summary: Program title: Chaste. Catalogue identifier: AEFD_v1_0. Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFD_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen\\'s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: LGPL 2.1. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 407 321. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 004 554. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: C++. Operating system: Unix. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes. Parallelized using MPI. RAM:< 90   Megabytes for two of the scenarios described in Section 6 of the manuscript (Monodomain re-entry on a slab or Cylindrical crypt simulation). Up to 16 Gigabytes (distributed across processors) for full resolution bidomain cardiac simulation. Classification: 3. External routines: Boost, CodeSynthesis XSD, CxxTest, HDF5, METIS, MPI, PETSc, Triangle, Xerces. Nature of problem: Chaste may be used for solving coupled ODE and PDE systems arising from modelling biological systems. Use of Chaste in two application areas are described in this paper: cardiac

  16. Evaluation of the programmed temperature vaporiser for large-volume injection of biological samples in gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W J; de Zeeuw, R.A; Franke, J.P.; de Jong, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a programmed temperature vaporiser (PTV) with a packed liner was evaluated for the injection of large volumes (up to 100 mu l) of plasma extracts in a gas chromatograph. Solvent purity, which is essential when large volumes are injected into the GC system, was determined. Special attentio

  17. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale.

  18. Test functions for three-dimensional control-volume mixed finite-element methods on irregular grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, R.L.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2000-01-01

    Numerical methods based on unstructured grids, with irregular cells, usually require discrete shape functions to approximate the distribution of quantities across cells. For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error associated with the numerical approximation scheme. For a logically cubic mesh, the lowest-order shape functions are chosen in a natural way to conserve intercell fluxes that vary linearly in logical space. Vector test functions, while somewhat restricted by the mapping into the logical reference cube, admit a wider class of possibilities. Ideally, an error minimization procedure to select the test function from an acceptable class of candidates would be the best procedure. Lacking such a procedure, we first investigate the effect of possible test functions on the pressure distribution over the control volume; specifically, we look for test functions that allow for the elimination of intermediate pressures on cell faces. From these results, we select three forms for the test function for use in a control-volume mixed method code and subject them to an error analysis for different forms of grid irregularity; errors are reported in terms of the discrete L2 norm of the velocity error. Of these three forms, one appears to produce optimal results for most forms of grid irregularity.

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion 1000-hour test program. Volume IV. Engineering details and post-test inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A. G.; Barker, S. N.; Phillips, R. N.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Volume IV of the report on the 1000 hour programme consists of three appendices giving details of the enginmering/construction aspects of the plant and reports from Stal-Laval Turbin A.B. Appendix N has been entered individually. (LTN)

  20. AGARD Flight Test Technique Series. Volume 15. Introduction to Avionics Flight Test (Introduction aux Essais des Systemes D’armes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    features and thus angular. As a simplistic example, a the signal to noise characteristics of picket fence could be modeled with a the sensor can be...Volume Plans, by Anon., 1992. 12, 1980. 66. U. S. Navy Report No. 533, 54. Smith, Sidney L. and Mosier, Jane Anthropometry of Naval Aviators, N

  1. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. Phase 3, Final report: Volume 1, Cold checkout test report, Book 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report.

  2. L\\"uscher's finite volume test for two-baryon systems with attractive interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya; Iritani, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    For the attractive interaction, the L\\"uscher's finite volume formula gives the phase shift at negative squared moment $k^2<0$ for the ground state in the finite volume, which corresponds to the analytic continuation of the phase shift at $k^2<0$ in the infinite volume. Using this fact, we reexamine behaviors of phase shifts at $k^2 <0$ obtained directly from plateaux of effective energy shifts in previous lattice studies for two nucleon systems on various volumes. We have found that data, based on which existences of the bound states are claimed, show singular behaviors of the phase shift at $k^2<0$, which seem incompatible with smooth behaviors predicted by the effective range expansion. This, together with the fake plateau problem for the determination of the energy shift, brings a serious doubt on existences of the $NN$ bound states claimed in previous lattice studies at pion masses heavier than 300 MeV.

  3. A test of biological trait analysis with nematodes and an anthropogenic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitwally, Hanan M; Fleeger, John W

    2016-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are fundamentally altered by nutrient enrichment, and effective monitoring tools are needed to detect biological responses especially in the early stages of eutrophication. We tested the utility of biological trait analysis (BTA) to quantify the temporal responses of nematodes inhabiting salt marsh creeks that were experimentally enriched with nutrients for 6 years. Feeding, body shape, and tail shape traits were characterized on >6000 nematodes from annual samples from enriched and non-enriched sites. Here, we ask if trait combinations are more effective than single traits in detecting the magnitude and rate of change. We also sought to identify combinations of traits that best distinguish natural from nutrient-induced variation. BTA revealed that feeding, body shape, and all traits combined equally detected the response to nutrient enrichment. Compared to single traits however, BTAs were more sensitive to temporal trends and better distinguished natural variation from the response to nutrient enrichment. Tail shape traits (that might respond to altered sediment texture or geochemistry) were not affected by enrichment, and feeding traits yielded the greatest difference between enriched and reference communities indicating that changes in food resources drove responses. Feeding traits provided the highest quality information content in our study, and the use of feeding traits alone may adequately identify anthropogenic effects in many studies. However, we caution that body shape, tail shape, and feeding traits were strongly interrelated at our study site, and a diversity of trait groups may increase the information content of BTAs in more diverse habitats.

  4. Developing a press for static and dynamic testing of orthopedic devices and biological tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlex Leyton Virgen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes designing and constructing a test machine having a 1,800 N capacity and maximum 3 Hz frequency which will be used in static and dynamic testing of biological tissues and orthopedic devices such as external fixers. It consists of an oc-tagonal base with 500 mm distance between faces and a crosshead which slides between two columns (useful 350 mm opening thus allowing changing the height (maximum 600 mm according to the size of the specimen to be tested. A ball screw actuator is mounted over the crosshead which transforms a servomotor’s rotating movement into a lineal movement (maximum 150 mm stroke. First validations indicated that the machine performed within the design parameters. This project shows that the techno-logy required for supporting research is possible in developing countries thereby avoiding dependence on foreign companies for supporting, maintaining and updating equipment. Some conditions were also produced for the evolution of mechanical engi-neering in Colombia.

  5. Total Automation for the Core Laboratory: Improving the Turnaround Time Helps to Reduce the Volume of Ordered STAT Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Porzio, Ottavia; Giambini, Ilio; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The transition to total automation represents the greatest leap for a clinical laboratory, characterized by a totally new philosophy of process management. We have investigated the impact of total automation on core laboratory efficiency and its effects on the clinical services related to STAT tests. For this purpose, a 47-month retrospective study based on the analysis of 44,212 records of STAT cardiac troponin I (CTNI) tests was performed. The core laboratory reached a new efficiency level 3 months after the implementation of total automation. Median turnaround time (TAT) was reduced by 14.9±1.5 min for the emergency department (p < 0.01), reaching 41.6±1.2 min. In non-emergency departments, median TAT was reduced by 19.8±2.2 min (p < 0.01), reaching 52±1.3 min. There was no change in the volume of ordered STAT CTNI tests by the emergency department (p = 0.811), whereas for non-emergency departments there was a reduction of 115.7±50 monthly requests on average (p = 0.026). The volume of ordered tests decreased only in time frames of the regular shift following the morning round. Thus, total automation significantly improves the core laboratory efficiency in terms of TAT. As a consequence, the volume of STAT tests ordered by hospital departments (except for the emergency department) decreased due to reduced duplicated requests.

  6. [The investigation of nickel dissolution from nitinol under different extraction conditions in biological tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiantao; He, Xueying; Li, Jian; Tang, Juli; Huang, Yongfu

    2013-03-01

    The dissolution of nickel from nitinol alloy under different extraction conditions was investigated when biological tests of nitinol medical devices were carried out. It discussed the equivalence of these extraction conditions and found the best extraction conditions. In the experiment, two brands of nitinol were chosen and extracted under different extraction conditions according to GB/T 16886-12. Plasma emission spectrometer was used to analyse the concentration of nickel in extract liquid. The results show that there is no equivalence among these extraction conditions for nitinol materials. And it is suggested that (37 +/- 1) degree C, (72 +/- 2) h could be used as normal extraction condition and (70 +/- 2) degrees C, (24 +/- 2) h as accelerated extraction condition.

  7. Cryo-FIB-SEM serial milling and block face imaging: Large volume structural analysis of biological tissues preserved close to their native state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Akiva, Anat; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Rechav, Katya; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Schertel, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Many important biological questions can be addressed by studying in 3D large volumes of intact, cryo fixed hydrated tissues (⩾10,000μm(3)) at high resolution (5-20nm). This can be achieved using serial FIB milling and block face surface imaging under cryo conditions. Here we demonstrate the unique potential of the cryo-FIB-SEM approach using two extensively studied model systems; sea urchin embryos and the tail fin of zebrafish larvae. We focus in particular on the environment of mineral deposition sites. The cellular organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi, ER, nuclei and nuclear pores are made visible by the image contrast created by differences in surface potential of different biochemical components. Auto segmentation and/or volume rendering of the image stacks and 3D reconstruction of the skeleton and the cellular environment, provides a detailed view of the relative distribution in space of the tissue/cellular components, and thus of their interactions. Simultaneous acquisition of secondary and back-scattered electron images adds additional information. For example, a serial view of the zebrafish tail reveals the presence of electron dense mineral particles inside mitochondrial networks extending more than 20μm in depth in the block. Large volume imaging using cryo FIB SEM, as demonstrated here, can contribute significantly to the understanding of the structures and functions of diverse biological tissues.

  8. Novel Biological Approaches for Testing the Contributions of Single DSBs and DSB Clusters to the Biological Effects of High LET Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Veronika; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2016-01-01

    The adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are commonly attributed to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). IR-induced DSBs are generated by clusters of ionizations, bear damaged terminal nucleotides, and frequently comprise base damages and single-strand breaks in the vicinity generating a unique DNA damage-clustering effect that increases DSB "complexity." The number of ionizations in clusters of different radiation modalities increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET), and is thought to determine the long-known LET-dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Multiple ionizations may also lead to the formation of DSB clusters, comprising two or more DSBs that destabilize chromatin further and compromise overall processing. DSB complexity and DSB-cluster formation are increasingly considered in the development of mathematical models of radiation action, which are then "tested" by fitting available experimental data. Despite a plethora of such mathematical models the ultimate goal, i.e., the "a priori" prediction of the radiation effect, has not yet been achieved. The difficulty partly arises from unsurmountable difficulties in testing the fundamental assumptions of such mathematical models in defined biological model systems capable of providing conclusive answers. Recently, revolutionary advances in methods allowing the generation of enzymatic DSBs at random or in well-defined locations in the genome, generate unique testing opportunities for several key assumptions frequently fed into mathematical modeling - including the role of DSB clusters in the overall effect. Here, we review the problematic of DSB-cluster formation in radiation action and present novel biological technologies that promise to revolutionize the way we address the biological consequences of such lesions. We describe new ways of exploiting the I-SceI endonuclease to generate DSB-clusters at random locations in the genome and describe the

  9. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  10. Radiative transfer equation for predicting light propagation in biological media: comparison of a modified finite volume method, the Monte Carlo technique, and an exact analytical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    We examine the accuracy of a modified finite volume method compared to analytical and Monte Carlo solutions for solving the radiative transfer equation. The model is used for predicting light propagation within a two-dimensional absorbing and highly forward-scattering medium such as biological tissue subjected to a collimated light beam. Numerical simulations for the spatially resolved reflectance and transmittance are presented considering refractive index mismatch with Fresnel reflection at the interface, homogeneous and two-layered media. Time-dependent as well as steady-state cases are considered. In the steady state, it is found that the modified finite volume method is in good agreement with the other two methods. The relative differences between the solutions are found to decrease with spatial mesh refinement applied for the modified finite volume method obtaining method is used for the time semi-discretization of the radiative transfer equation. An agreement among the modified finite volume method, Runge-Kutta method, and Monte Carlo solutions are shown, but with relative differences higher than in the steady state.

  11. Atlas based brain volumetry: How to distinguish regional volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, Roland; Suppa, Per; Kepp, Timo; Spies, Lothar; Schippling, Sven; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Fully-automated regional brain volumetry based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in quantitative neuroimaging. In clinical trials as well as in clinical routine multiple MRIs of individual patients at different time points need to be assessed longitudinally. Measures of inter- and intrascanner variability are crucial to understand the intrinsic variability of the method and to distinguish volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology. To measure regional brain volumes an atlas based volumetry (ABV) approach was deployed using a highly elastic registration framework and an anatomical atlas in a well-defined template space. We assessed inter- and intrascanner variability of the method in 51 cognitively normal subjects and 27 Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative by studying volumetric results of repeated scans for 17 compartments and brain regions. Median percentage volume differences of scan-rescans from the same scanner ranged from 0.24% (whole brain parenchyma in healthy subjects) to 1.73% (occipital lobe white matter in AD), with generally higher differences in AD patients as compared to normal subjects (e.g., 1.01% vs. 0.78% for the hippocampus). Minimum percentage volume differences detectable with an error probability of 5% were in the one-digit percentage range for almost all structures investigated, with most of them being below 5%. Intrascanner variability was independent of magnetic field strength. The median interscanner variability was up to ten times higher than the intrascanner variability.

  12. 40 CFR 799.5085 - Chemical testing requirements for certain high production volume chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (preferred species), rat, or Chinese hamster): 40 CFR 799.9538 OR Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test (in... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5085 Chemical testing... paragraph (j) of this section at any time from April 17, 2006 to the end of the test data...

  13. Epistemological Predictors of "Self Efficacy on Learning Biology" and "Test Anxiety Related to Evaluation of Learning on Biology" for Pre-service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2011-11-01

    The degree to which pre-service teachers learn biology is related to both motivational factors of self-regulation and factors regarding epistemological beliefs. At the same time, self-regulation and epistemological beliefs are also associated with one another. Based on this relationship, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between components of epistemological beliefs and self-refulation (self-efficacy and test-anxiety) on learning biology. The study was conducted with 411 pre-service elementary and pre-service elementary science teachers by using a predictive research approach. Collected data was analyzed by the multiple linear regression technique. The results showed that only the belief about "existence of one truth" was a significant predictor of test anxiety while there was no epistemological predictor of self-efficacy. Conclusions and implications of the study will be discussed.

  14. Design and testing of a synthetic biology framework for genetic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravasi Pablo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology approaches can make a significant contribution to the advance of metabolic engineering by reducing the development time of recombinant organisms. However, most of synthetic biology tools have been developed for Escherichia coli. Here we provide a platform for rapid engineering of C. glutamicum, a microorganism of great industrial interest. This bacteria, used for decades for the fermentative production of amino acids, has recently been developed as a host for the production of several economically important compounds including metabolites and recombinant proteins because of its higher capacity of secretion compared to traditional bacterial hosts like E. coli. Thus, the development of modern molecular platforms may significantly contribute to establish C. glutamicum as a robust and versatile microbial factory. Results A plasmid based platform named pTGR was created where all the genetic components are flanked by unique restriction sites to both facilitate the evaluation of regulatory sequences and the assembly of constructs for the expression of multiple genes. The approach was validated by using reporter genes to test promoters, ribosome binding sites, and for the assembly of dual gene operons and gene clusters containing two transcriptional units. Combinatorial assembly of promoter (tac, cspB and sod and RBS (lacZ, cspB and sod elements with different strengths conferred clear differential gene expression of two reporter genes, eGFP and mCherry, thus allowing transcriptional “fine-tuning”of multiple genes. In addition, the platform allowed the rapid assembly of operons and genes clusters for co-expression of heterologous genes, a feature that may assist metabolic pathway engineering. Conclusions We anticipate that the pTGR platform will contribute to explore the potential of novel parts to regulate gene expression, and to facilitate the assembly of genetic circuits for metabolic engineering of C

  15. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  16. Free Volume Structure of Acrylic-Type Dental Nanocomposites Tested with Annihilating Positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, Olha; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2016-11-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy in lifetime measuring mode exploring conventional fast-fast coincidence ORTEC system is employed to characterize free volume structure of commercially available acrylic-type dental restorative composite Charisma® (Heraeus Kulzer GmbH, Germany). The measured lifetime spectra for uncured and light-cured composites are reconstructed from unconstrained x3-term fitting and semi-empirical model exploring x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm. The governing channel of positron annihilation in the composites studied is ascribed to mixed positron-Ps trapping, where Ps decaying in the third component is caused entirely by input from free-volume holes in polymer matrix, while the second component is defined by free positron trapping in interfacial free-volume holes between filler nanoparticles and surrounded polymer matrix. Microstructure scenario of the photopolymerization shrinkage includes cross-linking of structural chains in polymer matrix followed by conversion of bound positron-electron (positronium) traps in positron-trapping interfacial free-volume voids in a vicinity of agglomerated filler nanoparticles.

  17. Job Performance Tests for CH-53A/D Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 2. Administrative Duties and Job Knowledge Tests. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands-on performance tests and job knowledge tests were developed for MOS 6113 (CH-53A/D helicopter mechanic) as part of the Marine Corps Job ... Performance Measurement Project. The purpose of this information memorandum is to disseminate these performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers

  18. Job Performance Tests for CH-53E Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 2: Administrative Duties and Job Knowledge Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Hands-on performance tests and job knowledge tests were developed for MOS 6115 (CH-53E helicopter mechanic) as part of the marine Corps Job ... Performance Measurement Project. The purpose of this information memorandum is to disseminate these performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers

  19. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  20. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, T.A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  1. Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2, Livingston Parish, Louisiana. Volume II. Well test data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The following well test data are included: final report of field test data, IGT compiled data, ERMI raw data, Gas Producer's Associated tentative method of testing for hydrogen sulfide in natural gas using length of stain tubes, IGT combined sample log, report on reservoir fluids, well test analysis, sampling and chemical analysis procedures, and scale and corrosion evaluation. (MHR)

  2. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this testing was to evaluate the ability of currently available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) biological indicator tests and immunoassays to detect Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores and ricin. In general, immunoassays provide more specific identification of biological threats as compared to indicator tests [3]. Many of these detection products are widely used by first responders and other end users. In most cases, performance data for these instruments are supplied directly from the manufacturer, but have not been verified by an external, independent assessment [1]. Our test plan modules included assessments of inclusivity (ability to generate true positive results), commonly encountered hoax powders (which can cause potential interferences or false positives), and estimation of limit of detection (LOD) (sensitivity) testing.

  3. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A program is proposed for the ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a radioisotope nuclear heated dynamic power system for use on space missions beginning in the 1980's. This type of electrical power system is based upon and combines two aerospace technologies currently under intense development; namely, the MHW isotope heat source and the closed Brayton cycle gas turbine. This power system represents the next generation of reliable, efficient economic electrical power equipment for space, and will be capable of providing 0.5 to 2.0 kW of electric power to a wide variety of spacecraft for earth orbital and interplanetary missions. The immediate design will be based upon the requirements for the Air Force SURVSATCOM mission. The proposal is presented in three volumes plus an Executive Summary. This volume describes the tasks in the technical program.

  4. Examples of testing global identifiability of biological and biomedical models with the DAISY software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomani, Maria Pia; Audoly, Stefania; Bellu, Giuseppina; D'Angiò, Leontina

    2010-04-01

    DAISY (Differential Algebra for Identifiability of SYstems) is a recently developed computer algebra software tool which can be used to automatically check global identifiability of (linear and) nonlinear dynamic models described by differential equations involving polynomial or rational functions. Global identifiability is a fundamental prerequisite for model identification which is important not only for biological or medical systems but also for many physical and engineering systems derived from first principles. Lack of identifiability implies that the parameter estimation techniques may not fail but any obtained numerical estimates will be meaningless. The software does not require understanding of the underlying mathematical principles and can be used by researchers in applied fields with a minimum of mathematical background. We illustrate the DAISY software by checking the a priori global identifiability of two benchmark nonlinear models taken from the literature. The analysis of these two examples includes comparison with other methods and demonstrates how identifiability analysis is simplified by this tool. Thus we illustrate the identifiability analysis of other two examples, by including discussion of some specific aspects related to the role of observability and knowledge of initial conditions in testing identifiability and to the computational complexity of the software. The main focus of this paper is not on the description of the mathematical background of the algorithm, which has been presented elsewhere, but on illustrating its use and on some of its more interesting features. DAISY is available on the web site http://www.dei.unipd.it/ approximately pia/.

  5. Biological impact assessment of nanomaterial used in nanomedicine. introduction to the NanoTEST project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbø, Lise Marie; Collins, Andrew R; Handy, Richard D; Riediker, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) are used in nanomedicine as drug carriers or imaging agents, providing increased selectivity/specificity for diseased tissues. The first NPs in nanomedicine were developed for increasing the efficacy of known drugs displaying dose-limiting toxicity and poor bioavailability and for enhancing disease detection. Nanotechnologies have gained much interest owing to their huge potential for applications in industry and medicine. It is necessary to ensure and control the biocompatibility of the components of therapeutic NPs to guarantee that intrinsic toxicity does not overtake the benefits. In addition to monitoring their toxicity in vitro, in vivo and in silico, it is also necessary to understand their distribution in the human body, their biodegradation and excretion routes and dispersion in the environment. Therefore, a deep understanding of their interactions with living tissues and of their possible effects in the human (and animal) body is required for the safe use of nanoparticulate formulations. Obtaining this information was the main aim of the NanoTEST project, and the goals of the reports collected together in this special issue are to summarise the observations and results obtained by the participating research teams and to provide methodological tools for evaluating the biological impact of NPs.

