WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological standardization iabs

  1. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  2. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  3. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  4. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product

  5. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D. [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  6. Cell biology and EMF safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Living cells react defensively and start to synthesize stress proteins when exposed to potentially harmful stimuli. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are among the many different environmental stimuli that initiate stress protein synthesis. Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response.

  7. Palladium-silver chronology of IAB iron meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, K. J.; Schönbächler, M.; Benedix, G. K.; Rehkämper, M.; Andreasen, R.; Davies, C.

    2013-01-01

    The extinct 107Pd-107Ag decay system (half-life ˜6.5 Ma) is a useful chronometer to constrain the thermal evolution of the IAB parent body. To this end, Pd/Ag concentrations and the Ag isotope compositions of metals separated from 6 different IAB iron meteorites were determined. The samples show ɛ107Ag variations between +0.1 and +15.8 with 108Pd/109Ag ratios between 38 and 200. The data can be divided into two groups based on their petrology, each defining an isochron: a graphite and troilite rich inclusion bearing group (A), with the IAB meteorites Toluca, Odessa and Canyon Diablo and a more silicate rich group (B), which includes Campo Del Cielo, Caddo County and Goose Lake. Using the initial abundance of 107Pd derived from carbonaceous chondrites, the corresponding age for the group (A) is 18.7 (+3.6/-5.0) Ma after the start of the solar system and 14.9 (+2.5/-4.9) Ma for the group (B). This suggests that the last thermal event to reach high enough temperatures to melt metal on the IAB parent body occurred within the first 15 Ma of our solar system.

  8. The Drosophila microRNA iab-4 causes a dominant homeotic transformation of halteres to wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronshaugen, Matthew; Biemar, Frédéric; Piel, Jessica; Levine, Mike; Lai, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    The Drosophila Bithorax Complex encodes three well-characterized homeodomain proteins that direct segment identity, as well as several noncoding RNAs of unknown function. Here, we analyze the iab-4 locus, which produces the microRNAs iab-4-5p and iab-4-3p. iab-4 is analogous to miR-196 in vertebrate Hox clusters. Previous studies demonstrate that miR-196 interacts with the Hoxb8 3′ untranslated region. Evidence is presented that miR-iab-4-5p directly inhibits Ubx activity in vivo. Ectopic expression of mir-iab-4-5p attenuates endogenous Ubx protein accumulation and induces a classical homeotic mutant phenotype: the transformation of halteres into wings. These findings provide the first evidence for a noncoding homeotic gene and raise the possibility that other such genes occur within the Bithorax complex. We also discuss the regulation of mir-iab-4 expression during development. PMID:16357215

  9. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... HHS/CDC has reviewed and updated its fee schedule for reference biological standards and...

  10. Biology teachers' attitudes toward and use of Indiana's evolution standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lisa A.; Boone, William J.

    2007-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between biology teachers' evolution teaching practices and their regard and use of Indiana state evolution standards. A survey developed by the authors contained five subscales: use of standards; attitude toward standards; attitude toward evolution standards; evolution teaching practices; and demographic information. This survey was administered to 229 Indiana biology teachers. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model to convert Likert rating scale data into ratio data used for parametric analyses. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationships between use of standards and attitude toward standards, attitude toward standards and evolution teaching practices, and attitude toward evolution standards and days teaching evolution. These findings suggest practical relationships between standards use, teachers' regard of standards, and evolution teaching practices.

  11. Standardization, IPRs and open innovation in synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Wested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    (ICT) to biological standards? These and further legal issues related to IP, regulation, standardization, competition law & open innovation require a careful consideration of new user-generated models and solutions. Before this background this paper seeks to describe IP and standardization aspects...

  12. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Kormeier, Benjamin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar; Weise, Stephan

    2015-09-04

    Standards shape our everyday life. From nuts and bolts to electronic devices and technological processes, standardised products and processes are all around us. Standards have technological and economic benefits, such as making information exchange, production, and services more efficient. However, novel, innovative areas often either lack proper standards, or documents about standards in these areas are not available from a centralised platform or formal body (such as the International Standardisation Organisation). Systems and synthetic biology is a relatively novel area, and it is only in the last decade that the standardisation of data, information, and models related to systems and synthetic biology has become a community-wide effort. Several open standards have been established and are under continuous development as a community initiative. COMBINE, the ‘COmputational Modeling in BIology’ NEtwork has been established as an umbrella initiative to coordinate and promote the development of the various community standards and formats for computational models. There are yearly two meeting, HARMONY (Hackathons on Resources for Modeling in Biology), Hackathon-type meetings with a focus on development of the support for standards, and COMBINE forums, workshop-style events with oral presentations, discussion, poster, and breakout sessions for further developing the standards. For more information see http://co.mbine.org/. So far the different standards were published and made accessible through the standards’ web- pages or preprint services. The aim of this special issue is to provide a single, easily accessible and citable platform for the publication of standards in systems and synthetic biology. This special issue is intended to serve as a central access point to standards and related initiatives in systems and synthetic biology, it will be published annually to provide an opportunity for standard development groups to communicate updated specifications.

  13. Prospects and problems for standardizing model validation in systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Fridolin; MacLeod, Miles Alexander James

    2017-01-01

    There are currently no widely shared criteria by which to assess the validity of computational models in systems biology. Here we discuss the feasibility and desirability of implementing validation standards for modeling. Having such a standard would facilitate journal review, interdisciplinary coll

  14. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology

    KAUST Repository

    Myers, Chris J.

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications.

  15. Toward the First Data Acquisition Standard in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Bultelle, Matthieu; Kitney, Richard I

    2016-08-19

    This paper describes the development of a new data acquisition standard for synthetic biology. This comprises the creation of a methodology that is designed to capture all the data, metadata, and protocol information associated with biopart characterization experiments. The new standard, called DICOM-SB, is based on the highly successful Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard in medicine. A data model is described which has been specifically developed for synthetic biology. The model is a modular, extensible data model for the experimental process, which can optimize data storage for large amounts of data. DICOM-SB also includes services orientated toward the automatic exchange of data and information between modalities and repositories. DICOM-SB has been developed in the context of systematic design in synthetic biology, which is based on the engineering principles of modularity, standardization, and characterization. The systematic design approach utilizes the design, build, test, and learn design cycle paradigm. DICOM-SB has been designed to be compatible with and complementary to other standards in synthetic biology, including SBOL. In this regard, the software provides effective interoperability. The new standard has been tested by experiments and data exchange between Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and Imperial College London.

  16. Sustainable model building the role of standards and biological semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Falko; Schulz, Marvin; Swainston, Neil; Liebermeister, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology models can be reused within new simulation scenarios, as parts of more complex models or as sources of biochemical knowledge. Reusability does not come by itself but has to be ensured while creating a model. Most important, models should be designed to remain valid in different contexts-for example, for different experimental conditions-and be published in a standardized and well-documented form. Creating reusable models is worthwhile, but it requires some efforts when a model is developed, implemented, documented, and published. Minimum requirements for published systems biology models have been formulated by the MIRIAM initiative. Main criteria are completeness of information and documentation, availability of machine-readable models in standard formats, and semantic annotations connecting the model elements with entries in biological Web resources. In this chapter, we discuss the assumptions behind bottom-up modeling; present important standards like MIRIAM, the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), and the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN); and describe software tools and services for handling semantic annotations. Finally, we show how standards can facilitate the construction of large metabolic network models.

  17. Standards, Data Exchange and Intellectual Property Rights in Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in Systems Biology resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought...... assets to be formatted and described in standard ways to enable exchange and reuse of high quality data. This allows a more effective utilisation of the enormous potential that rests in “big data” analysis. Finally, SysBio is often closely linked to or provides the foundation for Synthetic Biology (Syn...

  18. Prospects and problems for standardizing model validation in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Fridolin; MacLeod, Miles

    2017-10-01

    There are currently no widely shared criteria by which to assess the validity of computational models in systems biology. Here we discuss the feasibility and desirability of implementing validation standards for modeling. Having such a standard would facilitate journal review, interdisciplinary collaboration, model exchange, and be especially relevant for applications close to medical practice. However, even though the production of predictively valid models is considered a central goal, in practice modeling in systems biology employs a variety of model structures and model-building practices. These serve a variety of purposes, many of which are heuristic and do not seem to require strict validation criteria and may even be restricted by them. Moreover, given the current situation in systems biology, implementing a validation standard would face serious technical obstacles mostly due to the quality of available empirical data. We advocate a cautious approach to standardization. However even though rigorous standardization seems premature at this point, raising the issue helps us develop better insights into the practices of systems biology and the technical problems modelers face validating models. Further it allows us to identify certain technical validation issues which hold regardless of modeling context and purpose. Informal guidelines could in fact play a role in the field by helping modelers handle these. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  20. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and...

  1. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Chris J; Beal, Jacob; Gorochowski, Thomas E; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Madsen, Curtis; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Mısırlı, Göksel; Nguyen, Tramy; Oberortner, Ernst; Samineni, Meher; Wipat, Anil; Zhang, Michael; Zundel, Zach

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry; Briski, Karen P.; Glass, Gary A.

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  3. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  4. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here w

  5. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies William

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  6. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi; Thies, William

    2010-11-08

    Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  7. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological... International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing... entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part...

  8. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of biological staining is to obtain specimens of biological material that can be assessed in the microscope. These specimens are influenced by all processes from removal from the intact organism to mounting on the microscopic slide. To achieve comparable results with various technique...

  9. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  10. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  11. Standardization and standards for dyes and stains used in biology and medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2007-01-01

    The reasons for standardization and the preparation of standards for dyes and stains are presented. The national, regional and international standardization agencies are described in detail prior to a consideration of why standards should be prepared for the field of biomedical staining. An outli...

  12. Standardization, IPRs and open innovation in synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Wested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    of this paper we do not aim to create thorough theories or to propose solutions in more detail. To achieve this modest goal, section 1 commences with a brief introduction to the fascinating science of SB and a description of recent technological advances and applications. This will lead us to section 2.......a. the following questions: How comparable is engineering in SB to more traditional fields of engineering?; What type of standards have emerged and what bearing have IPRs on these?; and, How applicable are the approaches adopted by the standards-setting organizations in the information and communication technology...

  13. Ohio High School Biology Teachers' Views of State Standard for Evolution: Impacts on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    High school biology teachers face many challenges as they teach evolution. State standards for evolution may provide support for sound evolution instruction. This study attempts to build upon previous work by investigating teachers' views of evolution standards and their evolution practices in a state where evolution standards have been…

  14. I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of the Toluca IAB Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A. P.; Petaev, M. I.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2008-03-01

    The I-Xe system in Toluca silicates seems to survive catastrophic impact and breakup of the IAB parent body. As a result of cooling at about 40 +/- 20 K/Ma, the I-Xe system in the high-Mg pyroxenes in Toluca nodules closed at about 4559.7 Ma, in low-Mg pyroxenes at 4553.6-4548.9 Ma.

  15. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  16. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects.

  17. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  18. National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" Was Officially Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ May 28 2004, sponsored by Standardization Administration of P.R. China ( SAC ) and Certification and Accreditation Administration of P.R. China (CNCA), China National Accreditation Board For Laboratories (CNAL) organized the press conference on National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" in Beijing.

  19. SEVA Linkers: A Versatile and Automatable DNA Backbone Exchange Standard for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Rennig, Maja

    2016-01-01

    DNA vectors serve to maintain and select recombinant DNA in cell factories, and as design complexity increases, there is a greater need for well-characterized parts and methods for their assembly. Standards in synthetic biology are top priority, but standardizing molecular cloning contrasts...... flexibility, and different researchers prefer and master different molecular technologies. Here, we describe a new, highly versatile and automatable standard “SEVA linkers” for vector exchange. SEVA linkers enable backbone swapping with 20 combinations of classical enzymatic restriction/ligation, Gibson...... to the synthetic biology community....

  20. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P; Bader, Gary D; Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE's aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models.

  1. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Prevalence and development of workplace health promotion in Germany: results of the IAB Establishment Panel 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, Alfons; Wießner, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Based on survey data from the IAB Establishment Panel, the investigation aims to examine the prevalence of workplace health promotion among German establishments and its determinants. The IAB Establishment Panel 2012 comprises interviews with 15,556 establishments of all sizes and industrial sectors in Germany. We first present some descriptive statistics and then analyse the determinants of the prevalence of workplace health promotion by means of a probit regression. In 2012, 27 % of the interviewed establishments reported providing workplace health promotion measures on a voluntary basis. 64 % of all employees do work in establishments with workplace health promotion. From 2002 to 2012, the share of establishments with workplace health promotion increased by 8 % points. The strongest increase was observed in establishments in Western Germany and establishments with work councils. Most popular among the measures of workplace health promotion are employee surveys and analysis of the sickness absence. The vast majority of establishments provide only single measures. The econometric analysis shows that industrial sector, size of establishment, expected problems with human resources and the existence of a work council are important factors for workplace health promotion. Only a minority of establishments are committed to workplace health promotion, while these establishments provide the majority of jobs in Germany. Our analysis displays considerable disparities in terms of prevalence as well as potential for further extensions. This could be taken more into account when discussing innovative approaches of workplace health promotion.

  3. Interpreting the I-Xe system in individual silicate grains from Toluca IAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Petaev, M.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed isotopic and mineralogical studies of silicate inclusions separated from a troilite nodule of the Toluca IAB iron meteorite reveal the presence of radiogenic 129Xe in chlorapatite, plagioclase, perryite, and pyroxene grains. Subsequent I-Xe studies of 32 neutron-irradiated pyroxene grains indicate that high-Mg and low-Mg pyroxenes have distinctive I-Xe signatures. The I-Xe system in high-Mg pyroxenes closed at 4560.5 ± 2.4 Ma, probably reflecting exsolution of silicates from the melt, while the low-Mg pyroxenes closed at 4552.0 ± 3.7 Ma, 8.5 Ma later, providing a means for determining the cooling rate at the time of exsolution. If the host Toluca graphite-troiliterich inclusion formed after the breakup and reassembly of the IAB parent body as has been suggested, the I-Xe ages of the high-Mg pyroxenes separated from this inclusions indicate that this catastrophic impact occurred not later than 4560.5 Ma, 6.7 Ma after formation of CAIs. The cooling rate at the time of silicates exsolution in Toluca is 14.5 ± 10.0 °C/Ma.

  4. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  5. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  6. GDP per capita and the biological standard of living in contemporary developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Drukker, J.W.; Slot, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates whether a divergence between the biological standard of living (commonly measured by some anthropometric indicator) and GDP per capita during the early phases of industrialization, as observed for many now-developed countries in the nineteenth century, can also be found for

  7. Internet XOD System Architecture IAB-XODS Based on Intelligent Agency%基于智能代理的互联网XOD体系结构IAB-XODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺梁; 顾君忠

    2000-01-01

    文章针对传统XOD(X on Demand例如Video on Demand Audio on Demand等)体系结构中存在的一系列问题进行了分析和研究,提出了适合在互联网络上进行点播应用的智能体系结构IAB-XODS(Intelligent Agent Based X on Demand Systm),在这个体系结构中,通过引入代理服务功能模块和智能决策功能模块,减少了在传统XOD系统中用户和管理员的参与度,提高了效率,同时加入了统一化的UA(User-Agent)界面及分布式系统构架的实现技术,使得该体系结构最有效地利用信息,将信息送到点播者的手中,从而解决了目前IP网上XOD系统无法满足人们需求的问题.

  8. Bioinformatics in high school biology curricula: a study of state science standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics content of each state's biology standards was analyzed and categorized into nine areas: Human Genome Project/genomics, forensics, evolution, classification, nucleotide variations, medicine, computer use, agriculture/food technology, and science technology and society/socioscientific issues. Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics-related content, which varied substantially across the different areas, with Human Genome Project/genomics and computer use being the lowest (8%), and evolution being the highest (64%) among states' science frameworks. This essay concludes with recommendations for reworking/rewording existing standards to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy among secondary school students.

  9. [Book review] Developments in biological standardization (Vol. 49): Fish Biologics: Seriodiagnostics and Vaccines, edited by W. Hennessen and D. P. Andersen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Review of: Developments in Biologicals, Vol. 49. Fish Biologics: Serodiagnostics and Vaccines. International Symposium, Leetown, W.Va., April 1981. Editor(s): Hennessen, W. (Bern); Andersen, D.P. (Leetown, W.Va.); Society/Societies: International Association of Biological Standardization, XII + 496 p., 90 fig., 110 tab., soft cover, 1981. ISBN: 978-3-8055-3471-0.

  10. Siderophile element systematics of IAB complex iron meteorites: New insights into the formation of an enigmatic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Siderophile trace element abundances and the 187Re-187Os isotopic systematics of the metal phases of 58 IAB complex iron meteorites were determined in order to investigate formation processes and how meteorites within chemical subgroups may be related. Close adherence of 187Re-187Os isotopic data of most IAB iron meteorites to a primordial isochron indicates that the siderophile elements of most members of the complex remained closed to elemental disturbance soon after formation. Minor, presumably late-stage open-system behavior, however, is observed in some members of the sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH subgroups. The new siderophile element abundance data are consistent with the findings of prior studies suggesting that the IAB subgroups cannot be related to one another by any known crystallization process. Equilibrium crystallization, coupled with crystal segregation, solid-liquid mixing, and subsequent fractional crystallization can account for the siderophile element variations among meteorites within the IAB main group (MG). The data for the sLM subgroup are consistent with equilibrium crystallization, combined with crystal segregation and mixing. By contrast, the limited fractionation of siderophile elements within the sLL subgroup is consistent with metal extraction from a chondritic source with little subsequent processing. The limited data for the other subgroups were insufficient to draw robust conclusions about crystallization processes involved in their formation. Collectively, multiple formational processes are represented in the IAB complex, and modeling results suggest that fractional crystallization within the MG may have been a more significant process than has been previously recognized.

  11. [Workplace health promotion among elderly employees in Germany. Results in the IAB establishment panel 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, Alfons

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the secondary analysis is the exploration of the prevalence and determinants of workplace health promotion among elderly employees. The Institute for Employment Research (IAB) establishment panel is an annual representative survey of employers. In 2011 a total of 13,378 establishments with at least 1 elderly employee (50 + years) participated in personal interviews. In 2011, 4 % of the establishments in Eastern and Western Germany included measures for workplace health promotion among employees aged 50 years and older, which were often associated with personnel measures among the elderly. The prevalence of workplace health promotion varies considerably among the sectors of industry and the Federal States and substantially increases with the size of the establishment. Establishments with a works council are disproportionally highly committed to workplace health promotion among the elderly employees. There is a large development potential for a better integration of workplace health promotion among elderly employees in personnel and enterprise strategies.

