WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological specimen banks

  1. Specimen banking for trace element research in biological and environmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specimen banking is a physical archive of samples collected as part of an environmental monitoring programme. It is an activity involving the characterization and storage of these samples for deferred analysis. The main problems in establishing a Chinese specimen banking for trace element research in environmental and biological systems are to develop a set of selection criteria to collect the most representative environmental and biological samples and to develop optimal procedures for specimen preservation. The authors originally intend to collect the following samples: 1) tree ring for heavy metal monitoring, e.g. Pb and Cd; 2) lake sediments for long term trend research of trace elements and flux estimation; 3) loess; 4) human tissues and organs at Hg-polluted and Se-deficient regions; 5) soils and plants at the areas where the REE-fertilizers are used; 6) environmental samples at some new industrial zones

  2. Evaluation of biological samples for specimen banking and biomonitoring by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a pilot program for environmental specimen banking, human livers and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were sampled, analyzed and banked. Nuclear methods played a major role in the evaluation of the samples by providing concentration data for up to 37 major, mineral, and trace elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was complemented by neutron-capture prompt gamma activation analysis, radiochemical separations and, for the mussels, by instrumental X-ray fluorescence analysis. A cryogenic homogenization procedure was applied for sample preparation and evaluated. Assessment of accuracy was made by analyzing Standard Reference Materials and by intercomparing the techniques. Results are reported for 66 individual human liver specimens, collected at three locations in the United States, and for batches of 65 mussels from a collection made at Narragansett Bay, RI. 19 references, 23 figures, 4 tables

  3. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  4. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public. PMID:26753867

  5. Parylene coatings on biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nosal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is show how parylene coatings can protect biological specimens.Design/methodology/approach: Parylene technology is a process, in which a thin polymer film of a very uniform thickness is deposited onto the entire surface of any object placed in the reactor. The polymer, either poly-para-xylylene or one of its ring substituted derivatives, is characterized by excellent mechanical and dielectric [1] as well as barrier [2] properties, at the same time being transparent in the entire visible range of radiation. The process takes place at room temperature, which permits to use virtually any material as substrate.Findings: The following work reports results of parylene application to the conservation of such natural objects, as Pieris brassicae butterflies, Pygocentrus piranya pirania fish and Quercus L. oak leaves. The number of specimens was always divided in two, of which one part was coated with 4 micrometers of Parylene C while the other remained uncoated as a reference sample. All the specimen were then placed on the surface of garden soil and kept there at constant temperature of 37°C and constant humidity of 75%, where their disintegration was followed by means of optical microscopy. After several months of staying under these conditions all the coated specimens were intact remaining their full integrity and colors. In contrast to that, the uncoated fish began to decompose after nine days, the uncoated butterflies after twenty one days and uncoated leaves after three months.Practical implications: A very tight deposition, at room temperature of such a coating onto practically any object obviously focuses an attention of conservators of both natural and cultural human heritage [3-6]. Probably the most important advantage of this technology is its extraordinary penetration ability. When coating a fabric, for instance, this feature allows one to deposit parylene film onto single fibers, leaving open space in-between and

  6. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  7. Nuclear microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in technology have enabled the scanning proton microprobe to scan at submicron spatial resolution on a routine basis. The use of the powerful combination of techniques PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission), nuclear (or Rutherford) backscattering (RBS), and secondary electron detection operating at this resolution will open up new areas in many scientific disciplines. This paper describes some of the work carried out in the biological sciences over the last year, using the Oxford SPM facility. Collaborations with biological scientists have drawn attention to the wealth of information that can be derived when these techniques are applied to micro-organisms, cells and plant tissue. Briefly described here are investigations into the uptake of heavy metals by the alga Pandorina morum, the structure of the diatom Stephanopyxis turris, the presence of various types of crystal structures within the cells of Spirogyra, the heavy metal uptake of a mycorrhizal fungus present in the bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) root, the role of sphagnum moss in the absorption of inorganic elements, the measurement of heavy metals in environmentally-adapted cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the elemental distribution in the growing tip of a spore from the plant Equisetum arvense, with special emphasis placed on the visual interpretation of the elemental and secondary-electron maps provided by the nuclear microscopical techniques. (orig.)

  8. Banking Brain Tumor Specimens Using a University Core Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Amade; Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Faber, David A; Shah, Ashish H; Gomez, Carmen R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Egea, Sophie C

    2015-08-01

    Within the past three decades, the significance of banking human cancer tissue for the advancement of cancer research has grown exponentially. The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in collecting brain tumor specimens in collaboration with the University of Miami/Sylvester Tissue Bank Core Facility (UM-TBCF), to ensure the availability of high-quality samples of central nervous system tumor tissue for research. Successful tissue collection begins with obtaining informed consent from patients following institutional IRB and federal HIPAA guidelines, and it needs a well-trained professional staff and continued maintenance of high ethical standards and record keeping. Since starting in 2011, we have successfully banked 225 brain tumor specimens for research. Thus far, the most common tumor histology identified among those specimens has been glioblastoma (22.1%), followed by meningioma (18.1%). The majority of patients were White, non-Hispanics accounting for 45.1% of the patient population; Hispanic/Latinos accounted for 23%, and Black/African Americans accounted for 14%, which represent the particular population of the State of Florida according to the 2010 census data. The most common tumors found in each subgroup were as follows: Black/African American, glioblastoma and meningioma; Hispanic, metastasis and glioblastoma; White, glioblastoma and meningioma. The UM-TBCF is a valuable repository, offering high-quality tumor samples from a unique patient population. PMID:26280502

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Pietrzyk, Robert a.; Johnson, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Samples from the International Space Station (ISS), including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of ISS missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future space flight related research. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a platform to investigate the effects of microgravity on human physiology prior to lunar and exploration class missions. The storage of crewmember samples from many different ISS flights in a single repository will be a valuable resource with which researchers can study space flight related changes and investigate physiological markers. The development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository will allow for the collection, processing, storage, maintenance, and ethical distribution of biosamples to meet goals of scientific and programmatic relevance to the space program. Archiving of the biosamples will provide future research opportunities including investigating patterns of physiological changes, analysis of components unknown at this time or analyses performed by new methodologies.

  10. Antarctic environmental specimen bank. A tool for chemical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soggia, F.; Dalla Riva, S.; Abelmoschi, M.L.; Frache, R. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale

    2000-02-01

    The work illustrates the project on Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank (BCAA), which is an integral part of the Italian project on the micropollutants chemistry (sector on chemical contamination of the Italian Antarctic Research program, PNRA), begun in 1994 when the BCAA was installed in the department of chemistry and industrial chemistry (Genoa University, Italy). Its objective underlines an emphasis on environmental chemistry and the establishment of baselines similar to the approaches followed by the other environmental specimen banks, begun at the end of Sixties with the aim of long-term storage of representative environmental specimens in order to study the presence and the evolution of dangerous substances, but focus on the chemical characterization of samples. [Italian] Il lavoro illustra le finalita' del Progetto su una Banca Campioni Ambientali Antartici (BCAA), che e' parte integrante del progetto Chmica dei microinquinannti del Settore Contaminazione chimica del Programma Nazionale di ricerche in Antartide (ONRA), nata nel 1994 presso il dipartimento di chimicia e chimica industriale dell'universita' di Genova. A differenza di altri progetti internazionali che enfatizzano gli aspetti biologici, ecologici e medici, il progetto BCAA enfatizza la chimica ambientale.

  11. Banks Lake NWR: Biological Review Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a biological review undertaken in 2007/08 at Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge. On November 14-15, 2007, a Biological Review was conducted at...

  12. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank: a tribal–federal partnership to maintain and manage a resource for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Banked biospecimens from a defined population are a valuable resource that can be used to assess early markers for illness or to determine the prevalence of a disease to aid the development of intervention strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank (AASB currently contains 266,353 residual biologic specimens (serum, plasma, whole blood, tissue, bacterial cultures from 83,841 persons who participated in research studies, public health investigations and clinical testing conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and Alaska Native tribal health organisations dating back to 1961. The majority (95.7% are serum specimens, 77% were collected between 1981 and 1994 and 85% were collected from Alaska Native people. Oversight of the specimen bank is provided by a working group with representation from tribal, state and federal health organisations, the Alaska Area IRB and a specimen bank committee which ensures the specimens are used in accordance with policies and procedures developed by the working group.

  13. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank: a tribal-federal partnership to maintain and manage a resource for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J; Hennessy, Thomas; Bulkow, Lisa; Smith, H Sally

    2013-01-01

    Banked biospecimens from a defined population are a valuable resource that can be used to assess early markers for illness or to determine the prevalence of a disease to aid the development of intervention strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank (AASB) currently contains 266,353 residual biologic specimens (serum, plasma, whole blood, tissue, bacterial cultures) from 83,841 persons who participated in research studies, public health investigations and clinical testing conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and Alaska Native tribal health organisations dating back to 1961. The majority (95.7%) are serum specimens, 77% were collected between 1981 and 1994 and 85% were collected from Alaska Native people. Oversight of the specimen bank is provided by a working group with representation from tribal, state and federal health organisations, the Alaska Area IRB and a specimen bank committee which ensures the specimens are used in accordance with policies and procedures developed by the working group. PMID:23599909

  14. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  15. Analyses of environmental and biological specimens by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of environmental and biological specimens were carried out by PIXE. The yield of potassium (Kα line) is used as a standard for other elements. Environmental and biological samples studied here are standard polished glass beads (30/60 mesh), soil dust generated by studded tires, materials accumulated in a water supplying pipe, perfumes of China and Japan, ash, asbestos-dark, briquettes, synovial fluids, sex skin of a chimpanzee and so on. Concentrations of K, Ca, Fe and Zn in these biological samples are noticeable. (author)

  16. Two spruce shoot candidate reference materials from the German environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new materials are introduced that might serve as useful aids for the harmonisation of analytical results. Spruce shoots, cryogenically homogenized and characterized for 50 elements from two sampling sites of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) are presented as possible third generation reference materials that might also act as calibrating materials in speciation analysis. (author)

  17. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices. PMID:27277872

  18. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lermen

    Full Text Available Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology. This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2 reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2 examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2 biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2 personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for

  19. A New Approach to Standardize Multicenter Studies: Mobile Lab Technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermen, Dominik; Schmitt, Daniel; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120–150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab) in the project “Labor der Zukunft” (future’s lab technology). This laboratory includes a 14.7 m2 reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m2 examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m2 biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m2 personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL) 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for retrospective

  20. Electronprobe X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens improvement of a number of quantification procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis an investigation is described to establish which quantification procedures can be used in the X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens. Two classes of specimens have been distinguished from each other, i.e. thick specimens (opaque to the beam electrons) and thin specimens (transparent to the beam electrons). (Auth.)