  6. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  7. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    successful data processing and evaluation . R. J. Sutton, Principal Technical specialist - Advanced Programs, and E. L. Weiner, Engineering Contract... Evaluation ................................................... 49 IV. DISCUSSION OF REJLTS ............................................. 51 CHAS/S’TS Test...PROGRAM TEST PANEL NO. 1 ....... 52 5 SUMARY OF EXPERIMTAL CHAS/SATS DATA FOR CI PRGRAM TEST PANEL 2, 3 & 4

  8. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI). Volume 5. Description of the Job Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, William J.; And Others

    An account is presented of the development of a job performance test for the Learner Centered Instruction (LCI) weapon control systems mechanic/technician Air Force course. The performance test was administered to the LCI experimental course subjects as well as the control course subjects upon graduation. Test items are, for the most part, based…

  9. Biological test methods for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. Final report; Biologische Testerverfahren zur oekotoxikologischen Charakterisierung von Abfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Roland [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany); Donnevert, Gerhild [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany). FB MNI; Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The ecotoxicological characterization of waste is part of their assessment as hazardous or non-hazardous according to the European Waste List. Despite its transfer into national law in the waste list ordnance 2001 no methodological recommendations have been provided to cover the hazard criterion (H14 ''ecotoxicity'') which was taken over from the legislation on dangerous substances. Based on the recommendations of CEN guideline 14735 (2005), an international ring test was organised by BAM, FH Giessen-Friedberg and ECT GmbH. In total, 67 laboratories from 15 countries participated in the ring test. It was performed with three representative waste types: an ash from an incineration plant mainly contaminated with heavy metals, a soil containing high concentrations of organic contaminants (PAHs) and a preserved wood waste contaminated with copper and other heavy metals. Samples were prepared by BAM (e.g. inter alia dried, sieved and homogenised) and distributed. Parallel to the biological testing the eluates and solid samples were chemically characterized. The basic test battery used in the ring test consisted of three aquatic (Algae test, Daphnia acute test and Microtox test) and three terrestrial (earthworm acute and plant test with two species (oat, rape)) tests. In addition, data were submitted for ten additional tests (five aquatic (including a genotoxicity test) and five terrestrial ones). Almost all tests were performed according to ISO guidelines, providing EC50 values as measurement of toxicity. Data evaluation was done following recent recommendations made by ISO (2002) and Environment Canada (2005). Besides a high number of reference test data, 634 data sets were produced in the basic test battery and 204 data sets in the additional tests. Only few data sets were not acceptable (e.g. due to lack of reference data) and even less results were identified as statistical or biological outliers. For example, in the case of the basic test

  10. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  11. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CELLRAD)": Hardware and biological system tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CELLRAD, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CELLRAD in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  12. Kaman 40-kW wind system. Phase II. Fabrication and tests. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, H; Perley, R

    1981-01-01

    A program is underway to design, fabricate and test a horizontal axis Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) capable of producing 40 kW electrical output power in a 20 mph wind. Results are presented of the program effort covering fabrication and testing of the Wing Turbine Generator designed earlier. A minimum of difficulties were experienced during fabrication and, after successful completion of Contractor tests through 20 mph winds, the WTG was shipped to Rocky Flats, assembled and operated there. The 40 kW WTG is presently undergoing extended tests at Rockwell's Rocky Flats test facility.

  13. The use of biological tests for establishing the influence of flue dust from lead and zinc works on plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity of water extracts of flue dust from lead and zinc works was assayed by means of biological tests. As test species served: Pinui silvestris, P. nigra, Trifalium pratense, Cucurnis sativus variety Delikates, Raphanus sativus, Pisum arvense and Allium cepa. The extracts tested with a containing as low as 26.0 mg/ml Zn and 1.02 mg/ml Pb, caused a shortening of the roots of the tested plants. Most sensitive proved to be Cucumis sativus, Trifolium pratense and Pinus silvestris. Cytoloigical analysis of the growth apex of Allium cepa roots demonstrated that the Solutions used caused disturbances in cell division in the form of c-mitosis and lowered the value of the mitotic index.

  14. Ecological health assessments based on whole effluent toxicity tests and the index of biological integrity in temperate streams influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don; Chang, Nam Ik; An, Kwang-Guk

    2007-09-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests and ecosystem health assessments, based on test guidelines of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and index of biological integrity (IBI), were conducted on various streams located in Youngsan River watershed, Korea. The WET tests showed that about 33 and 82% of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exhibited significant toxicity to Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, respectively. Small WWTPs with low discharge volumes contributed less than 1% to the total stream toxicity. Fish community compositions and trophic guild analysis showed that the diversity index was greater in the control than in impacted streams, and the proportion of omnivore species was less in the control. Also, ecosystem health assessments, based on the IBI, showed distinct differences between the control and impacted sites of WWTPs. Model values of the IBI, based on 12 stream data sets, averaged 28, which is judged as a fair to poor condition according to the U.S. EPA criteria. The mean IBI in the control sites was 42, indicating good stream condition, whereas the impacted sites was scored 21, indicating poor condition. Overall, WET tests and ecosystem health assessments suggested the WWTP effluents had evident toxic effects on the biota, and impacted the species compositions and trophic guilds, resulting in degradation of the stream ecosystem health.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    A comprehensive test program has been envisioned by ERDA to accomplish the OTEC program objectives of developing an industrial and technological base that will lead to the commercial capability to successfully construct and economically operate OTEC plants. This study was performed to develop alternative non-site specific OTEC test facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program including both land and floating test facilities. A progression of tests was established in which OTEC power cycle component designs proceed through advanced research and technology, component, and systems test phases. This progression leads to the first OTEC pilot plant and provides support for following developments which potentially reduce the cost of OTEC energy. It also includes provisions for feedback of results from all test phases to enhance modifications to existing designs or development of new concepts. The tests described should be considered as representative of generic types since specifics can be expected to change as the OTEC plant design evolves. Emphasis is placed on defining the test facility which is capable of supporting the spectrum of tests envisioned. All test support facilities and equipment have been identified and included in terms of space, utilities, cost, schedule, and constraints or risks. A highly integrated data acquisition and control system has been included to improve test operations and facility effectiveness through a centralized computer system capable of automatic test control, real-time data analysis, engineering analyses, and selected facility control including safety alarms. Electrical power, hydrogen, and ammonia are shown to be technically feasible as means for transmitting OTEC power to a land-based distribution point. (WHK)

  16. Prairie Canal Well No. 1, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Volume II. Well test data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The following are included in appendices: field test data, field non-edited data, raw data, tentative method of testing for hydrogen sulfide in natural gas using length of stain tubes, combined sample log, report on reservoir fluids study, well test analysis, analysis of solids samples from primary zone, chemical analysis procedures, scale and corrosion evaluation, laboratory report on scale deposits, and sand detector strip charts. (MHR)

  17. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, April 1984-September 1984. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Veakis, E.; Soo, P.

    1985-06-01

    This ongoing study is part of a task to specify tests that may be used to verify that engineered waste package/repository systems comply with NRC radionuclide containment and controlled release performance objectives. Work covered in this report includes crushed tuff packing material for use in a high level waste tuff repository. A review of available tests to quantify packing performance is given together with recommendations for future testing work. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Patty's toxicology. Volume 1: toxicology issues, inorganic particulates, dusts, products of biological origin and pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B; Powell, C.H. (eds.) [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (US). Kettering Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    This book discusses toxic agents and pathogens in the workplace and its adverse health effects on workers. This volume includes discussions on industrial toxicology, measuring exposure to toxic substances, occupational chemical carcinogenesis, non-cancer risk assessment, gene-environment interaction, regulations and guidelines in the workplace, toxic chemical information sources, chemical safety, silica and silica compounds, asbestos, talc, rock wool and refractory ceramic fibres, fibreglass, coal, wood dust, cotton and other textile dusts, bioaerosols and disease, bloodborne pathogens in the workplace, tuberculosis and other mycobacteria and petroleum, coal tar and its related products.

  19. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems. Volume 2: Test Methods for Telemetry Radio Frequency (RF) Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    interference test is to measure the effect on bit error probability ( BEP ) of signals in adjacent frequency slots. The results will be a function of...is to have the two interfering signals 20 dB larger than the victim signal. Vary the attenuator that is common to the two interferers until the BEP ...measurement of bit error probability ( BEP ) improvement (or degradation) when signals are combined as compared with single channel operation. The BEP is

  20. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  1. Relationship of temporal lobe volumes to neuropsychological test performance in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain vol

  2. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  3. Species detection and abundance using a biosensor - Development and Testing of in-situ Biological Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), http://www.mbari.org/ESP/, is an autonomous biological sensing system that conducts in situ collection and molecular...

  4. Tracer tests and image analysis of biological clogging in a two-dimentsional sandbox experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional flow experiment on biological clogging was carried out by biostimulating a sandbox packed with sand inoculated with bacteria. Biostimulation. consisted of continuously injecting nutrients (acetate and nitrate). Clogging was visualized by frequently carrying out colored tracer...

  5. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization in Large Cosmological Volumes I: Numerical Methods and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...

  6. Testing of high-volume sampler inlets for the sampling of atmospheric radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Hammad; Su, Wei-Chung; Cheng, Yung S; Medici, Fausto

    2006-09-01

    Sampling of air for radioactive particles is one of the most important techniques used to determine the nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon test in the Earth's atmosphere or those particles vented from underground or underwater tests. Massive-flow air samplers are used to sample air for any indication of radionuclides that are a signature of nuclear tests. The International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization includes seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and gaseous xenon isotopes sampling technologies, in addition to radionuclide sampling, to monitor for any violation of the treaty. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute has developed a large wind tunnel to test the outdoor radionuclide samplers for the International Monitoring System. The inlets for these samplers are tested for their collection efficiencies for different particle sizes at various wind speeds. This paper describes the results from the testing of two radionuclide sampling units used in the International Monitoring System. The possible areas of depositional wall losses are identified and the losses in these areas are determined. Sampling inlet type 1 was tested at 2.2 m s wind speed for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles. The global collection efficiency was about 87.6% for 10-microm particles for sampling inlet type 1. Sampling inlet type 2 was tested for three wind speeds at 0.56, 2.2, and 6.6 m s for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles in two different configurations (sampling head lowered and raised). The global collection efficiencies for these configurations for 10-microm particles at 2.2 m s wind speed were 77.4% and 82.5%, respectively. The sampling flow rate was 600 m h for both sampling inlets.

  7. TMI-2 core debris-cesium release/settling test. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D W; Johnson, D A

    1984-12-01

    Cesium release, turbidity and airborne potential tests were conducted on 50 grams of TMI-2 core debris materials. The tests were performed on the debris in two conditions: on the as-received core debris specimen, and after crushing the debris to alter the particle size distribution. The crushing was intended to simulate the breakup of TMI-2 core material that may occur during reactor defueling. These tests are intended to assist GPU Nuclear in predicting the effect of defueling on the reactor environment.

  8. Testing the Capacity of the National Biological Dose Response Plan (NBDRP) EX40801

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    providing radiation biological dose estimates using the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). As indicated in the CRTI-06-0146RD charter, the existing...laboratories of the National Biological Dose Response Plan plus two US laboratories. Samples were scored for the dicentric chromosome assay and the CBMN...Wilkins, R.C. QuickScan dicentric chromosome analysis for radiation biodosimetry , Health Physics Journal, In Press (2009). 2. McNamee, J.P., Flegal

  9. A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic.

  10. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume II. High-temperature proppant testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Data were obtained from a newly built proppant tester, operated at actual geothermal temperatures. The short term test results show that most proppants are temperature sensitive, particularly at the higher closure stresses. Many materials have been tested using a standard short-term test, i.e., fracture-free sand, bauxite, and a resin-coated sand retained good permeability at the high fluid temperatures in brine over a range of closure stresses. The tests were designed to simulate normal closure stress ranges for geothermal wells which are estimated to be from 2000 to 6000 psi. Although the ultra high closure stresses in oil and gas wells need not be considered with present geothermal resources, there is a definite need for chemically inert proppants that will retain high permeability for long time periods in the high temperature formations.

  11. Stack test results at Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Ajo, Arizona. Volume III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, J.

    1977-03-01

    Contents: Sampling schedules for simultaneous stack tests; Weight versus time curve for glass fiber filter; Sample calculation for statistical analysis; Individual process weight calculations; Individual filter, particulate and residue weight data.

  12. Stack test results at Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Ajo, Arizona. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, J.

    1977-03-01

    In July 1976 at the request of EPA, Region IX, Enforcement Division, the Aerotherm Division of the Acurex Corporation conducted a series of air pollutant mass emissions tests at the new Cornelia Branch copper smelter of the Phelps Dodge Corporation located in Ajo, Arizona. The tests were performed simultaneously at three locations: (1) the main stack, (2) the reverberatory furnace duct and (3) the converter side sulfuric acid plant tail gas duct. Tests for particulate matter (Method 5), sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid (Method 8) were conducted at each location using a combined sampling train. In addition tests for 'condensable particulate matter' were conducted at the main stack and the reverberatory furnace duct using the combined Method 5 and 8 sampling train with an instack filter added.

  13. Processing equipment for resource recovery systems. Volume 3: Field test evaluation of shredders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, G. M.; Shiflett, G. R.

    1980-07-01

    A program to test and evaluate large scale shredders used for the size reduction of solid waste is reported. Tests were conducted on seven horizontal hammermills, one vertical hammermill, and one vertical ring shredder at six commercial sites. Both two stage size reduction and single stage size reduction were studied. Analytical relationships among the comminution parameters and the establishment of levels of performance for energy consumption and hammer wear associated with size reduction of solid waste are developed.

  14. 3000-HP Roller Gear Transmission Development Program. Volume 5. Aircraft Tiedown Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    54 8 5-Hour Break-in Spectrum . a . . . . . . 74 9 Endurance Test, 10-Hour Cycle . . . . . . 76 10 5-Hour Brak -in Test Power Levels . . . . 81...Roller Srface, First-Row Pinion As a result of insufficient blending of the first-row pinion roller radius serial number 69, the sun gear exhibited a...first- row pinion rollers. This was attributable to insuffi- cient blending of the roller crown on the mating second-row gear roller. 2. The spherical

  15. Volume Sensor Development Test Series 4 Results - Multi-Component Prototype Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-25

    multiple locations in the test space by two aerosols, The aerosols used were: 1) Old Spice High Endurance deodorant 2) Lysol disinfectant spray. 9...Deodorant / Lysol and Old spice Deodorant (High Endurance) were sprayed Aerosol 5 seconds, off for 5 seconds, then sprayed for 5 seconds at spray... Lysol sprayed at location 4 -325 seconds after DAQ start old spice sprayed at location 1 -360 seconds after DAQ start Lysol sprayed at location 1 and test

  16. Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2, Livingston Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2, approximately 23 miles east of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, is the eighth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the DOE Wells of Opportunity program. The well was tested through the annulus between 7-inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. Two flow tests and one reservoir pressure buildup test were conducted on the lower zone during a 13-day period. A total of 12,489 barrels of water was produced. The highest flow rate achieved was about 3887 BWPD. One flow test followed by a buildup period was conducted on the combined upper and lower zones during a 3-day period. A total of 4739 barrels of water was produced. The highest flow rate achieved was about 3000 BWPD. The gas/water ratio measured during testing was about 32.0 SCF/BBL for the lower zone. The extrapolated latoratory data indicates that the solubility of the gas is 55.7 SCF/BBL. It appears that the reservoir brine is considerably undersaturated. The methane content of the flare line gas averaged 71.0 mole percent. Crown Zellerbach Company carefully studied the commercial feasibility of using the well to produce energy for a wood-drying facility and decided against the project.

  17. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  18. Segmentation of biological target volumes on multi-tracer PET images based on information fusion for achieving dose painting in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelandais, Benoît; Gardin, Isabelle; Mouchard, Laurent; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in radiotherapy. Dose painting consists in the application of a nonuniform dose prescription on a tumoral region, and is based on an efficient segmentation of biological target volumes (BTV). It is derived from PET images, that highlight tumoral regions of enhanced glucose metabolism (FDG), cell proliferation (FLT) and hypoxia (FMiso). In this paper, a framework based on Belief Function Theory is proposed for BTV segmentation and for creating 3D parametric images for dose painting. We propose to take advantage of neighboring voxels for BTV segmentation, and also multi-tracer PET images using information fusion to create parametric images. The performances of BTV segmentation was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom and compared with two other methods. Quantitative results show the good performances of our method. It has been applied to data of five patients suffering from lung cancer. Parametric images show promising results by highlighting areas where a high frequency or dose escalation could be planned.

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  20. Prairie Canal Well No. 1, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Prairie Canal Company, Inc. Well No. 1, approximately 8 miles south of the city of Lake Charles, Louisiana, was tested through the annulus between 5-1/2 inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 14,782 to 14,820 feet. The geological section was the Hackberry Sand, a member of the Oligocene Frio formation. Produced water was injected into a disposal well which was perforated in several Miocene Sands from 3070 to 4600 feet. Original plans were to test a section of the Hackberry sand from 14,976 to 15,024 feet. This primary zone, however, produced a large amount of sand, shale, gravel, and rocks during early flow periods and was abandoned in favor of the secondary zone. Four pressure drawdown flow tests and three pressure buildup tests were conducted during a 12-day period. A total of 36,505 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was approximately 7100 BWPD. The gas-to-water ratio, measured during testing, ranged from 41 to 50 SCF/BBL. There is disagreement as to the saturation value of the reservoir brine, which may be between 43.3 and 49.7 SCF/BBL. The methane content of the flare line gas averaged 88.4 mole percent. The CO/sub 2/ content averaged 8.4 mole percent. Measured values of H/sub 2/S in the gas were between 12 and 24 ppM.

  1. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  2. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shaojie; Wright, Shelley A; Moore, Anna M; Larkin, James E; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82{\\mu}m (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19- 1.37 {\\mu}m (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000....

  3. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  4. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  5. Talking and Testing: Discourse Approaches to the Assessment of Oral Proficiency. Studies in Bilingualism, Volume 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard, Ed.; He, Agnes Weiyun, Ed.

    Papers on second language oral proficiency testing include: "Language Proficiency Interviews: A Discourse Approach" (Agnes Weiyun He, Richard Young); "Re-Analyzing the OPI: How Much Does It Look Like Natural Conversation?" (Marysia Johnson, Andrea Tyler); "Evaluating Learner Interactional Skills: Conversation at the Micro Level" (Heidi…

  6. Human Resources Test and Evaluation System (HRTES). Volume 2. Comprehensive Workbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    false targets/target 24 . signatures. 23_______ 22- 21 ___ _ __ __ __ __ __20 . - 19 18- 17 16 15 .1*4 13 _ 010 __ 9._ 7_ UJ6 -- SYSTEM FUNCION DAE...TRAINING MEASURE #4 MEASURE OF THE ADEQUACY OF OPERATIONAL TEST TRAINERS DESCRIPTION: One of the major variables of training which can produce sub-criterion

  7. Giromill wind tunnel test and analysis. Volume II. Technical discussion. Final report, June 1976--October 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, W.A.

    1977-10-01

    A wind tunnel test of a Giromill rotor was conducted. The objective of this test was to substantiate the performance computed by the Larsen cyclogiro vortex theory. Additional objectives were to obtain performance comparison data between the Giromill, a sinusoidal blade modulation Giromill, a Darrieus rotor, and a modified Darrieus rotor that flips the blades a few degrees. A three bladed Giromill rotor having a diameter of 2.13 m (7 ft) and a span of 1.52 m (5 ft) was tested in the McDonnell Aircraft Company 15 x 20 ft Mini Speed Wind Tunnel. The blade modulations were accomplished through use of a cam and push rod arrangement. Replaceable cams provided the desired blade modulation at the various operating points. Various operating conditions were achieved by adjusting the rotor RPM and tunnel speed. The results show that the Giromill has good performance, equal to or much better than that predicted by theory, and outperforms the other types of vertical axis wind turbines tested.

  8. Observations from using models to fit the gas production of varying volume test cells and landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Julia

    2012-12-01

    Landfill operators are looking for more accurate models to predict waste degradation and landfill gas production. The simple microbial growth and decay models, whilst being easy to use, have been shown to be inaccurate. Many of the newer and more complex (component) models are highly parameter hungry and many of the required parameters have not been collected or measured at full-scale landfills. This paper compares the results of using different models (LANDGEM, HBM, and two Monod models developed by the author) to fit the gas production of laboratory scale, field test cell and full-scale landfills and discusses some observations that can be made regarding the scalability of gas generation rates. The comparison of these results show that the fast degradation rate that occurs at laboratory scale is not replicated at field-test cell and full-scale landfills. At small scale, all the models predict a slower rate of gas generation than actually occurs. At field test cell and full-scale a number of models predict a faster gas generation than actually occurs. Areas for future work have been identified, which include investigations into the capture efficiency of gas extraction systems and into the parameter sensitivity and identification of the critical parameters for field-test cell and full-scale landfill predication.

  9. Interim-Night Integrated Goggle Head Tracking System (I-Nights). Volume 1. Ground Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Albery, J. Whitestone, The Standard Automated Mass Properties Testing Procedure, 1988, AAMRL-TR-88-XX (unpublished). 2. A. Lephart, C. Albery, A. Obert ...Systematic Variation of Headgear Weights and Centre -of- Gravity", Aviation. Sgace. and Environmental Medicine, pp 901- 905, October 1983. 13. Privitzer, E

  10. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification program. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A proposal for the demonstration, development and production of the Isotope Brayton Flight System for space vehicles is presented with details on the technical requirements for designing and testing a ground demonstration system and on the program organization and personnel. (LCL)

  11. The effects of co-teaching on student test performance and attitudes towards science in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Virginia Scott

    Reform efforts in response to the inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classrooms have become necessary to shift students' placements into the science classroom. An investigation into the effects of co-teaching in high school biology classrooms was conducted to explore the impact of two models of co-teaching on biology students' achievement and their attitudes towards science. Quantitative data were collected using a diagnostic exam, student chapter test scores, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) (Moore & Foy, 1997). Additionally, qualitative data were collected from student and teacher interviews, as well as reflections recorded by the general education participating teacher. The study occurred at a predominantly African-American high school in an Alabama city school with approximately 700 students. The population for the study was composed of 62 high school biology students, with 18 of those students placed inclusively in the biology classroom as a result of No Child Left Behind legislation. The participating teachers consisted of one general education biology teacher and one highly qualified, science special education teacher. Twelve students, along with the special education participating teacher, were interviewed and provided qualitative data after completion of the study. The general education teacher provided teacher reflection responses to contribute qualitatively on the impact of co-teaching in high school biology. Quantitative data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and paired samples t tests analyses. ANOVA results revealed that there were no changes in student test scores of achievement due to the models of instruction implemented. The implementation of no co-teaching, station teaching, and the one-teaching, one-drifting co-teaching models of instruction did not result in significant changes in students' achievement. Furthermore, paired samples t tests revealed no change in students

  12. Study of the genotoxicity of organic extracts from wastewater-irrigated vegetables using in vitro and in vivo biological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongxia; Cao, Yanhua; Liu, Yingli; Liu, Nan; Guan, Weijun

    2017-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to explore genotoxicity due to organic pollutants in wastewater-irrigated vegetables using biological and chemical analyses. Chinese cabbages from wastewater-irrigated farmland were taken as the research object. For the in vitro test, DNA damage was characterized in rat hepatocytes exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages using the comet assay. For the in vivo tests, mice were exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages. DNA damage was assessed in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and chromosome damage was assessed in bone marrow cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively. For the chemical analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the organic compounds in the organic vegetable extracts. The in vitro test results showed that the comet tail lengths of the DNA in rat hepatocytes were significantly increased in the group dosed with 0.36 g/ml (P organic content in the organic vegetable extracts from the wastewater-irrigated area (1.355 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the content in the cabbage samples from the clean-water-irrigated area (0.089 mg/kg). This finding indicated that wastewater irrigation can cause organic pollution with genetic toxicity in vegetables. This study also showed that in vivo and in vitro biological tests can reflect the joint toxicity of organic pollutants, and the test results were in accordance with the chemical analysis of the organic pollutant compositions.