  12. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Characterizing cosmochemical materials with genetic affinities to the Earth: Genetic and chronological diversity within the IAB iron meteorite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    The IAB iron meteorite complex consists of a main group (MG) and five chemical subgroups (sLL, sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH). Here, mass-independent Mo and radiogenic 182W isotope compositions are reported for IAB complex meteorites to evaluate the genetics and chronology, respectively, of the MG and subgroups. Osmium isotopes are used to correct for cosmic ray exposure effects on isotopes of Mo and W. The MG and three subgroups (i.e., sLL, sLM, and sLH), characterized by low Au abundances, have the same Mo isotopic compositions within analytical uncertainty, consistent with a common genetic origin. These meteorites, together with winonaites, are the only cosmochemical materials yet identified with Mo isotopic compositions that are identical to Earth. The Mo isotopic compositions of two subgroups characterized by higher Au abundances (sHL and sHH) are identical to one another within uncertainty, but differ from the low Au subgroups, indicating derivation from genetically distinct materials. The MG has a 182W, post calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) formation model age of 3.4 ± 0.7 Ma. One of the low Au subgroups (sLM) is ∼1.7 Ma younger, whereas the high Au subgroups are ∼1.5-3 Ma older. The new Mo-W data, coupled with chemical data, indicate that the MG and the low Au subgroups formed in different impact-generated melts, some of which evidently formed on a chemically disparate, but genetically identical parent body. The high Au subgroups likely formed via core-formation processes on separate, internally-heated parent bodies from other IAB subgroups. The IAB complex meteorites fall on a linear trend defined by 94Mo/96Mo vs. 95Mo/96Mo, along with most other iron meteorite groups. Variation along this line was caused by mixing between at least two nebular components. One component was likely a pure s-process enriched nucleosynthetic carrier, and the other a homogenized nebular component. Sombrerete, currently classified as an sHL iron, has a Mo isotopic composition that

  14. Development of standard method performance requirements for biological threat agent detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Scott G; Brunelle, Sharon L; Davenport, Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    Standards and third-party testing are necessary to demonstrate the performance and limitations of biological threat agent (biothreat) detection technologies to allow appropriate response actions by end-users and responders. In order to address this need, the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate has funded AOAC INTERNATIONAL to develop standards and perform conformity assessment. AOAC formed the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays to develop consensus performance criteria (standard method performance requirements; SMPRs) for methods that detect biothreats. This paper documents the development of the first five biothreat SMPRs, including the voluntary consensus process, the components of an SMPR, the use of SMPRs in developing validation protocols, and a description of the development efforts and considerations for each of the current SMPRs.

  15. RECOGNITION AND VALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ASSETS IN TOURISM AREA. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the Financial Reporting Standards Board's international convergence and harmonization policy it is proposed that a new accounting regime will prescribe the financial reporting practice and minimum disclosure requirements for agricultural activities, including the fair value of biological assets. In any financial report, the inclusion of biological assets may confuse the reality of the income profit and the wealth profit. There are many reasons it may provide misleading figures, the most obvious would be because the entity may have reported the value of heritage properties that do not actually generate any income but rather they are properties, which actually generate expenses for the entity, for example in maintenance costs. For any regime that requires entities to account and report on biological assets there should be a clear classification system that takes into account the different types of ownership structures in a society. Therefore in Romania, it is important that any financial reporting regime on biological assets should provide for the difference between business assets and cultural assets.

  16. Microstructures, mineral chemistry, noble gases and nitrogen in the recent fall, Bhuka iron (IAB) meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. V. S.; Ranjith, P. M.; Ray, Dwijesh; Ghosh, S.; Chattopadhyay, Basab; Shrivastava, K. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report some chemical, petrological and isotopic studies of the Bhuka iron meteorite that fell in Rajasthan, India in 2005. Numerous silicate and graphite inclusions are visible on the surface of the hand specimen. In the polished and etched surface studied, irregular patches of graphite are found as the most dominant inclusion and commonly associated with pure corundum (95 wt% Al2O3), spinel, feldspar and Si-rich phases. Apart from typical lamellar intergrowth with kamacite (i.e. the Widmänstatten pattern), taenites are also commonly found to occur as a rim of the graphite inclusions. P-rich (up to 10 wt%) taenites are also found locally within the recrystallised kamacite matrix. Based on mineralogy, texture and bulk composition, Bhuka resembles the low-Ni IAB subgroup (ungrouped). Noble gas isotope studies suggest He, Ne and Ar are mostly of cosmogenic origin, while Kr and Xe are a mixture of cosmogenic, radiogenic and trapped components. A pre-atmospheric radius of 10±1 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 346±52 Ma are derived based on depth dependant (3He/4He)c and 38Arc respectively, as per the production systematics of cosmogenic noble gas isotopes (Ammon et al., 2009). Cosmogenic 83Kr and 126Xe yield production rates of 12 and 0.335 (in 10-15ccSTP/g Ma) for 83Kr and 126Xe respectively. Presence of trapped Kr and Xe, with (84Kr/132Xe)t=2 and radiogenic 129Xe=120×10-12 ccSTP/g are due to presence of graphite/silicate inclusions in the analysed sample. Over ~150% excess 131Xec than expected from spallation suggests contribution from (n,ɤ) reactions from Ba from inclusions and suggests irradiation of pre-atmospheric object in a larger body, indicative of complex irradiation. Trapped N of 24 ppm, with δ15N=-10.7±0.8‰ observed in Bhuka, is heavier than the range observed hither to in IAB irons.

  17. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its

  18. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) for standardized and reproducible statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Harris, Marcelline R; Masci, Anna Maria; Lin, Yu; Hero, Alfred; Smith, Barry; He, Yongqun

    2016-09-14

    of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) is a community-based open source ontology in the domain of biological and clinical statistics. OBCS is a timely ontology that represents statistics-related terms and their relations in a rigorous fashion, facilitates standard data analysis and integration, and supports reproducible biological and clinical research.

  19. Evaporation as an ageing procedure prior to wood preservative biological testing: when standardization needs metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood preservation laboratory of Cirad is accredited by COFRAC (French accreditation committee – accreditation No. 1-1686 for tests on (1 durability of wood and wood-based products; (2 protective efficacy of wood preservatives; (3 efficacy of termite control products. In order to test the efficacy of wood preservatives, non-durable wood blocks are treated using different product doses and exposed to the attack of xylophageous organisms (fungi, insects. To reproduce the ageing of treated wood blocks, some laboratory procedures are available. Amongst them, there is an evaporation procedure, reproducing the action of a warm air flow onto treated wood. This ageing step is very discriminant, as only the formulations fixing effectively the active ingredients will pass the biological test afterwards. This ageing by evaporation is described in the EN73 standard. Nevertheless, many points remain difficult to overcome. The tunnels used for the evaporation are all prototypes; as such equipment is not available currently on the market. So each laboratory has got its own tunnel device. Moreover the way to measure the temperature and speed of the air flow is very difficult to achieve considering the prescriptions of the EN73 standard. The EN73 standard is being revised by the European standardization group (CEN TC38 and despite the metrological aspects were crucial and inadequate in former version, they were not considered as they should. The wood preservation laboratory has forwarded remarks in order to supersede some points of the revision document in order to consider the metrological aspects. This is of main importance as the ageing procedure is commonly used prior to most of the biological test, and such tested products are put on the market based on the efficacy results.

  20. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  1. The biological standard of living in colonial Korea, 1910-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Jin; Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This paper uses human stature as a biological indicator of living standards in colonial Korea (1910-1945). We show that the average height of adult Koreans increased from the beginning to the end of Japanese rule from about 164 to 166 cm. Height increased slightly before 1910 and dramatically after 1945, but during occupation declined slightly for a few years, only to rise rapidly through the late 1920s, and then stagnated until liberation. This finding is corroborated by a similar study of the Taiwanese under Japanese rule. The deterioration in the growth rates of both peoples from about 1930 to 1945 may be due to the deterioration of living conditions in the two colonies, victims of Japan's economic depression of 1927 and then of austerity measures as Japan mobilized for war.

  2. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  3. Soluble MOG35-55/I-A(b) dimers ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by reducing encephalitogenic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yeli; Wang, Zhigang; Liang, Zhihui; Duan, Hongxia; Ouyang, Lichen; Yu, Qian; Xu, Zhe; Shen, Guanxin; Weng, Xiufang; Wu, Xiongwen

    2012-01-01

    The MOG35-55 peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in C57BL/6 mice is a useful animal model to explore therapeutic approaches to T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases because the dominant T-cell epitope(s) have been defined. It is rational that antigen-specific immunosuppression can be induced by using MHC-peptide complexes as specific TCR ligand(s) that interact with autoreactive T cells in the absence of co-stimulation. In this study, a soluble divalent MOG35-55/I-A(b) fusion protein (MOG35-55/I-A(b) dimer) was constructed to specifically target the autoreactive CD4+ T cells in the EAE mouse. Intraperitoneal administration of the MOG35-55/I-A(b) dimer significantly delayed and ameliorated EAE symptoms by reducing EAE-related inflammation in the mouse CNS and reducing encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs. We observed that dimer intervention at a concentration of 1.2 nM suppressed MOG35-55 peptide-specific 2D2 transgenic T cells (2D2 T cells) proliferation by over 90% after in vitro activation with MOG35-55 peptide. The mechanisms involved in this antigen-specific dimer-mediated suppression were found to be downregulated TCR-CD3 expression as well as upregulated expression of membrane-bound TGF-β (mTGF-β) and IL-10 suppressive cytokines by the autoreactive CD4+ T cells. Collectively, our data demonstrates that soluble divalent MHC class II molecules can abrogate pathogenic T cells in EAE. Furthermore, our data suggests that this strategy may provide an efficient and clinically useful option to treat autoimmune diseases.

  4. Soluble MOG35-55/I-Ab Dimers Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Reducing Encephalitogenic T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yeli; Wang, Zhigang; Liang, Zhihui; Duan, Hongxia; Ouyang, Lichen; Yu, Qian; Xu, Zhe; Shen, Guanxin; Weng, Xiufang; Wu, Xiongwen

    2012-01-01

    The MOG35-55 peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in C57BL/6 mice is a useful animal model to explore therapeutic approaches to T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases because the dominant T-cell epitope(s) have been defined. It is rational that antigen-specific immunosuppression can be induced by using MHC-peptide complexes as specific TCR ligand(s) that interact with autoreactive T cells in the absence of co-stimulation. In this study, a soluble divalent MOG35-55/I-Ab fusion protein (MOG35-55/I-Ab dimer) was constructed to specifically target the autoreactive CD4+ T cells in the EAE mouse. Intraperitoneal administration of the MOG35-55/I-Ab dimer significantly delayed and ameliorated EAE symptoms by reducing EAE-related inflammation in the mouse CNS and reducing encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs. We observed that dimer intervention at a concentration of 1.2 nM suppressed MOG35-55 peptide-specific 2D2 transgenic T cells (2D2 T cells) proliferation by over 90% after in vitro activation with MOG35-55 peptide. The mechanisms involved in this antigen-specific dimer-mediated suppression were found to be downregulated TCR-CD3 expression as well as upregulated expression of membrane-bound TGF-β (mTGF-β) and IL-10 suppressive cytokines by the autoreactive CD4+ T cells. Collectively, our data demonstrates that soluble divalent MHC class II molecules can abrogate pathogenic T cells in EAE. Furthermore, our data suggests that this strategy may provide an efficient and clinically useful option to treat autoimmune diseases. PMID:23077616

  5. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  6. The IAB Iron-Meteorite Complex: A Group, Five Subgroups, Numerous Grouplets, Closely Related, Mainly Formed by Crystal Segregation in Rapidly Cooling Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J. T.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data or iron meteorites that are members of group IAB or are closely related to this large group, and we have also reevaluated some of our earlier data for these irons. In the past it was not possible to distinguish IAB and IIICD irons on the basis of their positions on element-Ni diagrams. We now find that plotting, the new and revised data yields six sets of compact fields on element-Au diagrams, each set corresponding to a compositional group. The largest set includes the majority (approximately equal to 70) of irons previously designated IA: We christened this set the IAB main group. The remaining five sets we designate subgroups within the IAB complex. Three of these subgroups have Au contents similar to the main group, and form parallel trends in most element-Ni diagrams. The groups originally designated IIIC and IIID are two of these subgroups: they are now well resolved from each other and from the main group. The other low-Au subgroup has Ni contents just above the main group. Two other IAB subgroups have appreciably higher Au contents than the main group and show weaker compositional links to it. We have named these five subgroups on the basis of their Au and Ni contents. The three subgroups having Au contents similar to the main group are the low-Au (L) subgroups the two others the high-Au (H) subgroups. The Ni contents are designated high (H), medium (M), or low (L). Thus the old group IIID is now the sLH subgroup. the old group IIIC is the sLM subgroup. In addition, eight irons assigned to two grouplets plot between sLL and sLM on most element-Au diagrams. A large number (27) of related irons plot outside these compact fields but nonetheless appear to be sufficiently related to also be included in the IAB complex.

  7. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  8. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803 1983

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinlay, Alistair F

    1983-01-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical mode...

  9. Expanding biological data standards development processes for US IOOS: visual line transect observing community for mammal, bird, and turtle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornwall, M.; Gisiner, R.; Simmons, S. E.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Canonico, G.; Halpin, P.; Goldstein, P.; Fitch, R.; Weise, M.; Cyr, N.; Palka, D.; Price, J.; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has recently adopted standards for biological core variables in collaboration with the US Geological Survey/Ocean Biogeographic Information System (USGS/OBIS-USA) and other federal and non-federal partners. In this Community White Paper (CWP) we provide a process to bring into IOOS a rich new source of biological observing data, visual line transect surveys, and to establish quality data standards for visual line transect observations, an important source of at-sea bird, turtle and marine mammal observation data. The processes developed through this exercise will be useful for other similar biogeographic observing efforts, such as passive acoustic point and line transect observations, tagged animal data, and mark-recapture (photo-identification) methods. Furthermore, we suggest that the processes developed through this exercise will serve as a catalyst for broadening involvement by the larger marine biological data community within the goals and processes of IOOS.

  10. Evaluation of the Biological Shields of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Ghana Using MCNP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deatanyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective with radiation sources and facilities is the protection of both radiation workers and the general public. The biological shields of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI Ghana had been evaluated for a collimated isotropic cesium-137 source for calibration purpose using MCNP5 code. The dose rate at supervised areas ranged from 0.57 to 8.35 :Sv/h and 0.26 to 10.22 :Sv/h at control areas when the source was panoramic. When the source was collimated, the dose rate ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 :Sv/h at supervised areas and 0.23 to 8.88 :Sv/h at control areas for 22.2 GBq of the cesium-137 source. The scatter contribution from the surfaces of the walls and roofs were also accounted for. The scatter radiation in the room decreased to 400 :Sv/h when the source was first collimated and to 3.5 :Sv/h when the source was further collimated. These results agreed quite well with experimental measurement. To effectively protect the staff, a narrow beam of 1.2 cm diameter which was defined at 1.0 m by the total surface of the ISO slab phantom was recommended to reduce the dose rate to less than 1.5 :Sv/h outside the calibration bunker even when the current activity is doubled. It was concluded that the 4.7 cm diameter of the existing narrow beam should be decreased to 1.2 cm by further collimation of the beam.

  11. THE THYROID GLAND STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS DURING STANDARD THERAPY AND BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Akhunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the condition of the thyroid gland in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS during standard therapy and biologicaltherapy (infliximab.Subjects and methods. Twenty-six patients with AS were examined; some of them received biological therapy with infliximab, while the others took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The structuralunctional state of thyroid gland was evaluated in all patients. The effect of therapy was evaluated by the ASAS criteria. The efficiency of therapy was evaluated 24 weeks after therapy.Results. In 15.2 % of patients with AS were diagnosed thyroid gland disorders. The level of anti-thyroid antibodies, thyroid stimulating hormone (thyroid function were correlated with active AS (index BASDAI, and the level of anti-thyroid antibodies were correlated with Creactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the intensity of pain in the joints, number of swollen joints and inflamed enthesis.Therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is not provided significant effect on the structural and functional state of the thyroidgland, contributing to a downward trend in the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase. Treatment with Infliximab reduced the levels ofantibodies to thyroid peroxidase, thyroid stimulating hormone. This treatment was more effective in improving the structural and functionalstate of the thyroid gland.Conclusions. Against the background of the therapy in patients with AS is marked improvement in thyroid function, reduction of antithyroid antibodies, accompanied by a decrease in activity and improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters of AS.

  12. THE THYROID GLAND STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS DURING STANDARD THERAPY AND BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Akhunova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the condition of the thyroid gland in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS during standard therapy and biologicaltherapy (infliximab.Subjects and methods. Twenty-six patients with AS were examined; some of them received biological therapy with infliximab, while the others took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The structuralunctional state of thyroid gland was evaluated in all patients. The effect of therapy was evaluated by the ASAS criteria. The efficiency of therapy was evaluated 24 weeks after therapy.Results. In 15.2 % of patients with AS were diagnosed thyroid gland disorders. The level of anti-thyroid antibodies, thyroid stimulating hormone (thyroid function were correlated with active AS (index BASDAI, and the level of anti-thyroid antibodies were correlated with Creactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the intensity of pain in the joints, number of swollen joints and inflamed enthesis.Therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is not provided significant effect on the structural and functional state of the thyroidgland, contributing to a downward trend in the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase. Treatment with Infliximab reduced the levels ofantibodies to thyroid peroxidase, thyroid stimulating hormone. This treatment was more effective in improving the structural and functionalstate of the thyroid gland.Conclusions. Against the background of the therapy in patients with AS is marked improvement in thyroid function, reduction of antithyroid antibodies, accompanied by a decrease in activity and improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters of AS.