  1. Internet of Things technology-based management methods for environmental specimen banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lihong; Wang, Qian; Yu, Ang

    2015-02-01

    The establishment and management of environmental specimen banks (ESBs) has long been a problem worldwide. The complexity of specimen environment has made the management of ESB likewise complex. Through an analysis of the development and management of ESBs worldwide and in light of the sophisticated Internet of Things (IOT) technology, this paper presents IOT technology-based ESB management methods. An IOT technology-based ESB management system can significantly facilitate ESB ingress and egress management as well as long-term storage management under quality control. This paper elaborates on the design of IOT technology-based modules, which can be used in ESB management to achieve standardized, smart, information-based ESB management. ESB management has far-reaching implications for environmental management and for research in environmental science. PMID:24526398

  2. The lessons of Bhopal [toxic] MIC gas disaster scope for expanding global biomonitoring and environmental specimen banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramachari, S; Chandra, H

    1997-05-01

    Bhopal Toxic gas tragedy represents one of the worst chemical accidents of the world. Autopsy and toxicological studies, apart from presenting evidence of acute and even chronic cyanide toxicity, provided a unique example of the incriminated chemical being traced to the bodies of the victims. The entry of methyl isocyanate (MIC) into the blood stream was established by the presence of carbamoylated end-terminal amino acids of haemoglobin and other tissue proteins. The presence of MIC trimer and a few other identified as well as unidentified tank residue constituents in the blood and viscera further established a close nexus of the products of pyrolysis of MIC in the aerosol inhaled by the victims. The Bhopal studies exemplify the scope for biological monitoring (BM) and environmental specimen banking (ESB) in chemical accidents as part of the global efforts. PMID:9159916

  3. Effect of monitoring strategies and reference data of the German Environmental Specimen Banking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitution of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has started in 1985, subsequent to a successful pilot study concerning the feasibility. Since that time, a multitude of technological and methodical standards have been developed, which allow for a high quality of the storage-samples and of the specimen characterization. While the storage-samples are kept for retrospective analysis, by now, already comprehensive data on the material-developing in the environment are available due to a real time monitoring of selected environmental chemicals over a period of up to twenty years. Thus, spatial and temporal trends can be described. Since the state of knowledge on critical tissue concentrations in the sublethal range is extremely low at present, it is however not possible to accomplish a direct assessment of relevancy of the substance concentrations. Hence, within the scope of the German ESB Program, the following strategies on assessment of relevancy are observed: use of biomarkers, histopathological examinations, biometric specimen characterization, use of ecological indicator groups, and development of a reference system with analytical and biometric data. Thus, for example endocrine effects in male breams in the river Saar, which correlate directly to operational discharges from municipal sewage plants, could be detected. By histopathological examinations, fibrotic and necrotic tissue adaptations on the gonads had been ascertained cumulatively, which unambiguously imply a restricted fertility of the male breams. In the river Rhine, an improved growth along the timeline could be described on the basis of biometric characterization of breams, which is regarded as rate for the reaction to all structural and material changes in the water body. Presently, with the development of a reference system based on the data collected in the scope of the Environmental Specimen Bank, a basis for the assessment of monitoring results with accumulation indicators is

  4. Banking biological collections: data warehousing, data mining, and data dilemmas in genomics and global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, R J R

    2000-01-01

    While DNA databases may offer the opportunity to (1) assess population-based prevalence of specific genes and variants, (2) simplify the search for molecular markers, (3) improve targeted drug discovery and development for disease management, (4) refine strategies for disease prevention, and (5) provide the data necessary for evidence-based decision-making, serious scientific and social questions remain. Whether samples are identified, coded, or anonymous, biological banking raises profound ethical and legal issues pertaining to access, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality of genomic information, civil liberties, patenting, and proprietary rights. This paper provides an overview of key policy issues and questions pertaining to biological banking, with a focus on developments in specimen collection, transnational distribution, and public health and academic-industry research alliances. It highlights the challenges posed by the commercialization of genomics, and proposes the need for harmonization of biological banking policies. PMID:11878344

  5. Three-Dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens

    KAUST Repository

    De Jonge, Niels

    2010-01-18

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2-3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. © 2010 Microscopy Society of America.

  6. Using ChemBank to probe chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri Seiler, Kathleen; Kuehn, Heidi; Pat Happ, Mary; Decaprio, Dave; Clemons, Paul A

    2008-06-01

    ChemBank (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) is a public, Web-based informatics environment. ChemBank stores and makes freely available data derived from small molecules and small-molecule screens and has resources for relating and studying these data. Currently, ChemBank stores information on hundreds of thousands of small molecules and hundreds of biomedically relevant assays performed at the Broad Institute screening center. Web-based analysis tools are available within ChemBank to study the relationships between small molecules, cell measurements, and cell states. This unit demonstrates the use of ChemBank data to ask and answer questions relating to chemical biology and screening experiments contained within ChemBank. PMID:18551413

  7. A scoping study of specimen archiving activity in the UK and the potential for a UK Environmental Specimen Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplow, J.S.; Walker, L. A.; Mackechnie, C.J.; Shore, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous monitoring and experimental research studies in the UK that involve collection and archiving of environmental specimens. As part of the current project, we have estimated the cost of these activities to be approximately £16 million per year. However, there is no current UK-wide strategic coordination of this investment. Although the United Kingdom Environmental Observation Framework (UK-EOF) catalogues environmental observations made for and by the UK, it doe...

  8. Results from multi-trace-element neutron activation analyses of marine biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this instrumental NAA study to date, a considerable body of data has been obtained on the Hg, Se and Zn levels in several different species of Pacific Ocean fish and mammals. Great biological variability has been noted. Three principal variables that effect the levels of these three trace elements in marine biological specimens include species, tissue and size or age of the specimen. There is also appreciable variation in these levels amongst different specimens of the same species and within a given tissue of even a given specimen. Because of these many variables, it is important that sample dissection be conducted carefully, that data such as specimen size be recorded, and large numbers of specimens are analyzed. The instrumental NAA procedure employed in this study has been checked by analyses of two recent NBS reference materials: orchard leaves and bovine liver. (T.G.)

  9. Elemental microanalysis of biological and medical specimens with a scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scanning proton microprobe is shown to be a sensitive instrument for elemental microanalysis of cells and tissues in biological and medical specimens. The preparation of specimens and their behaviour under irradiation are crucial and the application of quantitative scanning analysis to the monitoring of such problems is illustrated

  10. Tomographic imaging of cryogenic biological specimens with the X-ray microscope at BESSY I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft X-ray microscopy employs the natural absorption contrast between water and protein in the 2.34-4.38 nm wavelength region with a resolution down to 30 nm. The large depth of focus of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives permits tomographic reconstruction based on the microscopic images. High-resolution images require a high specimen radiation dose, and a large number of images taken at different viewing angles is needed for tomographic reconstruction. Therefore, cryo microscopy is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of hydrated biological specimens during image acquisition. The cryo transmission X-ray microscope at the electron storage ring BESSY I (Berlin) was used to obtain a tilt series of images of the frozen-hydrated green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The living specimens were inserted into borosilicate capillaries, then rapidly cooled by plunging into liquid nitrogen. The capillary specimen holders allow image acquisition over the full angular range of 180 deg. . The reconstruction shows details inside the alga down to 60 nm size and conveys a detailed impression of the specimen structure. This technique is expected to be applicable to a wide range of biological specimens, such as the cell nucleus. It offers the possibility of imaging the three-dimensional structure of hydrated biological specimens close to their natural living state

  11. Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved…

  12. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in avian species: Utilization of stored samples in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study determined concentrations and patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in specimens of open sea, and Japanese coastal and inland avian species, which have been stored in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank), to examine the spatial trends. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all the muscle samples analyzed, suggesting that PBDE pollution has spread even to the remote open sea areas, as in the case of PCBs. Japanese coastal and inland birds accumulated higher concentrations of PBDEs than open sea birds. In addition, higher PBDE/PCB concentration ratios were observed in Japanese coastal and inland birds than in open sea birds, indicating the input of PBDEs into the Japanese terrestrial environment. Compositions of PBDEs varied among avian species with a predominance of BDE47 or BDE153. This could be due to differences in their habitat, food habit and/or biotransformation capacity of PBDEs. - Open sea birds have been exposed to PBDEs, but the accumulation levels were lower than those in Japanese coastal and inland birds

  13. Tomographic imaging of biological specimens with the cryo transmission X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the photoelectric absorption contrast between water and protein at 2.4 nm wavelength, cryo X-ray microscopy has visualized protein structures down to 30 nm size in unstained, unsectioned biological specimens. Due to the large depth of focus of the Fresnel zone plate objectives, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional specimen structure. This method has been applied to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and to cell nuclei of male Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly cells