  13. Local fallout from nuclear test detonations. Volume 2. Compilation of fallout patterns and related test data. Supplement. Foreign nuclear tests. Sanitized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenthau, M.; Showers, R.L.

    1964-10-01

    The available fallout patterns and related test data for nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United Kingdom, the Republic of France, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, are included in this supplement to NDL-TR-34. The related test data for the British and French tests include: date and time of detonation, location of test site, total yield, fission yield, type of burst and placement, height of burst, cloud-top and -bottom heights, crater data, and wind information up to nuclear cloud-top height. No fallout patterns are available for any of the Soviet detonations. The list of Soviet detonations, which is as comprehensive as possible, contains the chronological order of the detonations, date, yield, type of burst and location of test site.

  14. Final Environmental Assessment Test Operations at Arnold Engineering Development Center. Volumes 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    tunnel (throat, nozzle, test section, and diffuser) is cooled by integral, external water jackets . Tunnels B and C are primarily used to investigate static...insert, consisting of the mixing cham- ber, throat, and nozzle sections, is water-cooled by integral, external water jackets . Aerothermal Tunnel C is...diameter and 30 ft long containing a cryogenically cooled light-tight liner and optical benches. Each optical bench is mounted to the 150 ton seismic

  15. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  16. Importance of the test volume on the lag phase in biodegradation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, F.; Torang, Lars; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    ranging from 1.8 ml to 100 L using two 14C-labeled model chemicals, 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and p-nitrophenol (PNP), both of which are known to be readily degradable after variable lag phases. The TL ranged from 2.1 to 30.4 d for PNP and from 16 to 37 d for 2,4-D. Decreasing the test...

  17. Multiple IMU system test plan, volume 4. [subroutines for space shuttle requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landey, M.; Vincent, K. T., Jr.; Whittredge, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Operating procedures for this redundant system are described. A test plan is developed with two objectives. First, performance of the hardware and software delivered is demonstrated. Second, applicability of multiple IMU systems to the space shuttle mission is shown through detailed experiments with FDI algorithms and other multiple IMU software: gyrocompassing, calibration, and navigation. Gimbal flip is examined in light of its possible detrimental effects on FDI and navigation. For Vol. 3, see N74-10296.

  18. Biological implications of possible unattainability of comprehensive, molecular-resolution, real-time, volume imaging of the living cell

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the impressive advances in biological imaging, no imaging modality today generates, in a comprehensive manner, high-resolution images of crowded molecules working deep inside the living cell in real time. In this paper, instead of tackling this engineering problem in the hope of solving it, we ask a converse question: What if such imaging is \\emph{fundamentally} impossible? We argue that certain decoherence processes could be suppressed because the internal workings of the cell are not being closely "observed" in the quantum mechanical sense, as implied by the assumed impossibility of imaging. It is certainly true that the "wet and warm" living cell should not exhibit quantum behavior merely because of the lack of observation. Despite this, we plow ahead to see what \\emph{might} result from such absence of the outward flow of information. We suggest that chaotic dynamics in the cell could be quantum mechanically suppressed --- a known phenomenon in quantum chaology, which is potentially resistant to v...

  19. Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests. Volume 3: Slotted double circular-arc hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, R. M.; Murrin, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    Performance parameters are presented for cascades of slotted double circular-arc hydrofoils tested over a range of systematically introduced variables in a rectilinear cascade tunnel which uses water as the test medium. Cascade configurations included various combinations of an inlet flow angle of 50, 60 and 70 deg; a cascade solidity of 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50; a hydrofoil camber angle of 20, 30, 40 and 45 deg; and angles of incidence between positive and negative stall. The slot was positioned at the 45 percent chord station and the slot exit width was 0.047-in. Tests were also performed with the slot positioned at the 35 percent chord station and with slot widths of 0.63 and 0.094-in. These data were correlated to indicate the effects of slot location and slot width on minimum loss incidence and deviation angles. In addition, a comparison is presented of the performance parameters for cascades of slotted and unslotted hydrofoils.

  20. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicat

  1. 77 FR 22282 - Draft Guidelines on Biologics Quality Monitoring: Testing for the Detection of Mycoplasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... regulatory authorities of the European Union, Japan, and the United States and representatives from the... interested parties. Mycoplasma contaminants may be introduced into cell culture and in ovo origin biological... European Union, Japan, and the United States. As with all VICH documents, each final guideline will...

  2. The Silicon Trypanosome : A Test Case of Iterative Model Extension in Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achcar, Fiona; Fadda, Abeer; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Leroux, Alejandro E.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Rojas, Federico; Bakker, Barbara M.; Barrett, Michael P.; Clayton, Christine; Girolami, Mark; Krauth-Siegel, R. Luise; Matthews, Keith R.; Breitling, Rainer; Poole, RK

    2014-01-01

    The African trypanosome, Ttypanosoma brucei, is a unicellular parasite causing African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals). Due to some of its unique properties, it has emerged as a popular model organism in systems biology. A predictive quantitative model of glycolys

  3. Preparation of two biological reference materials for QUASIMEME inter-laboratory testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohman, M.; Korytar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two biological materials have been prepared for the Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Free University, Amsterdam to be used in QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies. The materials prepared are: 300 tins of homogenized blue mussels from the Waddenzee (QO07-1) and 300 tins of homogenized shrimps

  4. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  5. New biological assay to test viability of cultured cells for in vitro research applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtenhuijs, P.; Buttafoco, L.; Poot, A.A.; Sterk, L.M.Th.; Vos, de R.A.I.; Geelkerken, R.H.; Feijen, J.; Vermes, I.

    2004-01-01

    The balance between apoptosis and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is responsible for mediating profound changes in vascular architecture in development and disease. New insights in the biology of SMCs can be important to our understanding of (patho) physiological mechanisms and

  6. The Use of Application Test, a Novel Type of Problem-solving Exercise as a Tool of Teaching and Assessment of Competence in Medical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef; Tigyi, Andras

    1987-01-01

    A new type of multiple-choice test was developed and used in the teaching and assessment of knowledge of medical biology at a university in Hungary. The test includes experimental data and requires students to interpret data and to draw conclusions from results. A description of the test, experiences with the test, and one test are included. (RH)

  7. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-11-01

    Direotor: ; O m 4 Dr# Carl A> Bnmdly (Services for all Senior Pathologist personnel "paid by Regional Poultry Research Laboratory Tlar...paper pulp . The detoxified toxin was then mixed in a 100-gailon stainless steel tank, to ensure uniformity of product end expedite safe testing of the...a vacuum evaporator, and an Oliver filter were used to harvest the yield. Efforts to separate the agent material from its broth culture by means

  8. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 11. Pressure and Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    PdgPt-Pa pression qc,Pd dynamischer qc impact pressure pressure dynamique Druck 1 24 q 7k:v kinetic - pression q kinetischer q dynamic...number of parallel transducers may have to be used. To save weight and cost, up to 48 pressures of up to 200 bar press- ure scanners (scanivalves...control is accomplished following "ATLAS"-requirement5 by means of a scanner unit, giving access to designated test pins on the computer’s main

  9. Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T; Riordan, C; Bigger, J

    1992-11-01

    Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

  10. Composite materials. Volume 1: Properties, non-destructive testing, and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.M. [United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This book provides a practical overview of the different types, properties, applications and design implementations of the latest composite materials. It describes important composite families, including metals, ceramics, polymers and other engineered materials; shows how each type of composite may be designed, manufactured, strengthened, and repaired; introduces composite modeling techniques; and explains the major industrial applications for composites. Primary markets for this book include materials engineers and designers in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries; works managers, facilities engineers, test engineers, plant engineers, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and production managers; students in material science, mechanical engineering and metallurgy.

  11. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  12. Investment Strategy for DoD Automatic Test Systems. Volume 1. Summary and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    authors of this paper) the fol- lowing personnel from OSD, the Services, and IDA: Ms . Christine Fisher (DoD Chairper- son of the Study Team), Mr...Michael Bloom, Mr. Bill Darling, Mr. Steven Freschi, CMSgt Terry Lambert, Mr. Jonathan MacMillian, Mr. Wesley McElveen, Ms . Kate O’Sullivan, Mr. Bill Ross...were selected for this scenario. The scenario applied ATS mid-life additions (updates) to accommodate new F-15 C/D testing needs for the MTS, 0 MSIP

  13. In Situ Soil Venting - Full Scale Test, Hill AFB. Volume 3. Guidance Document, Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    s ý GCE Form A•pproved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE CMBNO 070401’ihs a EERORT C ,RI Y C•.ASSFCA ,ON ’t .• ESTR !CTiVE MARKINGS .a SECURT’Y CLASSiFICAT...extremely useful, however, for a tesi of the applicability of venting to qucstionahlc situations (--frcrcncc 14) or for providing a site-specific correlation...consideration of the results ot this tesi : (I) the temperatures achieved in this test were shown to have the potential for si-,incant increases in

  14. A versatile system for biological and soil chemical tests on a planetary landing craft. I - Scientific objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R. J.; Kok, B.; Martin, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    We describe an approach for the remote detection and characterization of life in planetary soil samples. A mass spectrometer is used as the central sensor to monitor changes in the gas phase in eleven test cells filled with soil. Many biological assays, ranging from general 'in situ' assays to specific metabolic processes (such as photosynthesis, respiration, denitrification, etc.) can be performed by appropriate additions to the test cell via attached preloaded injector capsules. The system is also compatible with a number of chemical assays such as the analysis of atmospheric composition (both chemical and isotopic), the status of soil water, and the determination of compounds of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in the soil.

  15. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through Vortex manipulation. Volume 1: Static water tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Water tunnel tests were conducted on a NASP-type configuration to evaluate different pneumatic Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) methods. Flow visualization and yawing moment measurements were performed at angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg. The pneumatic techniques tested included jet and slot blowing. In general, blowing can be used efficiently to manipulate the forebody vortices at angles of attack greater than 20 deg. These vortices are naturally symmetric up to alpha = 25 deg and asymmetric between 25 deg and 30 deg angle of attack. Results indicate that tangential aft jet blowing is the most promising method for this configuration. Aft jet blowing produces a yawing moment towards the blowing side and the trends with blowing rate are well behaved. The size of the nozzle is not the dominant factor in the blowing process; the change in the blowing 'momentum,' i.e., the product of the mass flow rate and the velocity of the jet, appears to be the important parameter in the water tunnel (incompressible and unchoked flow at the nozzle exit). Forward jet blowing is very unpredictable and sensitive to mass flow rate changes. Slot blowing (with the exception of very low blowing rates) acts as a flow 'separator'; it promotes early separation on the blow side, producing a yawing moment toward the non-blowing side for the C(sub mu) range investigated.

  16. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  17. Experimental proposal for testing the Emergence of Environment Induced (EIN) Classical Selection rules with Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Durt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    According to the so-called Quantum Darwinist approach, the emergence of "classical islands" from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two oscillators (modes). As our approach suggests that the classical limit could have emerged throughout a long and progressive Evolution mechanism, it is likely that primitive living organisms behave in a "more quantum", "less classical" way than more evolved ones. This brings us to seriously consider the possibility to measure departures from classicality exhibited by biological systems. We describe an experimental proposal the aimed at revealing the presence of entanglement in the biophotonic radiation emitted by biological sources.

  18. Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Controllability Test of a Class of Boolean Biological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Boolean-network-model-based approaches to dynamical analysis of complex biological networks such as gene regulatory networks have been extensively studied. One of the fundamental problems in control theory of such networks is the problem of determining whether a given substance quantity can be arbitrarily controlled by operating the other substance quantities, which we call the controllability problem. This paper proposes a polynomial-time algorithm for solving this problem. Although the algorithm is based on a sufficient condition for controllability, it is easily computable for a wider class of large-scale biological networks compared with the existing approaches. A key to this success in our approach is to give up computing Boolean operations in a rigorous way and to exploit an adjacency matrix of a directed graph induced by a Boolean network. By applying the proposed approach to a neurotransmitter signaling pathway, it is shown that it is effective.

  19. Impact Properties of Engineered Cementitious Composites with High Volume Fly Ash Using SHPB Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhitao; YANG Yingzi; YAO Yan

    2012-01-01

    The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing with diameter 40 mm was used to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with different fly ash content.The basic properties including deformation,energy absorption capacity,strain-stress relationship and failure patterns were discussed.The ECCs showed strain-rate dependency and kept better plastic flow during impact process compared with reactive powder concrete (RPC) and concrete,but the critical compressive strength was lower than that of R-PC and concrete.The bridging effect of PVA fiber and addition of fly ash can significantly improve the deformation and energy absorption capacities of ECCs.With the increase of fly ash content in ECCs,the static and dynamic compressive strength lowered and the dynamic increase factor enhanced,Therefore,to meet different engineering needs,the content of fly ash can be an important index to control the static and dynamic mechanical properties of ECCs.

  20. 64 kW concentrator Photovoltaics Application Test Center. Volume. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, D.M.; Jones, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    Kaman Sciences Corporation has designed a 64 kW Concentrating Photovoltaic Applications Test Center (APTEC). The APTEC employs a combined concentrating photovoltaic array in a total energy system application for load sharing the electric and thermal demands of a large computer center with the interfaced electric and natural gas utility. The photovoltaic array is composed of two-axis tracking heliostats of Fresnel lens concentrating, silicon solar cell modules. The modules are cooled with a fluid which transfers heat to a ground coupled heat sink/storage unit for subsequent use in meeting the computer center's thermal load demand. The combined photovoltaic power system shares basic components - a power conditioning unit, batteries and thermal conditioning equipment - with the electric and natural gas utility service, improving the computer center's operating availability time and displacing a portion of the fossil fuel required to power the computer center with solar energy. The detailed system design is reported.

  1. Protozoan parasites in group-living primates: testing the biological island hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Bowman, Dwight D; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Goldberg, Tony L; Rothman, Jessica M; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Walsh, Chesley

    2012-06-01

    A series of articles by W.J. Freeland published in the 1970s proposed that social organization and behavioral processes were heavily influenced by parasitic infections, which led to a number of intriguing hypotheses concerning how natural selection might act on social factors because of the benefits of avoiding parasite infections. For example, Freeland [1979] showed that all individuals within a given group harbored identical gastrointestinal protozoan faunas, which led him to postulate that social groups were akin to "biological islands" and suggest how this isolation could select specific types of ranging and dispersal patterns. Here, we reexamine the biological island hypothesis by quantifying the protozoan faunas of the same primate species examined by Freeland in the same location; our results do not support this hypothesis. In contrast, we quantified two general changes in protozoan parasite community of primates in the study area of Kibale National Park, Uganda, over the nearly 35 years between sample collections: (1) the colobines found free of parasites in the early 1970s are now infected with numerous intestinal protozoan parasites and (2) groups are no longer biological islands in terms of their protozoan parasites. Whatever the ultimate explanation for these changes, our findings have implications for studies proposing selective forces shaping primate behavior and social organization.

  2. Concurrent use of REM latency, dexamethasone suppression, clonidine, and apomorphine tests as biological markers of endogenous depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansseau, M; Scheyvaerts, M; Doumont, A; Poirrier, R; Legros, J J; Franck, G

    1984-07-01

    In a sample of 12 major depressive inpatients, endogenous subtype (8 primary and 4 secondary) defined by Research Diagnostic Criteria, we compared the sensitivity of four potential biological markers: latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (recorded during at least 4 consecutive nights), dexamethasone suppression, and the clonidine and apomorphine tests. Shortened REM latency (less than 50 minutes during at least 1 night) identified 67% of depressives (87% of primary and 25% of secondary); nonsuppression after dexamethasone identified 50% of depressives (62% of primary and 25% of secondary); blunted growth hormone (GH) response after clonidine identified 75% of depressives (100% of primary and 25% of secondary); and blunted GH response after apomorphine identified 42% of depressives (62% of primary and 0% of secondary). Ninety-two percent of patients were correctly identified by at least one biological marker (100% of primary and 75% of secondary depressives). Of 67% of patients positive on at least two biological markers, all were primary depressives (100%). These four biological markers do not necessarily identify the same population, suggesting that their concurrent use may yield the highest level of diagnostic sensitivity.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some miscellaneous data from two low-slope and two steep-slope experimental roofs. The low-slope roofs were designed to compare the performance of various roof coatings exposed to natural weatherization. The steep-slope roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. The steep-slope roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. This article describes phase three (3) of a study that began in 2009 to evaluate the energy benefits of a sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing standing-seam metal roofing panels combined with energy efficient features like above-sheathing-ventilation (ASV), phase change material (PCM) and rigid insulation board. The data from phases 1 and 2 have been previously published and reported [Kosny et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011; Biswas and Childs, 2012; Kosny et al., 2012]. Based on previous data analyses and discussions within the research group, additional test roofs were installed in May 2012, to test new configurations and further investigate different components of the dynamic insulation systems. Some experimental data from phase 3 testing from May 2012 to December 2013 and some EnergyPlus modeling results have been reported in volumes 1 and 3, respectively, of the final report [Biswas et al., 2014; Biswas and Bhandari, 2014].

  4. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  5. Biological testing of sediment for the Olympia Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, 1988: Geoduck, amphipod, and echinoderm bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Antrim, L.D.

    1989-05-01

    The Olympia Harbor Navigation Improvement Project requires the dredging of approximately 330,000 cubic yards (cy) of sediment from the harbor entrance channel and 205,185 cy from the turning basin. Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) partial characterization studies were used to plan a full sediment characterization in which chemical analyses and biological testing of sediments evaluated the suitability of the dredged material for unconfined, open-water disposal. The US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), Seattle District, contracted with NOAA/NMFS, Environmental Conservation Division, to perform the chemical analysis and Microtox bioassay tests, and with the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim to perform flow-through solid-phase bioassays utilizing juvenile (8 to 10 mm) geoduck clams, Panopea generosa, and static solid phase bioassays using the phoxocephalid amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius, developing embryos and gametes of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and the larvae of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. When the results of the biological tests were evaluated under PSDDA guidelines, it was found that all the tested sediment treatments from Olympia Harbor are suitable for unconfined open-water disposal. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Putting the biological species concept to the test: using mating networks to delimit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lélia Lagache

    Full Text Available Although interfertility is the key criterion upon which Mayr's biological species concept is based, it has never been applied directly to delimit species under natural conditions. Our study fills this gap. We used the interfertility criterion to delimit two closely related oak species in a forest stand by analyzing the network of natural mating events between individuals. The results reveal two groups of interfertile individuals connected by only few mating events. These two groups were largely congruent with those determined using other criteria (morphological similarity, genotypic similarity and individual relatedness. Our study, therefore, shows that the analysis of mating networks is an effective method to delimit species based on the interfertility criterion, provided that adequate network data can be assembled. Our study also shows that although species boundaries are highly congruent across methods of species delimitation, they are not exactly the same. Most of the differences stem from assignment of individuals to an intermediate category. The discrepancies between methods may reflect a biological reality. Indeed, the interfertility criterion is an environment-dependant criterion as species abundances typically affect rates of hybridization under natural conditions. Thus, the methods of species delimitation based on the interfertility criterion are expected to give results slightly different from those based on environment-independent criteria (such as the genotypic similarity criteria. However, whatever the criterion chosen, the challenge we face when delimiting species is to summarize continuous but non-uniform variations in biological diversity. The grade of membership model that we use in this study appears as an appropriate tool.

  7. Surfzone Bubbles: Model Development, Testing and Extension to Sedimentary/Chemical/Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    inundation", Ocean Modelling, 43-44, 36-51. Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., Ma, G., Holman , R. A. and Chickadel, C. C., 2012b, "Field testing model predictions...Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., Ma, G., Holman , R. A. and Chickadel, C. C., 2012b, "Field testing model predictions of foam coverage and bubble content

  8. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  9. Biological screening of Annonaceous Brazilian Medicinal Plants using Artemia salina (brine shrimp test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, L P; Pinto, G B; Takahashi, J A; e Silva, L G F; Boaventura, M A D

    2003-03-01

    Eighteen different extracts from five Annona species collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were submitted to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor, pesticidal and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. All of the Annonaceous species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compounds and literature data.

  10. Application of biological feedback for estimation of anaerobic performance in jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko S.O.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : - To determine the effect of biofeedback to determine the level of anaerobic performance of healthy young men. Material: The characteristics of physical performance in 60-seconds jumping test without and with visual and audible biofeedback (BFB are determined at 23 healthy young men. Results : Significant individual peculiarities are found in performance features of 60-seconds jumping test both without and with BFB. The groups of performance indexes are maximum jumping height; jumping frequency and achieved performance level; correlation of jumping phases and achieved capacity of a separate jump; jumping dynamics during the test. The positive effect mostly on performance in BFB regime is found in the group of persons with low level of physical performance. Conclusion : The application of BFB in 60-seconds jumping test is proved to increase the objective character of measuring anaerobic performance.

  11. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  12. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H⁻ production at the BATMAN test facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C; Schiesko, L; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 18 scale H(-) source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H(-) production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H(-) density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H(-) density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (j(H(-)), j(e)) exists with the Cs emission.

  13. Learning strategies, test anxiety and academic success of primary and high- school students at biology class

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Klavdija

    2016-01-01

    The extent of learning success of students in school depends upon many factors, among them are having a significant impact learning strategies and influence of test anxiety. Test anxiety refers to the anxiety that occurs in individuals in situations of assessment and evaluation in school. Anxiety in humans is expressed as a long-lasting feeling of anxiety, tension and discomfort that occurs without a specific reason. Persons who are experiencing feelings of anxiety find it difficult to face a...