  13. Research development of biological data Standardization%生物数据标准化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操利超; 陈凤珍; 严志祥

    2015-01-01

    Vast amounts of biological data have been accumulated with the rapid development of bio⁃sequencing technology. Meanwhile, biological data resources are essential for biological research and application, the standardization of biological is very important and urgent in terms of ensuring data accuracy, availability and security. This paper reviews the research progress of biological data standards. At present, there are still many unsolved problems , such as incompatibility of relevant biological data semantic, varied data formats and uniform standards in biological data collection, processing, storage and sharing and so on. Although the standardization of biological data is at the beginning stage, relevant experts are trying to draft the standardization sheme. Finally, this paper discusses some topics in the future such as the terms of biological data, the collection, processing, exchange and storage of biological data resources, the construction of biological databases, the ethics of biological data. We hope it will provide a guide for the research of biological data standardization.%随着生物测序技术的快速发展,积累了海量的生物数据。生物数据资源作为生物分析研究及应用的核心和源头,为保证数据的正确性、可用性和安全性,对生物数据资源进行标准化的管理非常重要和迫切。本文综述了目前国内外生物数据标准化研制进展,目前国内外对生物数据缺少一个总体的规划,生物数据语义存在大量的不兼容性,数据格式多种多样,在生物数据收集、处理、存储和共享等方面缺乏统一的标准。国内外生物数据标准化处于起步阶段,但各国生物专家都在努力进行标准研制工作。文章最后从生物数据术语、生物数据资源收集、处理和交换、存储、生物数据库建设和生物数据伦理规范等方面出发,对标准研制工作进行一一探讨,期望能为生物数据标准制

  14. Monocular deprivation delays the dynamic changes of phosphorylated synapsin Ia/b at site-1 in contralateral visual cortex of juvenile mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Su, Qing; Xi, Ping; Han, Song; Li, Junfa

    2015-03-01

    Synapsins as a family of presynaptic terminal phosphoprotein participates in neuronal development, but their role in the synaptic plasticity of visual cortex is unclear. In this study, the impact of monocular deprivation (MD) on dynamic changes of isoform-specific protein expression and site 1 phosphorylation of synapsins in visual cortex of the postnatal mice were observed by using the technique of Western blot analysis. The results showed that the total (T-) protein levels of synapsins including the isoform of Ia/b, IIa/b and IIIa were about 21-26% of adult level in visual cortex of mice at postnatal 7 days (P7), and then the T-synapsin Ia/b and IIb could quickly reach adult level at P35. However, the T-synapsin IIa and IIIa increased more slowly (71-74% at P35), and then kept increasing in the visual cortex of mice at P60. Unlike to the changes of T-synapsins, the level of phosphorylated (P-) synapsin Ia/b (not IIa/b and IIIa) at site 1 increased with development to the highest level at P21, and then decreased rapidly to a low level in visual cortex of mice at P35-60. In addition, we found that the levels of P-synapsin Ia/b increased significantly in left visual cortex of P28 and P35 (not P21 and P42) mice with 1-week MD of right eye; and no significant changes of T-synapsins were observed in both left and right sides of visual cortex in P21-42 mice with MD treatment. These results suggested that the isoform-specific protein expression and site-1 phosphorylation of synapsins might play a different role in the synaptic plasticity of visual cortex, and MD delays the dynamic changes of phosphorylated synapsin Ia/b at site-1 in contralateral visual cortex of juvenile mice.

  15. American College Biology and Zoology Course Requirements: A de facto Standardized Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Frank; And Others

    Without a formal mechanism to produce consensus, American colleges generally have come to agree on what constitutes an appropriate set of course requirements for Biology and Zoology majors. This report describes a survey of American four-year colleges and universities offering biology and/or zoology degrees. Questionnaires were sent to 741 biology…

  16. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex (subtypes IAB and VI in humans from General Belgrano Island, Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cámara Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the detection of antibodies (immunoglobulin G for subtypes I and VI of VEE viruses complex (Togaviridae family in people from the General Belgrano island, Formosa province (Argentina. The prevalence of neutralizing (NT antibodies for subtype VI was from 30% to 70% and the prevalence of antibodies inhibitory of hemagglutination (HI was of 0% in the first and second inquiry respectively. For the subtype IAB the prevalence of NT antibodies was from 13% to 3.6%, similar to the prevalence total for both subtypes. HI antibodies were not detected in any inquiries for any subtype. It was observed that both subtypes circulate simultaneously, while subtype VI remains constant with some peaks, subtype I was found in low level.

  17. Genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses and circulation of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB strain during an interepizootic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gladys; Garzaro, Domingo J; Barrios, Miguel; Auguste, Albert J; Weaver, Scott C; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-07-01

    Several species of alphaviruses have been previously described in the Americas, some of which are associated with encephalitis and others are associated with arthralgia. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are endemic to Venezuela, with the former being responsible for major outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses isolated during two decades (1973-1999) of surveillance in northern Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of a VEEV subtype IAB strain 8 years after the last reported outbreak. Thirteen strains within two subclades of South American lineage III of EEEV were also found in Venezuela. Considerable genetic variability was observed among Venezuelan Una virus strains, which were widely distributed among the clades. The first Venezuelan Mayaro sequence was also characterized.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Venezuelan Alphaviruses and Circulation of a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Subtype IAB Strain During an Interepizootic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gladys; Garzaro, Domingo J.; Barrios, Miguel; Auguste, Albert J.; Weaver, Scott C.; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of alphaviruses have been previously described in the Americas, some of which are associated with encephalitis and others are associated with arthralgia. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are endemic to Venezuela, with the former being responsible for major outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses isolated during two decades (1973–1999) of surveillance in northern Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of a VEEV subtype IAB strain 8 years after the last reported outbreak. Thirteen strains within two subclades of South American lineage III of EEEV were also found in Venezuela. Considerable genetic variability was observed among Venezuelan Una virus strains, which were widely distributed among the clades. The first Venezuelan Mayaro sequence was also characterized. PMID:25940191

  19. Bottom-up engineering of biological systems through standard bricks: a modularity study on basic parts and devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modularity is a crucial issue in the engineering world, as it enables engineers to achieve predictable outcomes when different components are interconnected. Synthetic Biology aims to apply key concepts of engineering to design and construct new biological systems that exhibit a predictable behaviour. Even if physical and measurement standards have been recently proposed to facilitate the assembly and characterization of biological components, real modularity is still a major research issue. The success of the bottom-up approach strictly depends on the clear definition of the limits in which biological functions can be predictable. RESULTS: The modularity of transcription-based biological components has been investigated in several conditions. First, the activity of a set of promoters was quantified in Escherichia coli via different measurement systems (i.e., different plasmids, reporter genes, ribosome binding sites relative to an in vivo reference promoter. Second, promoter activity variation was measured when two independent gene expression cassettes were assembled in the same system. Third, the interchangeability of input modules (a set of constitutive promoters and two regulated promoters connected to a fixed output device (a logic inverter expressing GFP was evaluated. The three input modules provide tunable transcriptional signals that drive the output device. If modularity persists, identical transcriptional signals trigger identical GFP outputs. To verify this, all the input devices were individually characterized and then the input-output characteristic of the logic inverter was derived in the different configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Promoters activities (referred to a standard promoter can vary when they are measured via different reporter devices (up to 22%, when they are used within a two-expression-cassette system (up to 35% and when they drive another device in a functionally interconnected circuit (up to 44%. This paper

  20. Measuring the Outcome of At-Risk Students on Biology Standardized Tests When Using Different Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Dana

    Over the last two decades, online education has become a popular concept in universities as well as K-12 education. This generation of students has grown up using technology and has shown interest in incorporating technology into their learning. The idea of using technology in the classroom to enhance student learning and create higher achievement has become necessary for administrators, teachers, and policymakers. Although online education is a popular topic, there has been minimal research on the effectiveness of online and blended learning strategies compared to the student learning in a traditional K-12 classroom setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in standardized test scores from the Biology End of Course exam when at-risk students completed the course using three different educational models: online format, blended learning, and traditional face-to-face learning. Data was collected from over 1,000 students over a five year time period. Correlation analyzed data from standardized tests scores of eighth grade students was used to define students as "at-risk" for failing high school courses. The results indicated a high correlation between eighth grade standardized test scores and Biology End of Course exam scores. These students were deemed "at-risk" for failing high school courses. Standardized test scores were measured for the at-risk students when those students completed Biology in the different models of learning. Results indicated significant differences existed among the learning models. Students had the highest test scores when completing Biology in the traditional face-to-face model. Further evaluation of subgroup populations indicated statistical differences in learning models for African-American populations, female students, and for male students.

  1. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concnetrations in biological standard reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiner, J.L.; O'Connell, S.G.; Butt, C.M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants

  2. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  3. YeastFab: the design and construction of standard biological parts for metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yakun; Dong, Junkai; Zhou, Tong; Auxillos, Jamie; Li, Tianyi; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Lihui; Shen, Yue; Luo, Yisha; Zheng, Yijing; Lin, Jiwei; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Qingyu; Cai, Yizhi; Dai, Junbiao

    2015-07-27

    It is a routine task in metabolic engineering to introduce multicomponent pathways into a heterologous host for production of metabolites. However, this process sometimes may take weeks to months due to the lack of standardized genetic tools. Here, we present a method for the design and construction of biological parts based on the native genes and regulatory elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have developed highly efficient protocols (termed YeastFab Assembly) to synthesize these genetic elements as standardized biological parts, which can be used to assemble transcriptional units in a single-tube reaction. In addition, standardized characterization assays are developed using reporter constructs to calibrate the function of promoters. Furthermore, the assembled transcription units can be either assayed individually or applied to construct multi-gene metabolic pathways, which targets a genomic locus or a receiving plasmid effectively, through a simple in vitro reaction. Finally, using β-carotene biosynthesis pathway as an example, we demonstrate that our method allows us not only to construct and test a metabolic pathway in several days, but also to optimize the production through combinatorial assembly of a pathway using hundreds of regulatory biological parts.

  4. Toward a new data standard for combined marine biological and environmental datasets - expanding OBIS beyond species occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphnis De Pooter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS is the world’s most comprehensive online, open-access database of marine species distributions. OBIS grows with millions of new species observations every year. Contributions come from a network of hundreds of institutions, projects and individuals with common goals: to build a scientific knowledge base that is open to the public for scientific discovery and exploration and to detect trends and changes that inform society as essential elements in conservation management and sustainable development. Until now, OBIS has focused solely on the collection of biogeographic data (the presence of marine species in space and time and operated with optimized data flows, quality control procedures and data standards specifically targeted to these data. Based on requirements from the growing OBIS community to manage datasets that combine biological, physical and chemical measurements, the OBIS-ENV-DATA pilot project was launched to develop a proposed standard and guidelines to make sure these combined datasets can stay together and are not, as is often the case, split and sent to different repositories. The proposal in this paper allows for the management of sampling methodology, animal tracking and telemetry data, biological measurements (e.g., body length, percent live cover, ... as well as environmental measurements such as nutrient concentrations, sediment characteristics or other abiotic parameters measured during sampling to characterize the environment from which biogeographic data was collected. The recommended practice builds on the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A standard and on practices adopted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF. It consists of a DwC Event Core in combination with a DwC Occurrence Extension and a proposed enhancement to the DwC MeasurementOrFact Extension. This new structure enables the linkage of measurements or facts - quantitative and qualitative properties - to

  5. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  6. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  7. The Vimos VLT Deep Survey: Global properties of 20000 galaxies in the I_AB<=22.5 WIDE survey

    CERN Document Server

    Garilli, B; Guzzo, L; MacCagni, D; Le Brun, V; De la Torre, S; Meneux, B; Tresse, L; Franzetti, P; Zamorani, G; Zanichelli, A; Gregorini, L; Vergani, D; Bottini, D; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Vettolani, G; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Gavignaud, I; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Lamareille, F; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Blaizot, J; Bongiorno, A; Cucciati, O; Mellier, Y; Moreau, C; Paioro, L

    2008-01-01

    The VVDS-Wide survey has been designed with the general aim of tracing the large-scale distribution of galaxies at z~1 on comoving scales reaching ~100Mpc/h, while providing a good control of cosmic variance over areas as large as a few square degrees. This is achieved by measuring redshifts with VIMOS at the ESO VLT to a limiting magnitude I_AB=22.5, targeting four independent fields with size up to 4 sq.deg. each. The whole survey covers 8.6 sq.deg., here we present the general properties of the current redshift sample. This includes 32734 spectra in the four regions (19977 galaxies, 304 type I AGNs, and 9913 stars), covering a total area of 6.1 sq.deg, with a sampling rate of 22 to 24%. The redshift success rate is above 90% independently of magnitude. It is the currently largest area coverage among redshift surveys reaching z~1. We give the mean N(z) distribution averaged over 6.1 sq.deg. Comparing galaxy densities from the four fields shows that in a redshift bin Deltaz=0.1 at z~1 one still has factor-of...

  8. Standardization of BOD₅/COD ratio as a biological stability index for MSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Sandon, Annalisa

    2012-08-01

    The control of biodegradable substances is the key issue in evaluating the short and long-term emission potential and environmental impact of a landfill. Aerobic and anaerobic indices, such as respirometric index (RI) and biomethane potential production (GB21), can be used in the estimation of the stability of solid waste samples. Previous studies showed different degrees of relationship between BOD₅/COD ratio compared with RI4. Aim of this study is to standardize the parameter BOD₅/COD ratio and to test the methodology under different operating conditions (dynamic or static leaching and leaching duration, 6 and 24-h) keeping constant temperature and liquid/solid ratio (L/S=10 l/kg(TS)), with the introduction of a COD fractioning method. The COD fractioning is based on the differentiation between the soluble fraction (COD(sol)) and the colloidal fraction (COD(coll)) using a flocculation method. The BOD₅/COD and the BOD₅/COD(sol) indices are both consistent and significant and can be used as stability indices. The BOD₅/COD ratio does not seem to be influenced, for the same test duration, by the type of test, static or dynamic. In the same way the longer test duration (24-h) does not influence significantly the values of BOD₅/COD ratio. As a consequence a leaching test duration of 6-h is preferable to avoid the beginning of the hydrolysis and oxidation processes.

  9. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®, an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento, Paula Carolina Pires Bueno, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Juliana Maldonado Marchetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®, which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition.

  11. Cobalt complexes as internal standards for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry studies in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah U; Morrow, Stuart J; Kubanik, Mario; Hartinger, Christian G

    2017-01-02

    Run-by-run variations are very common in capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations and cause imprecision in both the migration times and the peak areas. This makes peak and kinetic trend identification difficult and error prone. With the aim to identify suitable standards for CE separations which are compatible with the common detectors UV, ESI-MS, and ICP-MS, the Co(III) complexes [Co(en)3]Cl3, [Co(acac)3] and K[Co(EDTA)] were evaluated as internal standards in the reaction of the anticancer drug cisplatin and guanosine 5'-monophosphate as an example of a classical biological inorganic chemistry experiment. These Co(III) chelate complexes were considered for their stability, accessibility, and the low detection limit for Co in ICP-MS. Furthermore, the Co(III) complexes are positively and negatively charged as well as neutral, allowing the detection in different areas of the electropherograms. The background electrolytes were chosen to cover a wide pH range. The compatibility to the separation conditions was dependent on the ligands attached to the Co(III) centers, with only the acetylacetonato (acac) complex being applicable in the pH range 2.8-9.0. Furthermore, because of being charge neutral, this compound could be used as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. In general, employing Co complexes resulted in improved data sets, particularly with regard to the migration times and peak areas, which resulted, for example, in higher linear ranges for the quantification of cisplatin.

  12. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  13. Presence of a substance in the Third International Standard of Old Tuberculin that interacts negatively with the biological potency of the preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, O; Fodstad, F; Mordal, K; Waaler, H

    1968-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed as part of a biological assay of the Third International Standard of Old Tuberculin (OT) it was noticed that this preparation at the usual concentrations failed to elicit the expected concentration-response in persons on whom the von Pirquet was performed.Further specially designed experiments have shown that this phenomenon is due to the presence in the Third OT Standard of a substance that interferes with, or blocks, the biological response to the tuberculin. However, the substance has not yet been identified nor has a model yet been constructed to explain in detail the nature of the interaction between that substance and the tuberculin.

  14. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the emphasis given to human evolution in secondary biology textbooks historically and in the current state science standards. Prior to the 1960s, biology textbooks provided little emphasis to human evolution. In the 1970s and early 1980s textbooks reduced the coverage of human evolution. However, in the 1990s the coverage became quite comprehensive again. In 2004, the state science frameworks of only three states had standards concerned with human evolution.

  15. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A critical analysis of the role of biology teachers and science standards in shaping evolution instruction in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-10-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean, specifically in Belize, an English-speaking nation with a high school system guided by a regional biology syllabus and strict standardized tests. Using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument and knowledge test, we investigated (1) the current level of acceptance and understanding of evolution as given by 97% of high school biology teachers in Belize; (2) the factors associated with acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory. With an average MATE score of 64.4 and a mean knowledge score of 47.9%, Belizean teachers were classified as having both 'Low Acceptance' and 'Low Understanding' of evolutionary theory. A positive correlation was found between teacher acceptance and understanding of evolution. A review of the Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate biology syllabus suggests that evolution plays a minimal role in the high school biology classroom. We believe that Belize presents a unique opening for future training on evolution instruction since 57% of the biology teachers self-proclaim to be unprepared to teach evolution. The results of this study have implications for policy, practice and research with teachers' acceptance, understanding and confidence in teaching evolution serving as important predictors for instructional approaches used in the biology classroom.