  14. Strengthen the collaboration between the River Basin Management Organization of China and International Environmental Specimen Bank Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lingzhi; Liu, Hui; Shu, Jinxiang; Xia, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Several types of emerging organic contaminants were investigated in many recent researches, such as persistent toxic substance (PTS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupters (EDs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). But the Chinese country standard detection methods of emerging organic pollutants were not developed with the dramatic increasing of the organic substances production. Hence, it is necessary to obtain the latest informations about the long-term storage of representative environmental specimens, which could provide scientific basis for environmental management and environmental decision-making of the water resources protection and management organization. As the significant water resource conservation organization, the Water Environment Monitoring Center of Yangtze River Basin is experienced in water environmental monitoring and records many useful water resources and environment informations. It is also our responsibility to monitor all the pollutants in water environment of the Yangtze River valley, especially the emerging organic contaminants. Meanwhile, the International Environmental Specimen Bank (IESB) accumulates lots environmental organic pollution specimens and plays a significant role in environmental monitoring. Thus, the collaboration between the two parties will be greatly helpful for each further researches and monitoring work of organic contaminants in Yangtze River Basin. PMID:24817678

  15. Development of advanced diagnostic technology to study initial radiation effects on biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand radiation damages on biological specimens, it is important to investigate from molecular level to cell level in size and femto-second to hours in time. Three key techniques such as molecular simulation, ultra-fast spectroscopy, and single shot x-ray microscopy has been developed. Combining those techniques, total image of radiation damaging process from molecular level to cell level are going to be established. (author)

  16. Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Doblas Expósito, Ana Isabel; Sánchez Ortiga, Emilio; Saavedra Tortosa, Genaro; Martínez Corral, Manuel; García Sucerquia, Jorge Iván

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of using a telecentric imaging system in digital holographic microscopy (DHM) to study biological specimens are highlighted. To this end, the performances of nontelecentric DHM and telecentric DHM are evaluated from the quantitative phase imaging (QPI) point of view. The evaluated stability of the microscope allows single-shot QPI in DHM by using telecentric imaging systems. Quantitative phase maps of a section of the head of the drosophila melanogaster fly and of red blood cel...

  17. Alaska Native people's perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design. Stratified focus groups. Methods. Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n = 178 were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples’ perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions. Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens.

  18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THICK BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS BY HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Nagata

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thick biological specimens prepared as whole mount cultured cells or thick sections from embedded tissues were stained with histochemical reactions, such as thiamine pyrophosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, cytochrome oxidase, acid phosphatase, DAB reactions and radioautography, to observe 3-D ultrastructures of cell organelles producing stereo-pairs by high voltage electron microscopy at accerelating voltages of 400-1000 kV. The organelles demonstrated were Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, pinocytotic vesicles and incorporations of radioactive compounds. As the results, those cell organelles were observed 3- dimensionally and the relative relationships between these organelles were demonstrated.

  19. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl2. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl2 added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases

  20. Quantitative EFTEM mapping of near physiological calcium concentrations in biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronova, M.A. [Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 13, Rm. 3N17, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kim, Y.C. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Pivovarova, N.B.; Andrews, S.B. [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Leapman, R.D. [Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 13, Rm. 3N17, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: leapmanr@mail.nih.gov

    2009-02-15

    Although electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides high sensitivity for measuring the important element, calcium, in biological specimens, the technique has been difficult to apply routinely, because of long acquisition times required. Here we describe a refinement of the complementary analytical technique of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), which enables rapid imaging of large cellular regions and measurement of calcium concentrations approaching physiological levels. Extraction of precise quantitative information is possible by averaging large numbers of pixels that are contained in organelles of interest. We employ a modified two-window approach in which the behavior of the background signal in the EELS spectrum can be modeled as a function of specimen thickness t expressed in terms of the inelastic mean free path {lambda}. By acquiring pairs of images, one above and one below the Ca L{sub 2,3} edge, together with zero-loss and unfiltered images, which are used to determine a relative thickness (t/{lambda}) map, it is possible to correct the Ca L{sub 2,3} signal for plural scattering. We have evaluated the detection limits of this technique by considering several sources of systematic errors and applied this method to determine mitochondrial total calcium concentrations in freeze-dried cryosections of rapidly frozen stimulated neurons. By analyzing 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2} areas of specimen regions that do not contain calcium, it was found that the standard deviation in the measurement of Ca concentrations was about 20 mmol/kg dry weight, corresponding to a Ca:C atomic fraction of approximately 2x10{sup -4}. Calcium concentrations in peripheral mitochondria of recently depolarized, and therefore stimulated and Ca loaded, frog sympathetic neurons were in reasonable agreement with previous data.

  1. Quantitative EFTEM mapping of near physiological calcium concentrations in biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides high sensitivity for measuring the important element, calcium, in biological specimens, the technique has been difficult to apply routinely, because of long acquisition times required. Here we describe a refinement of the complementary analytical technique of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), which enables rapid imaging of large cellular regions and measurement of calcium concentrations approaching physiological levels. Extraction of precise quantitative information is possible by averaging large numbers of pixels that are contained in organelles of interest. We employ a modified two-window approach in which the behavior of the background signal in the EELS spectrum can be modeled as a function of specimen thickness t expressed in terms of the inelastic mean free path λ. By acquiring pairs of images, one above and one below the Ca L2,3 edge, together with zero-loss and unfiltered images, which are used to determine a relative thickness (t/λ) map, it is possible to correct the Ca L2,3 signal for plural scattering. We have evaluated the detection limits of this technique by considering several sources of systematic errors and applied this method to determine mitochondrial total calcium concentrations in freeze-dried cryosections of rapidly frozen stimulated neurons. By analyzing 0.1 μm2 areas of specimen regions that do not contain calcium, it was found that the standard deviation in the measurement of Ca concentrations was about 20 mmol/kg dry weight, corresponding to a Ca:C atomic fraction of approximately 2x10-4. Calcium concentrations in peripheral mitochondria of recently depolarized, and therefore stimulated and Ca loaded, frog sympathetic neurons were in reasonable agreement with previous data.

  2. High Throughput Extraction of Plant, Marine and Fungal Specimens for Preservation of Biologically Active Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. McCloud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, at its NCI-Frederick facility, has built perhaps the largest and most diverse natural products screening library in the world for drug discovery. Composed of plant, marine organism and microbial extracts, it currently contains in excess of 230,000 unique materials. From the inception of this program to identify new anticancer chemotherapeutics from natural products sources in 1987, two extracts have been sequentially prepared from each specimen: one produced by organic solvent extraction, which yields a complex material that contains non- to moderately polar small molecules, and a water-soluble extract, a milieu largely unexplored for useful drugs in earlier years, which contains polar small to medium-sized molecules. Plant specimens and microbial ferments are extracted by modified traditional methods, while the method developed to produce extracts from marine organisms is unique and very different from that used by marine natural products chemists previously, but again yields both an organic solvent soluble and a water soluble material for inclusion into the screening library. Details of high throughput extract production for preservation of biologically active molecules are presented.

  3. Retrospective monitoring of triclosan and methyl-triclosan in fish. Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, W.; Ruedel, H.; Wenzel, A. [Fraunhofer IME, Schmallenberg (Germany); Schroeter-Kermani, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the last years there were several reports on the appearance of the biocides triclosan (TCS; 5- chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; CAS No. 3380-34-5) and chlorophene (CP; 4-Chloro-2- (phenylmethyl)phenol; CAS No. 120-32-1) in the environment. TCS is used in numerous personal care products like toothpaste and soaps, but also in textiles and shoes. The current annual consumption in Germany is estimated to be 40 t (0.5 g per capita and year). During use large amounts of TCS and CP are disposed into waste water. Modern waste water treatment plants (WWTP) eliminate approximately 95 % of TCS, mainly by biodegradation and adsorption to sludge. It was observed that during waste water treatment methyl-triclosan (MTCS; 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)anisole; CAS No. 4640-01-1) is formed, probably due to microbial methylation. In a WWTP effluent up to 1 % MTCS in relation to TCS was detected. The environmental half-life of TCS is assumed to be low, mainly because it is susceptible to photodegradation at environmental pH levels while MTCS is stable under these conditions. The logPow values of 4.7 for TCS and 5.2 for MTCS (estimated with KowWin Vers. 1,67, respectively) indicate potential for bioaccumulation. Based in order to investigate the exposure of aquatic organisms towards CP, TCS and MTCS in Germany a retrospective monitoring of breams (Abramis brama) from representative rivers was initiated. Samples from the period 1994 to 2003 were taken from the archive of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) to evaluate temporal changes and regional differences of the occurrence of the target compounds.

  4. Direct observation of unstained biological specimens in water by the frequency transmission electric-field method using SEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Ogura

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a powerful tool for the direct visualization of biological specimens at nanometre-scale resolution. However, images of unstained specimens in water using an atmospheric holder exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Here, we present a new form of microscopy, the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE method using SEM, that offers low radiation damage and high-contrast observation of unstained biological samples in water. The wet biological specimens are enclosed in two silicon nitride (SiN films. The metal-coated SiN film is irradiated using a focused modulation electron beam (EB at a low-accelerating voltage. A measurement terminal under the sample holder detects the electric-field frequency signal, which contains structural information relating to the biological specimens. Our results in very little radiation damage to the sample, and the observation image is similar to the transmission image, depending on the sample volume. Our developed method can easily be utilized for the observation of various biological specimens in water.