  14. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  15. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Marianna S.; Newman, David; Kasmai, Bahman; Greenwood, Richard; Malcolm, Paul N. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich (United Kingdom); Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Karlsson, Anette; Borga, Magnus [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoeping (Sweden); Rosander, Johannes [Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Toms, Andoni P. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich (United Kingdom); Radiology Academy, Cotman Centre, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19.32 L (SD9.1) and 19.28 L (SD9.12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1.0, 95 % level of agreement -0.32-0.2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0.99-1.0) with 95 % levels of agreement 1.8-6.6 % of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1.68 L (2SD0.6) compared to automated 1.64 L (2SD 0.6), left lower leg: manual 1.69 L (2SD 0.64) compared to automated 1.63 L (SD0.61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0.94-0.96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. (orig.)

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  17. A bioreactor test system to mimic the biological and mechanical environment of oral soft tissues and to evaluate substitutes for connective tissue grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Stephanie H; Wohlwend, Lorenz; Uebersax, Lorenz; von Mentlen, Roger; Thoma, Daniel S; Jung, Ronald E; Görlach, Christoph; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2010-12-15

    Gingival cells of the oral connective tissue are exposed to complex mechanical forces during mastication, speech, tooth movement and orthodontic treatments. Especially during wound healing following surgical procedures, internal and external forces may occur, creating pressure upon the newly formed tissue. This clinical situation has to be considered when developing biomaterials to augment soft tissue in the oral cavity. In order to pre-evaluate a collagen sponge intended to serve as a substitute for autogenous connective tissue grafts (CTGs), a dynamic bioreactor system was developed. Pressure and shear forces can be applied in this bioreactor in addition to a constant medium perfusion to cell-material constructs. Three-dimensional volume changes and stiffness of the matrices were analyzed. In addition, cell responses such as cell vitality and extracellular matrix (ECM) production were investigated. The number of metabolic active cells constantly increased under fully dynamic culture conditions. The sponges remained elastic even after mechanical forces were applied for 14 days. Analysis of collagen type I and fibronectin revealed a statistically significant accumulation of these ECM molecules (P tissue remodeling processes, was observed under dynamic conditions only. The results indicate that the tested in vitro cell culture system was able to mimic both the biological and mechanical environments of the clinical situation in a healing wound.

  18. Testing sediment biological effects with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca: the gap between laboratory and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feiyue; Goulet, Richard R; Chapman, Peter M

    2004-12-01

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is widely used in laboratory sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. However, its responses in the laboratory are probably very different from those in the field. A review of the literature indicates that in its natural habitat this species complex is primarily epibenthic, derives little nutrition from the sediments, and responds primarily to contaminants in the overlying water column (including water and food), not sediment or porewater. In laboratory sediment toxicity tests H. azteca is deprived of natural food sources such as algal communities on or above the sediments, and is subjected to constant light without any cover except that afforded by burial into the sediments. Under these constraining laboratory conditions, H. azteca has been reported to respond to sediment or porewater contamination. In nature, contamination of overlying water from sediment is less likely than in the laboratory because of the large, generally non-static sink of natural surface water. H. azteca does not appear to be the most appropriate test species for direct assessments of the bioavailability and toxicity of sediment contaminants, though it is probably appropriate for testing the toxicity of surface waters. Toxic and non-toxic responses will be highly conservative, though the latter are probably the most persuasive given the exposure constraints. Thus H. azteca is probably a suitable surrogate species for determining sediments that are likely not toxic to field populations; however, it is not suitable for determining sediments that are likely toxic to field populations.

  19. [Determination of tumor biological parameters in breast cancer: round robin testing for quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liessem, S; Winkens, W; Jonigk, D; Wasielewski, R V; Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Rüschoff, J; Kreipe, H-H

    2014-02-01

    Round robin testing for quality assurance in the determination of the breast cancer biomarkers estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been carried out in Germany for 13 years. As the first quality assurance trial worldwide tissue microarrays with 20 different breast cancer specimens were used. As a further innovation the challenges were split into a test part representing routine cases and a training part enriched with difficult borderline cases in order to uncover latent weaknesses in the participating laboratories. Certificates are issued based exclusively on the test part. Similar to NordiQC and UKNequas stained slides are assessed externally and the quality of staining and evaluation are considered separately. Since 2010 an additional internet-based trial without assessment of the staining quality is offered for ER and PR. Since the introduction of the round robin trials the numbers of participants (n = 200-250) and the success rates have steadily increased. The breast cancer quality assurance trial ranks first with regard to the number of participants in Germany. It could be demonstrated that regular participation in the round robin test leads to an improvement of staining results of ER, PR and HER2 and hence appears to be mandatory for maintaining quality standards. The use of fully automated immunohistochemical staining procedures has steadily increased and these are now used by approximately 50 % of participants.

  20. Some biological aspects of Mysidopsis juniae (Crustacea:Mysidacea) and its use in chronic toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaro-Pedroso, C. [USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] Nipper, M.G. [NIWA, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1995-12-31

    As part of the joint effort to develop marine toxicity tests with organisms abundant at the Brazilian coast, some aspects for the laboratory culture of M. juniae and its sensitivity to single chemicals were studied. Organisms fed a mixture of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana reached sexual maturity 10 days before animals fed brine shrimp nauplii only. Under best conditions, sexual maturity was reached on the 9th--11th day and newborn mysids hatched on the 16th--18th day, Short-term chronic toxicity tests were initiated with 7-day old mysids and exposure time was 11 days, with growth (length and dry weight) as test endpoints. Experiments were undertaken with zinc, copper, and ammonia. Zinc did not affect the organisms at concentrations between 0.018 and 0.1 mg/L, which were one order of magnitude lower than the average 96-h; LC50 value. The NOEC and LOEC values were the same for length and weight in some tests with copper and ammonia (Cu: 0.006 and 0.015 mg/L; NH{sub 3}: 0.32 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively), but revealed length as a more sensitive endpoint than weight in others (length NOEC and LOEC: 0.23 and 0.53 mgNH{sub 3}/L; weight: 0.53 and 0.99 mgNH{sub 3}/L, respectively). The authors speculate that this could be caused by time-dependent variations in the lipid content of the organisms. Length would be a steadier and more reliable endpoint for chronic toxicity tests with M. juniae. The results show that the method has potential applications for the evaluation and monitoring of contaminated marine systems along the Brazilian coast.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Testing of Novel Glucosylated Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2 were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification, and the structures were assigned as follows: epigallocatechin gallate-4′′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (EGCG-G1, 2 and epigallocatechin gallate-4′,4′′-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (EGCG-G2, 3. The EGCG glycosides were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against two human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT assays. The inhibition rate of EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2 is not obvious. The EGCG glycosides are more stable than EGCG in aqueous solutions, but exhibited decreasing antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EGCG > EGCG-G2 > EGCG-G1. Additionally, the EGCG glycosides exhibited increased water solubility: EGCG-G2 and EGCG-G1 were 15 and 31 times as soluble EGCG, respectively. The EGCG glycosides appear to be useful, and further studies regarding their biological activity are in progress.

  2. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  3. The Acid Test for Biological Science: STAP Cells, Trust, and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Cheryl

    2016-02-01

    In January 2014, a letter and original research article were published in Nature describing a process whereby somatic mouse cells could be converted into stem cells by subjecting them to stress. These "stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency" (STAP) cells were shown to be capable of contributing to all cell types of a developing embryo, and extra-embryonic tissues. The lead author of the publications, Haruko Obokata, became an overnight celebrity in Japan, where she was dubbed the new face of Japanese science. However, in the weeks that followed publication of the research, issues arose. Other laboratories and researchers (including authors on the original papers) found that they were unable to replicate Obokata et al.'s work. Closer scrutiny of the papers by the scientific community also suggested that there was manipulation of images that had been published, and Obokata was accused of misconduct. Those who should have been supervising her work (also her co-authors on the publications) were also heavily criticised. The STAP cell saga of 2014 is used as an example to highlight the importance of trust and replication in twenty-first century biological science. The role of trust in the scientific community is highlighted, and the effects on interactions between science and the public examined. Similarly, this essay aims to highlight the importance of replication, and how this is understood by researchers, the media, and the public. The expected behaviour of scientists in the twenty-first century is now more closely scrutinised.

  4. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs.

  5. [Value of the sleep EEG as a biological marker of depressive states. Comparison with 3 neuroendocrine tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansseau, M; Scheyvaerts, M; Doumont, A; Poirrier, R; Demonceau, G; Legros, J J; Franck, G

    1985-04-01

    In a sample of 12 endogenous depressive inpatients (8 primary and 4 secondary depressives), we compared the diagnostic usefulness of REM latency (recorded during at least 4 consecutive nights) with 3 neuroendocrine tests: dexamethasone suppression test and GH response after clonidine (a alpha-adrenergic agonist) and apomorphine (a dopaminergic agonist) challenges. Shortened REM latency (less than 50 min during at least 1 night) was present in 67% of depressives. However, REM latency presented a clear night to night intra-patient variability that makes it necessary to record at least 3 consecutive nights for the best sensitivity. Non-suppression after dexamethasone was present in 50% of depressives, blunted GH response after clonidine, in 75% and blunted response after apomorphine, in 42%. A total of 92% of patients exhibited at least one abnormal biological parameter (100% of primary and 75% of secondary depressives); 67% of patients exhibited at least two disturbed parameters and these patients constituted the whole primary depressive group (100%). These results show that these 4 potential biological markers of depression are not necessarily distributed in the same population. This suggests the potential usefulness of their concurrent use for improved accuracy of diagnosis.

  6. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M. [4115 Allen Dr., Kingsville, TX (United States); Knight, P.J. [Marron and Associates, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  7. Critique of Test Methodologies for Biological Agent Detection and Identification Systems for Military and First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) programs within the food industry worldwide (Cutter et al., 1996). Additionally, the ATP test with Luciferin Luciferase...Cutter, C. N., W. J. Dorsa, and G. R. Siragusa. 1996. A rapid microbial ATP bioluminescence assay for meat carcasses. Dairy, Food & Environ. San. 16...No. 73. In program and abstract book, 83rd Annual Meeting of IAMFES, p. 50. 6. Northcutt, J., and S. M. Russell. 1996. Making HACCP happen in your

  8. Chemical and Biological Contamination Survivability (CBCS), Large Item Exteriors. Test Operations Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    protective posture , level IV; protective clothing; ME; mission-essential 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR...tested are measured while individuals and/or crew members are wearing normal uniforms and while wearing mission-oriented protective posture , level IV...be conducted outdoors. Environmental conditions are monitored, the SUT is allowed to equilibrate with the ambient conditions, and any required

  9. Commercialization of genetic testing services: the FDA, market forces, and biological tarot cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, M J; Blatt, R J R

    1997-03-01

    Many women fear being diagnosed with breast cancer, and rightfully so. Despite the capabilities of modern medicine, the cumulative lifetime risk of getting the disease has risen to one in eight and, despite decades of research, no cures exist. In this Article, the authors explore the commercialization of so-called breast cancer gene tests, based upon genetic alterations linked to the disease. Although the authors fully address this specific technology, they use what constitutes the seminal case of predictive genetic testing to analyze the adequacy of the existing regulatory framework. The authors conclude that the present regulatory system is inadequate and places a dangerous amount of reliance on primary care physicians. Their conclusion is grounded in the observation that most primary care physicians lack sufficient knowledge about this evolving investigative technology--which is highly subject to misinterpretation, and, though potentially helpful to some "high risk" patients, offers questionable clinical value for the general public. The authors set forth numerous proposals to promote both the quality and clinical value of predictive genetic testing so that it conforms to public health standards and can be properly integrated as a reliable component of medical care in specific situations.

  10. [Stability testing of amphotericin B nasal spray solutions with chemical and biological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittler, András; Mayer, Anna; Kocsis, Béla; Gerlinger, Imre; Fónay, Fruzsina; Botz, Lajos

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the presence of fungal cells in the nasal mucosa may play an important role in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In 2006 a pilot clinical trial was organized by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the Pharmaceutical Institute of the Medical University of Pécs for the treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In our study we investigated the stability of the 5 mg/ml amphotericin B solutions (Fungizone) with chemical (spectrophotometry) and biological (bioassay) detection. The effect of storage temperature and the addition of 5% glucose was evaluated on the stability of the solutions for three months. The two detection methods showed different results. According to the chemical analysis the samples are considered relatively stable under all observed conditions (loss of concentration is: 14.2% at 20 degrees C and 4.5% at 4 degrees C). The bioassay shows complete loss of antifungal activity after 35 days of storage at room temperature and notable decrease can be observed at 4 degrees C (glucose containing solution 17.6%; glucose free solution 37.2%). Storage temperature had significant effect (p 0.05) on the stability of the examined solutions. Bioassay is considered to be the official quantitative analytical method for the analysis of amphotericin B recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia 4. Thus we estimated the shelf life of the glucose-free solutions, being stored at 4 degrees C, to be 30 days in accordance with our bioassay results.

  11. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  12. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  13. International Conference on Harmonisation; draft guidance on specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for biotechnological/biological products--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a draft guidance entitled "Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products". The draft guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The draft guidance provides guidance on general principles for the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for biotechnological and biological products. The draft guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a uniform set of international specifications for biotechnological and biological products to support new marketing applications.

  14. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for biotechnological/biological products. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides guidance on general principles for the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for biotechnological and biological products. The guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a uniform set of international specifications for biotechnological and biological products to support new marketing applications.

  15. LIKELIHOOD RATIO TESTS OF HYPOTHESES ON MULTIVARIATE POPULATIONS, VOLUME 1, DISTRIBUTION THEORY--STATISTICAL MODELS FOR THE EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION OF EDUCATIONAL CRITERIA, PART 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAW, J.G.

    THIS VOLUME DEALS WITH THE BIVARIATE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION. THE AUTHOR MAKES A DISTINCTION BETWEEN DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY FROM WHICH HE DEVELOPS THE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS DISTINCTION FOR HYPOTHESIS TESTING. OTHER ENTRIES IN THIS SERIES ARE ED 003 044 AND ED 003 045. (JK)

  16. Vocational High School Students’ Sense of Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety Regarding Biology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serdar KÖKSAL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation perspective on motivation provides an important model to study on motivation in biologyeducation. Motivational part of the Pintrich’s model as one of the most studied models has self-efficacy andtest-anxiety factors as two dominant factors reflecting positive and negative sides of the model in terms ofnumber of relationship with other factors in the model. In the study, two hundred thirteen vocational highschool students were included and survey technique was used for examining the factors across grade level inthe study. Two subscales of MSLQ were applied to collect data. The data was analyzed by using MANOVAand Pearson-product moment correlation via SPSS 13. The results showed self-efficacy and test anxietyscores differed significantly between ninth and tenth graders. Again, they were correlated negatively at thesame levels.

  17. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemí Salinas-Jazmín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines.

  18. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  19. The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montaño, Julia; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

    2008-06-15

    Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135 mg l(-1)). 92-97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process, indicating that no methanogenesis occurred. Additionally, according to Biotox and Zahn-Wellens assays, the anaerobically generated colourless solutions (presumably containing the resulting aromatic amines from azo bond cleavage) were found to be more toxic than the initial dye as well as aerobically non-biodegradable, thus impeding the anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment. In a second part, the use of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) like photo-Fenton or ozonation as a chemical post-treatments of the anaerobic process has been considered for the complete dye by-products mineralisation. The best results were obtained by means of ozonation at pH 10.5, achieving a global 83% mineralisation and giving place to a final harmless effluent. On the contrary, the tested photo-Fenton conditions were not efficient enough to complete oxidation.

  20. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  1. G. M. Koelemay well No. 1, Jefferson County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing: testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The acquisition, completion, and testing of a geopressured-geothermal well are described. The following are covered: geology; petrophysics; re-entry and completion operations - test well; drilling and completion operations - disposal well; test objectives; surface testing facilities; pre-test operations; test sequence; test results and analysis; and return of wells and location to operator. (MHR)

  2. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  3. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  4. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test.

  5. Office of Technology Development`s Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation Mid-Year Program Review. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents brief summaries of programs being investigated at USDOE sites for waste processing, remedial action, underground storage tank remediation, and robotic applications in waste management.

  6. A linear laser scanner to measure cross-sectional shape and area of biological specimens during mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Claudio; Pourcelot, Philippe; Holden, Laurène; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2010-10-01

    Measure of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of biological specimens is a primary concern for many biomechanical tests. Different procedures are presented in literature but besides the fact that noncontact techniques are required during mechanical testing, most of these procedures lack accuracy or speed. Moreover, they often require a precise positioning of the specimen, which is not always feasible, and do not enable the measure of the same section during tension. The objective of this study was to design a noncontact, fast, and accurate device capable of acquiring CSA of specimens mounted on a testing machine. A system based on the horizontal linear displacement of two charge-coupled device reflectance laser devices next to the specimen, one for each side, was chosen. The whole measuring block is mounted on a vertical linear guide to allow following the measured zone during sample tension (or compression). The device was validated by measuring the CSA of metallic rods machined with geometrical shapes (circular, hexagonal, semicircular, and triangular) as well as an equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in static condition. We also performed measurements during mechanical testing of three SDFTs, obtaining the CSA variations until tendon rupture. The system was revealed to be very fast with acquisition times in the order of 0.1 s and interacquisition time of about 1.5 s. Measurements of the geometrical shapes yielded mean errors lower than 1.4% (n=20 for each shape) while the tendon CSA at rest was 90.29 ± 1.69 mm(2) (n=20). As for the tendons that underwent tension, a mean of 60 measures were performed for each test, which lasted about 2 min until rupture (at 20 mm/min), finding CSA variations linear with stress (R(2)>0.85). The proposed device was revealed to be accurate and repeatable. It is easy to assemble and operate and capable of moving to follow a defined zone on the specimen during testing. The system does not need precise centering of the sample

  7. Thermal Design, Test and Analysis of PharmaSat, a Small Class D Spacecraft with a Biological Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Millan F.; VanOutryve, Cassandra; Ghassemiah, Shakib; Beasley, Christopher; Schooley, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Small spacecraft have been increasing in popularity because of their low cost, short turnaround and relative efficiency. In the past, small spacecraft have been primarily used for technology demonstrations, but advances in technology have made the miniaturization of space science possible [1,2]. PharmaSat is a low cost, small three cube size spacecraft, with a biological experiment on board, built at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ames Research Center. The thermal design of small spacecraft presents challenges as their smaller surface areas translate into power and thermal constraints. The spacecraft is thermally designed to run colder in the Low Earth Orbit space environment, and heated to reach the temperatures required by the science payload. The limited power supply obtained from the solar panels on small surfaces creates a constraint in the power used to heat the payload to required temperatures. The pressurized payload is isolated with low thermally conductance paths from the large ambient temperature changes. The thermal design consists of different optical properties of section surfaces, Multi Layer Insulation (MLI), low thermal conductance materials, flexible heaters and thermal spreaders. The payload temperature is controlled with temperature sensors and flexible heaters. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and testing were used to aid the thermal design of the spacecraft. Various tests were conducted to verify the thermal design. An infrared imager was used on the electronic boards to find large heat sources and eliminate any possible temperature runaways. The spacecraft was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to optimize the thermal and power analysis and qualify the thermal design of the spacecraft for the mission.

  8. High Voltage Test Apparatus for a Neutron EDM Experiment and Lower Limit on the Dielectric Strength of Liquid Helium at Large Volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Long, J C; Boissevain, J G; Clark, D J; Cooper, M D; Gómez, J J; Lamoreaux, S K; Mischke, R E; Penttila, S I

    2006-01-01

    A new search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is underway using ultracold neutrons produced and held in a bath of superfluid helium. Attaining the target sensitivity requires maintaining an electric field of several tens of kilovolts per centimeter across the experimental cell, which is nominally 7.5 cm wide and will contain about 4 liters of superfluid. The electrical properties of liquid helium are expected to be sufficient to meet the design goals, but little is known about these properties for volumes and electrode spacings appropriate to the EDM experiment. Furthermore, direct application of the necessary voltages from an external source to the experimental test cell is impractical. An apparatus to amplify voltages in the liquid helium environment and to test the electrical properties of the liquid for large volumes and electrode spacings has been constructed. The device consists of a large-area parallel plate capacitor immersed in a 200 liter liquid helium dewar. Preliminary r...

  9. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  10. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Session 1A--Session 2C: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume 1, covers sessions 1A through session 2C. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  12. Study of the impact of the dose-volume factor on the biological tolerance after sus-meso-colic irradiation involving the liver as critical organ; Etude de l'impact du facteur dose-volume sur la tolerance biologique hepatique apres irradiation sus-mesocolique impliquant le foie comme organe critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, K.; Boudam, Y.; Colonna, M.; Rebischung, C.; Durand, A.; Sihanath, R.; Jacques, B. [CHU de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Zhang, H. [Hospital, Montreal (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: during the adjuvant or radical radio-therapies of cardia, stomach, pancreas, biliary tracts adenocarcinomas or any other supra-meso-colic tumor localisation, the principal critical organs are the marrow, the kidneys, and the liver. The doses delivered in this area are about 55 Gy in classical fractionation. This dose exceeds broadly the liver toxic dose (5% of toxicity at five years) that is 25 Gy and according the irradiated liver volume, we could expect to observe reactions to irradiation. Some observations show that this can happen and a systematic study of the evolution of enzymatic parameters in function of the irradiated liver volume should allow to show if a correlation exists between the values of the dose-volume histogram and the biological data. (N.C.)