  16. New tool for biological dosimetry: Reevaluation and automation of the gold standard method following telomere and centromere staining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M’kacher, Radhia [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maalouf, Elie E.L. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Laboratoire MIPS – Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Ricoul, Michelle [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heidingsfelder, Leonhard [MetaSystems GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Str. 6, 68804 Altlussheim (Germany); Laplagne, Eric [Pole Concept, 61 Rue Erlanger, 75016 Paris (France); Cuceu, Corina; Hempel, William M. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Colicchio, Bruno; Dieterlen, Alain [Laboratoire MIPS – Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Sabatier, Laure, E-mail: laure.sabatier@cea.fr [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie (LRO), Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have applied telomere and centromere (TC) staining to the scoring of dicentrics. • TC staining renders the scoring of dicentrics more rapid and robust. • TC staining allows the scoring of not only dicentrics but all chromosomal anomalies. • TC staining has led to a reevaluation of the radiation dose–response curve. • TC staining allows automation of the scoring of chromosomal aberations. • Automated scoring of dicentrics after TC staining was as efficient as manual scoring. - Abstract: Purpose: The dicentric chromosome (dicentric) assay is the international gold-standard method for biological dosimetry and classification of genotoxic agents. The introduction of telomere and centromere (TC) staining offers the potential to render dicentric scoring more efficient and robust. In this study, we improved the detection of dicentrics and all unstable chromosomal aberrations (CA) leading to a significant reevaluation of the dose–effect curve and developed an automated approach following TC staining. Material and methods: Blood samples from 16 healthy donors were exposed to {sup 137}Cs at 8 doses from 0.1 to 6 Gy. CA were manually and automatically scored following uniform (Giemsa) or TC staining. The detection of centromeric regions and telomeric sequences using PNA probes allowed the detection of all unstable CA: dicentrics, centric and acentric rings, and all acentric fragments (with 2, 4 or no telomeres) leading to the precise quantification of estimated double strand breaks (DSB). Results: Manual scoring following TC staining revealed a significantly higher frequency of dicentrics (p < 10{sup −3}) (up to 30%) and estimated DSB (p < 10{sup −4}) compared to uniform staining due to improved detection of dicentrics with centromeres juxtaposed with other centromeres or telomeres. This improvement permitted the development of the software, TCScore, that detected 95% of manually scored dicentrics compared to 50% for

  17. The criteria for establishing an acceptable range of chemical, physical and biological indicators for the purpose of ecological standards developing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Maria; Glazunov, Gennady; Yakovlev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    The basis for development of standards for soil quality is based on the assessment of their resistance to external influences. The main criterion for assessing the environmental sustainability of soils and lands is the ability to perform their ecological functions (Nkonya et al, 2011, 2013; Costanza et al, 2014, Dobrovolsky and Nikitin, 1990; Yakovlev, Evdokimova, 2011). The limiting value of indicators of the state of the environment (physical, chemical, biological and other) corresponds to the value at which stability of environmental components is preserved (the ability to heal itself). Tht threshold for effect of stressor should be identified by the methods of bioindication and biotesting. The analysis obtained by these methods aimed to identify the highest indicator values of physical or chemical (concentration or dose of the stressor) effects, which have not yet fairly established negative changes in the organism, population of organisms or community. Using a theoretical model (Yakovlev et al, 2009, Gendugov., 2013) the problem of finding the threshold concentration is reduced to the finding of the singular points characterizing macroscopic "kinetics" of response in the phase space of dependence of the response rate upon the impact indicator. Singular points are determined by the analysis of derivatives. The theoretical model allows to calculate the singular points of the model (six of them), one of which, the maximum point corresponds to the highest concentration of the stressor at which it had no adverse effects on the test organisms. This point corresponds to the lowest concentration of the stressor at which it has no longer a stimulatory (hormesis) effect. Six singular points divide the whole range of stressors values (concentration) on seven bands with a unique range for each set of values of "macrokinetic" indicators of the living cells response to the impact of the stressor (concentration). Thus, the use of theoretical equations allowed us 1) to

  18. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  19. [The biological component of the professional standards and qualification characteristics of preventive medicine specialists (as exemplified by the specialty of parasitology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    In the context of theoretical analysis, the paper characterizes a specialist training system based on the biological component of the qualification characteristics and professional standard of preventive medicine specialists. Evidence is provided for the relationship between the components of the training system for preventive medicine specialists. The authors also specify the fact that the content of qualification characteristics and professional standards, besides general requirements, must take into account requirements for training the specialists in terms of natural and climatic and socioeconomic characteristics of regions.

  20. ASTM lights the way for tissue engineered medical products standards: jump start for combination medical products that restore biological function of human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G L; Stocum, D L

    2001-01-01

    Everybody hopes for better health and restoration of impaired bodily function, and now that hope is illuminated by the promise of powerful biological tools that make human cells grow and replace human tissue. ASTM Committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices is taking the lead by defining some of those tools as standards that can be used for the development, production, testing, and regulatory approval of medical products.

  1. An analysis of the self-regulated learning abilities of standard 10 biology students in the Mankwe region / Gustav Moshanti Mahuma

    OpenAIRE

    Mahuma, Gustav Moshanti

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine by meion whether metacognition, self-efficacy, goal-setting and learning strategies have an influence on the academic achievement of Standard 10 Biology students. It was concluded from the literature review that metacognition, self-efficacy, goal-setting and learning strategies influence academic achievement. Students who appraise, manage, evaluate, regulate and monitor their learning tasks achieve academically better than their counterparts. High eff...

  2. A data standard for sourcing fit-for-purpose biological samples in an integrated virtual network of biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip R; Mistry, Gita; Bullbeck, Helen; Carter, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Human tissue biobanks are at the epicenter of clinical research, responsible for providing both clinical samples and annotated data. There is a need for large numbers of samples to provide statistical power to research studies, especially since treatment and diagnosis are becoming ever more personalized. A single biobank cannot provide sufficient numbers of samples to capture the full spectrum of any disease. Currently there is no infrastructure in the United Kingdom (UK) to integrate biobanks. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Confederation of Cancer Biobanks (CCB) Working Group 3 looked to establish a data standard to enable biobanks to communicate about the samples they hold and so facilitate the formation of an integrated national network of biobanks. The Working Group examined the existing data standards available to biobanks, such as the MIABIS standard, and compared these to the aims of the working group. The CCB-developed data standard has brought many improvements: (1) Where existing data standards have been developed, these have been incorporated, ensuring compatibility with other initiatives; (2) the standard was written with the expectation that it will be extended for specific disease areas, such as the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank (BCCTB) and the Strategic Tissue Repository Alliances Through Unified Methods (STRATUM) project; and (3) biobanks will be able to communicate about specific samples, as well as aggregated statistics. The development of this data standard will allow all biobanks to integrate and share information about the samples they hold, facilitating the possibility of a national portal for researchers to find suitable samples for research. In addition, the data standard will allow other clinical services, such as disease registries, to communicate with biobanks in a standardized format allowing for greater cross-discipline data sharing.

  3. Standardization of allergen products: 1. Detailed characterization of GMP-produced recombinant Bet v 1.0101 as biological reference preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himly, M; Nony, E; Chabre, H; Van Overtvelt, L; Neubauer, A; van Ree, R; Buchheit, K-H; Vieths, S; Moingeon, P; Ferreira, F

    2009-07-01

    Standardization of allergen extracts requires the availability of well-characterized recombinant allergens, which can be used as reference standards provided by the European regulatory authorities. The objective of this study was the detailed physicochemical and immunological characterization of rBet v 1.0101, which shall be used in a ring trial within the framework of the Biological Standardization Programme BSP090 of the European Directorate for Quality of Medicines and Healthcare. Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 Y0487 was produced under good manufacturing practice conditions and analysed by an array of physicochemical and immunological methods for identity, quantity, homogeneity, folding and denaturation, aggregation state and stability in solution, as well as biological activity. Batch Y0487 was shown to contain monomeric and well-folded protein being identical with rBet v 1.0101, as determined by mass spectrometry. SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, deamidation analysis and size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering revealed sample homogeneity of >99.9%. Upon storage at +4 degrees C batch Y0487 retained the monomeric state up to 3 months. Protein quantification determined by amino acid analysis was found coinciding with half-maximal inhibition of serum IgE in ELISA. Biological activity of batch Y0487 was shown to be comparable to natural Bet v 1 by IgG and IgE immunoblotting, as well as basophil and T-cell activation. Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 Y0487 was characterized extensively by physicochemical and immunological methods. It was shown highly stable, monomeric and immunologically equivalent to its natural counterpart. Thus, it represents an appropriate candidate reference standard for Bet v 1.

  4. Production and use of mycotoxins uniformly enriched with stable isotopes for their dosage in biological samples: (3) Tools for pharmacokinetics and as internal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravin, F.; Delaforge, M.; Duca, R.C. [CNRS, URA 2096, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Bravin, F.; Delaforge, M.; Duca, R.C. [CEA Saclay, DSV, DBJC, SBFM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Pean, M. [CEA Cadarache, DEVM, GRAP, St Paul Les Durance (France); Puel, O. [INRA, Lab Pharmacol Toxicol, UR 66, Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    Pharmacological studies of exogenous compounds often encounter problems: these compounds are in such infinitesimal amount in their biological matrices, that they require particular detection method. We have implemented an alternative method to the usual radioactivity, based on incorporation of stable isotopes, through the example of biosynthesis of uniformly {sup 13}C enriched mycotoxins. The isotopic cluster obtained from a 10% {sup 13}C enrichment of several mycotoxins (and their metabolites) can be easily recovered from biological tissue samples by mass spectrometry allowing an easy discrimination from natural non-enriched compounds. We illustrate such pharmacological approaches by in vitro zearalenone metabolism. Such enriched compound can also be used as internal standard with high reliability in order to quantify mycotoxins in contaminated food samples. (authors)

  5. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  6. Strong influence of coadsorbate interaction on CO desorption dynamics on Ru(0001) probed by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and <i>ab initio simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Oberg, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Beye, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Dell' Angela, M. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Turner, J. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gladh, J. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ng, M. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sellberg, J. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kaya, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mercurio, G. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hieke, F. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Nordlund, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dakovski, G. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Minitti, M. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fohlisch, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Wolf, M. [Fritz-Haber Institute of the Max-Planck-Society, Berlin (Germany); Wurth, W. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY Photon Science, Hamburg (Germany); Ogasawara, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Norskov, J. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Ostrom, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, L. G. M. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ablid-Pedersen, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distribution and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. <i>Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.

  7. Intellectual property rights, standards and data exchange in systems biology: Reflections from the IP Expert Meeting at the University of Luxembourg, 8-9 October 2015, ERASysAPP - ERA-Net for Systems Biology Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become a key concern for researchers and industry in basically all high-tech sectors. IPRs regularly figure prominently in scientific journals and at scientific conferences and lead to dedicated workshops to increase the awareness and "IPR savviness" of scientists. In 2015, Biotechnology Journal published a report from an expert meeting on "Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights" organized by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation sponsored by the European Research Area Network (ERA-Net) in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio), in which we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders [1]. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in systems biology (SysBio) resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought together experts and stakeholders (e.g. scientists, company representatives, officials from public funding organizations) in SysBio from different European countries. Despite the different profiles of the stakeholders at the meeting and the variety of interests, many concerns and opinions were shared. In case particular views were expressed by a specific type of stakeholder, this will be explicitly mentioned in the text. In this article, we explore a number of particularly relevant issues that were discussed at the meeting and offer some recommendations. SysBio involves the study of biological systems at a so-called systems level. This is not a new concept in the life sciences - many former approaches in physiology, enzymology and other scientific disciplines have already taken a systemic view of selected biological subjects. Yet, SysBio has gained strong interest within the past 10 to 15 years. One predominant reason and a critical prerequisite for this success story being that the relevant scientific methodologies and research tools have become far more powerful and

  8. The role of differentiation and standards-based grading in the science learning of struggling and advanced learners in a detracked high school honors biology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michelina Ruth Carter

    The accountability movement in education resulting from the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has brought to light the disparities that exist in student achievement in the United States which play out along racial and socioeconomic lines. Three educational practices hold promise for reducing this achievement gap: differentiated instruction, standards-based assessment, and elimination of academic tracking. The purpose of this practitioner research study was to examine the ways that differentiation and standards-based assessment can support struggling learners and challenge advanced learners in a detracked, honors biology classroom. To gain insight into the role that differentiation and standards-based assessment played in supporting struggling and advanced learners, I used practitioner research to examine the development and implementation of a differentiated, standards-based instructional unit around the conceptual topic of protein synthesis. I collected multiple data pieces for 10 students in the study: two advanced learners, four struggling learners, and four strong learners who struggled in biology. Data analyzed included formative, self-, and summative assessment results; student artifacts; informal and formal student interviews; and, a practitioner reflection journal chronicling critical incidents and actions taken during the development and implementation of this unit and notes from peer debriefing during and following the unit's implementation. As I analyzed the data collected, my four findings fell into two overarching categories related to student grouping. My first three findings reflect what I learned about homogeneous grouping: (1) Pre-assessment based on unit outcomes is not useful for determining groups for tiered instruction; (2) Decisions about differentiation and grouping for differentiation must be made in the act of teaching using formative assessment results; and, (3) Flexible grouping structures are effective for both struggling

  9. Convergence of regenerative medicine and synthetic biology to develop standardized and validated models of human diseases with clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena Maria; Pereira, Brooke Anne; Ellem, Stuart John; Loessner, Daniela; Risbridger, Gail Petuna

    2015-12-01

    In order to progress beyond currently available medical devices and implants, the concept of tissue engineering has moved into the centre of biomedical research worldwide. The aim of this approach is not to replace damaged tissue with an implant or device but rather to prompt the patient's own tissue to enact a regenerative response by using a tissue-engineered construct to assemble new functional and healthy tissue. More recently, it has been suggested that the combination of Synthetic Biology and translational tissue-engineering techniques could enhance the field of personalized medicine, not only from a regenerative medicine perspective, but also to provide frontier technologies for building and transforming the research landscape in the field of in vitro and in vivo disease models.

  10. A call for a standard classification system for future biologic research: the rationale for new PRP nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Kenneth; Malanga, Gerard A; Smith, Jay; Shiple, Brian; Ibrahim, Victor; Sampson, Steven; Bowen, Jay E

    2015-04-01

    Autologous cell therapies including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) are increasingly popular options for soft tissue and joint-related diseases. Despite increased clinical application, conflicting research has been published regarding the efficacy of PRP, and few clinical publications pertaining to BMC are available. Preparations of PRP (and BMC) can vary in many areas, including platelet concentration, number of white blood cells, presence or absence of red blood cells, and activation status of the preparation. The potential effect of PRP characteristics on PRP efficacy is often not well understood by the treating clinician, and PRP characteristics, as well as the volume of PRP delivered, are unfortunately not included in the methods of many published research articles. It is essential to establish a standard reporting system for PRP that facilitates communication and the interpretation and synthesis of scientific investigations. Herein, the authors propose a new PRP classification system reflecting important PRP characteristics based on contemporary literature and recommend adoption of minimal standards for PRP reporting in scientific investigations. Widespread adoption of these recommendations will facilitate interpretation and comparison of clinical studies and promote scientifically based progress in the field of regenerative medicine.

  11. Application of the probability-based Maryland Biological Stream Survey to the state's assessment of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Mark T; Vølstad, Jon H; Weber, Edward D; Klauda, Ronald J; Poukish, Charles A; Rowe, Matthew C

    2009-03-01

    The Clean Water Act presents a daunting task for states by requiring them to assess and restore all their waters. Traditional monitoring has led to two beliefs: (1) ad hoc sampling (i.e., non-random) is adequate if enough sites are sampled and (2) more intensive sampling (e.g., collecting more organisms) at each site is always better. We analyzed the 1,500 Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) random sites sampled in 2000-2004 to describe the variability of Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores at the site, reach, and watershed scales. Average variability for fish and benthic IBI scores increased with increasing spatial scale, demonstrating that single site IBI scores are not representative at watershed scales and therefore at best 25% of a state's stream length can be representatively sampled with non-random designs. We evaluated the effects on total taxa captured and IBI precision of sampling for twice as many benthic macroinvertebrates at 73 MBSS sites with replicate samples. When sampling costs were fixed, the precision of the IBI decreased as the number of sites had to be reduced by 15%. Only 1% more taxa were found overall when the 73 sites where combined. We concluded that (1) comprehensive assessment of a state's waters should be done using probability-based sampling that allows the condition across all reaches to be inferred statistically and (2) additional site sampling effort should not be incorporated into state biomonitoring when it will reduce the number of sites sampled to the point where overall assessment precision is lower.

  12. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: the redshift distribution N(z) of magnitude-limited samples down to iAB=24.75 and KsAB=22

    CERN Document Server

    Fevre, O Le; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Tresse, L; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Contini, T; Iovino, A; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; McCracken, H J; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Zucca, E

    2013-01-01

    We measure and analyse the redshift distribution N(z) of magnitude-selected samples using spectroscopic redshift measurement from the magnitude-selected VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) with 172. Down to iAB2 than in colour-colour selected samples, and we use the magnitude-selected VVDS to emphasize the large uncertainties associated to other surveys using colour or colour-colour selected samples. Our results further demonstrate that semi-analytical models on dark matter simulations have yet to find the right balance of physical processes and time-scales to properly reproduce a fundamental galaxy population property like the observed N(z).

  13. Kepler sheds new and unprecedented light on the variability of a blue supergiant: Gravity waves in the O9.5Iab star HD 188209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, C.; Símon-Díaz, S.; Bloemen, S.; Debosscher, J.; Pápics, P. I.; Bryson, S.; Still, M.; Moravveji, E.; Williamson, M. H.; Grundahl, F.; Fredslund Andersen, M.; Antoci, V.; Pallé, P. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Rogers, T. M.

    2017-06-01

    Stellar evolution models are most uncertain for evolved massive stars. Asteroseismology based on high-precision uninterrupted space photometry has become a new way to test the outcome of stellar evolution theory and was recently applied to a multitude of stars, but not yet to massive evolved supergiants.Our aim is to detect, analyse and interpret the photospheric and wind variability of the O9.5 Iab star HD 188209 from Kepler space photometry and long-term high-resolution spectroscopy. We used Kepler scattered-light photometry obtained by the nominal mission during 1460 d to deduce the photometric variability of this O-type supergiant. In addition, we assembled and analysed high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectroscopy taken with four spectrographs during some 1800 d to interpret the temporal spectroscopic variability of the star. The variability of this blue supergiant derived from the scattered-light space photometry is in full in agreement with the one found in the ground-based spectroscopy. We find significant low-frequency variability that is consistently detected in all spectral lines of HD 188209. The photospheric variability propagates into the wind, where it has similar frequencies but slightly higher amplitudes. The morphology of the frequency spectra derived from the long-term photometry and spectroscopy points towards a spectrum of travelling waves with frequency values in the range expected for an evolved O-type star. Convectively-driven internal gravity waves excited in the stellar interior offer the most plausible explanation of the detected variability. Based on photometric observations made with the NASA Kepler satellite and on spectroscopic observations made with four telescopes: the Nordic Optical Telescope operated by NOTSA and the Mercator Telescope operated by the Flemish Community, both at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, the T13 2.0 m Automatic Spectroscopic

  14. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  15. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  16. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 2 - Biological atlas of the Arctic Seas 2000 - Plankton of the Barents and Kara Seas (1 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Presented in this CD-ROM are physical and biological data for the region extending from the Barents Sea to the Kara Sea during 158 scientific cruises for the period...

  17. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the…

  18. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the…

  19. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A Critical Analysis of the Role of Biology Teachers and Science Standards in Shaping Evolution Instruction in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…

  20. High-Sensitivity LC-MS/MS Quantification of Peptides and Proteins in Complex Biological Samples : The Impact of Enzymatic Digestion and Internal Standard Selection on Method Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, Kees J.; Bischoff, Rainer; van de Merbel, Nico C.