  5. Determination of biological specimen optimal thickness for small-angle X-ray experiments by use polychromatic synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is put forward the mode of evaluation of biological specimen optimal thickness for small-angle specimen thickness on various synchrotron radiation spectra are calculated. The curves allow to optimize an experiment by selecting either optimal specimen thickness for an available synchrotron radiation spectrum, or the disposition of the short-wave boundary for given specimen thickness (fibers, tissues and so on). The method gives the possibility apart from increasing both of the precision and reproducibility of X-ray experiments, either or both increase of the statistical precision upon given recording time of an X-ray pattern and decrease recording time upon retention of the same statistical precision. The 15-20 % deviation in the specimen thickness from that of optimal one is shown to lead to decrease in the scattering intensity less than 2 %. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  6. Investigations in space-related molecular biology. [cryo-electron microscopic and diffraction studies on terrestrial and extraterrestrial specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.; Pritzker, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Improved instrumentation and preparation techniques for high resolution, high voltage cryo-electron microscopic and diffraction studies on terrestrial and extraterrestrial specimens are reported. Computer correlated ultrastructural and biochemical work on hydrated and dried cell membranes and related biological systems provided information on membrane organization, ice crystal formation and ordered water, RNA virus linked to cancer, lunar rock samples, and organometallic superconducting compounds. Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 specimens were analyzed

  7. Sensitive and Selective Determination of Orotic Acid in Biological Specimens Using a Novel Fluorogenic Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sheng; Dragusha, Shpend; Ejupi, Valon; Shibata, Takayuki; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Kai, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Orotic acid is an intermediate in the synthesis pathway of uridine-5'-monophosphate, and increases in body fluids of patients suffering from hereditary disorders such as orotic aciduria and hyperammonemia. In this study, we developed a spectrofluorometric method with or without high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective and sensitive quantification of orotic acid in human biological specimens, using 4-trifluoromethylbenzamidoxime (4-TFMBAO) as a fluorogenic reagent. This reagent provided intensive fluorescence for only orotic acid amongst 62 compounds including structurally related bio-substances such as nucleic acid bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, amino acids, vitamins, bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatine, creatinine and sugars. Under optimized reaction conditions, orotic acid was reacted with 4-TFMBAO, K3[Fe(CN)6] and K2CO3 in an aqueous solution. The fluorescence produced from the orotic acid derivative was measured at an excitation of 340 nm and an emission of 460 nm. A concentration of 1.2 μM orotic acid per 1.0 mM creatinine in normal urine and 0.64 nmol orotic acid per 5.0 × 10(5) HeLa cells were determined by this method. The present method permitted the facile quantification of orotic acid in healthy human urine and cultured HeLa cells by spectrofluorometry and/or high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:26026930

  8. Practical aspects of Boersch phase contrast electron microscopy of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, D-60439 Frankfurt (Germany); Muzik, Heiko; Vieker, Henning; Turchanin, Andrey; Beyer, Andre; Goelzhaeuser, Armin [University of Bielefeld, Physics of Supramolecular Systems and Surfaces, Universitaetsstr. 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Schmitz, Sam; Holik, Peter [Caesar Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Kuehlbrandt, Werner [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, D-60439 Frankfurt (Germany); Rhinow, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.rhinow@biophys.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, D-60439 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Implementation of physical phase plates into transmission electron microscopes to achieve in-focus contrast for ice-embedded biological specimens poses several technological challenges. During the last decade several phase plates designs have been introduced and tested for electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), including thin film (Zernike) phase plates and electrostatic devices. Boersch phase plates (BPPs) are electrostatic einzel lenses shifting the phase of the unscattered beam by an arbitrary angle. Adjusting the phase shift to 90 Degree-Sign achieves the maximum contrast transfer for phase objects such as biomolecules. Recently, we reported the implementation of a BPP into a dedicated phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) and demonstrated its use to generate in-focus contrast of frozen-hydrated specimens. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before BPPs can be used routinely, mostly related to the phase plate devices themselves. CryoEM with a physical phase plate is affected by electrostatic charging, obliteration of low spatial frequencies, and mechanical drift. Furthermore, BPPs introduce single sideband contrast (SSB), due to the obstruction of Friedel mates in the diffraction pattern. In this study we address the technical obstacles in detail and show how they may be overcome. We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to identify contaminants responsible for electrostatic charging, which occurs with most phase plates. We demonstrate that obstruction of low-resolution features is significantly reduced by lowering the acceleration voltage of the microscope. Finally, we present computational approaches to correct BPP images for SSB contrast and to compensate for mechanical drift of the BPP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various obstacles need to be overcome before Boersch phase plates can be used routinely. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical problems include

  9. Practical aspects of Boersch phase contrast electron microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of physical phase plates into transmission electron microscopes to achieve in-focus contrast for ice-embedded biological specimens poses several technological challenges. During the last decade several phase plates designs have been introduced and tested for electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), including thin film (Zernike) phase plates and electrostatic devices. Boersch phase plates (BPPs) are electrostatic einzel lenses shifting the phase of the unscattered beam by an arbitrary angle. Adjusting the phase shift to 90° achieves the maximum contrast transfer for phase objects such as biomolecules. Recently, we reported the implementation of a BPP into a dedicated phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) and demonstrated its use to generate in-focus contrast of frozen–hydrated specimens. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before BPPs can be used routinely, mostly related to the phase plate devices themselves. CryoEM with a physical phase plate is affected by electrostatic charging, obliteration of low spatial frequencies, and mechanical drift. Furthermore, BPPs introduce single sideband contrast (SSB), due to the obstruction of Friedel mates in the diffraction pattern. In this study we address the technical obstacles in detail and show how they may be overcome. We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to identify contaminants responsible for electrostatic charging, which occurs with most phase plates. We demonstrate that obstruction of low-resolution features is significantly reduced by lowering the acceleration voltage of the microscope. Finally, we present computational approaches to correct BPP images for SSB contrast and to compensate for mechanical drift of the BPP. -- Highlights: ► Various obstacles need to be overcome before Boersch phase plates can be used routinely. ► Technical problems include electrostatic charging, mechanical drift, and image artefacts.

  10. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy at macromolecular resolution in low energy mode on biological specimens coated with ultra thin metal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K R

    1979-01-01

    In this report, conditions for attaining high resolution in scanning electron microscopy with soft biological specimens are described using the currently available high resolution scanning electron microscopes in emission mode of low energy electrons (secondary and charging electrons). Retinal rod outer segments, red blood cells, intestinal mucosa, and ferritin molecules were all used as biological test specimens. From uncoated specimens a new source of signal, referred to as a discharge signal, can provide a high yield of low energy electrons from an excitation area approximately the size of the beam's cross section. Additionally, under these conditions sufficient topographic contrast can be achieved by applying ultra thin metal coatins. A 0.5 nm thick gold film is found sufficient for generating the total signal, whereas increased coating thickness causes additional topographic background signal. However, a 2.0 nm film is needed for imaging surface details with the present instrument. Ultra thin, even, and grainless tantalum films have been found effective in eliminating the charging artifacts caused by external fields, and the decoration artifacts caused by crystal growth as seen in gold films. To improve, in high magnification work on ultra thin coated specimen, signal-to-noise ratio, methods for obtaining saturation of the signal with discharge electrons are shown. The necessity of confirming the information obtained in SEM by independent techniques (TEM of stereo-replicas or ultra thin sections) is discussed. PMID:392703

  12. Development of laser plasma x-ray microscope for living hydrated biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigating the structure and the function of life object performing advanced life activity becomes important. In order to investigate the life object, it is necessary to observe living specimens with high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. Since laser plasma x-ray source has high brightness and short pulse duration, x-ray microscope with the laser plasma x-ray source makes possible to observe living specimens. Such as chromosomes, macrophages, bacterium, and so on have been observed by contact x-ray microscopy. The x-ray images obtained by indirect measurements such as the contact x-ray microscopy have difficulty to avoid artificial effect such as irregular due to developing process. Development of an x-ray microscope with laser plasma x-ray source is necessary to avoid such defects. (author)

  13. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems. - Highlights: ► Applications of STEM in characterization of biological samples are demonstrated. ► Elemental analyses are performed by dual EDS and EELS. ► Both the surface and internal structure of cells can be studied simultaneously. ► The imaging contrast in low-dose cryo-STEM has been analyzed

  14. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.S., E-mail: jinsong-wu@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental (NUANCE) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Kim, A.M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Bleher, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Myers, B.D. [Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental (NUANCE) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Marvin, R.G. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Inada, H.; Nakamura, K. [Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Zhang, X.F. [Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc., 5960 Inglewood Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Roth, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Li, S.Y. [Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental (NUANCE) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); and others

    2013-05-15

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems. - Highlights: ► Applications of STEM in characterization of biological samples are demonstrated. ► Elemental analyses are performed by dual EDS and EELS. ► Both the surface and internal structure of cells can be studied simultaneously. ► The imaging contrast in low-dose cryo-STEM has been analyzed.

  15. Evaluation of monitoring data of the German Environmental Specimen Bank using the Hasse diagram technique; Bewertung von Monitoringdaten der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes mit der Hasse-Diagramm-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Fachgebiet II 1.4-S, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Environment Ministry the Federal Environmental Agency operates the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB), which targets are to record and evaluate pollution data of selected ecological systems. Scope of the present study is to check the possibilities of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) for the assessment of ESB data, mainly with regard to evaluations and conclusions. Xenobiotic body burden in Bream musculature (Abramis brama); measured in 1997, was exemplary used to answer these questions. Focus was put on ecosystemic assessment. The results clearly show that HDT is a valuable method for the graphical display, interpretation and comparative evaluation of pollution data, HDT visualises data qualitatively and in summary. Additionally, differences between pollution patterns are revealed, which suggest different contamination processes and entries. An ecosystemic approach of assessment is achieved by simultaneous consideration of different xenobiotics. (orig.)