  13. Molecular biological test systems for indicator bacteria in drinking water; Molekularbiologische Testsysteme fuer den Nachweis von Indikatorbakterien im Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, E. [WFM Wasserforschung Mainz GmbH (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The authors intended to develop a molecular biological detection method for common indicator bacteria which can be an alternative to conventional methods. The method was to be fast (max. 24 h), simple, and economical. Tests were carried out on E. coli, P. aeruginosa and enterococci. [German] Das Ziel der vorgestellten Arbeit ist es, ein molekularbiologisches Nachweisverfahren fuer gaengige Indikatorbakterien zu entwickeln, das als Alternative zu den konventionellen Verfahren eingesetzt werden kann. Es wurde versucht, Rahmenbedingungen entsprechend den geltenden Bestimmungen einzuhalten und folgende Schwerpunkte wurden gesetzt: - Schnelligkeit: Ziel ist die Abwicklung an einem Arbeitstag, maximal 24 Stunden; - Genauigkeit: Der Ablauf soll standardisierbar und Ergebnisse gut reproduzierbar sein; - Einfaches 'handling': Moeglichst geringer Trainingsaufwand fuer Laborpersonal; - Kostenguenstig: Geraete und Reagenzien sollen in einem gut ausgestatteten Labor moeglichst vorhanden bzw. schnell und preiswert verfuegbar sein. Als zu testende Indikatororganismen wurden, E. coli, P. aeruginosa und die Familie der Enterokokken ausgewaehlt. Sowohl in den existierenden als auch in zur Zeit entstehenden Regelwerken haben diese Parameter eine zentrale Stellung. (orig.)

  14. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristóvão, Sergipe CEP 49000-100 (Brazil); Dulce de Almeida Soares, Glória [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowisk, s/n. Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21900-000 (Brazil); Anselme, Karine [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS LRC7228, 15, Jean Starcky Street, BP 2488, 68054 Mulhouse cedex (France); Almeida, Luís Eduardo, E-mail: lealmeida2009@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristóvão, Sergipe CEP 49000-100 (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2 ± 0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7 ± 2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of 3D-scaffolds based on CHI, with or without addition of SF and HA. • Scaffolds exhibited interconnected porous structure (pore size superior to 50 μm). • The tripolyphosphate did not induce any significant cytotoxic response. • The CHI/SF/HA composite showed a higher cell growth and ALP activity.

  15. Fabrication techniques for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices and their applications for biological testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanyan; Si, Jin; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-03-15

    Paper is increasingly recognized as a user-friendly and ubiquitous substrate for construction of microfluidic devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) provide an alternative technology for development of affordable, portable, disposable and low-cost diagnostic tools for improving point of care testing (POCT) and disease screening in the developing world, especially in those countries with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. We in this review present fabrication techniques for microfluidic devices and their respective applications for biological detection as reported to date. These include: (i) fabrication techniques: examples of devices fabricated by using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) methods; (ii) detection application: biochemical, immunological and molecular detection by incorporating efficient detection methods such as, colorimetric detection, electrochemical detection, fluorescence detection, chemiluminescence (CL) detection, electrochemiluninescence (ECL) detection, photoelectrochemi (PEC) detection and so on. In addition, main advantages, disadvantages and future trends for the devices are also discussed in this review.

  16. Programmatic implications of implementing the relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory sites, test volumes, platform distribution and space requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CD4 testing in South Africa is based on an integrated tiered service delivery model that matches testing demand with capacity. The National Health Laboratory Service has predominantly implemented laboratory-based CD4 testing. Coverage gaps, over-/under-capacitation and optimal placement of point-of-care (POC testing sites need investigation.Objectives: We assessed the impact of relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory and POC testing sites.Methods: The RACL algorithm was developed to allocate laboratories and POC sites to ensure coverage using a set coverage approach for a defined travel time (T. The algorithm was repeated for three scenarios (A: T = 4; B: T = 3; C: T = 2 hours. Drive times for a representative sample of health facility clusters were used to approximate T. Outcomes included allocation of testing sites, Euclidian distances and test volumes. Additional analysis included platform distribution and space requirement assessment. Scenarios were reported as fusion table maps.Results: Scenario A would offer a fully-centralised approach with 15 CD4 laboratories without any POC testing. A significant increase in volumes would result in a four-fold increase at busier laboratories. CD4 laboratories would increase to 41 in scenario B and 61 in scenario C. POC testing would be offered at two sites in scenario B and 20 sites in scenario C.Conclusion: The RACL algorithm provides an objective methodology to address coverage gaps through the allocation of CD4 laboratories and POC sites for a given T. The algorithm outcomes need to be assessed in the context of local conditions.

  17. AGARD Flight Test Series. Volume 10. Weapon Delivery Analysis and Ballistic Flight Testing (L’Analyse du Largage d’Armes et les en Vol Balistique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    de ce volume figure ci-dessous. LAGARD peut etre tier que ces personnes competentes aient bien voulu accepter de partager leurs connaissances et...de travail sur les techniques des essais en vol a ete recree pour mener ä bien cette täche. Les monographies dans cette serie (a l’exception de la AG...DOIVENT ETRE ADRESSEES DIRECTEMENT AU SERVICE NATIONAL TECHNIQUE DE ^INFORMATION (NTIS) DONT LADRESSE SUIT. National Technical Information Service

  18. A systems biology approach to the blood-aluminium problem: the application and testing of a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, James; Rugg, Gordon; Exley, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Transport and distribution of systemic aluminium are influenced by its interaction with blood. Current understanding is centred upon the role played by the iron transport protein transferrin which has been shown to bind up to 90% of serum total aluminium. We have coined what we have called the blood-aluminium problem which states that the proportion of serum aluminium which, at any one moment in time, is bound by transferrin is more heavily influenced by kinetic constraints than thermodynamic equilibria with the result that the role played by transferrin in the transport and distribution of aluminium is likely to have been over estimated. To begin to solve the blood-aluminium problem and therewith provide a numerical solution to the aforementioned kinetic constraints we have applied and tested a simple computational model of the time-dependency of a putative transferrin ligand (L) binding aluminium to form an Al-L complex with a probability of existence, K(E), between 0% (no complex) and 100% (complex will not dissociate). The model is based upon the principles of a lattice-gas automaton which when ran for K(E) in the range 0.1-98.0% demonstrated the emergence of complex behaviour which could be defined in the terms of a set of parameters (equilibrium value, E(V), equilibrium time, E(T), peak value, P(V), peak time, P(T), area under curve, AUC) the values of which varied in a predictable way with K(E). When K(E) was set to 98% the model predicted that ca. 90% of the total aluminium would be bound by transferrin within ca. 350 simulation timesteps. We have used a systems biology approach to develop a simple model of the time-dependency of the binding of aluminium by transferrin. To use this approach to begin to solve the blood-aluminium problem we shall need to increase the complexity of the model to better reflect the heterogeneity of a biological system such as the blood.

  19. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Final report, Volume 2, Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This is a final report presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOC`s and other organic chemicals. Although it may be applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by air flow.

  20. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 2 - Biological atlas of the Arctic Seas 2000 - Plankton of the Barents and Kara Seas (1 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Presented in this CD-ROM are physical and biological data for the region extending from the Barents Sea to the Kara Sea during 158 scientific cruises for the period...

  1. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  2. Proceedings: International Conference on Fixed-Film Biological Processes (1st) Held at Kings Island, Ohio on 20-23 April 1982. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    effluents including: municipal sewage, whey wastewater , kraft 1 ln7 .°,I A’.. mill effluent, sulfite mill discharges, hard-board mill ef- fluent, yeast... Wastewaters in Hoboken and North Bersen, New Jersey. P00 757 An In Depth Compliance and Performance Analysis of the RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor...Evaluation of an Anaerobic Rotating Biological Contactor ______System for Treatment of a Munition Wastewater Containing D I-1.t Io/ Organic and Inorganic

  3. 76 FR 65579 - Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth Group of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... are required to show photographic identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA... with the OECD test guidelines. However, EPA is specifying that the American Society for Testing...

  4. Users Manual for the Essex Automated Performance Test System (APTS). Volume 1. Users Manual. Appendices A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-16

    most heavily; and a motor speed factor identified by the Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before...the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple R’s in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as criterion and

  5. Thermovision registration of defecation and urination in the evaluation of emotional state of experimental biological objects in the open arenas of behavioral tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to provide a method for detection of boluses defecation and urination spots in the study of the behavior of experimental biological objects in open arenas ethological tests with thermal registration. Material and methods. For identifying and quantifying defecation and urination biological objects using the compact thermal imaging camera FLIR SC 660 (FLIR Systems with a wide-angle lens. Object of study is the laboratory rat. Morphometric parameters determined using image analysis software. Results. When used as a video recording device thermal imaging camera to get an objective, quantitative data on the level of defecation and urination in the study of behavior and emotional state of the experimental evaluation of warm-blooded biological objects in open arenas ethological tests. Recorded boluses defecation and urination spots in the study of the emotional component of the behavior of laboratory rats in the test apparatus «Open field», «Elevated plus maze», «Radial 8-Arm Maze» and «T-maze». Conclusion. Thermal video registration allows visualizing products vegetative urinary and fecal excretion in the dynamics of experimental studies in the evaluation of the psycho-emotional state of biological objects in various open arenas behavioral tests, carried out their detailed morphometric analysis and identify indicators of spatial distribution.

  6. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An open-field experiment was conducted to asses the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buen...

  7. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring College Biology Students' Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis after a Course of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic test for measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion. Three general steps were used: (1) defining the content boundaries; (2) collecting information on students' misconceptions; and (3) instrument development. The split half reliability was 0.74, difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and the…

  8. Planning and design of additional East Mesa Geothermal Test Facilities. Phase 1B. Volume II. Procurement package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.O.

    1976-10-15

    Procurement packages of technical specifications and construction drawings for eleven test facility additions to the ERDA East Mesa Geothermal Component Test Facility are presented. Each of the specifications includes all of the technical requirements needed for procurement and construction starting with Division 2. The information is presented under the following subject headings: injection pump system: 52-2 injection pipeline; control and instrumentation spools; calibration test bench; test pad modifications; test pad piping headers; production and injection wells; well 5-2 modifications; well 8-1 down-hole pump; well 6-1 down-hole pump; and well 8-1 booster pump. (JGB)

  9. Stress testing at the cellular and molecular level to unravel cellular dysfunction and growth factor signal transduction defects: what Molecular Cell Biology can learn from Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Johannes

    2007-11-01

    Clinical medicine has been revolutionized by the impact of cellular and molecular biology in the past 30 years. This article focuses on a novel approach, whereby the clinically proven and important concept of patient or organ stress testing is being applied to cellular models, thereby developing and validating novel quantitative molecular and cellular stress tests. One example is monocyte chemotaxis analysis, whereby circulating monocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood are being tested for their migratory responsiveness towards relevant biological stimuli such as growth factors or chemokines. These stimuli are relevant for recruiting monocytes to sites of local inflammation such as during wound healing or arteriogenesis, i.e. growth of collateral arteries. Initial clinical studies to validate "ligand-induced monocyte chemotaxis" indicate that this parameter is impaired in the presence of various cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia or smoking. In addition, there is proof of concept that impaired monocyte chemotaxis is reversible as shown for anti-oxidants in smokers. Moreover, the parameter "ligand-induced monocyte chemotaxis" is of great relevance for basic science (including Molecular Cell Biology) as unravelling the underlying molecular mechanisms of cellular dysfunction will certainly stimulate our understanding of the molecular basis of cellular function. This article highlights the concept of stress testing in modern medicine. Cellular stress testing is introduced as a novel and intriguing approach, which was developed as bedside-to-bench. Future prospective clinical trials will have to validate the predictive value of cellular stress testing.

  10. Association of Levels of Serum Inhibin B and Follicle-stimulating Hormone with Testicular Vascularity, Volume, and Echotexture in Children with Undescended Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinya, Abhishek; Ratan, Simmi K.; Aggarwal, Satish K.; Garg, Anju; Mishra, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to assess the association between reproductive hormones (inhibin B [inh B], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) with testicular volume, echogenicity, and blood flow (resistive index [RI]) in children with undescended testis (UDT). Settings and Design: This was a prospective study of 1-year study duration. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 patients (16 unilateral and 17 bilateral) UDTs aged 5–12 years with palpable UDT were included in the study. Morning fasting blood samples were taken for estimation of serum inh B and FSH as well as inh B/FSH ratio. Testicular ultrasound was done to compute testicular volume, testicular echogenicity, and testicular vascularity in terms of RI. Results: The mean age of patients enrolled in the study was 8.29 years for unilateral UDT and 7.97 years in bilateral UDT and it was comparable. The study groups were further subdivided into two age-wise subgroups school goers (5–8 years) and prepubertal (9–12 years). The values of inh B, FSH, and inh B/FSH ratios as well as mean testicular volume were comparable between both groups and subgroups. Overall mean testicular volume had a positive correlation with FSH, inh B, and inh B/FSH, but statistical significance was reached only for inh B (P hypoechogenicity within the testis, all remaining testes were of homogenous echotexture with no instances of irregular echogenicity or tumor. Children with RI >0.6 were separately studied. The incidence of high RI (>0.6) was also comparable in unilateral or bilateral disease. These subjects had unfavorable biochemical parameters in terms of low inh B levels and high FSH levels. Conclusions: Our findings hint to the fact that palpable UDT forms a homogenous group, whether unilateral or bilateral, whereas impalpable testes may form a separate category and need further studies to substantiate this hypothesis. PMID:28082768

  11. Biological testing and chemical analysis of process materials from an integrated two stage coal liquefaction: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Buhl, P.; Moroni, E.C.

    1983-07-01

    Samples for chemical characterization and biological testing were obtained from ITSL runs 3LCF7, 3LCF8 and 3LCF9. Chemical analysis of these materials showed that SCT products were composed of fewer compounds than analogous materials from Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) processes. Major components in the SCT materials were three-, four-, five- and six-ring neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Methyl(C/sub 1/) and C/sub 2/ homologs of these compounds were present in relatively low concentrations, compared to their non-alkylated homologs. Organic nitrogen was primarily in the form of tertiary polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles and carbazoles. Little or no amino PAH (APAH) or cyano PAH were detected in samples taken during normal PDU operations, however, mutagenic APAH were produced during off-normal operation. Microbial mutagenicity appeared to be due mainly to the presence of APAH which were probably formed in the LC finer due to failure of the catalyst to promote deamination following carbon-nitrogen bond scission of nitrogen-containing hydroaromatics. This failure was observed for the off-normal runs where it was likely that the catalyst had been deactivated. Carcinogenic activity of ITSL materials as assessed by (tumors per animal) in the initiation/promotion mouse skin painting assay was slightly reduced for materials produced with good catalyst under normal operation compared to those collected during recycle of the LC Finer feed. Initiation activity of the latter samples did not appear to be significantly different from that of other coal derived materials with comparable boiling ranges. The observed initiation activity was not unexpected, considering analytical data which showed the presence of four-, five- and six-ring PAH in ITSL materials.

  12. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 2: Fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low thrust high performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal and gear pumps were carried through detail design and fabrication. After preliminary testing in Freon 12, the centrifugal pump was selected for further testing and development. It was tested in Freon 12 to obtain the hydrodynamic performance. Tests were also conducted in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  13. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report P. R. Girouard Well No. 1, Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The P.R. Girouard No. 1 Well, located approximately 10 miles southeast of Lafayette, Louisiana, was the fourth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Wells of Opportunity program. The well was tested through 3-1/2 inch tubing set on a packer at 14,570 feet without major problems. The geological section tested was the Oligocene Marginulina Texana No. 1 sand of upper Frio age. The interval tested was from 14,744 to 14,819 feet. Produced water was piped down a disposal well perforated from 2870 to 3000 feet in a Miocene saltwater sand. Four flow tests were conducted for sustained production rates of approximately 4000 BWPD to approximately 15,000 BWPD. The highest achieved, during a fifth short test, was 18,460 BWPD. The test equipment was capable of handling higher rates. The gas-to-water ratio was relatively uniform at approximately 40 SCF/bbl. The heating value of the gas is 970 Btu/SCF. The reservoir tests show that is is doubtful that this well would sustain production rates over 10,000 BWPD for any lengthy period from the sand zone in which it was completed. This limited flow capacity is due to the well's poor location in the reservoir and is not a result of any production deficiencies of the Marginulina Texana sand.

  14. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Saldana well No. 2, Zapata County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-07

    The Saldana Well No. 2, approximately 35 miles Southeast of the city of Laredo, Texas, was the sixth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the DOE Wells of Opportunity Program. The well was tested through the annulus between 7-inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 9745 to 9820 feet. The geological section was the 1st Hinnant Sand, an upper member of the Wilcox Group. Produced water was injected into the Saldana Well No. 1, which was also acquired from Riddle Oil Company and converted to a disposal well. A Miocene salt water sand was perforated from 3005 to 3100 feet for disposal. One pressure drawdown flow test and one pressure buildup test were conducted during a 10-day period. A total of 9328 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was 1950 BWPD.

  15. Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Dominic A

    2014-01-01

    The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed.

  16. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    measurement in a rigid mold, and the ASTM C 157 standard. The results of the autogenous and chemical shrinkage tests are compared with one another to describe fully early-age length change. It is shown that through careful experimentation and interpretation, the results of these tests can be completely...

  17. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  18. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 --- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 2, Data reconciliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume one. This Volume 2 provides details of the carbonizer data reconciliation.

  19. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 14. Introduction to Flight Test Engineering (Introduction a la Technique d’essais en vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    34Demonstration Requirements", 18 Mar 1971 with Amendment 1 of 30 Jun 1983 MIL-D-8708A( WEP ), "Demonstration Requirements for Airplanes", 13 Sep 1960 DoD...executed on full-scale airframes, mockups or airframe sections mounted atop heavy 3-axis positioners on outdoor antenna test ranges. The advantages...various design phases are subject to human engineering verification and validation tests beginning with rapid prototyping and mockups , extending through

  20. Thermal and fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale test facility. Volume 1. Facility and test design report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, F.X.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the test facility and program designed to measure fluid mixing and heat transfer in a 1/2-scale model of the cold leg downcomer and lower plenum of a pressurized water reactor under conditions of interest to the issue of pressurized thermal shock. Several cold leg assemblies are modeled and the downcomer arrangement can be altered to match vendor-specific configurations. The facility can be operated to model flow rates based on Froude number of the injected flow in the cold leg and with steady or transient inlet boundary conditions. Extensive instrumentation is provided to measure flow rates, temperatures and pressure at the facility boundaries and for detailed measurements of temperature, velocity and heat transfer data in the cold leg and downcomer models. The test data are monitored and recorded by a computer data acquisition system that is also used for post-test data reduction and plotting. The planned test matrix includes 75 tests with variations in cold leg and downcomer geometries, loop and HPI flow rates, cold leg Froude number and loop to HPI density difference. Test results will be reported in a series of quick look and final report.

  1. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  2. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  4. Geopressured-Geothermal Drilling and Testing Plan, Volume II, Testing Plan; Dow Chemical Co. - Dept. of Energy Dow-DOE Sweezy No. 1 Well, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    The Dow/D.O.E. L. R. Sweezy No. 1 geopressured geothermal production well was completed in August of 1981. The well was perforated and gravel packed in approximately 50 feet of sand from 13,344 feet to 13,395 feet. Permeabilities of 6 to 914 millidarcies were measured with porosity of 25 to 36%. Static surface pressure after well clean-up was 5000 psi. At 1000 B/D flow rate the drawdown was 50 psi. The water produced in clean-up contained 100,000 ppm TDS. This report details the plan for testing this well with the goal of obtaining sufficient data to define the total production curve of the small, 939 acre, reservoir. A production time of six to nine months is anticipated. The salt water disposal well is expected to be completed and surface equipment installed such that production testing will begin by April 1, 1982. The program should be finished and reports written by February 28, 1983. The brine will be produced from the No.1 well, passed through a separator where the gas is removed, then reinjected into the No.2 (SWD) well under separator pressure. Flow rates of up to 25,000 B/D are expected. The tests are divided into a two-week short-term test and six to nine-month long-term tests with periodic downhole measurement of drawdown and buildup rates. Data obtained in the testing will be relayed by phoneline computer hookup to Otis Engineering in Dallas, Texas, where the reservoir calculations and modeling will be done. At the point where sufficient data has been obtained to reach the objectives of the program, production will be ended, the wells plugged and abandoned, and a final report will be issued.

  5. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  6. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. Treatment of Industrial Process Effluents & Contaminated Groundwater Using the Biological Granular Activated Carbon-Fluidized Bed Reactor (GAC-FBR) Process. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1974 approximately 310,200 tons of waste solvents were produced by degreasing operations (U.S. EPA, 1979). In contaminated aquifers , the most frequently...costs of adding these substrates to soils or contaminated aquifers needs to be considered. The addition of toluene and phenol may have environmental...Biological reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene to ethylene under methanogenic conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55

  8. Design, Construction and Performance Tests of a Prototype MicroMegas Chamber with Two Readout Planes in a Common Gas Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Brickwedde, Bernard; Schott, Matthias; Yildirim, Eda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design and the performance of a prototype detector based on MicroMegas technology with two detection planes in a common gas volume is discussed. The detector is suited for the forward region of LHC detectors, addressing the high-rate environment and limited available space. Each detection plane has an active area of 9x9 cm^2 with a two-dimensional strip readout and is separated by a common gas region with a height of 14 mm. A micro-mesh, working as a cathode, is placed in the middle of the common gas volume separating it into two individual cells. This setup allows for an angle reconstruction of incoming particles with a precision of 2 mrad. Since this design reduces the impact of multiple scattering effects by the reduced material budget, possible applications for low energy beam experiments can be envisioned. The performance of the prototype detector has been tested with a 4.4 GeV electron beam, provided by the test beam facility at DESY.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S.A. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a 3 year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year 3 of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic temperature fluctuations.