    2013-01-01

    Two important aspects of peptide and protein quantification by LC-MS/MS, the enzymatic digestion step and the internal standardization approach, were systematically investigated with a small protein, salmon calcitonin, which could be analyzed both without and with digestion. Quantification of undige

  1. A modified Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne: A variant of the standard model with increased biological realism and reduced computational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David

    2016-03-21

    The Wright-Fisher model is an important model in evolutionary biology and population genetics. It has been applied in numerous analyses of finite populations with discrete generations. It is recognised that real populations can behave, in some key aspects, as though their size that is not the census size, N, but rather a smaller size, namely the effective population size, Ne. However, in the Wright-Fisher model, there is no distinction between the effective and census population sizes. Equivalently, we can say that in this model, Ne coincides with N. The Wright-Fisher model therefore lacks an important aspect of biological realism. Here, we present a method that allows Ne to be directly incorporated into the Wright-Fisher model. The modified model involves matrices whose size is determined by Ne. Thus apart from increased biological realism, the modified model also has reduced computational complexity, particularly so when Ne⪡N. For complex problems, it may be hard or impossible to numerically analyse the most commonly-used approximation of the Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne, namely the diffusion approximation. An alternative approach is simulation. However, the simulations need to be sufficiently detailed that they yield an effective size that is different to the census size. Simulations may also be time consuming and have attendant statistical errors. The method presented in this work may then be the only alternative to simulations, when Ne differs from N. We illustrate the straightforward application of the method to some problems involving allele fixation and the determination of the equilibrium site frequency spectrum. We then apply the method to the problem of fixation when three alleles are segregating in a population. This latter problem is significantly more complex than a two allele problem and since the diffusion equation cannot be numerically solved, the only other way Ne can be incorporated into the analysis is by simulation. We have

  2. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey final data release: a spectroscopic sample of 35016 galaxies and AGN out to z~6.7 selected with 17.5<=i_{AB}<=24.75

    CERN Document Server

    Fevre, O Le; Cucciati, O; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Moreau, C; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Zamorani, G; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; de la Torre, S; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Lemaux, B; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Mellier, Y; Merighi, R; Merluzzi, P; Paltani, S; Pello, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Scaramella, R; Vergani, D; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Zucca, E

    2013-01-01

    We describe the completed VIMOS VLT Deep Survey, and the final data release of 35016 galaxies and type-I AGN with measured spectroscopic redshifts up to redshift z~6.7, in areas 0.142 to 8.7 square degrees, and volumes from 0.5x10^6 to 2x10^7h^-3Mpc^3. We have selected samples of galaxies based solely on their i-band magnitude reaching i_{AB}=24.75. Spectra have been obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT, integrating 0.75h, 4.5h and 18h for the Wide, Deep, and Ultra-Deep nested surveys. A total of 1263 galaxies have been re-observed independently within the VVDS, and from the VIPERS and MASSIV surveys. They are used to establish the redshift measurements reliability, to assess completeness, and to provide a weighting scheme taking into account the survey selection function. We describe the main properties of the VVDS samples, and the VVDS is compared to other spectroscopic surveys. In total we have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for 34594 galaxies, 422 type-I AGN, and 12430 Galactic stars. The survey has enabl...

  3. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R.'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Mohamed Abu; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml-1 for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n = 5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  4. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Raffaela Arrabaça; Evison, Martin Paul; Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo da; Silveira, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi; Secchieri, José Marcelo; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations. Methods based on them must be validated when applied to novel populations. This study describes the validation of a standardized forensic anthropology examination protocol by application to two contemporary Brazilian skeletal samples of known attribution. One sample (n=90) was collected from exhumations following 7-35 years of burial and the second (n=30) was collected following successful investigations following routine case work. The study presents measurement of (1) the applicability of each of the methods: used and (2) the reliability with which the biographic parameters were assigned in each case. The results are discussed with reference to published assessments of methodological reliability regarding sex, age and-in particular-ancestry estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biology publishes standard scientific contributions and ... Faunistic papers or field-based studies of the natural history of the Egyptian fauna ... Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina under ...

  6. BioJS: an open source standard for biological visualisation – its status in 2014 [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2yy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Corpas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BioJS is a community-based standard and repository of functional components to represent biological information on the web. The development of BioJS has been prompted by the growing need for bioinformatics visualisation tools to be easily shared, reused and discovered. Its modular architecture makes it easy for users to find a specific functionality without needing to know how it has been built, while components can be extended or created for implementing new functionality. The BioJS community of developers currently provides a range of functionality that is open access and freely available. A registry has been set up that categorises and provides installation instructions and testing facilities at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/biojs/. The source code for all components is available for ready use at https://github.com/biojs/biojs.

  7. Comment on “Correlation and relativistic effects in U metal and U-Zr alloy: Validation of <i>ab initio approaches”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderlind, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landa, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turchi, P. E. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In a recent paper, Xie et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 235128 (2013)], report that the density-functional theory (DFT) with the so-called DFT plus Hubbard U (DFT+U) modification improves energetics, volumes, and formation enthalpies over the standard form of DFT for uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. Also, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) was argued to advance the aforementioned properties in these systems. We demonstrate, contrarily, that neither the Hubbard U approach nor SOC is necessary for a correct description of uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. We further illustrate that the combination of DFT+U and SOC in the projector augmented-wave calculations by Xie et al. results in unrealistically large volume expansions, particularly for γ-U, in stark contrast to all previous calculations for elemental uranium. This in turn may also explain why the DFT+U with SOC model predicts negative enthalpy of mixing in the U-Zr alloy system contradicting conventional DFT as well as one of the main features of the experimental U-Zr phase diagram. The assertion by Xie et al. that DFT+U is an improvement over DFT for these systems is illustrated to be incorrect.

  8. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  9. Synthetic Biology-The Synthesis of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausländer, Simon; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic biology concerns the engineering of man-made living biomachines from standardized components that can perform predefined functions in a (self-)controlled manner. Different research strategies and interdisciplinary efforts are pursued to implement engineering principles to biology. The "top-down" strategy exploits nature's incredible diversity of existing, natural parts to construct synthetic compositions of genetic, metabolic, or signaling networks with predictable and controllable properties. This mainly application-driven approach results in living factories that produce drugs, biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals, and results in living pills that are based on engineered cells with the capacity to autonomously detect and treat disease states in vivo. In contrast, the "bottom-up" strategy seeks to be independent of existing living systems by designing biological systems from scratch and synthesizing artificial biological entities not found in nature. This more knowledge-driven approach investigates the reconstruction of minimal biological systems that are capable of performing basic biological phenomena, such as self-organization, self-replication, and self-sustainability. Moreover, the syntheses of artificial biological units, such as synthetic nucleotides or amino acids, and their implementation into polymers inside living cells currently set the boundaries between natural and artificial biological systems. In particular, the in vitro design, synthesis, and transfer of complete genomes into host cells point to the future of synthetic biology: the creation of designer cells with tailored desirable properties for biomedicine and biotechnology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. All biology is computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  11. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  12. DRDC Ottawa Working Standard for Biological Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Blood Samples Irradiated for the Dicentric Chromosome Assay, 200 kVp X-Ray Beam...Technical Report Series No. 405). This assay relies on the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosome aberrations found in metaphases from cultured human...dose estimation by the dicentric assay is the harvest time for metaphase collection. The maximal frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations in

  13. Establishing laboratory standards for biological flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.; Moriarity, Debra M.

    1989-01-01

    The general objective of this research was to assess the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on ultrastructural aspects of the contractile system in chicken skeletal muscle cells. This general objective had two specific experimental components: (1) the progression of changes in cell morphology, fusion, and patterns of contractile filament organization in muscle cell cultures grown in hollow fibers in the Clinostat were evaluated, with appropriate controls; (2) to initiate experiments in which muscle cells were grown on the surface of microcarrier beads. The ultimate objective of this second portion of the work is to determine if these beads can be rotated in a bioreactor and thereby obtain a more accurate approximation of the effects of simulated microgravity on differentiated muscle cells.

  14. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  17. 探讨IAB治疗进展期前列腺癌的安全性及用药周期方法%Explore the safety and medication cycle method of IAB in treatment of advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏; 张玉环

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨进展期前列腺癌患者采用间断性雄激素阻断法(intermittent androgen blockade,IAB)治疗的安全性及用药周期方法.方法 对2008年1月~2011年1月在西北民族大学附属医院收治的127例进展期前列腺癌患者采用IAB疗法后,根据临床TNM分期(tumor node metastasis,TNM)分为A组(T3-4N0M0)、B组(TXN1M0)和C组(TXNXM1)3组;3组患者一经确诊后邵给予最大雄激素阻断治疗至少6个月,前列腺特异抗原(prostate specific antigen,PSA)降至0.2μg/L以下后维持治疗3个月,之后进入间歇期,当PSA升至4 μg/L时再次进入用药周期.对3组患者的用药周期、停药期PSA维持时间、治疗过程中患者的生活质量及国际前列腺症状评分差异无进展生存期进行比较.结果 完成治疗周期的结果表明:A组患者完成每1个周期治疗的比例显著高于B组与C组(P<0.05),且B组显著高于C组(P<0.05);3组患者在治疗周期中的间歇期PSA <4 μg/L的维持时阚、生活质量评分、国际前列腺症状评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),A组显著优于B、C组(P<0.05),且B组显著优于C组(P<0.05);3组无进展生存中位时间比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IAB是一种有效的前列腺癌治疗方案,患者诒疗后生存质量可显著改善,且T3-4N0M0分期患者疗效优于TXN1M0及TXNXM1分期的患者.

  18. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  19. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  20. The effect of a county's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on end-of-course standard of learning tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry and World History and Geography II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Brenda L.

    The Commonwealth of Virginia requires high school students to receive a passing grade in core courses and a passing score on End-of-Course Standards of Learning (EOC SOL) tests to receive verified credits that lead to a Virginia high school diploma. These tests are believed to accurately reflect what students should know and be able to do in order to experience success in their endeavors beyond high school. For some students remediation is required to experience success on EOC SOL tests. This study sought to determine the effect of a County's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on EOC SOL tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry, and World History and Geography II. Specifically, the purpose of the study sought to determine the following: (a) If significant gains were made by students who attended the summer remediation program; (b) If significant gains were made by students who did not attend the summer remediation program; (c) If there were differences in gain scores of students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program; and (d) If there were differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to school site, gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. The results of the study indicate that students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program made significant gains. However, the gains for students who attended the summer remediation program were significantly greater than the gains made by students who did not attend. The study also found that there were no significant differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. There were significant differences in Algebra I gain scores related to school site. Recommendations for

  1. Engineering microbes with synthetic biology frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Effendi; Nielsen, David; Solomon, Kevin; Prather, Kristala Jones

    2008-12-01

    Typically, the outcome of biologically engineered unit operations cannot be controlled a priori due to the incorporation of ad hoc design into complex natural systems. To mitigate this problem, synthetic biology presents a systematic approach to standardizing biological components for the purpose of increasing their programmability and robustness when assembled with the aim to achieve novel biological functions. A complex engineered biological system using only standardized biological components is yet to exist. Nevertheless, current attempts to create and to implement modular, standardized biological components pave the way for the future creation of highly predictable artificial biological systems. Although synthetic biology frameworks can be applied to any biological engineering endeavor, this article will focus on providing a brief overview of advances in the field and its recent utilization for the engineering of microbes.

  2. Biologi Radiasi

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Yoesfianda

    2008-01-01

    Biologi radiasi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang pengaruh dari ionisasi radiasi dalam tubuh makhluk hidup. Kemungkinan terjadinya efek biologis akibat interaksi radiasi dan jaringan tubuh manusia, berbanding lurus dengan besarnya dosis radiasi yang mengenai jaringan tubuh tersebut. Radiasi dapat mengakibatkan efek baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Efek yang merusak secara biologis dari radiasi ionisasi diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga kategori utama, yaitu efek somatik determin...

  3. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  4. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  5. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  6. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  7. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  8. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  9. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  10. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  11. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  12. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  13. The Systems Biology Graphical Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Novère, Nicolas; Hucka, Michael; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Sorokin, Anatoly; Demir, Emek; Wegner, Katja; Aladjem, Mirit I; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bergman, Frank T; Gauges, Ralph; Ghazal, Peter; Kawaji, Hideya; Li, Lu; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Villéger, Alice; Boyd, Sarah E; Calzone, Laurence; Courtot, Melanie; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Freeman, Tom C; Funahashi, Akira; Ghosh, Samik; Jouraku, Akiya; Kim, Sohyoung; Kolpakov, Fedor; Luna, Augustin; Sahle, Sven; Schmidt, Esther; Watterson, Steven; Wu, Guanming; Goryanin, Igor; Kell, Douglas B; Sander, Chris; Sauro, Herbert; Snoep, Jacky L; Kohn, Kurt; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-08-01

    Circuit diagrams and Unified Modeling Language diagrams are just two examples of standard visual languages that help accelerate work by promoting regularity, removing ambiguity and enabling software tool support for communication of complex information. Ironically, despite having one of the highest ratios of graphical to textual information, biology still lacks standard graphical notations. The recent deluge of biological knowledge makes addressing this deficit a pressing concern. Toward this goal, we present the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), a visual language developed by a community of biochemists, modelers and computer scientists. SBGN consists of three complementary languages: process diagram, entity relationship diagram and activity flow diagram. Together they enable scientists to represent networks of biochemical interactions in a standard, unambiguous way. We believe that SBGN will foster efficient and accurate representation, visualization, storage, exchange and reuse of information on all kinds of biological knowledge, from gene regulation, to metabolism, to cellular signaling.

  14. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  15. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  16. Biology teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics, Science and Biology teachers code switch when they teach. ... (by constantly translating back and forth), and argue for a 'separation approach' ..... for the classroom, only 3 students did not give an answer to this open-ended.

  17. 反序律B{1,2,i}A{1,2,i}=(AB){1,2,i}i=3,4成立的充要条件%Necessary and sufficient conditions for reverse order laws B{1,2,i}A { 1,2,i} (∈)(AB){1,2,i},i=3,4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 孟令胜

    2011-01-01

    证明两个矩阵乘积的{1,2,3}-逆和{1,2,4}-逆反序律包含关系B{1,2,i}A{1,2,i}(∈)(AB){1,2,i},i=3,4分别等价干等式反序律B{1,2,i}A{1,2,i}=(AB){1,2,i},i=3,4.从而得到上述等式反序律成立的充要条件.%It was verified that the inclusion relationship B{1,2,i}A{1,2,i} (∈)(AB){1,2,i}, i= 3,4 for reverse order laws of {1,2,3}-inverse and {1,2,4}- inverse of the product of two matrixes was respectively equivalent to the identical reverse order laws B{1,2,i}A{1,2,i}=(AB){1,2,i}, i=3,4, so that the necessary and sufficient conditions were obtained for holding the foregoing identical reverse order laws.

  18. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  19. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  20. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  1. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  2. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  3. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  4. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  5. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  6. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  7. Aristotle's biopolitics: a defense of biological teleology against biological nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhart, L

    1988-02-01

    Modern Darwinian biology seems to promote nihilism, for it seems to teach that there is no rationally discoverable standard in nature for giving meaning to life. The purpose of this article is to argue for a revival of Aristotle's biological teleology as a reasonable alternative to biological nihilism. The article begins with Edward Wilson's vain struggle against nihilism. Then it is argued that a teleological understanding of nature is assumed in the practice of medicine, as illustrated by one case from Oliver Sacks' neurological practice. The article then considers the importance of biological teleology for Aristotle's moral and political philosophy, and attention is given to some points of agreement and disagreement with contemporary sociobiologists. The main part of the article is then devoted to a defense of Aristotle's biology against the five objections that might be made by a Darwinian biologist. Finally, the article illustrates the practical implications of this issue for bioethics by considering the recent work of Engelhardt.

  8. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  9. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  10. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area ​Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  11. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number...... of samples. We describe the use of rabbit basophils as a tool in biological standardization. Using peanut as a model allergen, it is described how rabbits immunized for production of antiserum may become sensitized and their basophils used for histamine release experiments. It is also possible to use rabbit...

  12. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  13. Journal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  14. Buffer Standards for the Biological pH of the Amino Acid N-[2 hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[3-propanesulfonic acid], HEPPS, From (278.15 to 328.15) K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lakshmi N; Roy, Rabindra N; Wollen, Joshua T; Harmon, Meagan A; Stegner, Jessica M; Shah, Ankita A; Henson, Isaac B

    2011-01-01

    For the HEPPS buffer under investigation, there are seven buffer solutions without NaCl and eight buffer solutions that contain Cl(-) and have an ionic strength (I = 0.16 mol·kg(-1)), which is similar to that of blood plasma. These buffer solutions have been evaluated in the temperature range of (278.15 to 328.15) K using the extended Debye- Hückel equation and the Bates-Guggenheim convention. The previously determined E(j) values have been used to determine the operational pH values of HEPPS buffer solutions at (298.15 and 310.15) K. These are recommended as secondary standard reference solutions for pH measurements in saline media with an isotonic ionic strength of I = 0.16 mol·kg(-1).

  15. Buffer Standards for the Biological pH of the Amino Acid N-[2 hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N’-[3-propanesulfonic acid], HEPPS, From (278.15 to 328.15) K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lakshmi N.; Roy, Rabindra N.; Wollen, Joshua T.; Harmon, Meagan A.; Stegner, Jessica M.; Shah, Ankita A.; Henson, Isaac B.

    2011-01-01

    For the HEPPS buffer under investigation, there are seven buffer solutions without NaCl and eight buffer solutions that contain Cl− and have an ionic strength (I = 0.16 mol·kg−1), which is similar to that of blood plasma. These buffer solutions have been evaluated in the temperature range of (278.15 to 328.15) K using the extended Debye- Hückel equation and the Bates-Guggenheim convention. The previously determined Ej values have been used to determine the operational pH values of HEPPS buffer solutions at (298.15 and 310.15) K. These are recommended as secondary standard reference solutions for pH measurements in saline media with an isotonic ionic strength of I = 0.16 mol·kg−1. PMID:22096257

  16. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  17. Teaching biology with engineering practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Stephen

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) expresses a vision of science education that requires students to not only have an understanding of science concepts but be able to investigate the natural world through process of science inquiry or to solve meaningful problems though the practices of engineering design. While incorporating engineering practices into our science curriculum will soon be requirement of the new state standards, there is little research published as to how this should be implemented in a biology classroom. The goal of this study was to measure the effectiveness of incorporating engineering design into a biology curriculum on student understanding of engineering practices and science content knowledge. The results of this study indicate that the integration of engineering design in a biology curriculum has a positive effect on student's science content knowledge as well as their understanding of engineering design principles.