  16. Biological material (DNA and RNA) bank of nuclear production workers and residents of nearby territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seversk Biophysical Research Centre (SBRC) has been engaged in creating DNA and biological material bank of workers of nuclear production (Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises - SGCE) and residents of nearby areas (the town of Seversk) since 2002. Following the developed methodology, for each person this bank includes three units of storage: DNA sample extracted by standard method using proteinase K (the main sample), DNA sample isolated by means of 'quick' extraction method (work sample), and 1.5 ml blood sample (spare sample). For each DNA donor there have been obtained cytogenetic agents to estimate frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations. There has been completed DNA bank of SGCE workers (healthy individuals, cancer patients and those who survived acute myocardial infarction) as well as Seversk children aged 9-11 examined within SBRC special screening programme to diagnose thyroid diseases. At present, this DNA and biological material bank includes 5,988 units of storage (DNA samples extracted by means of standard method, DNA work samples isolated by quick extraction method, and spare blood samples). For every donor there has been obtained an informed consent. Storage conditions comply with technical regulations and provide for long-term (for decades) safety of the material. Personal information on DNA donors (age, internal and external doses, length of service, occupational data and case history) is contained in the Regional Medicodosimetric Register. Currently work is underway to create RNA bank identical to the existing DNA bank. For each person this bank contains two units of storage: the main high quality RNA sample isolated by hot phenol extraction; a work sample - of single stranded cDNA, extracted on RNA matrix through reverse transcription reaction. RNA bank will allow complex study of radiation effects in low dose range on the transcript of nuclear production workers and people living nearby. Thus, SBNC DNA and biological material bank

  17. Molecular Biologic Approach to the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Carcinoma Using Specimens Obtained by EUS-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohito Kato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA, a rapid, safe, cost-effective, and accurate diagnostic modality for evaluating pancreatic tumors. EUS-FNA is currently used for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic tumors. The sensitivity of EUS-FNA for pancreatic malignancy ranges from 75% to 94%, and its specificity approaches 100% in most studies. However, EUS-FNA has some limitations in the diagnosis of well-differentiated or early-stage cancers. Recent evidence suggests that molecular biological analysis using specimens obtained by EUS-FNA improves diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, especially in borderline cytological cases. It was also reported that additional information regarding patient response to chemotherapy, surgical resectability, time to metastasis, and overall survival was acquired from the genetic analysis of specimens obtained by EUS-FNA. Other studies have revealed that the analysis of KRAS, MUC, p53, p16, S100P, SMAD4, and microRNAs is helpful in making the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. In this paper, we describe the present state of genetic diagnostic techniques for use with EUS-FNA samples in pancreatic diseases. We also discuss the role of molecular biological analyses for the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma.

  18. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Tran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR amplification for the detection of pathogens in biological material is generally considered a rapid and informative diagnostic technique. Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive. Methods We developed and optimised a novel multiplex three colour real-time PCR assay to detect specific target sequences in the genomes of Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. We performed the assay on DNA extracted from blood and bone marrow samples from culture positive and negative enteric fever patients. Results The assay was validated and demonstrated a high level of specificity and reproducibility under experimental conditions. All bone marrow samples tested positive for Salmonella, however, the sensitivity on blood samples was limited. The assay demonstrated an overall specificity of 100% (75/75 and sensitivity of 53.9% (69/128 on all biological samples. We then tested the PCR detection limit by performing bacterial counts after inoculation into blood culture bottles. Conclusions Our findings corroborate previous clinical findings, whereby the bacterial load of S. Typhi in peripheral blood is low, often below detection by culture and, consequently, below detection by PCR. Whilst the assay may be utilised for environmental sampling or on differing biological samples, our data suggest that PCR performed directly on blood samples may be an unsuitable methodology and a potentially unachievable target for the routine diagnosis of enteric fever.

  19. Biological characteristics of chicken anemia virus regenerated from clinical specimen by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Vicky L; Toro, Haroldo; Hoerr, Frederic J

    2007-03-01

    Our previous genetic characterization of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in commercial broiler chickens in Alabama revealed a previously undetected polymorphism: a glutamine codon at VP1 position 22, in 7 of the 14 sequences. The novel glutamine codon was always found in association with a VP1 "hypervariable region" identical to CAV field isolates that replicate poorly in culture. The complete genome of CAV73, representative of the sequences with the novel polymorphism, was generated from cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments amplified directly from naturally infected tissues. CAV73 had been detected in 31-day-old broilers submitted for examination for reasons unrelated to anemia. After electroporation of the cloned genomes into MDCC-CU147 lymphoblastoid cells, the regenerated CAV caused the culture to fail within 9 days, and the medium contained 5 X 10(6) TCID50 CAV/ml. Use of MDCC-CU147 cells was essential, as identical electroporation of MDCC-MSB1 cells failed to generate CAV able to destroy the culture within 8 wk. Regenerated CAV73 produced anemia and severe lymphocytic depletion of the thymus when inoculated into susceptible 3-day-old chickens and was reisolated from these chickens. Furthermore, it replicated in low- and high-passage MDCC-MSB1 cells similarly to a low-passage CAV field isolate that contains a different VP 1 "hypervariable region." The regeneration of CAV from PCR products directly from naturally infected carcasses, as performed in this study, provides a tool for the evaluation of distinct genetic polymorphisms that may be detected in specimens where infective virions are no longer available. Our results also provide some insight into the differential susceptibility of cell lines for low-passage CAV field isolates. PMID:17461269

  20. Novel approaches for selenium speciation in foodstuffs and biological specimens: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is an essential element for human health. It has been recognized as an antioxidant and chemopreventive agent in cancer. Selenium is known to develop its biological activity via selenocysteine residue in the catalytically active centre of selenoproteins. The main source of selenium in human beings is the diet. However, in several regions of the world the content of selenium in diet has been estimated insufficient for a correct expression of the proteins. The beneficial effects of selenium on human health are strongly dependent on its chemical form and concentration. This review critically evaluated the state-of-the art of selenium speciation in biological matrices mainly focused in nutritional and food products. Besides the number of publications related to selenium speciation, isolation and accurate characterization and quantification of selenium species is still a challenge. Hyphenated techniques based on coupling chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS) and its combination with molecular mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, ESI-MS-MS and MALDI-TOF) and isotopic dilution allow identification, quantification and structural characterization of selenium species. Particular attention is paid in the development of Se-enriched food and nutritional products and how the application of the techniques mentioned above is mandatory to get reliable results on selenium metabolisms in these particular matrices

  1. Lensfree Spectral Light-field Fusion Microscopy for Contrast- and Resolution-enhanced Imaging of Biological Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Molladavoodi, Sara; Mei, Yu; Emelko, Monica B; Gorbet, Maud B; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A lensfree spectral light-field fusion microscopy (LSLFM) system is presented for enabling contrast- and resolution-enhanced imaging of biological specimens. LSLFM consists of a pulsed multispectral lensfree microscope for capturing interferometric light-field encodings at different wavelengths, and Bayesian-based fusion to reconstruct a fused object light-field from the encodings. By fusing unique object detail information captured at different wavelengths, LSLFM can achieve improved resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over a single-channel lensfree microscopy system. A five-channel LSLFM system was developed and quantitatively evaluated to validate the design. Experimental results demonstrated that the LSLFM system provided SNR improvements of 6.81-16.55 dB, as well as a six-fold improvement in the dispersion index (DI), over that achieved using a single-channel lensfree deconvolution microscopy system at individual wavelengths. Furthermore, the LSLFM system achieved an increase in numeric...

  2. Biological re-cultivation of industrial technological waste banks after steel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovska, Maria; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    The problem of re-cultivation of disturbed lands, after the creation of waste banks, is very important and of great scientific interest. The studies on the effectiveness of biological re-cultivation are focused mainly on activities and techniques for the acceleration of soil formation processes as. The relationship between substrate and plants is also studied, in order to create modern biotechnologies and contributes to the remediation of the re-cultivated lands within the territorial system. In this work we have studied three parts of an industrial waste bank named "The 7th of September" located in the green system of Sofia - Pernik agglomeration in Bulgaria. It consists of technological wastes produced by the steel industry. Its area of 20 dca is of special local importance. The aim of this study was to propose an appropriate technology for the biological re-cultivation, which could take place after all production activities had ceased. To achieve this aim a detailed study on the characteristics of climatic elements was carried out focusing on precipitation - limiting factor for future afforestation of waste banks. Analyses on hydro-physical and chemical parameters of substrates were undertaken in order to elaborate recommendations for their improvement and utility in biological re-cultivation. Here we present the characteristics of the vegetation which existed before the production activities and the approaches for choice of tree species in afforestation with different schemes and methods applied. On the basis of this study we were able to establish that the hydrological properties of substrates are quite similar to those of natural soils in the region. The variations obtained for some soil substrate layers were not significant. In relation to this we also outlined the quantity of organic matter and nutrient elements in waste banks as determining parameters for further biological re-cultivation. The studied site is located in the lower forest zone of the country

  3. Measures for reducing pollution produced by ash spoil banks of thermoelectric stations, by biological recultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXIM A.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the thermoelectric power stations produce 70% from the total of electric energy. This intenselypollutes all environment compartments. The thermoelectric power stations produce as much gaseous (CO, CO2,NOx, SOx as solid (ash and heavy metals pollutants. Ash spoil banks from Romania occupy 3102 hectares. Themost efficient measure of rehabilitation is biological recultivation (agricultural, forestry, agricultural continuedby forest. The world and national researches on this domain shows that forest recultivation is the mostadvantageous, because requires a minimum of works towards agricultural recultivation, improves the locallandscape and contributes to the restore in circuit a part from total carbon emission mass of thermoelectric powerstation.