  10. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Southern Nevada Courier Service, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  11. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  12. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 5 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  13. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 2 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 3 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  15. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems: Volume 5: Test Method for Digital Recorder/Reproducer Systems and Recorder Memory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    operational readiness tests of digital recorder/reproducer systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Telemetry Group; telemetry data format definitions; IRIG 106... IRIG 106 CHAPTER 10 PARAGRAPHS ............................................................................................B-1 APPENDIX C PYTHON...4-3 Figure 5-1. IRIG 106-09 Chapter 10 directory structure .................................................. 5-2 Figure 5-2. Hex dump of

  16. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  17. Cost Analysis for Aircraft System Test and Evaluation: Empirical Survey Data Structuring and Parametric Modeling. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    the B-52 prototypes flight test and mockup hours. Other KC-135 data include other block 1 data, i.e., maintenance trainers, support equipment, static...DE w. \\,i 177 Frequency Hi stogramn r 2 4 ~ ... . . .. . e n 0*i / 0 20 40 60 80 100 wep DIVIDE wavi 178 Frequencw Histogram 6 Isvo I. I I S J J a I I

  18. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  19. Cyclical tests of selected space shuttle TPS metallic materials in a plasma arc tunnel Volume 1: Description of tests and program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, W. A.; Land, D. W.; Painter, J. H.; Williamson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Work, concerned with cyclical thermal evaluation of selected space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) metallic materials in a hypervelocity oxidizing atmosphere that approximated an actual entry environment, is presented. A total of 325 sample test hours were conducted on 21 super-alloy metallic samples at temperatures from 1800 to 2200 F (1256 to 1478 K) without any failures. The 4 x 4 in. (10.2 x 10.2 cm) samples were fabricated from five nickel base alloys and one cobalt base alloy. Eighteen of the samples were cycled 100 times each and the other three samples 50 times each in a test stream emanating from an 8 in. (20.3 cm) diam exit, Mach 4.6, conical nozzle. The test cycle consisted of a 10 min heat pulse to a controlled temperature followed by a 10 min cooldown period. The TD-NiCrAl and TD-NiAlY materials showed the least change in weight, thickness, and physical appearance even though they were subjected to the highest temperature environment.

  20. Testing Methods of Biological Toxicity Detection for Water Quality%水质的生物毒性检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小辉; 杨峰峰; 何圣兵; 戴鼎立; 陈雪初; 李玫芳

    2012-01-01

    水质生物毒性检测是水环境质量评价的重要内容.生物检测技术随着各学科间交叉发展的深入而产生了新的活力.该文综述了当前生物毒性检测技术的主要类型以及应用现状,并对未来的重点研究方向提出了一些建议,以期为水毒理学的持续发展提供科学参考.%Biological toxicity testing on water toxicity plays a significant role in water quality assessment. New technology of biological toxicity testing method has been put forward under the development of interdisciplinary infiltration. It was reviewed that the main types of biological toxicity testing and the present application situation in this paper. Meanwhile, some key directions in the future were raised, which could be contributed to the sustainable development of water toxicology detection.

  1. Thermal and fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale test facility. Volume 2. Data report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, F.X.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents data from an experimental study of fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale model of the cold leg, downcomer, lower plenum, pump simulator, and loop seal typical of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The tests were transient cooldown tests in that they simulated an extreme condition of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) during which cold High Pressure Injection (HPI) fluid is injected into stagnant, hot primary fluid with complete loss of natural circulation in the loop. Extensive temperature, velocity, and heat transfer coefficient data are presented at two cold leg Froude numbers: 0.052 and 0.076. The 1/2-scale data are compared with earlier data from a 1/5-scale, geometrically similar facility to assess scaling principles.

  2. Characteristics of Optical Fire Detector False Alarm Sources and Qualification Test Procedures to Prove Immunity. Phase 2. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Features of Typical Lightning Flashes 95 xii LIST OF FIGURES (CONCLUDED) FIGURE TITLE PAGE 32 Examples of Spectral Energy Distribution of 98 Various...Yel IR..IR IR Eastern Electric 3 N/A N/A SB-1O1W 4 N/A N/A 21 UV Bug Lamp 3 0 0O 145 Tabla 29 (Continued)[SOURCE TEST OISTANC CHOP0 NO. SOURCE NO

  3. Joint DoD/DoE Shale Oil Project. Volume 3. Testing of Refined Shale Oil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    10-9. GROWTH RATINGS OF CLADOSPORIUM RESINAE AT VARIOUS INCUBATION STAGES ......................... 10-25 S 0 xv - LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE 10...both shale DFM and shale JP-5 support heavy growth of Cladosporium resinae . Short-term engine performance tests were conducted on two gas turbine...microbiological growth of shale DFM and shale JP-5 was investigated by inoculating a mixture of fuel and 0 nutrient medium with Cladosporium resinae

  4. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  6. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-B: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Design well program; LaFourche Crossing; MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 (Sweet Lake); Environmental monitoring at Sweet Lake; Air quality; Water quality; Microseismic monitoring; Subsidence; Dow/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well; Reservoir testing; Environmental monitoring at Parcperdue; Air monitoring; Water runoff; Groundwater; Microseismic events; Subsidence; Environmental consideration at site; Gladys McCall No. 1 well; Test results of Gladys McCall; Hydrocarbons in production gas and brine; Environmental monitoring at the Gladys McCall site; Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well; Pleasant Bayou hybrid power system; Environmental monitoring at Pleasant Bayou; and Plug abandonment and well site restoration of three geopressured-geothermal test sites. 197 figs., 64 tabs.

  7. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 1: Scanner development, laboratory and field testing and system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Edwards, B. B.; Shrider, K. R.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A servo-controlled range/elevation scanner for the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was developed and tested in the field to assess its performance in detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment. The elevation scanner provides a capability to manually point the LDV telescope at operator chosen angles from 3.2 deg. to 89.6 deg within 0.2 deg, or to automatically scan the units between operator chosen limits at operator chosen rates of 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The range scanner provides a capability to manually adjust the focal point of the system from a range of 32 meters to a range of 896 meters under operator control, or to scan between operator chosen limits and at rates from 0.1 Hz to 6.9 Hz. The scanner controls are designed to allow simulataneous range and elevation scanning so as to provide finger scan patterns, arc scan patterns, and vertical line scan patterns. The development and testing of the unit is discussed, along with a fluid dynamic model of the wake vortex developed in a laser Doppler vortex sensor simulation program.

  8. Flight Test Measurement Techniques for Laminar Flow. Volume 23(Les techniques de mesure en vol des ecoulements laminaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Laminar flow control LSTM Lehrstuhl für Strömungsmechanik der Universität Erlangen LWK Laminarwindkanal Stuttgart L2F Laser two-focus anemometer MMO...of the low-speed wind tunnel at the LSTM Erlangen was also investigated. The wind tunnel measurements were performed during flat plate experiments...tunnels, figure 4.5-3 shows, in addition to the results of the LSTM [128] and KKK [132], measurements performed in the test section of the DNW

  9. Standard guide for measuring the wear volumes of piston ring segments run against flat coupons in reciprocating wear tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers and describes a profiling method for use accurately measuring the wear loss of compound-curved (crowned) piston ring specimens that run against flat counterfaces. It does not assume that the wear scars are ideally flat, as do some alternative measurement methods. Laboratory-scale wear tests have been used to evaluate the wear of materials, coatings, and surface treatments that are candidates for piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel engines or spark ignition engines. Various loads, temperatures, speeds, lubricants, and durations are used for such tests, but some of them use a curved piston ring segment as one sliding partner and a flat or curved specimen (simulating the cylinder liner) as its counterface. The goal of this guide is to provide more accurate wear measurements than alternative approaches involving weight loss or simply measuring the length and width of the wear marks. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its ...

  10. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  11. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

  12. 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 2; Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to: (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing, the development C, of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop was organized in four sessions: Sessions 1 Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); Session 3 Acceptability Studies-Human and Animal; and Session 4 - Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing.

  13. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Performance Testing and Quality Control of Biological Safety Cabinets%生物安全柜的性能检测与质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through performance testing of biological safety cabinet,to understand its performance,so as to improve its safety.Methods Six required items are tested according to the standard of Biological Safety Cabinets.Results The six required items can meet the technical requirements,the biological safety cabinet is qualified.Conclusion Quality control of medical equipment is of great significance.%目的 通过对生物安全柜的性能检测,以掌握其性能现状,提高使用的安全性.方法 依据《生物安全柜》标准,对生物安全性等6个必检项目进行性能检测.结果 6个检测项目符合技术要求,生物安全柜性能合格.结论 加强医疗设备质量控制关系重大,不容忽视.

  15. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  16. The biological basis of anger: associations with the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) and with amygdala volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Fiebach, Christian J; Elger, Christian; Montag, Christian

    2009-09-14

    Recent findings have highlighted the importance of DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa), a key regulatory molecule in the dopaminergic signalling pathway for dopamine related phenotypes like antisocial-behavior, drug addiction and schizophrenia. This is the first study investigating the role of the DARPP-32 gene for personality. In a sample of n=838 healthy German Caucasian subjects we found a significant association between rs907094 and ANGER. Carriers of the T-allele showed significantly higher ANGER scores than participants without a T-allele (F((1,837))=9.52, p=0.002). In a second step we validated self-report data of ANGER by investigating their relation to structural brain differences in anger-related brain regions using voxel-based morphometry. A negative association between ANGER scores and the volume of the left amygdala could be detected. The present findings yield genetic evidence for the importance of dopaminergic signal transduction for the personality trait of ANGER. In addition volumetric MRI data support the role of the amygdala for the processing of anger.

  17. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  18. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  19. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  20. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  1. Experience with biological tests in the field of the biodeterioration of materials; 4. The influence of carbon and nitrogen sources in mildew test media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueck, H.J.; Hazeu, W.

    1969-01-01

    Different sources of C and N in mildew test media are compared. It is found that filterpaper strips may be advantageously replaced by cellulose powder. Carboxymethylcellulose is less favourable as a substitute and it is confirmed that the addition of saccharose adversely influences cellulolytic brea

  2. Skin autoreactivity in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients without urticaria: autologous serum skin test positivity correlation with thyroid antibodies, sonographical volume and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Zafer; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Ozlem; Can, Burce; Kavala, Mukaddes; Tamer, Gonca; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Akyer, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between anti-thyroid antibodies and autologous serum skin test (ASST) positive urticaria patients. However, a connection between thyroid and this reliable skin test for mast cell autoreactivity, ASST, has not been reported yet. We investigated ASST in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) without urticaria and compared the results with laboratory and sonographical findings of HT. 154 HT patients, 100 healthy volunteers without HT as a first control group and 46 patients with multinodular goitre but without autoimmune thyroid disease as a second control group underwent testing with ASST. ASST was applied to these groups according to two criteria, first as ASST(new): autologous serum red wheal response 1.5 mm bigger than negative control; second as ASST(old): serum red wheal response 5 mm bigger than negative control accepted as positive. Free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were measured. ASST(old), ASST(new) scored positive in 51.3-60.4% of HT patients, with statistically significant differences. Thyroid volume grades were inversely proportional with ASST(old) and (new) positivity. Moderate (+) titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (+) cases were significantly higher than the same titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (-) cases. The prevalence of ASST positivity in HT patients was not affected by the following factors: gender, age at screening, laboratory measurements of thyroid function tests, anti-TPO antibodies and thyroid ultrasound (US) echogenicity. Positivity of ASST in HT has shown that there is a skin mast cell autoreactivity in HT patients independent of autoreactive chronic urticaria (ACU).

  3. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  4. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Rundquist , J.D , Taylor , R., Wilson , B.L. 4 Andrews,M.R., Barck , J., Hogge , Jr., A.L., Huxsoll , D.L., Hildebrandt, P.K., and Nims , R.M...Harmsen, 1973), it was assumed that lowering the tem- perature would improve the Infection ( Jenni , 1977). ThIs appeared to be the case in test 3 based on... Jenni , L. Comparison of antigenic types of Trypanosoma brucei strains transmitted by Glossina m. morsitans. Acta. Trop . 34: 35-41 , 1977

  5. Testing the museum versus cradle tropical biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Bell, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    Ants are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant group of terrestrial organisms with most species diversity currently found in tropical climates. Several explanations for the disparity of biological diversity in the tropics compared to temperate regions have been proposed including that the tropics may act as a "museum" where older lineages persist through evolutionary time or as a "cradle" where new species continue to be generated. We infer the molecular phylogenetic relationships of 295 ant specimens including members of all 21 extant subfamilies to explore the evolutionary diversification and biogeography of the ants. By constraining the topology and age of the root node while using 45 fossils as minimum constraints, we converge on an age of 139-158 Mya for the modern ants. Further diversification analyses identified 10 periods with a significant change in the tempo of diversification of the ants, although these shifts did not appear to correspond to ancestral biogeographic range shifts. Likelihood-based historical biogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Neotropics were important in early ant diversification (e.g., Cretaceous). This finding coupled with the extremely high-current species diversity suggests that the Neotropics have acted as both a museum and cradle for ant diversity.

  6. Regioselective synthesis of α-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid derivatives and biological test against bacterial Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella agona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CASSIDY; Seamas

    2010-01-01

    α-D-Glucopyranosiduronides were stereoselectively synthesized from D-glucopyranosiduronic acid via the intermediate 1,6-lactone. Fatty acid esters were regioselectively introduced at the 2-O-position of α-D-glucopyranosiduronides using dibutyltin dimethoxide as the stannylating agent. Antibacterial tests show that methyl 2-O-lauroyl-O-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid and azido 2-O-lauroyl-O-D-glucopyranosid-uronic acid are effective inhibitors against Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Insecticidal and biological effects of three plant extracts tested against the dengue vector, Stegomyia agyptii (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kokila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of resistant in vectors especially vector mosquitoes are becoming a challenge for the scientific community for management and control mosquito population. Vector mosquitoes are likely to withstand toxicity and develop resistant mechanism to single active compound hence, combining medicinal plants with rich active compounds stops resistant development and proliferation of mosquitoes. In this study we put effort to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Tagetes patula, Clerodentron phillomedis, and Catharanthus roseus in individual and in combination against the dengue vector, Stegomyia agyptii. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 were calculated to find out the effect of the test plants in individual and in combination. T. patula extract showed vaguely higher mortality rate when compared to C. phillomedis, and C. roseus but there was no significant variation among the three test plants. The median LC of combined treatment showed a significant difference between the combined (2.25 µg/mL/3rd instar and individual treatment (6.41 µg/mL/3rd instar for T. patula, 6.85 µg/mL/3rd instar for C. phillomedis and 6.59 µg/mL/3rd instar for C. roseus. The combined efficacy of three test plants was also effective in controlling vector mosquitoes at fields with different agro-climatic conditions. The study proves that the combination of T. patula, C. phillomedis, and C. roseus is effective in different field conditions at lower concentrations.

  8. Problems in stability test of biological products%生物制品稳定性研究相关问题的考虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦薇

    2013-01-01

    稳定性研究是贯穿于整个药物研究阶段和支持药物上市及上市后研究的重要试验依据,是产品贮藏条件、有效期的确定和生产工艺、产品制剂处方、包装材料选择的合理性及产品质量标准制定的研究基础.因此,如何设计、开展稳定性研究是研发需要重视的内容.本文拟以生物制品为例,提出有关稳定性研究的探讨意见.%Stability test always goes through the whole process of drug research and development, also it is the important data to support drug on marketing and after marketing. Data from the stability test should lay the foundation for determination of drug storage condition, expiry date, production process, formulation, packaging and quality standard. Therefore, how to design and carry out the stability test is the focus. Here reviewer's comments regarding to stability test of biological products was presented.

  9. Integration of an optical CMOS sensor with a microfluidic channel allows a sensitive readout for biological assays in point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Brivio, Monica; Van Der Sar, Elfried; Blom, Marko; Reuvekamp, Simon; Tanzi, Simone; Groenhuis, Roelf; Adojutelegan, Adewole; Lous, Erik-Jan; Frederix, Filip; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2016-04-15

    In this manuscript, a microfluidic detection module, which allows a sensitive readout of biological assays in point-of-care (POC) tests, is presented. The proposed detection module consists of a microfluidic flow cell with an integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS)-based single photon counting optical sensor. Due to the integrated sensor-based readout, the detection module could be implemented as the core technology in stand-alone POC tests, for use in mobile or rural settings. The performance of the detection module was demonstrated in three assays: a peptide, a protein and an antibody detection assay. The antibody detection assay with readout in the detection module proved to be 7-fold more sensitive that the traditional colorimetric plate-based ELISA. The protein and peptide assay showed a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 200 fM and 460 fM respectively. Results demonstrate that the sensitivity of the immunoassays is comparable with lab-based immunoassays and at least equal or better than current mainstream POC devices. This sensitive readout holds the potential to develop POC tests, which are able to detect low concentrations of biomarkers. This will broaden the diagnostic capabilities at the clinician's office and at patient's home, where currently only the less sensitive lateral flow and dipstick POC tests are implemented.

  10. A de novo germline MLH1 mutation in a Lynch syndrome patient with discordant immunohistochemical and molecular biology test results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Airaud; Sébastien Küry; Isabelle Valo; Ingrid Maury; Dominique Bonneau; Olivier Ingster; Stéphane Bezieau

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with a Homo sapiens mutL homolog 1 (MLH1)-associated Lynch syndrome with previous diagnoses of two distinct primary cancers:a sigmoid colon cancer at the age of 39 years,and a right colon cancer at the age of 50 years.The mutation identified in his blood and buccal cells,c.1771delG,p.Asp591Ilefs*25,appears to be a de novo event,as it was not transmitted by either of his parents.This type of de novo event is rare in MLH1 as only three cases have been reported in the literature so far.Furthermore,the discordant results observed between replication error phenotyping and immunohistochemistry highlight the importance of the systematic use of both pre-screening tests in the molecular diagnosis of Lynch syndrome.

  11. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  12. Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. We modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other traits, the span of the caudal fin, b, and the predator detection threshold, ζ, a proxy for the lateral line sensory system, were also allowed to evolve. These three traits were chosen because they evolved early in vertebrates, are all potentially important in feeding and fleeing, and vary in form among species. Preyro took on individual identities in a given generation as defined by the population’s six diploid genotypes, Gi. Each Gi was a 3-tuple, with each element an integer specifying N, b, and, ζ. The small size of the population allowed for genetic drift to operate in concert with random mutation and mating; the presence of these mechanisms of chance provided an opportunity for N to evolve by accident. The presence of three evolvable traits provided an opportunity for direct selection on b and/or ζ to evolve N as a by-product linked trait correlation. In selection trials, different Gi embodied in Preyro attempted to feed at a light source and then flee to avoid a predator robot in pursuit. The fitness of each Gi was calculated from five different types of performance: speed, acceleration, distance to the light, distance to the predator, and the number of predator escapes initiated. In each generation, we measured the selection differential, the selection gradient, the strength of chance, and the indirect correlation selection gradient. These metrics allowed us to understand the relative contributions of the three mechanisms: direct selection, chance, and indirect

  13. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 6. Thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 3. 05. 5B - double-ended cold-leg break simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1982-05-18

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.05.5B was conducted by members of the ORNL PWR Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program on July 3, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.05.5B was designed to provide transient thermal-hydraulics data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. Reduced instrument responses are presented. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  14. Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2003-04-22

    Kin-recognition systems have been hypothesized to exist in humans, and adaptively to regulate altruism and incest avoidance among close genetic kin. This latter function allows the architecture of the kin recognition system to be mapped by quantitatively matching individual variation in opposition to incest to individual variation in developmental parameters, such as family structure and co-residence patterns. Methodological difficulties that appear when subjects are asked to disclose incestuous inclinations can be circumvented by measuring their opposition to incest in third parties, i.e. morality. This method allows a direct test of Westermarck's original hypothesis that childhood co-residence with an opposite-sex individual predicts the strength of moral sentiments regarding third-party sibling incest. Results support Westermarck's hypothesis and the model of kin recognition that it implies. Co-residence duration objectively predicts genetic relatedness, making it a reliable cue to kinship. Co-residence duration predicts the strength of opposition to incest, even after controlling for relatedness and even when co-residing individuals are genetically unrelated. This undercuts kin-recognition models requiring matching to self (through, for example, major histocompatibility complex or phenotypic markers). Subjects' beliefs about relatedness had no effect after controlling for co-residence, indicating that systems regulating kin-relevant behaviours are non-conscious, and calibrated by co-residence, not belief.

  15. Action of silver nanoparticles towards biological systems: cytotoxicity evaluation using hen's egg test and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Priscila L L; Stamford, Thayza C M; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Cavalcante, Horacinna M M; Macedo, Rui O; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of four silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids and their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated based on signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane using the hen's egg test (HET-CAM). Bactericidal properties and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation were determined using a parallel-flow cell system and a dichromatic fluorescent stain. The percentage of viable cells was calculated from regression data generated from a viability standard. AgNP colloids proved to be non-irritating, as they were unable to promote vasoconstriction, haemorrhage or coagulation. AgNP colloids inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel, and cell viability measured by fluorescence was 0% for samples S1, S2, S3 and S4 and 36.5% for the positive control (diluted 30% silver diamine fluoride). AgNPs are new products with a low production cost because they have a lower concentration of silver, with low toxicity and an effective bactericidal effect against a cariogenic oral bacterium. Moreover, they do not promote colour change in dental enamel, which is an aesthetic advantage compared with traditional silver products.

  16. Optical high-resolution analysis of rotational movement: testing circular spatial filter velocimetry (CSFV) with rotating biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, M.; Schmidt, R.; Kostbade, R.; Damaschke, N.; Gimsa, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circular spatial filtering velocimetry (CSFV) was tested during the microscopic registration of the individual rotations of baker’s yeast cells. Their frequency-dependent rotation (electrorotation; ER) was induced in rotating electric fields, which were generated in a glass chip chamber with four electrodes (600 μm tip-to-tip distance). The electrodes were driven with sinusoidal quadrature signals of 5 or 8 V PP with frequencies up to 3 MHz. The observed cell rotation was of the order of 1-100 s per revolution. At each measuring frequency, the independent rotations of up to 20 cells were simultaneously recorded with a high-speed camera. CSFV was software-implemented using circular spatial filters with harmonic gratings. ER was proportional to the phase shift between the values of the spatial filtering signal of consecutive frames. ER spectra obtained by CSFV from the rotation velocities at different ER-field frequencies agreed well with manual measurements and theoretical spectra. Oscillations in the rotation velocity of a single cell in the elliptically polarized field near an electrode, which were resolved by CSFV, could not be visually discerned. ER step responses after field-on were recorded at 2500 frames per second. Analysis proved the high temporal resolution of CSFV and revealed a largely linear torque-friction relation during the acceleration phase of ER. Future applications of CSFV will allow for the simple and cheap automated high-resolution analysis of rotational movements where mechanical detection has too low a resolution or is not possible, e.g. in polluted environments or for gas and fluid vortices, microscopic objects, etc.