  18. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  19. Evaluation of ¹³C- and ²H-labeled internal standards for the determination of amphetamines in biological samples, by reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas; Karlsen, Morten; Oiestad, Ase Marit Leere; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Liu, Huiling; Strand, Dag Helge

    2014-05-30

    Stable isotope-labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs) are often used when applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze for legal and illegal drugs. ISs labeled with (13)C, (15)N, and (18)O are expected to behave more closely to their corresponding unlabeled analytes, compared with that of the more classically used (2)H-labeled ISs. This study has investigated the behavior of amphetamine, (2)H3-, (2)H5, (2)H6-, (2)H8-, (2)H11-, and (13)C6-labeled amphetamine, during sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS analyses. None or only minor differences in liquid-liquid extraction recoveries of amphetamine and the SIL-ISs were observed. The chromatographic resolution between amphetamine and the (2)H-labeled amphetamines increased with the number of (2)H-substitutes. For chromatographic studies we also included seven additional (13)C6-amphetamines and their analytes. All the (13)C6-labeled ISs were co-eluting with their analytes, both when a basic and when an acidic mobile phase were used. MS/MS analyses of amphetamine and its SIL-ISs showed that the ISs with the highest number of (2)H-substitutes required more energy for fragmentation in the collision cell compared with that of the ISs with a lower number. The findings, in this study, support those of previous studies, showing that (13)C-labeled ISs are superior to (2)H-labeled ISs, for analytical purposes.

  20. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities.

  1. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  2. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  3. The synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Chris; Clancy, Kevin; Misirli, Goksel; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline; Roehner, Nicholas; Sauro, Herbert M

    2015-01-01

    The design and construction of engineered organisms is an emerging new discipline called synthetic biology and holds considerable promise as a new technological platform. The design of biologically engineered systems is however nontrivial, requiring contributions from a wide array of disciplines. One particular issue that confronts synthetic biologists is the ability to unambiguously describe novel designs such that they can be reengineered by a third-party. For this reason, the synthetic biology open language (SBOL) was developed as a community wide standard for formally representing biological designs. A design created by one engineering team can be transmitted electronically to another who can then use this design to reproduce the experimental results. The development and the community of the SBOL standard started in 2008 and has since grown in use with now over 80 participants, including international, academic, and industrial interests. SBOL has stimulated the development of repositories and software tools to help synthetic biologists in their design efforts. This chapter summarizes the latest developments and future of the SBOL standard and its supporting infrastructure.

  4. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  5. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  6. 探讨生物学变异在临床化学检验的质量规范设定和结果评价中的应用%Application of biological variation in the evaluation of quality standard clinical chemistry set and result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占松涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective Biological variation are discussed in the quality of clinical chemistry test specification set up and applied value in the evaluation of results. Methods For urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, three acyl glycerol, glucose and other 23 biochemical events, according to the indoor quality control, biological data and qualitative evaluation between two room, calculating the actual deviation and variation coefficient, the actual total error, the actual changes and reference value. Results A total of 23 biochemical events after clinical chemistry examination, to achieve the best CV quality specification requirements of 9, 11 appropriate level requirements of the project, the lowest level for project 2, was greater than the CV quality specification requirements of the project of one. In different reference value change of differential probability. Conclusion Learn quality specifications as biological variation of evaluation standard, to a more comprehensive and objective analysis of various biological project, for the clinical interpretation of test results.%目的:探讨分析生物学变异在临床化学检验的质量规范设定和在结果评价中的应用价值。方法对总胆红素、总蛋白、尿素、肌酐、清蛋白、三酰甘油、葡萄糖等23个生化项目,根据其室内质控、生物学数据以及两次室间质评,计算其实际变异系数、实际总误差、实际偏差和参考变化值。结果23个生化项目经过临床化学检查,达到最佳CV质量规范要求的占9项,适当水平要求的项目占11项,最低水平要求项目占2项,大于CV质量规范要求的项目占1项,在不同差值概率中的参考变化值不同。结论把质量规范作为生物变异学的评价标准,能够对各个生化项目进行更为全面客观的分析,利于临床对检验结果的解读。

  7. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  8. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  9. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  10. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  11. Three National Standardization Technical Committees Authorized By SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In December, 2004, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has approved the establishments of three National Standardization Technical Committees. They are the National Standardization Technical Committees for Environmental Protection Products (SAC/TC275), for Safety Management of Agricultural Transgenic Biology (SAC/TC276) and for Testing of New Varieties of Plant (SAC/TC277).The National Standardization Technical Committee for Environmental Protection Products is responsible for the development and revision of national standards in the following fields:

  12. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  13. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  14. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  15. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Capes-Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution.

  16. Standards help enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Standardization in modern times began from the Industrial Revolution. Various industrial sectors, for which about 300 standardization technical commissions have been established, make up the key fields of China's standardization.

  17. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  18. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  19. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  20. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  1. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  2. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  3. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  4. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization...

  5. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  6. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  7. Faina, a New Brazilian Plessitic Octahedrite from Group IAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucolotto, M. E.; Carvalho, W. P.; Tosi, A.; Mendes, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    A single mass with a total weight of 440 grams was found by Mr. G. Rodrigues in 2011 when digging a hole for the septic tank of his house, suspecting to be a meteorite by having seen our divulgation program at a TV show.

  8. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following......, and show that, while standards and standardization are typically associated with stability and sameness, they are essentially a dynamic phenomenon. The paper highlights the contributions of this special issue to the topic of standards as a dynamic phenomenon in organization studies and makes suggestions...... a comprehensive overview of existing research in these three areas, we argue that the dynamic aspects of standardization are under-represented in the scholarly discourse. Furthermore, we identify the main types of tension associated with standardization and the dynamics they generate in each of those three areas...

  9. Integrating biological redesign: where synthetic biology came from and where it needs to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jeffrey C; Collins, James J; Keasling, Jay D; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-03-27

    Synthetic biology seeks to extend approaches from engineering and computation to redesign of biology, with goals such as generating new chemicals, improving human health, and addressing environmental issues. Early on, several guiding principles of synthetic biology were articulated, including design according to specification, separation of design from fabrication, use of standardized biological parts and organisms, and abstraction. We review the utility of these principles over the past decade in light of the field's accomplishments in building complex systems based on microbial transcription and metabolism and describe the progress in mammalian cell engineering.

  10. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  11. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2016-07-08

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) Version 2.0.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bryan; Beal, Jacob; Clancy, Kevin; Misirli, Goksel; Roehner, Nicholas; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Bissell, Michael; Madsen, Curtis; Nguyen, Tramy; Zhang, Zhen; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris; Wipat, Anil; Sauro, Herbert

    2015-09-04

    Synthetic biology builds upon the techniques and successes of genetics, molecular biology, and metabolic engineering by applying engineering principles to the design of biological systems. The field still faces substantial challenges, including long development times, high rates of failure, and poor reproducibility. One method to ameliorate these problems would be to improve the exchange of information about designed systems between laboratories. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) has been developed as a standard to support the specification and exchange of biological design information in synthetic biology, filling a need not satisfied by other pre-existing standards. This document details version 2.0 of SBOL, introducing a standardized format for the electronic exchange of information on the structural and functional aspects of biological designs. The standard has been designed to support the explicit and unambiguous description of biological designs by means of a well defined data model. The standard also includes rules and best practices on how to use this data model and populate it with relevant design details. The publication of this specification is intended to make these capabilities more widely accessible to potential developers and users in the synthetic biology community and beyond.

  13. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...... in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available...

  14. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...

  15. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  16. Engineering reduced evolutionary potential for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Brian A; Hammerling, Michael J; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2014-07-01

    The field of synthetic biology seeks to engineer reliable and predictable behaviors in organisms from collections of standardized genetic parts. However, unlike other types of machines, genetically encoded biological systems are prone to changes in their designed sequences due to mutations in their DNA sequences after these devices are constructed and deployed. Thus, biological engineering efforts can be confounded by undesired evolution that rapidly breaks the functions of parts and systems, particularly when they are costly to the host cell to maintain. Here, we explain the fundamental properties that determine the evolvability of biological systems. Then, we use this framework to review current efforts to engineer the DNA sequences that encode synthetic biology devices and the genomes of their microbial hosts to reduce their ability to evolve and therefore increase their genetic reliability so that they maintain their intended functions over longer timescales.

  17. Teaching biology with model organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Dolores A.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and use model organisms that represent each of the kingdoms biologists use to classify organisms, while experiencing the process of science through guided inquiry. The model organisms will be the basis for studying the four high school life science core ideas as identified by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): LS1-From molecules to organisms, LS2-Ecosystems, LS3- Heredity, and LS4- Biological Evolution. NGSS also have identified four categories of science and engineering practices which include developing and using models and planning and carrying out investigations. The living organisms will be utilized to increase student interest and knowledge within the discipline of Biology. Pre-test and posttest analysis utilizing student t-test analysis supported the hypothesis. This study shows increased student learning as a result of using living organisms as models for classification and working in an inquiry-based learning environment.

  18. 78 FR 43817 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Flexibility Act C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 D. The Paperwork Reduction Act... to remove the reference to an organizational unit that no longer exists and replace it with current... reviewed this rulemaking. B. Regulatory Flexibility Act We have examined the impacts of the rule under the...

  19. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1982-07-27

    Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  20. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  1. Resetting Biological Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  2. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  3. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  4. Resetting Biological Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  5. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  6. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  7. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  8. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  9. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization....... The argument takes off from two different conceptualizations of standards in the literature. On the one hand, standards as immanent to practices (the “Neo-Aristotelian” approach), and on the other hand, standards as imposed to regulate practices (the “neo-pragmatist” and “governmentality” approaches......). It is suggested that this opposition can be superseded by articulating the former alternative, not as an essentialism of “practice,” but as the reflexive assumption of standpoint. Some intricacies of the articulation of standpoint are then discussed, concluding in a proposed dialectics of standard and standpoint....

  10. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  11. Policy,standard,regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automobile Standardization Committee secretariat collects comments on the phase III fuel consumption level limit The Committee intends to formulate the standard based on a comprehensive evaluation of the previous two phases.

  12. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  13. Questioning the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dairy quality standards trigger further controversy China’s dairy industry is once again being scrutinized as suspicions abound that major dairy enterprises played a hand in manipulating and lowering quality standards to save costs.The new standards released in March 2010 set the maximum safety limit for bacteria in raw milk at 2 million cells per milliliter, four times

  14. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits...

  15. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  16. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  17. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  18. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  19. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...

  20. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  1. Synthetic biology: putting synthesis into biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself--encompassing many branches of science and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery--a self-replicating organism--is being pursued at this moment. The aim of this article is to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture.

  2. Information Security Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security standards demonstrate in a methodical and certifiable manner that an organization conforms to industry best practices and procedures. This article offers a review of the world’s most used information security standards.

  3. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  4. Standardization in Beijing Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Opera is the treasure of Chinese traditional dramatic arts.More than 200 years of artistic practice is the process that makes it mature and standardized.Although it is not described by standardized academic terminologies,all the performances of 'Chang (Singing)','Nian(Speaking)','Zuo (Acting)' and 'Da (Fighting)' have been following standardization requirement which is called "Chengshi (pattem)" in professional language or "Fan'er" in jargou,literally meaning a standard pattern.The pattern is the an technology format which is refined and summarized in accordance with the beautify principles from natural forms of things in life and then standardized to be the commonly adhered.

  5. [Biological evolution and specialization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weizhen; Wang, Deli

    2003-12-01

    There were some disputes about the concept and mechanism of biological evolution. This paper tried to give more explanations on the key concepts. The biological adaptability was distinguished into two different concepts: biological evolution and specialization. The former was defined as the process of biologically gradual evolvement, and the latter was considered as the process of species formation at horizontal development. Moreover, a new conceptual framework was applied to the popular biological theories known by people, and the previous research results or discoveries were explained over again.

  6. Prolactin genomics and biology in herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating prolactin concentrations are typically reduced in animals suffering from tall fescue toxicosis, and have become a standard biological marker for tall fescue toxicosis. Wild-type endophyte infestations of tall fescue pastures result in forage containing ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloids ...

  7. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf R. Koford; John B. Dunning; Christine A. Ribic; Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary....

  8. Study of biocompatible and biological materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pecheva, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an overview on biomineralization, biological, biocompatible and biomimetic materials. It reveals the use of biomaterials alone or in composites, how their performance can be improved by tailoring their surface properties by external factors and how standard surface modification techniques can be applied in the area of biomaterials to beneficially influence their growth on surfaces.

  9. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  10. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  11. 117 Standards Admitted in Civil Administration Standardization Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Civil Administration has finalized its Standardization Plan 2007. According to this plan, the Ministry will see that 117 standards, including 8 compulsory national standards, 83 recommended national standards, and 26 professional standards, are prepared by June 2008.

  12. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  13. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, YZ; Lee, JK; Zhao, HM

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems.

  15. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  16. Biological solution to storm water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixio, D; Thoeye, C; De Gueldre, G

    2004-01-01

    Standard practice in Flanders is to limit the hydraulic capacity of sewage treatment works to 6Q14 (Q14= 1.7 dry weather flow Q(DWF)). A maximum of 3Q14 is treated biologically, while the excess flow undergoes only physical treatment in storm tanks. This practice has been challenged by a new high-flow activated sludge operation concept, consisting of the treatment of the full storm sewage flow in the biological train and of the use of the storm tanks as additional secondary clarifiers. After successful testing in two installations, 56 works of different sizes and types were switched to high-flow activated sludge operation from 1999 to 2002. This paper reports on progress and experiences gained since then. The analysis focuses on the parameters subject to regulatory discharge (BOD, COD, suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus) plus ammonia. Special attention is paid to the performance of the clarification and of the nitrification processes. The results indicate that high-flow biological treatment provides a substantial reduction in wet weather discharges while maintaining acceptable process operating conditions.

  17. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolуarova M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has been studied in trials. Changes made to the IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture", make similar national and international accounting rules. In this way, the fruit-bearing plants are carried at cost, taking into account accumulated depreciation. This approach is similar in both accounting systems. The method of accounting of fruit-bearing assets, which after maturation are not significant biotransformation in the value, has been simplifying accounting. According to the fruit-bearing assets, active market was absent; therefore, the estimation of fair value for them is not correct. The model of using fruit-bearing assets is similar to the use of industrial equipment. Historical cost is more appropriate and meets economic substance of the objects. Assessment of performance of fruit-bearing assets and indicators of their use is represented on an example of perennial crops

  18. Macromolecules Inquiry: Transformation of a Standard Biochemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Identification of macromolecules in food is a standard introductory high school biology lab. The intent of this article is to describe the conversion of this standard cookbook lab into an inquiry investigation. Instead of verifying the macromolecules found in food, students use their knowledge of the macromolecules in food to determine the…

  19. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  20. Information Security Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-01-01

    The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security stand...

  1. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar Saavedra, J.A.; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  2. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  3. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  4. E-learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning standards refer to a system of common rules for content, authoring software and Learning Management Systems (LMSs - rules that specify how courses can be created and delivered over multiple platforms so that they all operate seamlessly together. Accredited standards ensure that the investment in time and intellectual capital could move from one system to the next. Currently, e-learning standards are being developed by four main organizations: AICC, IEEE, IMS, and ADL. The article presents some aspects of these standards.

  5. Highlights of China Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Management:Standards Guide Sustainable Transformation As of December 2010,more than 50,000 enterprises in China passed the ISO 14001 environment management system certification and more than 400 companies completed the voluntary accounting and authentication of carbon emissions.Environmental management system certification is a "green pass" in international trade.ISO has successively developed the ISO 14000 series environmental management standards and China has converted these standards into its national standards,which play a very important role in sustainable transformation and development of enterprises.

  6. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  7. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  8. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  9. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  10. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  11. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  12. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  13. Biological Individuality of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  14. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  15. The fusion of biology, computer science, and engineering: towards efficient and successful synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Goldberg, Alex; Konry, Tania; Hillson, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a nascent field that emerged in earnest only around the turn of the millennium. It aims to engineer new biological systems and impart new biological functionality, often through genetic modifications. The design and construction of new biological systems is a complex, multistep process, requiring multidisciplinary collaborative efforts from "fusion" scientists who have formal training in computer science or engineering, as well as hands-on biological expertise. The public has high expectations for synthetic biology and eagerly anticipates the development of solutions to the major challenges facing humanity. This article discusses laboratory practices and the conduct of research in synthetic biology. It argues that the fusion science approach, which integrates biology with computer science and engineering best practices, including standardization, process optimization, computer-aided design and laboratory automation, miniaturization, and systematic management, will increase the predictability and reproducibility of experiments and lead to breakthroughs in the construction of new biological systems. The article also discusses several successful fusion projects, including the development of software tools for DNA construction design automation, recursive DNA construction, and the development of integrated microfluidics systems.

  16. Dynamical Systems and Control Theory Inspired by Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    in both bacterial and eukaryotic signaling pathways. A common theme in the systems biology literature is that certain systems whose output variables...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0282 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL THEORY INSPIRED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Eduardo Sontag RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY...Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL THEORY INSPIRED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0247

  17. Introducing Statistical Inference to Biology Students through Bootstrapping and Randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robin H.; Lock, Patti Frazer

    2008-01-01

    Bootstrap methods and randomization tests are increasingly being used as alternatives to standard statistical procedures in biology. They also serve as an effective introduction to the key ideas of statistical inference in introductory courses for biology students. We discuss the use of such simulation based procedures in an integrated curriculum…

  18. [Standards in Medical Informatics: Fundamentals and Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon

    2013-09-01

    The use of computers in medical practice has enabled novel forms of communication to be developed in health care. The optimization of communication processes is achieved through the use of standards to harmonize the exchange of information and provide a common language for all those involved. This article describes the concept of a standard applied to medical informatics and its importance in the development of various applications, such as computational representation of medical knowledge, disease classification and coding systems, medical literature searches and integration of biological and clinical sciences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-06-20

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.

  20. Polythiophenes in biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Prakash; Ghosh, Koushik; Martinez, Jennifer S; Rocha, Reginaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Polythiophene and its derivatives have shown tremendous potential for interfacing electrically conducting polymers with biological applications. These semiconducting organic polymers are relatively soft, conduct electrons and ions, have low cytotoxicity, and can undergo facile chemical modifications. In addition, the reduction in electrical impedance of electrodes coated with polythiophenes may prove to be invaluable for a stable and permanent connection between devices and biological tissues. This review article focuses on the synthesis and some key applications of polythiophenes in multidisciplinary areas at the interface with biology. These polymers have shown tremendous potential in biological applications such as diagnostics, therapy, drug delivery, imaging, implant devices and artificial organs.