  4. IPN Unit Bank Biology--A New Type of Biology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G.; Kattmann, U.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a biology curriculum being developed in West Germany, which utilizes units of 10 to 15 lessons that may be placed in different positions within the overall curriculum. Ten units have been published for grades 5 through 8. Units for grade 3 to 13 are in development. (SL)

  5. PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs in breams (Abraims brama) from German rivers. Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter-Kermani, C. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe der Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    In July 2002 a new regulation of the European Commission came into force setting maximum permitted values for PCDD/Fs in food. Until the end of 2004 these limit values have to be verified with current monitoring data, especially in regard to the integration of dioxin-like PCBs in this regulation. It is well known that fish accumulate lypophilic substances to a high degree from their aquatic surroundings so that fish and fish products are an important source of human intake of dioxins. Several studies have been published recently regarding the contamination of marine fish species with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs, but less is known about the contamination of fresh water fish with these substances. To bridge this gap, the German environmental specimen bank (ESB) analyzed archived bream muscle samples for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. Breams are widely distributed in Europe and often used as a monitoring organism for fresh water and sediment contamination because of their small migration radius. As adult breams feed mainly on benthic invertebrates they are permanently in direct contact with the sediments. Although bream is less consumed at least in Germany the here presented results might facilitate general statements regarding the contamination of other fresh water fish species with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs.

  6. X-ray Microscopy as an Approach to Increasing Accuracy and Efficiency of Serial Block-face Imaging for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Bushong, Eric A; Johnson, Donald D.; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T.; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal s...

  7. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences:IV. Lizards (Reptilia, Sauria)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WANG; Ke JIANG; Jiatang LI; Yuezhao WANG; Daode YANG

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we report the six type specimens and two paratypes of eight lizard species in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each entry provides the information of the original description, the catalog number of the holotype, sex, type locality, and information of allotype and paratype (if any), number and distribution of deposited specimens, and comments. Additionally, two invalid species and one invalid subspecies are discussed.

  8. Urine as a biological specimen for forensic analysis of alcohol and variability in the urine-to-blood relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the use of urine as a biological specimen for determination of alcohol in clinical and forensic toxicology and discusses factors that might influence variability in the urine/blood concentration ratio of alcohol. A large number of human drinking experiments were conducted to determine the time course of urine-alcohol concentrations (UAC) in relation to blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC). The UAC and BAC curves were shifted in time and the BAC curve always began to decrease before the UAC started to decline. During the early absorption phase the UAC/BAC ratio was less than unity, whereas in the late absorption/distribution period the ratio was between 1.0-1.2. On reaching the post-absorptive phase, the UAC always exceeded BAC and UAC/BAC ratios averaged 1.3-1.4, increasing appreciably as BAC decreased towards zero. Alcohol-induced diuresis was most pronounced during the rising portion of the BAC curve and near to the peak value. After about 2 hours post-drinking, the production rate of urine diminished to the pre-drinking rate of about 0.5-1 mL/min. Drinking water during the post-absorptive phase of the alcohol curve produced dilute urine, as reflected in lower creatinine content and osmolality, although the concentration of ethanol remained unchanged. After subjects drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.54-0.85 g/kg) about 2% of the dose was recoverable in the urine after 7 hours. Ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was measured in urine samples from drunk drivers. The UAC/BAC ratio of ethanol in drunk drivers did not depend on the creatinine content of the urine and therefore the relative dilution of the specimens. When alcohol-free urine was spiked with glucose and infected with the yeast species Candida albicans, ethanol was produced by fermentation after approximately 24 hours storage at room temperature. This post-sampling synthesis of ethanol was prevented by sodium fluoride (1% weight by volume) in the urine tubes or by

  9. Perspectives in biological physics: the nDDB project for a neutron Dynamics Data Bank for biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusevich, Leonid; García Sakai, Victoria; Franzetti, Bruno; Johnson, Mark; Natali, Francesca; Pellegrini, Eric; Peters, Judith; Pieper, Jörg; Weik, Martin; Zaccai, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Neutron spectroscopy provides experimental data on time-dependent trajectories, which can be directly compared to molecular dynamics simulations. Its importance in helping us to understand biological macromolecules at a molecular level is demonstrated by the results of a literature survey over the last two to three decades. Around 300 articles in refereed journals relate to neutron scattering studies of biological macromolecular dynamics, and the results of the survey are presented here. The scope of the publications ranges from the general physics of protein and solvent dynamics, to the biologically relevant dynamics-function relationships in live cells. As a result of the survey we are currently setting up a neutron Dynamics Data Bank (nDDB) with the aim to make the neutron data on biological systems widely available. This will benefit, in particular, the MD simulation community to validate and improve their force fields. The aim of the database is to expose and give easy access to a body of experimental data to the scientific community. The database will be populated with as much of the existing data as possible. In the future it will give value, as part of a bigger whole, to high throughput data, as well as more detailed studies. A range and volume of experimental data will be of interest in determining how quantitatively MD simulations can reproduce trends across a range of systems and to what extent such trends may depend on sample preparation and data reduction and analysis methods. In this context, we strongly encourage researchers in the field to deposit their data in the nDDB. PMID:23884625

  10. High-intensity x-ray holography: an approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solem, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short-pulse, high-intensity, high-quantum-energy laser were examined. The limitations of x-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far-field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an x-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far-field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the alternative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo-resist is most attractive. For best resolution, exposure times must be limited to a few picoseconds, and this calls for investigation of mechanisms to shutter the laser or gate the recording surface. The best contrast ratio between the nitrogen-bearing polymers (protein and the nucleic acids) and water is between the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen.

  11. High-intensity x-ray holography: an approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short-pulse, high-intensity, high-quantum-energy laser were examined. The limitations of x-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far-field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an x-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far-field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the alternative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo-resist is most attractive. For best resolution, exposure times must be limited to a few picoseconds, and this calls for investigation of mechanisms to shutter the laser or gate the recording surface. The best contrast ratio between the nitrogen-bearing polymers (protein and the nucleic acids) and water is between the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen

  12. High-intensity X-ray holography: An approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, J. C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short pulse, high intensity, high quantum energy laser were examined. The limitations of X-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an X-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the altenative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo resist is most attractive.

  13. Nanoscale analysis of unstained biological specimens in water without radiation damage using high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field system based on FE-SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to examine biological specimens of bacteria, viruses and proteins. Until now, atmospheric and/or wet biological specimens have been examined using various atmospheric holders or special equipment involving SEM. Unfortunately, they undergo heavy radiation damage by the direct electron beam. In addition, images of unstained biological samples in water yield poor contrast. We recently developed a new analytical technology involving a frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method based on thermionic SEM. This method is suitable for high-contrast imaging of unstained biological specimens. Our aim was to optimise the method. Here we describe a high-resolution FTE system based on field-emission SEM; it allows for imaging and nanoscale examination of various biological specimens in water without radiation damage. The spatial resolution is 8 nm, which is higher than 41 nm of the existing FTE system. Our new method can be easily utilised for examination of unstained biological specimens including bacteria, viruses and protein complexes. Furthermore, our high-resolution FTE system can be used for diverse liquid samples across a broad range of scientific fields, e.g. nanoparticles, nanotubes and organic and catalytic materials. - Highlights: • We developed a high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. • High-resolution FTE system is introduced in the field-emission SEM. • The spatial resolution of high-resolution FTE method is 8 nm. • High-resolution FTE system enables observation of the intact IgM particles in water

  14. The Protein Data Bank and Its Uses in Structural Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Voet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The Protein Data Bank (PDB is a repository for the structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Itcontains les of their 3-dimensional coordinates, information on how these structures were determinedand references to the journal articles describing them. The PDB was established in 1971 by HelenBerman (it s present director and has grown exponentially so that it now contains 25,000 data lesrepresenting X-ray crystallographic, NMR and other structure determinations. Database queryingand data miningtools and resources at the PDB make it possible to search, compare and infer orpredict the function of newly identied proteins. Computer graphics capabilities make it possible foranyone to easily visualize and study the structural data. The capability to present beautiful graphicrepresentations of the 3-dimesnional structures of proteins and nucleic acids has been a boon to theeducation community. Communicating an understanding of these structures and the chemical forcesdetermining them and their interactions is one of the major aims of biochemistry and molecular biologyeducation. The ability to teach these principles visually has made a great dierence in our abilityto excite our students and provide them with physical interpretations for some abstract concepts inbiochemistry and molecular biology. In this talk we will explore some of the ways that the education community uses the PDB.

  15. Application of an objective biological assay of human interferons to clinical specimens and a survey of a normal population.

    OpenAIRE

    Forti, R L; Moldovan, R A; Mitchell, W M; Callicoat, P; Schuffman, S S; Davies, H A; Smith, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A rapid, quantitative, and nonsubjective method of interferon assay is described, which can be readily applied to clinical specimens. Automated data acquisition and data reduction allowed a significant increase in volume per unit of time over existing methodologies. Plasma always yielded higher (usually 2:1) interferon values than did serum obtained simultaneously. Ranges of interferon levels in plasma in normal control populations are reported as well as ranges for clinical virology laborato...

  16. Mass determination based on electron scattering in electron probe X-ray microanalysis of thin biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development of a method for mass determination of thin biological objects by quantitative electron microscopy. The practical realization of the mass determination consists of photographical recording with subsequent densitometry. (Auth.)