  17. Structure-based design, synthesis and biological testing of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds designed to covalently bind to topoisomerase II and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arun A; Wu, Xing; Patel, Daywin; Yalowich, Jack C; Hasinoff, Brian B

    2014-11-01

    Drugs that target DNA topoisomerase II isoforms and alkylate DNA represent two mechanistically distinct and clinically important classes of anticancer drugs. Guided by molecular modeling and docking a series of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds were designed, synthesized and biologically characterized. These hybrids were designed to alkylate nucleophilic protein residues on topoisomerase II and thus produce inactive covalent adducts and to also alkylate DNA. The most potent hybrid had a mean GI(50) in the NCI-60 cell screen 17-fold lower than etoposide. Using a variety of in vitro and cell-based assays all of the hybrids tested were shown to target topoisomerase II. A COMPARE analysis indicated that the hybrids had NCI 60-cell growth inhibition profiles matching both etoposide and the N-mustard compounds from which they were derived. These results supported the conclusion that the hybrids displayed characteristics that were consistent with having targeted both topoisomerase II and DNA.

  18. 2006 In Vitro Biology Meeting. Volume 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-25

    calcium mobilization . however did not change i t MMG cultured cells. This corroborates evidence using ionomycin that calcium high viability with relatively...Prosject granit troim the Japats Science aind Technoilogy Agencxý a grant frsoti the Smostking Research Fsuindatison (Japans, grantits P211-RRlllb403

  19. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  20. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  1. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  2. MICRO TEST1血沉仪量值溯源性的建立及生物参考区间调查%Establishment of Measurement Traceability and Investigation of Biological Reference Interval for MICRO TEST1 ESR Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春平; 刘红萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish measurement traceability and investigate biological reference interval for MICRO TEST1 ESR analyzer calibrated by reference method of ICSH ( International committee for standardization in hematology). Methods 50 EDTAK2 anticoagulated blood samples were deteced by MICRO TESTI ESR analyzer and westergren method. The reference method for measuring the ESR proposed by ICSH. Data obrained by this two merhods were used to calibrate the instrument and to establish measurement traceability. 663 healthy cases were divided into differ ent groups according to sex and age. Statistical analysis were used to determined how to group and establish biological ref erence interval. Results Linear regression analysis comparing MICRO TEST1 and ICSH reference method yielded satis factory correlations(r= 0. 982). Paired student t test showed that there wasnot significant different between this two methods. The cases were divided intodifferent groups according to sex and age and biological reference interval were established using percentiles. In male.there were two groups which were 18~50 years(≤23. l mm/h) and >50 years (≤38. 8 mm/h). In female ,there were three groups which were 18~ 50 years (≤25. 4 mm/h) , 41~50 years (≤37. 5 mm/ h) and >50 years(≤45. 3 mm/h). Conclusion Calibrated by ICSH reference method .MICRO TEST1 ESR analyzer established mea surement traceability and promoted clinical laboratory results mutual accreditation. Biological reference interval of ESR were affected by sex and age. The establishment of reliable reference interval could be consulted by clinic and play a betterrole in clinical diagnosis.%目的 应用国际参考方法对MICRO TEST1自动血沉仪进行校准,建立其量值溯源性,同时调查不同性别和年龄生物参考区间.方法 选取50例抗凝血标本,分别用MICRO TEST1 自动血沉仪和国际血液学标准化委员会(ICSH)推荐的参考方法魏氏法进

  3. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  5. Computer-Based Testing System. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume III. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the third of four project objectives, the development and implementation of a computer-based testing…

  6. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  7. Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Budget Estimates. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Defense-Wide. Volume 1 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    algorithms based on wavelets and superparamagnetic resonance for sorting neuronal spike data; develop a Bayesian network framework for analysis of cellular...nuclear spin sensitivity. − Investigate fundamental issues of nanowire communication with electrically active biological systems ( neurons ) including high...initiative encompasses high-resolution multispectral, multipolarization , radio frequency, electro-optical (EO) and active optical sensors. The program

  8. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  9. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  10. Practice and Thinking of the Occupation Skill Testing of Veterinary Biological Products Manufacturing Worker in China%我国兽用生物制品制造工职业技能鉴定实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晔; 顾进华; 王峰; 张广川; 王彬; 李倩

    2016-01-01

    The current conditions of the industry of veterinary biological products of human resources and the occupational skill testing system were introduced,the characteristics of veterinary biologics production workers occupational skill testing work processes and its role during the manufacturing of veterinary biological production were analyzed,and the direction and future of the occupational skills testing in the field of veterinary biological products industry was thought about,in order to provide a reference for the industry of veterinary occupational skill testing work.%介绍了我国兽用生物制品行业人力资源、职业技能鉴定体系工作情况,分析了兽用生物制品制造工职业技能鉴定工作开展的特点及其在兽用生物制品生产中的作用,对兽用生物制品行业职业技能鉴定工作的方向及未来进行了思考,以期为兽药行业职业技能鉴定工作提供参考。

  11. Considerations concerning the use of mental tests in the quantification of the psychic biological damage - Considerations sur l’utilisation des tests mentaux pour quantifier le dommage biologique de nature psychique - Considerazioni in merito all’uso dei test mentali nella quantificazione del danno biologico di natura psichica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The authors, though remarking the centrality of the structured interview and the examination of the mental conditions for the evaluation of the psychic biological damage, underline also the importance, in the course of an accurate psychodiagnostic test, of the mental tests as useful means for the quantification of the damage itself, although one should know their peculiarities and limits.Les auteurs, même s’ils mettent en évidence l’importance prépondérante du colloque structuré et de l’exame...

  12. Archives of ALGA. Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Volume 2 contains 3 articles: Ilir Berisha, Translation of Bäcklunds paper ”Surfaces of constant negative curvature”; Johan Erlandsson, "Survey of mathematical models in biology from point of view of Lie group analysis"; Niklas Säfström, "Group analysis of a tumour growth model"

  13. Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume II. Combustion tests of blends in burners and appliances. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31% hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    The emerging ''hydrogen economy'' is a strong contender as one method to supplement or extend the domestic natural gas supply. This volume of the subject study ''Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes combustion studies to determine the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be blended in natural gas and utilized satisfactorily in typical appliances with no adjustment or conversion. Eleven pilot burners and twenty-three main burners typical of those in current use were operated on hydrogen-natural gas mixtures containing approximately 8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31 percent, by volume, hydrogen. The eleven pilot burners and thirteen main burners were tested outside the appliance they were a part of. Ten main burners were tested in their respective appliances. Performance of the various burners tested are as follows: (1) Gas blends containing more than 6 to 11% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for target type pilot burners. (2) Gas blends containing more than 20 to 22% hyrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners operating in the open. (3) Gas blends containing more than 22 to 25% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners tested in appliances. (4) Modification of the orifice in target pilots or increasing the supply pressure to a minimum of 7 inches water column will permit the use of gas blends with 20% hydrogen.

  14. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 2: Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  15. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toprak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4 are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper.

    All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was

  16. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  17. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  18. Electron Microscopy Methods and Protocols (Volume 17 of the Series on Methods in Molecular Biology), Edited by M.A. Nasser Hajibagheri 1999. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. xi + 281 pages. ($89.50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, Moise

    1999-10-01

    At first glance, this book seems to come up short with regard to the application of electron microscopy in biological sciences. However, one has to consider that it is part of a series on molecular biology. The purpose here was not to collect a large variety of techniques related to electron microscopy but rather to focus on methods in molecular morphology. In this context, the book offers 15 short (some very short) chapters dealing with morphological approaches related to and used in molecular biology.

  19. Biological applications of nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Steffens, Daniela; Pranke, Patricia; da Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment. Nanoscale structures and materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes) have been explored in many biological applications (biosensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy) because their novel properties and functions differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Their high volume/surface ratio, improved solubility, and multifunctionality open many new possibilities. The objective of this review is to describe the potential benefits and impacts of the nanobiotechnology in different areas.

  20. LOW OZONE-DEPLETING HALOCARBONS AS TOTAL-FLOOD AGENTS: VOLUME 2. LABORATORY-SCALE FIRE SUPPRESSION AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results from (1) flame suppression testing of potential Halon-1301 (CF3Br) replacement chemicals in a laboratory cup burner using n-heptane fuel and (2) explosion prevention (inertion) testing in a small-scale explosion sphere using propane and methane as fuels. ...

  1. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Volume 2, Session 3A--Session 4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. A time-of-flight flow sensor for the volume measurement of trace amount of interstitial fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Li, D.; Roberts, R. C.; Xu, K.; Tien, N. C.

    2012-05-01

    Transdermal extraction of interstitial fluid (ISF) offers an attractive method for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. The existing macroscale systems are not suitable for ISF collection, mainly because of the minute volume of the transdermally extracted ISF which scatters on the skin surface. Human skin's low permeability to glucose and its varying permeability exemplify the crucial need to make precise ISF volume measurements in order to calculate blood glucose concentrations accurately. In this paper, we present a novel time-of-flight flow sensor consisting of four electrode pairs fabricated directly into the channel of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device designed to accurately measure the volume of transdermally extracted ISF. As fluid traverses the channel, it bridges each electrode pair and changes its resistance. By measuring the time difference in resistance change between each electrode pair, a precise fluid volume can be measured. In order to verify the suitability of the sensor for biological applications, experiments were conducted using a normal saline solution which is similar to ISF. The stability of the sensor was tested using a fixed volume, and the coefficient of variation for 20 tests was determined to be 0.0041. The consistency of the sensor for varied volume measurements was shown by the high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9992) between the tested volume and the volume measured by a commercial micro syringe. The excellent functionality of the flow sensor can be extended toward the measurement of conductive chemical and biochemical buffers and reagents.

  3. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  4. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J. [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States); Kennedy, M. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc., Townsend, WA (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gall, J. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, Madison, WI (United States); Yan, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhou, X. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  5. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  6. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Volume 1, Appendix F, Nevada Test Site and Oak Ridge Reservation Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This volume addresses the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at two US Department of Energy sites, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These sites are being considered to provide a reasonable range of alternative settings at which future SNF management activities could be conducted. These locations are not currently involved in management of large quantities of SNF; NTS has none, and ORR has only small quantities. But NTS and ORR do offer experience and infrastructure for the handling, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and they do exemplify a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. This broad spectrum of environmental parameters will provide, a perspective on whether and how such location attributes may relate to potential environmental impacts. Consideration of these two sites will permit a programmatic decision to be based upon an assessment of the feasible options without bias, to the current storage sites. This volume is divided into four parts. Part One is the volume introduction. Part Two contains chapters one through five for the NTS, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Three contains chapters one through five for the ORR, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Four is summary information including the list of preparers, organizations contacted, acronyms, and abbreviations for both the NTS and the ORR. A Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables are included in parts Two, Three, and Four. This approach permitted the inclusion of both sites in one volume while maintaining consistent chapter numbering.

  7. Association of levels of serum inhibin b and follicle-stimulating hormone with testicular vascularity, volume, and echotexture in children with undescended testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Chinya

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings hint to the fact that palpable UDT forms a homogenous group, whether unilateral or bilateral, whereas impalpable testes may form a separate category and need further studies to substantiate this hypothesis.

  8. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 9: PEP design, development and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A plan for the production of two PEP flight systems is defined. The task's milestones are described. Provisions for the development and assembly of new ground support equipment required for both testing and launch operations are included.

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association (22nd) held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 27-31 October 1980. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    processes for the coordinated application of five human resources technolgies . AFHRL- TR-78-6 (II). Brooks AFB, TX: US Air Force Systems Command, March 1978...an ap- plicant to an Armed Forces Entrance Examining Station (AFEES) or a Mobile Examining Test (MET) site for ASVAB testing. The CAST provides the...conceptual structure of radio and television repair persons (Moss, 1968; Smith, 1968) and for mobile radio communications repair persons (Pratzner, 1969

  10. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toprak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4 are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper.

    All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological

  11. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature

  12. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  13. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willits, M.H.; McCoy, R.L.; Dobson, R.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, located in the East Franklin area of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is the first successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Well-of-Opportunity program. The section tested was the MA-6 sand of lower Miocene age which has produced large quantities of gas from the adjacent but structurally separated Garden City field. In the subject well the observed temperature was 270{sup 0}F (132{sup 0}C) and the measured gradient was 0.77 psi/ft. The gross sand thickness was 270 feet, the net sand thickness 190 feet, and the tested interval 58 net feet. The temperatures and pressures encountered approached the limits of the surface-recording bottomhole pressure gauge and particularly the single-conductor cables on which the gauges were run. The objectives of the tests were all accomplished, and data were obtained which will contribute to the overall assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource of the Upper Gulf of Mexico basin. In general, the gas solubility (22.8 scf/bbl) was as expected for the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the brine. The produced water was more saline than expected (160,000 mg/l). The high concentrations of dissolved solids, coupled with the evolution of CO{sub 2} from these waters during production, created a scaling problem in the tubular goods and surface equipment that will have to be addressed in future tests.

  14. Flow Rate Calculation in the Auto Air Leakage Volume Test System Based on Constant Pressure Method%基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统流量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 赵鑫; 李振亮; 许玮

    2013-01-01

    An auto air leakage volume test system based on constant pressure method was designed. Using standard orifice plate as throttle device,after testing some original data such as the differential pressure between both sides of the throttle device,temperature of the dry-bulb and the wet-bulb,and so on,the auto air leakage volume can be calculated. The formulas and methods involved were demonstrated in detail and the experiment was designed based on an analysis of the measurement theory. According to the result of the experiment,this method proved stable and reliable and can satisfy the requirement of the measurement.%  设计了基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统。采用标准孔板作为节流件,通过测量节流件上下游的压力差、干球温度和湿球温度等基础数据,经过计算可得到整车漏风量。在分析测量原理的基础上,详细给出了计算漏风量的公式和方法,并进行了实验。实验结果表明,该计算方法稳定可靠,可满足测量要求。

  15. Experimental investigation of shock-cell noise reduction for dual-stream nozzles in simulated flight comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Hoerst, D. J.; Price, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters which contribute to supersonic jet shock noise were investigated for the purpose of determining means to reduce such noise generation to acceptable levels. Six dual-stream test nozzles with varying flow passage and plug closure designs were evaluated under simulated flight conditions in an anechoic chamber. All nozzles had combined convergent-divergent or convergent flow passages. Acoustic behavior as a function of nozzle flow passage geometry was measured. The acoustic data consist primarily of 1/3 octave band sound pressure levels and overall sound pressure levels. Detailed schematics and geometric characteristics of the six scale model nozzle configurations and acoustic test point definitions are presented. Tabulation of aerodynamic test conditions and a computer listing of the measured acoustic data are displayed.

  16. Monopropellant engine investigation for space shuttle reaction control. Volume 2: Design, fabrication, and demonstration test of a catalytic gas generator for the space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The capability of a catalytic gas generator to meet the requirement specified for the space shuttle APU is established. A full-scale gas generator, designed to operate at a chamber pressure of 750 psia and a flow rate of 0.36 lbm/sec, was fabricated and subjected to three separate life test series. The nickel foam metal used for catalyst retention was investigated. Inspection of the foam metal following the first life test revealed significant degradation. Consequently an investigation was conducted to determine the mechanism of degradation and to provide an improved foam metal.

  17. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  18. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  19. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  20. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  1. Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Guidance Test Symposium Held at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 7-9 October, 1981. Volume I,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    path interferometer ( LUPI ), which was used to evaluate cultural noise transients. Seismic Characterization All of the seismic measurements were made...10 3 LUPI TEST CONFIGURATION 4 10 q - ŚX6 I BEAM ---- ARDEL MIRROR MOLINT 6 IN SPHER MIRROR "MIRROR ENCLOSURE AIRBEARING CAGED FLOOR EXTENSIONS

  2. Final technical report: SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume D. Electrostatic precipitator mass train and operating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) is one of the viable replacement fuels for No. 6 fuel oil in industrial and utility boilers. The Department of Energy funded the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) to develop and to demonstrate the use of SRC as a practical fuel. Phase II of the project was to burn the SRC fuels in a 700 hp package boiler and to collect emission data from which air pollution control devices could be specified. Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc., APC Division was contracted by ICRC to supply and operate a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Mass emission testing was performed by WFI Sciences. Particle size tests, particle resistivity, SO/sub x/ measurements, and particulate counting tests were conducted by Southern Research Institute (SoRI). This report is a source document covering the ESP operating data and mass emission data. The data obtained by SoRI is used by SoRI in their computer model to specify full scale design criteria. The testing was performed with four fuel types; No. 6 fuel oil, SRC fuel, SRC residual fuel oil, and SRC-water slurry. All fuels were precipitated quite easily resulting in emission rates below the NSPS standards.

  3. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  4. Investigation of difficult component effects on finite element model vibration prediction for the Bell AH-1G helicopter. Volume 1: Ground vibration test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompka, R. V.

    1989-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS) program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Previous correlations of the AH-1G showed good agreement between NASTRAN and tests through 15 to 20 Hz, but poor agreement in the higher frequency range of 20 to 30 Hz. Thus, this effort emphasized the higher frequency airframe vibration response correlations and identified areas that need further R and T work. To conduct the investigations, selected difficult components (main rotor pylon, secondary structure, nonstructural doors/panels, landing gear, engine, fuel, etc.) were systematically removed to quantify their effects on overall vibratory response of the airframe. The entire effort was planned and documented, and the results reviewed by NASA and industry experts in order to ensure scientific control of the testing, analysis, and correlation exercise. In particular, secondary structure and damping had significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. Also, the nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomer mounts were significant on the low frequency pylon modes below main rotor 1p (5.4 Hz). The results of the ground vibration testing are presented.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association (23rd) held at Arlington, Virginia, on 25-30 October 1981. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Management Admissions Test ( GMAT ) plays an important role in the admissions decisions made at many graduate management schools. A candidate’s GMAT score is... GMAT scores and undergraduate grade point average (UGPA). The proposed system explicitly employs race as a predictor. Although there are no statistical

  6. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  7. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  8. Considerations concerning the use of mental tests in the quantification of the psychic biological damage - Considerations sur l’utilisation des tests mentaux pour quantifier le dommage biologique de nature psychique - Considerazioni in merito all’uso dei test mentali nella quantificazione del danno biologico di natura psichica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimino L.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors, though remarking the centrality of the structured interview and the examination of the mental conditions for the evaluation of the psychic biological damage, underline also the importance, in the course of an accurate psychodiagnostic test, of the mental tests as useful means for the quantification of the damage itself, although one should know their peculiarities and limits.Les auteurs, même s’ils mettent en évidence l’importance prépondérante du colloque structuré et de l’examen des conditions mentales pour l’évaluation du dommage biologique de nature psychique, soulignent aussi l’importance des tests mentaux pour un examen psychodiagnostic correct. Les tests mentaux servent de support utile pour quantifier le dommage, à condition de connaître leur particularités et limites. Gli autori, pur rimarcando la centralità del colloquio strutturato e dell’esame delle condizioni mentali per la valutazione del danno biologico di natura psichica, sottolineano altresì l’importanza, all’interno di un corretto esame psicodiagnostico, dei test mentali quale utile supporto per la quantificazione del danno stesso, a condizione di conoscerne peculiarità e limiti.

  9. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  10. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  11. Determinação da segurança biológica do xampu de cetoconazol: teste de irritação ocular e avaliação do potencial de citotoxicidade in vitro Determination of the biological reactivity of ketoconazole in shampoo: draize eye test and cytotoxity test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara Staub

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cetoconazol é um agente antifúngico, que pode ser incorporado em diferentes formas farmacêuticas, como, por exemplo, xampus e cremes. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a segurança biológica in vivo (teste de irritação ocular e in vitro (teste de citotoxicidade do xampu de cetoconazol degradado sob ação da luz. Para tanto, a formulação foi exposta à radiação UV-C (254 nm e foram empregados dois métodos para a determinação quantitativa do cetoconazol: CLAE e ensaio microbiológico. Os resultados demonstraram alteração do cetoconazol em presença da luz - presença de picos secundários no cromatograma e diminuição da atividade antifúngica - entretanto, não demonstraram alteração na segurança biológica entre xampu de cetoconazol e xampu de cetoconazol contendo produtos de degradação.Ketoconazole is an antifungal agent and can be incorporated into several dosage forms, as an example it could be mentioned shampoos and creams. The aim of this work was to assess the biological reactivity in vivo (Draize eye test and in vitro (cytotoxity test of ketoconazole in shampoo degradeted under action of light. The formulation was exposed to UV-C (254 nm radiation and two methods were used for the quantitative determination of ketoconazole: HPLC and microbiological assay. The results showed alteration in ketoconazole in presence of light - secondary peaks in chromatogram and decrease in antifungal activity - however, no alteration on the biological reactivity between ketoconazole shampoo and ketoconazole shampoo containing degradation products was observed.

  12. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Volume 1, Coating development and tribological testing: Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, M.G.S. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ``ring`` samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased ``soot sensitivity`` is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  13. Acid test of joint technical and biological measures in slope stabilisation - Impact analysis of the heavy rainstorm event in August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, F.; Böll, A.

    2009-04-01

    The persisting and heavy rainstorms from 20th to 22nd August in 2005 resulted in loss of human lives and tremendous damage on infrastructure all over Switzerland. Many of the measures taken hitherto to protect against such natural hazards were stressed to their limits or even beyond due to water saturation of the soils and extreme discharges of the torrents. This particular configuration offered the possibility to investigate the reliability of technical and biological measures taken within the scope of slope stabilisation, torrent and gully control. In the context of a joint project the ancient sliding area "Schwandrübi" in Dallenwil (Switzerland) providing joint technical and biological measures was chosen to address aspects concerning the reliability of technical supporting structures, the development of biological measures in the course of time and their performance under the extreme impact as well as the effects of biological measures on the stability of slopes. During 1981 and 1982 joint technical and biological measures had been taken on a large scale with minor follow-ups shortly after to stabilise the "Schwandrübi". The underlying strategy was based on several pilot surveys as thorough soil analysis, e.g. grain size distribution and determination of the angle of internal friction (Φ') related to the porosity (n) and the dry unit weight (γ), respectively. Basically, the spatial arrangement of the gabions was in accordance with the theoretical guidelines. However, based on the angle of internal friction (Φ') determined on the loose moraine soil material, it was not possible to meet the soil mechanical criterion of inclination between the constructions in all cases. Regardless of the extreme impact during the rainstorm (~100-year event), no serious damage occurred neither on the roughly 25-year old gabions nor on the torrent control structures. The recalculated peak discharge in the outlet channel was ~60 m3s-1 superimposed by high bed load

  14. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides (4th), Held in Las Vegas, Nevada on 30 November-4 December 1986 (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Volume 225),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    new generation of peptides which should have enormous potential in biological, therapeutic and basic applications. This anticipated explosion has...137:3002, 1986. Landais, D., Waltzinger, C., Beck, B.N., Staub , A., mcKean, D.J., Benoist, C. and Mathis, D.: Functional sites on Ia molecules: A

  15. Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration: NbTi magnet system. Design and analysis summary. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heathman, J.H.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the designs and analyses produced by General Dynamics Convair for the four Axicell magnets (A1 and A20, east and west), the four Transition magnets (T1 and T2, east and west), and the twelve Solenoid magnets (S1 through S6, east and west). Over four million drawings and specifications, in addition to detailed stress analysis, thermal analysis, electrical, instrumentation, and verification test reports were produced as part of the MFTF-B design effort. Significant aspects of the designs, as well as key analysis results, are summarized in this report. In addition, drawing trees and lists off detailed analysis and test reports included in this report define the locations of the detailed design and analysis data.