  1. Chemical space and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  2. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  3. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  4. Soviet Standardization of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton

    1961-01-01

    After a brief history of influences on the standardization of Russian since the Revolution, the descriptive and normalizing role of specific reference works of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and morphology is discussed. Concluding remarks point out a problem caused by a lack of coordination of standardization efforts and the mounting demands for…

  5. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  6. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school. This...

  7. Why Standards Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  8. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  9. [CAS General Standards 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  10. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  11. Academic Standards in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  12. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  13. Enhancing translational research in paediatric rheumatology through standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Rae S M; Albani, Salvatore; Feldman, Brian M; Mellins, Elizabeth; Prakken, Berent; Wedderburn, Lucy R

    2016-11-01

    The past decade has seen many successes in translational rheumatology, from dramatic improvements in outcomes brought about by novel biologic therapies, to the discovery of new monogenic inflammatory disorders. Advances in molecular medicine, combined with progress towards precision care, provide an excellent opportunity to accelerate the translation of biological understanding to the bedside. However, although the field of rheumatology is a leader in the standardization of data collection and measures of disease activity, it lags behind in standardization of biological sample collection and assay performance. Uniform approaches are necessary for robust collaborative research, particularly in rare diseases. Standardization is also critical to increase reproducibility between centres, a prerequisite for clinical implementation of translational research. This Perspectives article emphasizes the need for standardization and implementation of best practices, presented in the context of lessons learned from international biorepository networks.

  14. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  15. Biology Library Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  16. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  17. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumann, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  18. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  19. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  20. Introduction to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Hornberg, J.J.; Boogerd, F.C.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The developments in the molecular biosciences have made possible a shift to combined molecular and system-level approaches to biological research under the name of Systems Biology. It integrates many types of molecular knowledge, which can best be achieved by the synergistic use of models and experi

  1. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  2. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled......, and mechanical biological stabilization (MBS), which first composts the waste for drying prior to extraction of a large RDF fraction. Only a small fraction is landfilled. The latter technology is also referred to as biodrying. Within each of the two main technologies, a range of variations is available depending...

  3. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  4. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  5. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  6. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  7. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  8. Striving for "Standard Economy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huailin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promotion of the "standard economy" itself is an integral part of upgrading the quality of China's economic development, transforming economic growth mode and responding to foreign trade barriers as well as a key strategy for improving foreign trade level.

  9. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  10. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  11. 1990 Fischer Standard study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubik, G.J.

    1990-09-12

    The purpose of this work is to develop a set of Titanium areal density standards for calibration and maintenance of the Fischer`s X-ray Fluorescence measurement system characterization curve program. The electron microprobe was calibrated for Titanium films on ceramic substrates using an existing set of laboratory standards (Quantity: 6 Range: 0.310 to 1.605). Fourteen source assemblies were measured and assigned values. These values are based on a mean calculation, of five separate readings, from best curve fit equations developed form the plot of the laboratory standards areal density (Source Measure) versus electron microprobe measurement (reading). The best fit equations were determined using the SAS General Linear Modeling (GLM) procedure. Four separate best fit equations were evaluated (Linear, Quadratic, Cubic and Exponential). Areal density values for the Fischer Standards appear here ordered by best fit equation based on maximum R{sup 2}.

  12. The Standard Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire 3-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realisation of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision in order to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas which might explain the values of its parameters. Althoug...

  13. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  14. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  15. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  16. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  17. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  18. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  19. Standardization Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Order for the Whole World) Eberstein, H.-H.: Sicherheitstechnisches Recht und Normen ; in: Peters. 0. H. u. A. Meyna: Handbuch der Si- cherheitstechnik...on the Protection of Labor for the Development and Design Sector) Landis, J. W.: Freie Welt - freier Handel - freie Normen ; in: DIN-Mitteilungen 57...Norm auf die Vielfalt effect of company standard on variety KonformitAt zu nationalen Normen conformity to national standards Konformit6t zu

  20. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  1. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  2. Standardization Practices of Gree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.The great importance attached by the company's executives is a strong guarantee for leap-forward development of standardization.To give play to the strategic role of standards in supporting the long-term and sustainable development of the enterprise,the company's management has attached great importance to the standardization work and provided strong capital support and guarantee of resources in standardization.Continuously improve the requirements of corporate technical standards and reliability quality control means,develop core technologies with independent intellectual property rights,continuously achieve major breakthroughs in key technologies and successfully apply to the company's products to help the enterprises maintain rapid and steady development in the market of household electrical appliances with extremely intense competition,achieve remarkable economic and social benefits for the company,and provide strong support for leap-forward development of standardization work.The company has successively and independently developed a series of highend products and technologies which are intemationally advanced.So far,the company has 10 innovations included in the national science and technology programs.

  3. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  4. Lizard thermal biology: do genders differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B; Pianka, Eric R

    2007-09-01

    For more than six decades, physiological ecologists have intensively studied diverse aspects of lizard thermal biology. Nevertheless, a recent review notes that prior studies have generally ignored gender differences in body temperatures, thermal sensitivity, or other aspects of thermal biology. We concur that gender differences have been ignored and should be examined: if gender differences prove common, standard protocols for studying lizard natural history, thermal physiology, and ecology will require significant modification. To help resolve this issue, we conducted a retrospective analysis of our huge data set on the thermal biology of many desert lizards (more than 11,000 individuals from 56 species in seven major clades) from Africa, Australia, and North America. Results are unambiguous: gender differences in body temperature, air temperature, and time of activity--and thus in field thermal biology--are almost always minor. In fact, mean body temperatures of males and females differ by less than 1 degrees C in 80.4% of species. For desert lizards, gender differences in thermal biology are the exception, not the rule. Nevertheless, gender differences should be examined when feasible because exceptions--though likely rare--could be biologically interesting.

  5. Methodological approach to EMF protection standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been investigated for many years. Exposure standards have been developed internationally, that provide adequate protection against all known adverse effects of exposure to EMF. The guidelines developed by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are widely recognized and have formed the basis for national regulations in several countries. Concerns for hypothesized, but unproven, long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level EMFs have created a demand for precautionary measures beyond the standards for recognized, acute effects. However, such measure should be separate from exposure standards, and adopted with special care to avoid undermining the credibility of science-based guidelines, and of health protection agencies.

  6. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  7. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  8. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  9. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  10. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  11. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  12. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  13. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment......The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  14. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  15. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  16. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  17. Biological Monitoring Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Biological Monitoring Team (BMT) was a pilot project focused on addressing NWRS inventory and monitoring needs in Regions 3 and 5. The BMT was a precursor to the...

  18. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  19. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  20. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  1. Achieving Relevance Through Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a one-semester biology course for nonmajors which explores the interdisciplinary potential of psychology, anthropology, history, literature, philosophy, and religion. Satisfactory results in the 1970 tryout with 126 college students are identified. (CC)

  2. Chemistry and biology data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  3. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  4. [Systems biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  5. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  6. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  7. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  8. Biological Parameters of Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-09-01

    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  9. Nestedness across biological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  10. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  11. Consequences of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Mingyue

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this article consists in attempting to highlight the importance of concerning about the economic consequences and introducing the foundation of economic consequence theory, proposing that the accounting standard is not only a kind of technical standard, it also has the economic consequences, so it becomes the object which all quarters special interest group gambles to get latent profit. After general characterization of the economic consequences in the second part, the article gives a description of the influences the change of accounting standards bring to the government, the ordinary investors and creditors, the auditors, and the enterprise, establishing a framework that how those groups react as the economic consequences in the third part. The fourth section compare technical theory and accounting standards theory, links the basic norms of accounting such as conservatism, relevance and reliability to the methods of escaping the harm of economic consequences, then proposes some specific methods in the formuhtion of accounting standard. Finally, the article utilizes the methods to settle the problems appearing in Chinese market.

  12. Product evaluation and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M

    1986-01-01

    Although it was cumbersome at the time of implementation, the process began to operate effectively once hospital personnel overcame their initial concern over a potential "paperwork jungle" and realized that the paperwork is easy to control. When implementing such a system, it is vital that all personnel make a commitment to the process. Although it can be time-consuming and demanding in that employees must attend meetings, write standards, conduct and coordinate evaluations, the benefits are paid back many times over, both in dollars and staff satisfaction. A major plus of our system is our requirement that the user justify why a product is needed. That need is explained in the content of a product standard. The demerit rating system, while not a precise mathematical science, does indicate the relative importance of each criterion. The final result is a standard product, a standard process and a standard decision, against which both product and process performance can be measured. This measurement is a level of professionalism achieved by the actions of a motivated staff, working in cooperation toward a single goal.

  13. Modular modelling with Physiome standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Michael T; Nickerson, David P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models. We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML. By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity. We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology. The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole-cell models and linking such models in multi-scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set of principles to

  14. Tadpoles: the Biology of Anuran Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Altig, R.

    1999-01-01

    The recent alarming declines in amphibian populations worldwide and the suitability of amphibians for use in answering research questions in disciplines as diverse as molecular systematics, animal behavior, ecology, and evolutionary biology have focused enormous attention on tadpoles. Yet despite this growing interest, relatively little is known about these fascinating creatures. n this invaluable reference, leading experts on tadpole biology relate what we currently know about tadpoles and what we might learn from them in the future. Tadpoles provides detailed summaries of tadpole morphology, development, behavior, ecology, and environmental physiology; explores the evolutionary consequences of the tadpole stage; synthesizes available information on their biodiversity, and presents a standardized terminology and an exhaustive literature review of tadpole biology.

  15. Principles of biological therapy in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca Biljanovska, N; V'lckova Laskoska, M

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic T-cell mediated autoimmune skin disease, potentially associated with arthritis. The new understanding of immunopathogenesis and inflammatory cytokine pathways was actually the rationale for developing and introducing biological drugs in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Different from the traditional systemic drugs that impact the entire immune system, bio-logics target only specific points of the immune system. This review focuses on five biologics which target either T-cells (alefacept) or TNF-alpha (etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab) or interleukin IL-12/IL-23 (ustekinumab)--their efficacy, safety, patient monitoring and recommended dosage. The purpose of the treatment guidelines presented here is to provide a high standard of continuing care of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients.

  16. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  17. Science education standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the National Science Education Standards that are being developed at the National Research Council. The Standards are being developed for the following areas: content, teaching, assessment, program, and system. The national science standards will call for the kind of science that provides both an understanding of the basic concepts needed for success in our high technology society, and the acquisition of process skills, or the ability to proceed step by step to solve a practical problem. Science should become a core subject like reading, writing and math in grades K-12. At all levels, the material taught should be interesting, both to students and to teachers. The profession of science teaching must become an attractive one, which is possible to do well without superhuman effort. The scientific community must accept responsibility for achieving these goals.

  18. Fasteners 5 basic standards

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This 3rd edition of DIN Handbook 193 contains 38 fundamental standards on fasteners, covering such areas as countersinks and counterbores, widths across flats, thread run-outs and thread undercuts, bolt and screw ends, stud ends and tapped holes for compression couplings, driving features, tolerances for screw threads and nomenclature. New to this compilation are DIN 34824 dealing with 12 point sockets for bolts and screws and DIN EN ISO 15065 which reflects current practice in Europe with regard to countersinks for countersunk head screws. Also included for the first time is DIN EN ISO 225 "Fasteners - Bolts, screws, studs and nuts - Symbols and descriptions of dimensions" which, together with DIN ISO 1891, now also incorporates terminology in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish. Four standards have been revised for this edition, among them DIN 918 Supplement 3 which provides information on the current status of European standardization relating to fasteners. DIN Handbook 193 is one of a series of six handbooks on...

  19. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  20. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  1. Ethics, standards, and TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, M G

    1995-04-01

    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  2. Culture of standardization

    OpenAIRE

    García Pantigozo, Manuel; Yenque de Dios, Julio; Docente FII-UNMSM; Gil Benites, Wilber

    2014-01-01

    The culture of standardization has become a competitive advantage; develop those who will survive, and those who do not, will be isolated in the market. Have been established quality standards (ISO 9000), environmental (ISO 14000), on laboratory accreditation (ISO 25) on food (HACCP) and drugs (NCF).  La cultura de la normalización se ha convertido en una ventaja competitiva; quienes la desarrollen sobrevivirán, y los que no, quedarán aislados del mercado. Se han establecido normas sobr...

  3. Airborne Network Camera Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    primarily to cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 10 standards for command and control over a...cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision1 (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 102 standards for command and control over a variety of... IRIG 106-13. June 2013. May be superseded by update. Available at http://www.wsmr.army.mil/RCCsite/Documents/106%20Previous%20Versions/106

  4. Standardization Historical Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1. Indroduction Standardization germinated in ancient times, and began to develop from the beginning of the in-dustrial revolution, and took off in the later years of the 19th Century. It has been closely connected with the development of science and technology, as well as industry and trade throughout human histo-ry. Standardization now plays an important role in nearly every aspect of human life, in different sec-tors of industry and society. It has had a great im-pact on our lives.

  5. Reactive standard deontic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Straßer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a reactive variant of SDL (standard deontic logic): SDLR1 (reactive standard deontic logic). Given a Kripkean view on the semantics of SDL in terms of directed graphs where arrows -> represent the accessibility relation between worlds, reactive models add two elements: arrows -> are labelled as 'active' or 'inactive', and double arrows a dagger connect arrows, e.g. (x(1) -> x(2)) a dagger (x(3) -> x(4)). The idea is that passing through x(1) -> x(2) activates a switch represented...

  6. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  7. Digital Standard Star Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuerry, J. P., Jr.

    The Digital Standard Star Tracker (DSST) is an electro-optical instrument which provides position data used for precise attitude determination. The new DSST design uses flight-proven optical and sensor components from the BASD/NASA Standard Star Tracker (SST) programs while incorporating digital electronics techniques to improve producibility and reliability. This design approach has resulted in a new instrument capable of less than 10 arc second calibrated accuracy with 50 percent of the electrical components and only 10 percent of the electrical assemblies used in the SST.

  8. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  9. 9 CFR 113.29 - Determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desiccated biological products. 113.29 Section 113.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... biological products. Methods provided in this section must be used when a determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the...

  10. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  11. Recommendations for designing and conducting veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K

    2017-01-01

    The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and sele......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing.......The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review...... and selection of publications as standard references. The following recommendations are provided in the format and order commonly found in veterinary publications. A checklist is provided to aid in planning, implementing, and evaluating veterinary studies on biologic variation (Appendix S1...

  12. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, C

    2015-01-01

    We introduce aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model focusing on supersymmetry, extra dimensions, and a composite Higgs as solutions to the Hierarchy problem. Lectures given at the 2013 European School of High Energy Physics, Parádfürdo, Hungary, 5-18 June 2013.

  13. Telecommunications administration standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustwiller, K.D. [GTE Customer Networks, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. A Standard of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Dave; Cramer, James E.; Cramer, Mary Kay

    2000-01-01

    Principals can support teachers' pursuit of National Board of Professional Teaching Standards certification by learning about the NBPTS's certification process, putting candidates in contact with NBPTS support programs, facilitating access to technology, providing building access on weekends, volunteering to photocopy or obtain needed materials,…

  15. Setting Environmental Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  16. Organizational Hiring Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yinon; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Using a sample of 254 San Francisco Bay Area establishments, this study examines determinants of organizational hiring selectivity, including use of educational credentials, tests, and screening devices for both white and blue collar workers. Apparently, hiring standards reflect organizations' skill requirements and group preferences for these…

  17. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  19. Standard PWR for Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negroni, A.; Velona, F. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy))

    1983-03-01

    A description is given of the general design for the standard PWR which will be used in the seven to eight nuclear power stations provided for in the Italian national energy plan. Special features to meet Italian conditions include double containment and a common foundation mat for the reactor, auxiliary and fuel buildings.

  20. Standards and Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph has grown out of a series of discussions and a six-month period of reading and reflecting on the literature which were initiated by Fritz Mosher's suggestions to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to examine the "standards" question. Conversations with Mosher himself and the staff of NAEP have been most…

  1. On Standard Ideals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi De YU

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, we study a class of standard ideals which are more general than the m-primarystandard ideals discussed in [2]. We will prove an important equality concerning I-weak sequences; thusa generalization of the equality of [2] is established.

  2. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  3. Setting the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The country’s self-developed document format standard faces a difficult decision and possible extinction as it goes up against mighty Microsoft Since Microsoft’s Office Open Extensible Markup Language (OOXML)document format was accepted as an international stan- dard by the International Organization for

  4. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  5. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...... of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves....

  6. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  7. 4G Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China plans to submit homegrown fourth-generation (4G) mobile technology standards to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) between 2008 and 2009, according to Wen Ku, director of the Department of Science and Technology at the Ministry of Information Industry.

  8. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  9. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  10. Standards and Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen McGibbon

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am sure that there will be much discussion at the upcoming Baltic IT&T 2005 conference about standards and interoperability, and so I thought I would try to contribute to the debate with this, the first of four articles that I will write for this journal over the coming months.

  11. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  12. Synthetic Biology with Cytochromes P450 Using Photosynthetic Chassis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan

    Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing engineering discipline in biology. It aims at building novel biological systems that do not exist in nature by selecting the interchangeable standardized biological parts that are already available in the nature, and assembling them in a specific order. Today......, this modern field of synthetic biology is completely dependent on the nature of the chassis - the host organisms - for its endeavor. Of all the chassis, photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and plants gains special attention due to the remarkable amount of sunlight that is striking the Earth......’s atmosphere and anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the atmosphere. Hence, tapping into photosynthesis for synthetic biology endeavor is very rational, and for future, it has a huge potential for the industrial production of fuels and high value bioactive compounds in a sustainable way. Most...

  13. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.. For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration. Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production, reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a

  14. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  15. Nursing care plan standardized breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana de la Flor Picado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superiority of human milk in feeding the human infant is incontestable. Breastmilk is a living food can´t be copied and is supported by numerous arguments in support of excellence, both biological and anthropometric or economic. Despite it, has been a significant decline in this practice. Scientific advances, sociological changes and the lack f health personnel have contributed to this expense. Currently, both the WHO and UNICEF cone try relaunching excusive breastfeeding as feeding the infant until 6 months of life. Initiatives whit the Baby Friendly Hospital or the Strategic Plan for the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding trying to promote the recognition of breastfeeding as irrefutable cornerstone for optimal growth and development of our children.Goal: Unify care criteria and actions to promote breastfeeding initiation and maintenance of the same, improving communication between professionals and between them and patients.Methodology: Care Development Plan following the NANDA taxonomies, NOC, NIC.Conclusions: Standardized work promotes decision making and performance of nursing staff to develop a happy breastfeeding.