  17. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type

  18. The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe): bringing structure to biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some future challenges for the PDB and its guardians are discussed and current and future activities in structural bioinformatics at the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) are described. The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) is the European partner in the Worldwide PDB and as such handles depositions of X-ray, NMR and EM data and structure models. PDBe also provides advanced bioinformatics services based on data from the PDB and related resources. Some of the challenges facing the PDB and its guardians are discussed, as well as some of the areas on which PDBe activities will focus in the future (advanced services, ligands, integration, validation and experimental data). Finally, some recent developments at PDBe are described

  19. Imaging and quantification of trace metals in thin biological specimens using microprobe techniques: synchrotron induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe and nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence microprobe (SXRF) with other micro-analytical techniques based on accelerated particle beams, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) enable to quantify SXRF results of thin biological specimens. The same specimens were analysed by both techniques. The average thickness calculated by RBS of discrete tissue regions in equivalent sample sections was used to normalize SXRF data. Analysing the same sample region with PIXE technique, simultaneously to RBS, can validate the methodology once it will enable to compare concentrations obtained for elements that are detected by both SXRF and PIXE. Major departures were found for the quantification of Ca and Ti. For Cr and Fe a good agreement was found between both micro-analytical techniques. Differences below 20% were obtained for the majority of the elements and samples analysed. The procedure can be applied to produce quantitative elemental maps and it will be advantageous to quantify toxic elements present at low concentrations in tissues, such as Cr, Ni and Ph, which can only be efficiently assessed by SXRF. (authors)

  20. Benefit of STR-based chimerism analysis to identify TA-GVHD as a cause of death: Utility of various biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Anupuma; Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, Tirath Das; Khandelwal, Deepchand; Balayan, Ajay; Jain, Vandana; Kanga, Uma; Seth, Tulika

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare condition. It can occur after blood transfusion in immune-compromised and occasionally even in immune-competent patients, and is associated with a mortality rate of >90%. The diagnosis of TA-GVHD is often delayed because of its non-specific clinical features. A case of an immune-competent child who developed TA-GVHD is reported here. DNA profiling (short tandem repeat analysis), a technique that has a wide application in forensic medicine, was performed to detect the presence of donor cells in this patient. The findings suggest that more studies are needed with this tool, and the diagnostic potential of using other multiple biological specimens for DNA profiling such as the hair follicle and buccal swab should be evaluated. This is the first case report where the donor's DNA fingerprinting pattern was substantiated from a patient's hair follicle sample. Chimerism was also present in the blood and buccal swab specimens. PMID:25852093

  1. Evaluation of biological control strategies for polyphagotarsonemus latus (banks) and phyllocoptruta oleivora (ashmead) on valencia orange

    OpenAIRE

    Imbachi L, Karol; Mesa C., Nora Cristina; Rodríguez T, Isaura Viviana; Gómez G, Ibete; Cuchimba, Mayra; Lozano, Héctor; Matabanchoy, Jesús Harvey; Carabalí, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    El daño ocasionado por los ácaros Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis L.) es reconocido tanto por el impacto económico como por el dao externo de los frutos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de agentes biológicos para el control de estas plagas en un cultivo comercial de naranja Valencia en el municipio de Caicedonia, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseo de bloques completos al azar para evaluar los ...

  2. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Structural biology of the lanthanides-mining rare earths in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Carugo, Oliviero

    2015-02-01

    With its about 100,000 three-dimensional structures, the Protein Data Bank is a copious source of information: it contains also some hundreds of structures of macromolecules complexed with lanthanide cations, which are examined here. These cations, which are found in a wide variety of protein types, were introduced to determine the structures, by exploiting their anomalous dispersion (in crystallographic studies, where they are also used as crystallization additives) or the paramagnetic pseudocontact shifts (in NMR analyses). The coordination numbers in the first coordination sphere are very variable, though they tend to be close to those that are observed in small molecules or in water solution. The coordination polyhedra are also quite variable as it can be expected for large cations. Interestingly, lanthanide cations are frequently observed in packing bridges between symmetry equivalent molecules in crystals, where they tend to form polynuclear complexes, with up to seven cations bridged by water/hydroxide ligands. PMID:25528480

  4. Diagnosis of Physical and Biological Control over Phytoplankton in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank Region Using an Adjoint Data Assimilation Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Caixia; Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between physical and biological processes, particularly the effect of the circulation field on the distribution of phytoplankton, is studied by applying a two-dimensional model and an adjoint data assimilation approach to the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region. The model results, comparing well with observation data, reveal seasonal and geographic variations of phytoplankton concentration and verify that the seasonal cycles of phytoplankton are controlled by both biological sources and ad-vection processes which are functions of space and time and counterbalance each other. Although advective flux divergences have greater magnitudes on Georges Bank than in the coastal region of the western Gulf of Maine, advection control over phytoplankton concentration is more significant in the coastal region of the western Gulf of Maine. The model results also suggest that the two separated populations in the coastal regions of the western Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank are self-sustaining.

  5. The role of the Environmental Specimen Bank in environmental monitoring: The example of CHC in selected matrices; Die Rolle der Umweltprobenbank in der Umweltueberwachung am Beispiel von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in ausgewaehlten Matrizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Schramm, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Wolf, A.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1999-03-01

    For precautionary environmental protection the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has been successfully established as a permanent environmental surveillance tool in Germany. The presented monitoring results on chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) show very clearly the effects of political decisions and can be used for the identification of pollutant sources. The CHC burden of breams (Abramis brama) from five German rivers (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale) gives an current overview of the pollution situation of different limnic ecosystems in Germany. A calculation model about the distribution of organic pollutants between different tissues offers the possibility to predict concentrations in liver and muscle of breams. Legislative emission restrictions have led to a significant decrease of dioxin levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs between 1988-1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltprobenbank des Bundes hat sich im Rahmen der Oekologischen Umweltbeobachtung zu einem wichtigen und permanenten Instrument der Umweltpolitik entwickelt. Neben der Langzeitkonservierung fuer zukuenftige Forschungsaufgaben wird am Beispiel der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe demonstriert, dass das durchgefuehrte Monitoring-Programm als Nachweis fuer die Effektivitaet gesetzlicher Massnahmen und zur Identifizierung von Schadstoffeintragsquellen genutzt werden kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt am Beispiel der Brassen (Abramis brama) als Akkumulationsindikator einen aktuellen und raeumlich differenzierten Ueberblick ueber die chlororganische Belastungssituation bundesdeutscher Gewaesser (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale). Betrachtungen zur Verteilung organischer Chemikalien zwischen Gewebetypen von Brassen zeigen, dass sich die Verteilung der Schadstoffkonzentrationen in Leber und Muskel mit einem geringen Fehler errechnen laesst. Die Dioxingehalte von Silbermoeweneiern (Larus argentatus) belegen, dass die Belastung durch strengere Emissionsgrenzwerte seit Beginn der neunziger Jahre

  6. Banking of biological fluids for studies of disease-associated protein biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Kohn, Elise;

    2008-01-01

    biological fluids, especially serum and plasma, intended for study of protein biomarkers. In biomarker studies the process from the decision to take a sample from an individual to the moment the sample is safely placed in the biobank consists of several phases including collection of samples, transport of...... biobank as well as conclusions and clinical recommendations based on analysis of such material may be severely affected....

  7. Biological SOAP servers and web services provided by the public sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, H.; Miyazaki, S

    2003-01-01

    A number of biological data resources (i.e. databases and data analytical tools) are searchable and usable on-line thanks to the internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) servers. The output from the web server is easy for us to browse. However, it is laborious and sometimes impossible for us to write a computer program that finds a useful data resource, sends a proper query and processes the output. It is a serious obstacle to the integration of distributed heterogeneous data resources. To solve...

  8. Contribution to environmental specimen banking. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the feasibility, methods, results and limitations for a quantitative determination of all elements of the periodic table in different ecosystems. A comparison is made for the analytical methods AAS, ICP-AES, AES, EA, NAA, MS and PIXE from the view of detection limits and applicability to the analysis of plants and soils in ecosystems. An element concentration cadaster scheme is presented. Those cadasters have been evaluated for ecosystems in Sweden, Austria and Germany. The obtained element patterns are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Working at higher magnifications in scanning electron microscopy with secondary and backscattered electrons on metal coated biological specimens and imaging macromolecular cell membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K R

    1985-01-01

    Membrane structures of macromolecular dimensions were imaged with high resolution secondary electron type I (SE-I) signal contrasts on metal coated biological specimens. The quality of the surface information was strongly dependent on the signal used for microscopy and on the properties of metal films, i.e., thickness, continuity, structure and decoration effects. Films of 10 nm thickness produced so much type II electrons that identical images were obtained with the conventional SE-II and BSE-II signals. In such images, the type I SE signal was so low that only very weak contrasts were recognizable. If the films--continuous or discontinuous--were composed of large metal aggregates (gold and platinum) a strong micro-roughness contrast was produced by the type II signal. At high magnifications (100,000 x) this background signal greatly reduced the S/N ratio of the SE-I signal. A similar effect was previously shown to be produced by the type III background signal. The type II background signal minimized when continuous films of small aggregates (tantalum and chromium) were applied. SE-I contrast dominated in the image if the film thickness was limited to 1 nm. Additionally, it was found that gold and platinum decorated membrane surface structures, less than 20 nm in size, and did not reveal all the topographic information available (size, shape, orientation spacing of small surface features) but merely displayed center-to-center distances. These decoration effects were avoided and extensive topographic information was obtained through surface coating with Ta or Cr. PMID:4095499

  10. Cross-species comparison of biological themes and underlying genes on a global gene expression scale in a mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis and in clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmacher Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion-related genes over-expressed by tumor cells as well as by reacting host cells represent promising drug targets for anti-cancer therapy. Such candidate genes need to be validated in appropriate animal models. Results This study examined the suitability of a murine model (CT26/Balb/C of colorectal liver metastasis to represent clinical liver metastasis specimens using a global gene expression approach. Cross-species similarity was examined between pure liver, liver invasion, tumor invasion and pure tumor compartments through overlap of up-regulated genes and gene ontology (GO-based biological themes on the level of single GO-terms and of condensed GO-term families. Three out of four GO-term families were conserved in a compartment-specific way between the species: secondary metabolism (liver, invasion (invasion front, and immune response (invasion front and liver. Among the individual GO-terms over-represented in the invasion compartments in both species were "extracellular matrix", "cell motility", "cell adhesion" and "antigen presentation" indicating that typical invasion related processes are operating in both species. This was reflected on the single gene level as well, as cross-species overlap of potential target genes over-expressed in the combined invasion front compartments reached up to 36.5%. Generally, histopathology and gene expression correlated well as the highest single gene overlap was found to be 44% in syn-compartmental comparisons (liver versus liver whereas cross-compartmental overlaps were much lower (e.g. liver versus tumor: 9.7%. However, single gene overlap was surprisingly high in some cross-compartmental comparisons (e.g. human liver invasion compartment and murine tumor invasion compartment: 9.0% despite little histolopathologic similarity indicating that invasion relevant genes are not necessarily confined to histologically defined compartments. Conclusion In summary, cross

  11. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  12. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  13. Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHA, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Islamic banking. Describing historical and religious background of Islam, the Islamic banking and Shari'ah law. Then presenting financing techniques used in the Islamic banking. Eventually describing and analysing the Islamic banking in Malaysia. Comparison between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking is given throughout the bachelor thesis.