  16. Impact-Echo for the evaluation of concrete structures, In : Non-destructive evaluation of reinforced concrete structures, Volume 2: Non-destructive testing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Odile; Popovics, John

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact echo non-destructive test method. After a summary of the history of the development of the method, the basic physical phenomena underlying the method are presented. Then data analysis approaches and signal processing techniques, including time and frequency domain processing, are described. A description of the needed equipment and classical measurement configurations are reviewed. Finally classical applications of the impact echo method are summarized.

  17. Test and Evaluation of Field-Deployable Infectious Disease Diagnostic Assays in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnosis System (JBAIDS): Malaria (Plasmodium/JBAIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Disease Diagnostic Assays in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnosis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER (JBAIDS): Malaria ( Plasmodium ...Texas (MOA 2007-2012 Agreement No.: DODI 4000.19· AFI 25-201). 14.ABSTRACT A Plasmodium genus dual-fluorogenic, hydrolysis probe (TaqMan) polymerase...chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed using real-time PCR instrumentation (MiniOpticon Real-Time PCR System, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The Plasmodium

  18. Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mollock, J. [Devon Energy Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Produced water is wastewater that is brought to the surface from natural gas wells during natural gas production. Its constituents, mostly salt, with traces of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are a significant disposal problem. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in partnership with the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed a low-cost, low-tech method, in which green plants are used to reduce the volume of produced water. The authors have designed an engineered bioreactor system, which is modeled after natural saline wetland ecosystems. The plant bioreactor system maximizes plant evapotranspiration to reduce wastewater volume and, concurrently, may function as a biological filter to enhance contaminant degradation and immobilization in the root/rhizosphere zone. Halophyte plant species having high salt tolerance and high transpiration rates were selected after they tested them in greenhouse experiments. Models obtained by using their greenhouse findings reduced the volume of the wastewater (up to 6% salt) by 75% in about 8 days. A field demonstration of the bioreactor, designed on the basis of the results from the greenhouse study, is successfully under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma. The process could offer the petroleum industry a low-cost biological alternative to existing expensive options.

  19. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  20. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  1. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  2. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the first part of the proceeding of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. Part 1, this volume, contains papers prepared by presenters of the sessions entitled Introduction, Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection, and Recognition by Antibodies, Antigen Recognition by T cells. (DT)

  3. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  4. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  5. Structural Biology: Practical NMR Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Quincy

    2005-01-01

    This textbook begins with an overview of NMR development and applications in biological systems. It describes recent developments in instrument hardware and methodology. Chapters highlight the scope and limitation of NMR methods. While detailed math and quantum mechanics dealing with NMR theory have been addressed in several well-known NMR volumes, chapter two of this volume illustrates the fundamental principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy in a more descriptive manner. Topics such as instrument setup, data acquisition, and data processing using a variety of offline software are discussed. Chapters further discuss several routine stategies for preparing samples, especially for macromolecules and complexes. The target market for such a volume includes researchers in the field of biochemistry, chemistry, structural biology and biophysics.

  6. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume B. DOE-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) combustion tests were conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Combustion and flue-gas treatment of three different physical forms of SRC, as well as a No. 6 fuel oil, were evaluated. The three SRC fuels were (1) pulverized SRC Fuel; (2) SRC Residual Fuel Oil; and (3) SRC/Water Slurry. The SRC Residual Fuel Oil was a solution of SRC Fuel dissolved in heated process solvent. Approximately 500 tons of pulverized SRC Fuel and 30,000 gallons of SRC Residual Fuel Oil were combusted in a 700 hp (30 x 130 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr fuel input) oil-designed watertube package boiler. Sixty four-hour ASME combustion tests with three different SRC fuels were successfully concluded. The principal parameters evaluated were excess air levels and combustion air preheat temperature levels. Extensive data were collected on flue-gas levels of O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, uncontrolled particulates, uncontrolled opacity and carbon content of the flue-gas particulates. Boiler and combustion efficiencies were measured. The particulates were characterized via mass loadings, impactors, in-situ resistivity measurements, ultra-fine sampling, optical large particle sampling, five-stage cyclone sampling and chemical analysis of various cut sizes. A three-field pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) containing over 1000 square feet of plate collection area, a reverse air fabric filter pilot dust collector and a commercial pulse-jet fabric filter dust collector were operated at high collection efficiency. The results will be valuable in making recommendations for future tests and will provide a basis for conversion of industrial oil-fired boilers to SRC fuels. 11 references, 20 figures, 29 tables.

  7. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study. Volume 1: Testbed program objectives and priorities, drive system and aircraft design studies, evaluation and recommendations and wind tunnel test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E. S.; Little, B. H.; Warnock, W.; Jenness, C. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Powell, C. W.; Shoaf, L.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of propfan technology readiness was determined and candidate drive systems for propfan application were identified. Candidate testbed aircraft were investigated for testbed aircraft suitability and four aircraft selected as possible propfan testbed vehicles. An evaluation of the four candidates was performed and the Boeing KC-135A and the Gulfstream American Gulfstream II recommended as the most suitable aircraft for test application. Conceptual designs of the two recommended aircraft were performed and cost and schedule data for the entire testbed program were generated. The program total cost was estimated and a wind tunnel program cost and schedule is generated in support of the testbed program.

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association (27th) Held in San Diego, California on 21-25 October 1985. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-25

    missiles; the other SHORAD weapons are the man-portable Redeye and Stinger missile systems, and the Vulcan vehicle-msunted gun system (FM 44-1, 1976). All...Chaparral / Vulcan . Washington, D.C. Headquarters, Departrnt of the Army (1984, Novenber 2). FM 44-4, Operations and training, Chaparral. Washington, D.C...c,tve Test Cevelonnpert The finalized tesi design specification is produced on-site via a word process;ng compLterized process, and is reviewed by

  9. Developmental Testing of Liquid and Gaseous/Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military Relevant Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    for Testing and Materials ATCC® American Type Culture Collection B. Bacillus Ba B. anthracis BAP blood agar plate Bc B. cereus BCA...following contaminants: Bacillus (B.) subtilis (Bg), B. anthracis (Ba), Pantoea (P.) agglomerans (Pa), and Vaccinia virus [Paragraphs 1.2.f(1) through (4...Btk) and B. cereus (Bc) may be used with these test procedures. The strain used and results must be fully documented in the test report. (2

  10. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  11. Biological scaling and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  12. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    example of biological design. We investigated the architecture of A. simplex and found that an advanced hierarchical biomineralized structure acts as the interface between soft musculature and a stiff substrate, thus securing underwater attachment. In bone, the mechanical properties of the material......, and the nanoscale response of bone in compression. Lastly, a framework for the investigation of biological design principles has been developed. The framework combines parametric modeling, multi-material 3D-printing, and direct mechanical testing to efficiently screen large parameter spaces of biological design. We......Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...

  13. Cold spring harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    For many decades, it has been clear that cells have a multitude of ways of sensing their environment and converting a plethora of external signals into measured intracellular responses. Now we realize that many first messengers do not act directly through second messengers, but instead work at the genetic level by binding to cytoplasmically located receptors, which can then bind to DNA and turn on or off the functioning of specific genes. Today, we refer to the way that external signals are passed through various cellular components as signal transduction processes, with receptors and their associated molecules known as biological transducers. Because most transducer molecules are present in very limited amounts, their study at the biochemical level until recently was at best difficult, and hypothesis as to how they functioned were almost impossible to test rigorously. Today, recombinant DNA techniques have dramatically changed the picture. Even very rare receptors are now open to analyses if their respective genes can be cloned, and virtually every month, the amino acid sequence of a new key biological transducer is established. The time was thus appropriate last June to hold a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction. The final program consisted of 119 speakers, who spoke before an audience of 439, the largest ever yet to attend a Cold spring Harbor Symposium. This volume contains 61 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  14. Cold spring harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    For many decades, it has been clear that cells have a multitude of ways of sensing their environment and converting a plethora of external signals into measured intracellular responses. Now we realize that many first messengers do not act directly through second messengers, but instead work at the genetic level by binding to cytoplasmically located receptors, which can then bind to DNA and turn on or off the functioning of specific genes. Today, we refer to the way that external signals are passed through various cellular components as signal transduction processes, with receptors and their associated molecules known as biological transducers. Because most transducer molecules are present in very limited amounts, their study at the biochemical level until recently was at best difficult, and hypotheses as to how they functioned were almost impossible to test rigorously. Today, recombinant DNA techniques have dramatically changed the picture. Even very rare receptors are now open to analysis if their respective genes can be cloned, and virtually every month the amino acid sequence of a new key biological transducer is established. The time was thus appropriate last June to hold a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction. The final program consisted of 119 speakers, who spoke before an audience of 439, the largest ever yet to attend a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium. This volume contains 54 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  15. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 3: Experimental System Descriptions. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system consists of five subsystems: the collector, power conversion, energy transport, energy storage, and the plant control subsystem. The collector subsystem consists of concentrator, receiver, and tower assemblies. The energy transport subsystem uses a mixture of salts with a low melting temperature to transport thermal energy. A steam generator drives a steam Rankine cycle turbine which drives an electrical generator to produce electricity. Thermal and stress analysis tests are performed on each subsystem in order to determine the operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics.

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  17. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Magnetic field testing of the TR07 Maglev vehicle and system. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Fred; Robertson, David; Steiner, George

    1992-04-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating current (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Appendices include catalogs and documents detailing magnetic field data files and their specifics (static fields, spectral waveforms, and temporal and spatial information) by location.

  18. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Magnetic field testing of the TR07 Maglev vehicle and system. Volume 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Fred; Feero, William E.

    1992-04-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic field (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposure to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Analysis summarizes the experimental findings and compares results to common home, work, and power lines emissions for selected spectral bands.

  19. Investigation and performance tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with double sensitive volume for measuring diagnostic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, B.; Zamani Zeinali, H.; Soltani, J.; Negarestani, A.; Shahvar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical diagnostic equipment, like diagnostic radiology and mammography require a dosimeter with high accuracy for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are suitable instruments for dosimetry of diagnostic-range X-ray beams because of their appropriate response and high reliability. This work introduces the design and fabrication of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick) and a graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm3 dense). This design improves upon the response characteristics of existing designs through the specific choice of materials as well as the appropriate size and arrangement of the ionization chamber components. The results of performance tests conducted at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in Karaj-Iran demonstrated the short and long-term stability, the low leakage current, the low directional dependence, and the high ion collection efficiency of the design. Furthermore, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the low effect of central electrode on this new ionization chamber response. The response characteristics of the parallel plate ionization chamber presented in this work makes the instrument suitable for use as a standard dosimeter in laboratories.

  20. Investigation and performance tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with double sensitive volume for measuring diagnostic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, B., E-mail: babak_sharifi88@yahoo.com [Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani Zeinali, H. [Application of Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, J.; Negarestani, A. [Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvar, A. [Application of Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-11

    Medical diagnostic equipment, like diagnostic radiology and mammography require a dosimeter with high accuracy for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are suitable instruments for dosimetry of diagnostic-range X-ray beams because of their appropriate response and high reliability. This work introduces the design and fabrication of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick) and a graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm{sup 3} dense). This design improves upon the response characteristics of existing designs through the specific choice of materials as well as the appropriate size and arrangement of the ionization chamber components. The results of performance tests conducted at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in Karaj-Iran demonstrated the short and long-term stability, the low leakage current, the low directional dependence, and the high ion collection efficiency of the design. Furthermore, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the low effect of central electrode on this new ionization chamber response. The response characteristics of the parallel plate ionization chamber presented in this work makes the instrument suitable for use as a standard dosimeter in laboratories.

  1. Blunted autonomic response to volume expansion in formerly preeclamptic women with low plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, I.; Courtar, D.A.; Janssen, B.J.; Aardenburg, R.; Peeters, L.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women reflects reduced venous storage capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared circulatory and autonomic responses to acute volume loading between women with low and those with normal plasma volume. METHODS:

  2. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Grassi, G. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  3. Optimization of the biological process using flat membrane bioreactors. Maximum treatment performance with minimum reactor volume; Optimizacion del proceso biologico con BRM de membrana plana. Maximo rendimiento de depuracion con minimo volumen de reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluch Vallmithana, S.; Lopez Gavin, A.

    2006-07-01

    In a conventional activated sludge process, the membranes are inside the biological reactor where they drain the water through suction or a water column. This system can be operated with heavy loads and sludge of 12-14 g/l or more, and is not affected by problems of bulking or foaming. This makes it suitable for treating difficult industrial waste waters, providing treated water that is free of bacteria and viruses. Micro filtration membranes are flat without any rubbing between them. The membranes require infrequent chemical cleaning and do not need back washing. As no final sedimented is needed, the waste water treatment plant occupies less space. (Author)

  4. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  5. Characterization of L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots and application to test Cu(II) deficiency in biological samples from critically ill patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáez, Laura; Molina, Jorge; Florea, Daniela I.; Planells, Elena M. [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Cartuja, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Cabeza, M. Carmen [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Quintero, Bartolomé, E-mail: bqosso@ugr.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We examinate stability of L-cysteine capped CdTe QD. •Factors influence QD fluorescence response are controlled. •Application in copper deficiency analysis is made. •We report comparison with other techniques. -- Abstract: The catalytic activity of copper ion gives, from the physiological point of view, a central role in many biological processes. Variations in the composition and location of cellular copper have been addressed given their physiological and pathological consequences. In this paper L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots is used for the fluorimetric determination of Cu(II) in biological samples from healthy individuals and patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICU). An acceptable homogeneity in the CdTe QDs size has been obtained with an average value of 3 nm. No significant alterations in the spectral properties were observed for 2 months when stored in vacutainers at 6 °C and a concentration of approximately 2 μM. Data from oxidative stress markers such superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and DNA damage can be correlated with a Cu(II) deficiency for the ICU patients as measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Aqueous solutions 0.3 μM of L-cysteine capped CdTe QDs in MOPS buffer (6 mM, pH 7.4) used at 21 °C in the range 15–60 min after preparation of the sample for the measurements of fluorescence gives contents in Cu(II) for erythrocytes in good agreement with those obtained in FAAS and ICP-MS but the comparative ease of use makes the fluorimetric technique more suitable than the other two techniques for routine analysis.

  6. Family Housing Metering Test. A Test Program to Determine the Feasibility of Installing Utility Meters in Military Family Housing, Developing Energy Ceilings, and Operating a Penalty Billing System for Occupants Who Overconsume Energy. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    0026 RALW (30., M 1900)) IY, DDUlA( 1) 4002? IF( IY RIE. IMRE) GO TO 1050 00028 ICVE I 90029 Z CWLE I 00030 I-(DDUPI( 1) .EQ. UI’) ICqE z 90031 GO TO 9990...Govermnent Cost Above Energy Norm 12. This Is A Test. Do Not Pay. )Q MOCK UTILITY BILL Name John R. Smith Date of Current Reading 15 Feb 78 - Address 13

  7. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  8. 临床生化检验项目生物参考区间适用性验证探讨%Investigation of validation for biology reference interval of clinical biochemical testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂山; 杨有业; 温冬梅; 缪丽韶; 梁锦胜

    2008-01-01

    目的 对实验室现用生化检验部分项目的生物参考区间进行验证,确保其适用于本实验室,为临床提供准确的诊断依据.方法 参照NCCLS C28-A2推荐方法,先对实验室2台生化分析系统性能进行验证;无性别生物差异项目验证选择一组(20名)健康参考个体,有性别生物差异项目选取男、女两组(各20名),验证存在疑问项目,另外选取男、女两组健康参考个体.采集符合要求健康参考个体标本,按实验室标准化操作程序(SOP)文件要求进行规范检测,拜耳ADVIA 1650生化分析系统检测标本,分析实验结果情况.结果 经验证2台生化分析系统性能符合要求;参与验证的16个项目中,健康参考个体组检测结果:γ谷氨酰转移酶(GGT)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL.C)5%以上在现用的生物参考区间以外;总蛋白95%结果在现用的生物区间内;其余项目100%在现用的生物区间内.结论 本次验证的项目除GGT、HDL-C外,现用的生物参考区间适用于本实验室,可以继续使用;实验的验证具有科学的说服力,容易发现生物参考区间的偏离,建立完善的验证制度、程序,值得推广应用.%Objective To validate the biology reference interval of the Dartial biochemistry test items and provide accurate diagnosis basis for the clinic.Methods According to NCCLS C28-A2 recommendation method,two biochemistry analyzers'performance was validated.20 healthy persons for the asexual biological difference project and female group as well as male group (each group consist of 20 persons)for the sex biology difference project were recruited according to the laboratory SOP.If the validation had doubt,other two groups were need.The sera from these individuals were examined by the full-automatic ADVIA 1650 biochemistry analysis system.Results Two full-automatic ADVIA 1650 biochemistry analyzes conformed to the requirements.In 16 test items participating in this investigation.the analysis

  9. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  10. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  11. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  12. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  13. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  14. [Methylglyoxal--a test for impaired biological functions of exotrophy and endoecology, low glucose level in the cytosol and gluconeogenesis from fatty acids (a lecture)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, L F; Krylin, V A; Dmitriev, V A

    2010-03-01

    In philogenesis, due to the failure to store a great deal of carbohydrates in vivo as glycogen, all animal species began synthesizing from glucose palminitic fatty acid and depositing it as triglycerides. During biological dysfunction of exotrophy (long starvation, early postnatality, hibernation), cells also accomplish a reverse synthesis of glucose from fatty acids under aerobic conditions. Under physiological conditions, acetyl-CoA that is converted to malate and pyruvate in the glyoxalate cycle is a substrate of glyconeogenesis. Under pathological conditions of hypoxia and deficiency of macroerges, gluconeogenesis occurs without ATP consumption through the methylglyoxal pathway when used as a substrate of ketone bodies via the pathway: butyric acid (butyrate) --> beta-hydroxybutyrate --> acetoacetate --> acetone --> acetol --> methylglyoxal --> S-D-lactol-glutathione --> D-lactate --> pyruvate --> D-lactate. Under physiological conditions, this gluconeogenesis pathway does not function. We believe that with low glucose levels in the cell cytosole (glycopenia), under pathological conditions of hypoxia and due to failure to mitochondria to oxidize fatty acids, gene expression and gluconeogenesis occur through the methylglyoxal pathway. At the same time, the cytosol, intercellular environment, and plasma shows the elevated levels of methylglyoxal and D-lactate that it is converted to by the action of glyoxalases I and II. Under pathological conditions, glycopenia develops in starvation, diabetes, and metabolic acidosis, neoplasms, renal failure, and possibly, metabolic syndrome. The chemical interaction of methylglyoxal with the amino acid residues of lysine and arginine results in the denaturation of circulating and structurized proteins via carbonylation--glycosylation.

  15. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  16. Ancestral state reconstructions require biological evidence to test evolutionary hypotheses: A case study examining the evolution of reproductive mode in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Oliver W; Blackburn, Daniel G; Brandley, Matthew C; Van Dyke, James U; Whittington, Camilla M; Thompson, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    To understand evolutionary transformations it is necessary to identify the character states of extinct ancestors. Ancestral character state reconstruction is inherently difficult because it requires an accurate phylogeny, character state data, and a statistical model of transition rates and is fundamentally constrained by missing data such as extinct taxa. We argue that model based ancestral character state reconstruction should be used to generate hypotheses but should not be considered an analytical endpoint. Using the evolution of viviparity and reversals to oviparity in squamates as a case study, we show how anatomical, physiological, and ecological data can be used to evaluate hypotheses about evolutionary transitions. The evolution of squamate viviparity requires changes to the timing of reproductive events and the successive loss of features responsible for building an eggshell. A reversal to oviparity requires that those lost traits re-evolve. We argue that the re-evolution of oviparity is inherently more difficult than the reverse. We outline how the inviability of intermediate phenotypes might present physiological barriers to reversals from viviparity to oviparity. Finally, we show that ecological data supports an oviparous ancestral state for squamates and multiple transitions to viviparity. In summary, we conclude that the first squamates were oviparous, that frequent transitions to viviparity have occurred, and that reversals to oviparity in viviparous lineages either have not occurred or are exceedingly rare. As this evidence supports conclusions that differ from previous ancestral state reconstructions, our paper highlights the importance of incorporating biological evidence to evaluate model-generated hypotheses.

  17. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  18. Artful interfaces within biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W.C. Dunlop

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological materials have a wide range of mechanical properties matching their biological function. This is achieved via complex structural hierarchies, spanning many length scales, arising from the assembly of different sized building blocks during growth. The interfaces between these building blocks can increase resistance to fracture, join materials of different character, make them deform more easily and provide motility. While they represent only a tiny fraction of the overall volume, interfaces are essential for the integrity and function of the overall tissue. Understanding their construction principles, often based on specialized molecular assemblies, may change our current thinking about composite materials.

  19. Data collection system. Volume 1, Overview and operators manual; Volume 2, Maintenance manual; Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, R.B.; Bauder, M.E.; Boyer, W.B.; French, R.E.; Isidoro, R.J.; Kaestner, P.C.; Perkins, W.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Instrumentation Development Department was tasked by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) to record data on Tektronix RTD720 Digitizers on the HUNTERS TROPHY field test conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on September 18, 1992. This report contains a overview and description of the computer hardware and software that was used to acquire, reduce, and display the data. The document is divided into two volumes: an overview and operators manual (Volume 1) and a maintenance manual (Volume 2).

  20. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.