  16. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  17. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  18. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  19. Biological anthropology and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Gillian H

    2005-06-01

    As the number of persons aged 65 and older is increasing dramatically in both developed and developing nations of the world, the health and well-being of elders has become a worldwide public health concern. Although older adults are now found in higher proportions across all cultures, the biology, behavior, and environment vary tremendously across older populations. Biomedical research largely follows a reductionist paradigm separating the domains of culture and biology. Even when health is examined in association with culture and behavior, biomedical researchers largely focus on static unidirectional associations instead of examining the dynamic multidirectional impact of culture, behavior, and the environment on physiology and ultimately health. Since aging and the processes of senescence clearly involve complex interactions among biological, environmental, and cultural domains, anthropologists with a bio-cultural and evolutionary perspective are well-equipped to study variation in aging and senescence. While relatively few biological anthropologists have focused their attention on aging, a growing literature has demonstrated the utility of biocultural approaches to aging. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights the core of the biological anthropology of aging.

  20. Information Complexity and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  1. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  2. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  3. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules; predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes; generating hypotheses...

  4. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  5. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Joanna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs.

  6. Biological applications of nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Steffens, Daniela; Pranke, Patricia; da Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment. Nanoscale structures and materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes) have been explored in many biological applications (biosensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy) because their novel properties and functions differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Their high volume/surface ratio, improved solubility, and multifunctionality open many new possibilities. The objective of this review is to describe the potential benefits and impacts of the nanobiotechnology in different areas.

  7. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  8. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  9. Biological therapy and dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436

  10. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  11. [Biologics in SLE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karonitsch, Thomas; Aringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have become indispensable in the last decade in the treatment of the more common rheumatic diseases. For treating systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), B-cell depletion, albeit off-label, has been a well-accepted strategy in severe and refractory disease. Unexpectedly, however, the results of the first randomized controlled rituximab trials in SLE were negative. New trials with improved study protocols are ongoing, which should resolve this issue. In 2012, with the approval of belimumab, SLE finally entered the era of approved biological therapies. The anti-Blys/BAFF antibody belimumab showed prevention of SLE flares, glucocorticoid sparing, and significant improvement in the quality of life of SLE patients, in part by drastically reducing immune complex mediated fatigue. Positive reports on further targeting approaches give hope that additional biological agents will be available for SLE therapy soon.

  12. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  13. The biology of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  14. Biolog phenotype microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, April; Wolcott, Mark; Daefler, Simon; Rozak, David A

    2012-01-01

    Phenotype microarrays nicely complement traditional genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis by offering opportunities for researchers to ground microbial systems analysis and modeling in a broad yet quantitative assessment of the organism's physiological response to different metabolites and environments. Biolog phenotype assays achieve this by coupling tetrazolium dyes with minimally defined nutrients to measure the impact of hundreds of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur sources on redox reactions that result from compound-induced effects on the electron transport chain. Over the years, we have used Biolog's reproducible and highly sensitive assays to distinguish closely related bacterial isolates, to understand their metabolic differences, and to model their metabolic behavior using flux balance analysis. This chapter describes Biolog phenotype microarray system components, reagents, and methods, particularly as they apply to bacterial identification, characterization, and metabolic analysis.

  15. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  16. Autoantibody standardization in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, J.; Tervaert, J.W.; Derksen, R.; Hamann, D.; Hooijkaas, H.; Klasen, I.S.; Kallenberg, C.; Limburg, P.; Smeenk, R.

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have been undertaken, independent of the European Autoantibody Standardization Initiative (EASI), to standardize autoantibodies in The Netherlands. The Dutch EASI team has made an inventory of which initiatives on autoantibody standardization are already available and what future

  17. [Cybernetics and biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F

    2013-01-01

    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  18. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  19. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2015-01-01

    individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...... for the recording of exposure information in clinical practice, as well as the critical steps involved in the transfer of exposure data to various pharmacovigilance databases. EXPERT OPINION: The existing systems ensure the traceability of biologicals down to the manufacturer within pharmacy records, but do...

  20. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: yamil@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  1. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  2. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  3. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    angles – technology, markets and economy, policy and regulation, and other social aspects. Findings – The paper concludes that WCDMA will dominate the markets, but that there will be a co-existence of different solutions – also inside individual countries where more than one solution is implemented......Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which...... are the most decisive factors in the battle between the different standards – which roles do respectively technology path-dependence, network effects and strategic concerns play? Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken in the paper is to examine the different kinds of stakeholders – in this field...

  4. The Genomic Standards Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A vast and rich body of information has grown up as a result of the world's enthusiasm for 'omics technologies. Finding ways to describe and make available this information that maximise its usefulness has become a major effort across the 'omics world. At the heart of this effort is the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC, an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality and quantity of contextual information about our public collections of genomes, metagenomes, and marker gene sequences.

  5. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...

  6. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed.

  7. New standards; Neue Normen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Stephan [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Testzentrum fuer Solaranlagen des Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2013-06-06

    At the end of this year (2013) the international collector standard EN ISO 9806 replaces the existing EN 12975-2 standard. Also EN 12975-1, which is formulating the general requirements for solar collectors will be adjusted during the year. And last but not least: the first time boilers and controller can get the label ''Solar Keymark''. [German] Ende dieses Jahres (2013) soll die internationale Kollektornorm EN ISO 9806 die bisherige EN 12975-2 ersetzen. Auch die EN 12975-1, die allgemeine Anforderungen an Solarkollektoren formuliert, wird im Laufe des Jahres angepasst. Und nicht zuletzt: Erstmals koennen Speicher und Regler das Label ''Solar Keymark'' bekommen.

  8. Hypnosis and performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Green, Joseph P; Jaquith, Leah; Gasior, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Participants received 1 of 3 instructional sets designed to manipulate their performance standards (i.e., criteria used to evaluate hypnotic performance): (a) stringent set (n = 33), these subjects were told that responsive subjects respond immediately to hypnosis and imagine realistically, (b) lenient set (n = 30), these subjects were told that responsive subjects do not necessarily respond immediately or imagine realistically, and (c) control set (n = 34), standard prehypnotic information. As expected, compared to controls, stringent set participants were less responsive to hypnosis, as indexed by measures of actual and estimated suggestibility, subjective involvement, involuntariness, quickness of responding, satisfaction, and imaginative ability. Stringent set participants estimated they passed fewer suggestions, were less satisfied with their performance, and reported less subjective involvement than individuals in the lenient condition.

  9. 76 FR 81295 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... cost on a current mark-to-market basis better aligns the CAS measurement with current accounting and... 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards... Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and......

  10. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  11. Forestry Standardization & Forestry Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Forestry insurance of our country has developed slowly,of which the main difficulty lies in predicting and determining forestry risk,confirming the sum insured,raising the premiums, indemnity for property loss,coordinating forestry insurance and forestry protection,and lack of insurance legal system etc.With the implementation of forestry's standardized project,and overcoming effectively the technological obstacle existing in forestry's insurance,the development speed of forestry's insurance will be accelerated too.

  12. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  13. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  14. Introductory biology and ecological literacy: A critical cultural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joseph Damian

    Despite the lack of accepted standards for the introductory biology course for students majoring in biology, the content and format of the first-year biology course is remarkably uniform in terms of both curriculum and pedagogy. This investigation is a critical cultural analysis of the purpose of, and practices within, undergraduate biology education in general, and the introductory biology course in particular. Drawing on a theoretical framework that combines critical philosophical inquiry, ecological literacy, science studies, and cultural studies, I argue that the failure of biology educators within the university to acknowledge the diversity of their student body and to actively engage social and ecological issues has resulted in a curriculum that has almost no meaning for students, and that is socially and ecologically irresponsible. This work is a search for meaningful alternatives. Within this work, I attempt to provide biology educators, as well as would-be reformers, with a seldom-seen view of academic biology. This is done to unsettle the status quo, and to initiate processes of seeking out spaces for change. Through the discourses of critical pedagogy and ecological literacy I examine the laboratories, lecture halls, teaching practices, and course materials that students encounter as they experience "the study of life." Additionally, I place the genesis and evolution of the introductory biology course within the sociohistorical context of reform in science education and academic biology in an effort to explain the amazing and problematic stability of this course.

  15. CALBC silver standard corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

    2010-02-01

    The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents.

  16. Standards for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Nigel; Lloyd-Jones, Gaynor

    2003-02-01

    In the current UK socio-political climate of mounting regulation of professional practice, a debate on the topic of standards amongst medical teachers seems timely. The role of teacher is increasingly recognised as a core professional activity for all doctors and one that cannot be left to chance, aptitude or inclination. As a consequence, faculties have developed a plethora of teacher training programmes for medical teachers. But what is good medical teaching? Unless we know what it is, how can we develop it? One possible approach is to develop clear and comprehensive standards, defining what we mean by competent or effective clinical teaching. In this article we have evaluated and compared two models of standards for clinical educators. The first is the outcome-based approach developed at Dundee Medical School and the second is the scholarship model devised initially by Boyer and then elaborated by Glassick and Fincher et al. The key features of both models are briefly described and their comparative strengths and problematic aspects explored. Both models offer interesting and stimulating ideas and together they provide an instructive contrast. They make a valuable contribution to the ongoing process of improving the provision of medical education.

  17. The Conformal Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Latosinski, Adam; Meissner, Krzysztof A; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos in such a way that the scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3)$_N$ which is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of such an enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3)$_N$ symmetry are natural Dark M...

  18. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  19. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  20. History of standards, certification, and licensure in medical health physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, S C

    1995-11-01

    Immediately following the discovery of x rays they were applied to medical diagnosis and therapy. These early medical applications were soon shown to be accompanied by rather severe biologic responses and injuries. This resulted in the development of standards. Radiation standards were developed to properly control the application of x rays in medicine by controlling equipment and how it was used. Control of personnel occurred later with first certification and then licensure.

  1. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  2. Tropical Freshwater Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Editor will accept or reject or return manuscripts for review based on recommendations received from referees. ... Standard Methods for the ... or U. S. $8.00 per final printed page after acceptance, to partially defray the cost of publication.

  3. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  4. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  5. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  6. The biology of strigolactones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, C.P.; Al-Babili, S.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected

  7. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;

    2016-01-01

    As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question, ...

  8. Doublethink in Biological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Donald D.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  9. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  10. Biological Isolation Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  11. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  12. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  13. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  14. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  15. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  16. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  17. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  18. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  19. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  20. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  1. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  2. Assessment of biology investigations.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, R.; Gott, R.

    2003-01-01

    This review makes a case for the assessment of investigations against the Concepts of Evidence in written tests as a potentially more reliable and valid way of assessing the ideas used in all types of biology investigations, thus reducing the distorting effect of assessment on the curriculum.

  3. Physiology of biological variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In agricultural products, variation exists in quality attributes between batches. Examples of this biological variation are well known and the general response is trying to suppress it as much as possible; to create uniformity using pre- andpostharvestmethods. This thesis

  4. Commercializing Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  5. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  6. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  7. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  8. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  9. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  10. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  11. Viewpoints on Grid Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew A. Chien; Xian-He Sun; Zhi-Wei Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ At GCC 2003 in Shanghai in December 2003, a panel discussion was held on the future of grid computing and on the role of the Globus Toolkit in future grid standards. Panelists include Andrew Chien (UCSD, USA), Wolfgang Gentzsch (Sun),Francis Lau (HKU, China), Carl Kesselman (USC, USA), Satoshi Matsuoka (TIT, Japan), Xian-He Sun (IIT, USA), Richard Wirt (Intel), Liang-Jie Zhang (IBM Research), Song-Nian Zhou (Platform Computing), and Zhi-Wei Xu (ICT, China), with Hai Jin (HUST, China) served as the coordinator. The panel talks were stimulating and well received. Three of the panel talk notes are selected and included in this viewpoint.

  12. Hazard Communication Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  13. Fractional standard map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Mark, E-mail: edelman@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stern College at Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tarasov, Vasily E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-28

    Properties of the phase space of the standard map with memory are investigated. This map was obtained from a kicked fractional differential equation. Depending on the value of the map parameter and the fractional order of the derivative in the original differential equation, this nonlinear dynamical system demonstrates attractors (fixed points, stable periodic trajectories, slow converging and slow diverging trajectories, ballistic trajectories, and fractal-like structures) and/or chaotic trajectories. At least one type of fractal-like sticky attractors in the chaotic sea was observed.

  14. World gravity standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  15. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  16. High Availability Electronics Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  17. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....

  18. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  19. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  20. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium enterp....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards.......Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium...

  1. Standardized Referente Evapotranspiration Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mundo–Molina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a discussion on the necessity to standardize the Penman–Monteith equations in order to estimate ETo. The proposal is to define an accuracy and standarize equation based in Penman–Monteith. The automated weather station named CIANO (27° 22 ' 144 North latitude and 109" 55' west longitude it was selected tomake comparisons. The compared equations we re: a CIANO weat her station, b Penman–Monteith ASCE (PMA, Penman–Monteith FAO 56 (PM FAO 56, Penman–Monteith estandarizado ASCE (PM Std. ASCE. The results were: a There are important differences between PMA and CIANO weather station. The differences are attributed to the nonstandardization of the equation CIANO weather station, b The coefficient of correlation between both methods was of 0,92, with a standard deviation of 1,63 mm, an average quadratic error of 0,60 mm and one efficiency in the estimation of ETo with respect to the method pattern of 87%.

  2. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie;

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...... for undervisningsudvikling, men kan også frygtes at blive brugt som et kontrolredskab. Disse forskellige muligheder og dilemmaer vil blive adresseret i samtalen. Oplægsholderne vil tage udgangspunkt i initiativer de er engagerede i på deres egne universiteter og fremhæve de konkrete problemer, som disse initiativer har...

  3. New standard exceeds expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  4. The Supersymmetric Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The Standard Model may be included within a supersymmetric theory, postulating new sparticles that differ by half-a-unit of spin from their standard model partners, and by a new quantum number called R-parity. The lightest one, usually a neutralino, is expected to be stable and a possible candidate for dark matter. The electroweak breaking requires two doublets, leading to several charged and neutral Brout-Englert-Higgs bosons. This also leads to gauge/Higgs unification by providing extra spin-0 partners for the spin-1 W± and Z. It offers the possibility to view, up to a mixing angle, the new 125 GeV boson as the spin-0 partner of the Z under two supersymmetry transformations, i.e. as a Z that would be deprived of its spin. Supersymmetry then relates two existing particles of different spins, in spite of their different gauge symmetry properties, through supersymmetry transformations acting on physical fields in a non-polynomial way. We also discuss how the compactification of extra dimensions, relying on R-parity and other discrete symmetries, may determine both the supersymmetrybreaking and grand-unification scales.

  5. The Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fayet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model may be included within a supersymmetric theory, postulating new sparticles that differ by half-a-unit of spin from their standard model partners, and by a new quantum number called R-parity. The lightest one, usually a neutralino, is expected to be stable and a possible candidate for dark matter. The electroweak breaking requires two doublets, leading to several charged and neutral Brout- Englert-Higgs bosons. This also leads to gauge/Higgs unification by providing extra spin-0 partners for the spin-1 W$^\\pm$ and Z. It offers the possibility to view, up to a mixing angle, the new 125 GeV boson as the spin-0 partner of the Z under two supersymmetry transformations, i.e. as a Z that would be deprived of its spin. Supersymmetry then relates two existing particles of different spins, in spite of their different gauge symmetry properties, through supersymmetry transformations acting on physical fields in a non-polynomial way. We also discuss how the compactification of extra dimensions, relying ...

  6. Measuring against clinical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D

    2003-07-15

    Systematic improvement of health services requires the objective measurement of people, practices and organisations against valid and explicit standards in order to identify and implement appropriate change. Effective quality systems must embrace a wide range of definitions of quality, and a similar variety of approaches to defining, measuring and improving. Clinical performance may be examined from three professional viewpoints--clinical competence: assessment of individual practitioners against explicit criteria to recognise achievement and to promote continuing development. Traditional mechanisms of training, registration and accreditation enable clinicians to reach career grades but responsibility for subsequent support is often unclear between employers, professions and registering bodies. Clinical practice: assessment of actual clinical process and outcomes against research-based "best practice" to identify and reduce variation. Peer review, clinical audit and confidential enquiries are examples of this approach, which may involve single or multiple professional groups and their interface with management. Service accreditation: systems to assess health care organisations against published standards in order to encourage best management practice. These are usually run on a regional or national basis and, though sensitive to expectations of patients, managers, clinicians, paying agencies and government, they are usually managed by an impartial but authoritative organisation.

  7. Standardization Promotes Midea Industrial Upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.Midea Achievenents in standardization For a long time,Midea attaches high importance to the implementation of standardization.After four decades development,Midea has accumulated advantages in manufacturing,technology,market and personnel to some extent,which form Midea's strategic foundation of enterprise standardization.In 2006,the Group set up the Science & Technology Management Department,enhanced the standardization management function to the Group and made standardization management the more specialized and systemized.

  8. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  9. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  10. Heritability and biological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, E

    1998-10-01

    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  11. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing......As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question......, a limited budget, and challenging sample material. Furthermore, although recent advances in technology offer unprecedented opportunities for research in non-model organisms, they also demand unprecedented awareness from the researcher regarding the assumptions and limitations of each method. In this review...

  12. [Cell biology and cosmetology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T

    1991-01-01

    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  13. Biological scaling and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  14. Quantum physics meets biology

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...

  15. Mathematical hierarchies and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris; Roberts, Fred S; Roberts, Fred S; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical approach to the study of hierarchies presents the theoretical basis for many important areas of current scientific investigation. Biology has benefited from this research and has also stimulated the mathematical study of hierarchies. This collection presents papers devoted to theoretical, algorithmical, and application issues related to (1) reconstructing hierarchies (trees or ranking) from (dis)similarity or entity-to-character data, (2) using hierarchies for modeling evolution and other processes, and (3) combining (gene) trees. The papers in this volume provide a contemporary sample of many new results in hierarchy theory with applications in biology, psychology, data analysis, and systems engineering. Features: Mathematical treatment of hierarchies in several interconnected frameworks: set systems, linear subspaces, graph objects, and tree metrics. The relationship of hierarchies to many issues of current application-from learning robots to wavelets to intron evolution to the evolution ...

  16. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  17. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  18. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  19. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Travis C. Collier

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  20. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.