  14. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  15. Concise survey of localities and collection numbers of zoological and botanical specimens, collected by the Netherlands biological expedition to Turkey 1959

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    [Anonymous],

    1963-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION In the spring of 1959 E. Hennipman, P. Nijhoff, C. Swennen, A. S. Tulp, W. J. M. Vader and W. J. J. O. de Wilde made a biological collecting expedition to Turkey. The record of this journey of the "Nederlandse Biologische Expeditie Turkije 1959" appeared in "De Levende Natuur" vol. 6

  16. Retail Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one – trends, especially household deposits and credits and last – retail banking in particular banks.

  17. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  18. About Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…

  19. Biological aspects of the immature stages of Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Aspectos biológicos dos estágios imaturos de Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge of the behavior and biological aspects of natural enemies is extremely important for the establishment of biological control programs. Biological aspects of the larvae, pre-pupae and pupae of the predator Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks were studied. Larvae of the adult F1 generation were reared in the laboratory (25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 10 % RH and 14h photophase on eggs of the Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier. The duration and viability of the embryonic period, development of the immature stages and egg-adult period were evaluated. The mean embryonic period was 5.0 days, while the mean durations of the first, second and third instars were: 5.1 ± 0.03; 4.3 ± 0.05 and 4.5 ± 0.05 days, respectively, with viability exceeding 90%. Duration of the larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages averaged 13.9 ± 0.07; 5.7 ± 0.07 and 9.6 ± 0.12 days, respectively. Duration of the biological cycle was 34 ± 0.11 days on average. S. cerealella eggs were not suitable for rearing C. everes under laboratory conditions because they affected predator development.Para o estabelecimento de um programa de controle biológico, o conhecimento de alguns aspectos biológicos e de comportamento dos inimigos naturais é de extrema importância. Os aspectos biológicos do desenvolvimento larval e pupal do predador Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks foram estudados. Larvas oriundas de adultos da geração F1 foram mantidas em laboratório a 25 ± 21°C, 70 ± 10 % UR e fotofase 14 horas, sendo alimentadas com ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier. A duração e viabilidade do período embrionário, estágios imaturos de desenvolvimento e o período de ovo a adulto foram avaliados. O período embrionário foi em média de 5,0 dias, enquanto que as durações médias para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro instares foram de 5,1 ± 0,03; 4,3 ± 0,05 e 4,5 ± 0,05 dias, respectivamente, com viabilidade superior a 90 %. Os estágios larval, pré-pupal e pupal apresentaram

  20. OR Specimen Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  1. Transport of viral specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, F. B.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral infections by culture relies on the collection of proper specimens, proper care to protect the virus in the specimens from environmental damage, and use of an adequate transport system to maintain virus activity. Collection of specimens with swabs that are toxic to either virus or cell culture should be avoided. A variety of transport media have been formulated, beginning with early bacteriological transport media. Certain swab-tube combinations have proven to be both e...

  2. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  3. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  4. Shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pozsar, Zoltan; Adrian,Tobias; Ashcraft, Adam; Boesky, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the market-based financial system since the mid-1980s changed the nature of financial intermediation in the United States profoundly. Within the market-based financial system, "shadow banks" are particularly important institutions. Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that conduct maturity, credit, and liquidity transformation without access to central bank liquidity or public sector credit guarantees. Examples of shadow banks include finance companies, asset-backed c...

  5. Investment banks

    OpenAIRE

    Lejot, P

    2013-01-01

    Investment banking is a generic term for transactional activities involving financial intermediation conducted through open markets. It was long associated with a legal demarcation in the US and Japan that separated banks that made loans and took deposits from those that traded in securities, but now denotes risk-based activities in banks of any kind. This paper explains investment banking practices in terms of reputational capital, and contrasts the transactional skills and innovation found ...

  6. Volume reconstruction of large biological tissue specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Martin; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Smrčka, P.; Hána, K.

    Praha : ČVUT, 2006, P8.08-1-P8.08-6. ISBN 80-86059-44-8. [International Conference on Advanced Engineering Design /5./. Praha (CZ), 11.06.2006-14.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200510; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : confocal microscopy * volume reconstruction * volume visualization Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  7. Volume visualization of large biological tissue specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Martin; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Hána, K.; Smrčka, P.

    Brno : VUTIUM Press, 2006 - (Jan, J.; Kozumplík, J.; Provazník, I.), s. 230-232 ISBN 80-214-3152-0. [BIOSIGNAL 2006 /18./. Brno (CZ), 28.06.2006-30.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200510; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : confocal microscopy * volume reconstruction Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  8. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  9. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  10. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum;

    2014-01-01

    environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an...

  11. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  12. Shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Rahm, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor paper I focus on the issue of shadow banking. The paper is theoretically oriented. Its main goal is to provide overview on the shadow banking system. The text is divided into four parts. The first part includes the definition of shadow banking and the description of its characteristics. The credit intermediation in shadow banking and the process of securitization is explained in the second part. The third part is aimed at mapping of situation in the area of implementation of re...

  13. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  14. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  15. BANK GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of financial - banking commitments with various practical issues which are occurred by the use of those. From the legal point of view, the bank guarantees are not under an own legal regulation and are based on the common law, used in the guarantees domain. Through the new aspects of the actual Civil Code it are the legal regulation of the letter of bank guarantee and of the comfort letter, which shall constitute the main regulation in the negotiation and conclusion of a letter of bank guarantee or a bank comfort letter. For the legal reports with foreign elements, the parties can also use the Uniform Rules regarding the Guarantees at Request (URGR Publish no.758/2010.

  16. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  17. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  18. Calibration specimens for microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Vladimír; Matějka, Milan; Matějka, František; Krátký, Stanislav; Urbánek, Michal; Horáček, Miroslav; Král, Stanislav; Bok, Jan

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2012, s. 713-716. ISBN 978-80-87294-32-1. [NANOCON 2012. International Conference /4./. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2012-25.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MPO FR-TI1/576 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : E-beam technology * calibration specimen * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  20. Utility of QR codes in biological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Funk, Vicki A

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of QR codes for encoding information such as URIs has increased exponentially in step with the technological advances and availability of smartphones, digital tablets, and other electronic devices. We propose using QR codes on specimens in biological collections to facilitate linking vouchers' electronic information with their associated collections. QR codes can efficiently provide such links for connecting collections, photographs, maps, ecosystem notes, citations, and even GenBank sequences. QR codes have numerous advantages over barcodes, including their small size, superior security mechanisms, increased complexity and quantity of information, and low implementation cost. The scope of this paper is to initiate an academic discussion about using QR codes on specimens in biological collections. PMID:24198709

  1. Utility of QR codes in biological collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of QR codes for encoding information such as URIs has increased exponentially in step with the technological advances and availability of smartphones, digital tablets, and other electronic devices. We propose using QR codes on specimens in biological collections to facilitate linking vouchers’ electronic information with their associated collections. QR codes can efficiently provide such links for connecting collections, photographs, maps, ecosystem notes, citations, and even GenBank sequences. QR codes have numerous advantages over barcodes, including their small size, superior security mechanisms, increased complexity and quantity of information, and low implementation cost. The scope of this paper is to initiate an academic discussion about using QR codes on specimens in biological collections.

  2. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE NEMES

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  3. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  4. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  5. 建在我国核分析技术实验室的生物环境标本库%A biological environmental specimen bank established at the nuclear analytical techniques laboratory in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章佩群; 柴之芳

    2001-01-01

    阐明了生物环境标本库(BESB)在全球或区域环境监测中的重要意义.介绍了建在美国和德国的BESB的运作状况.对建在中国科学院核分析技术开放实验室的BESB运行情况和取得的一些主要研究结果作了较为详细的介绍.

  6. The Bank of England Bank Liabilities Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Venetia; Butt, Nick; Talbot, James

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve understanding of the role of bank liabilities in driving credit and monetary conditions, the Bank of England began conducting a formal Bank Liabilities Survey last year. This survey is intended to supplement the data collected on the asset side of bank balance sheets by the Bank of England’s quarterly survey of credit conditions, which was introduced in 2007. The first results of the Bank Liabilities Survey will be published on 26 March. This article introduces the survey.

  7. Lithuania : Banking System Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better ...

  8. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  9. Tumor banks: the cornerstone of basic research in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina T. Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Tumor banks have the primary responsibility for collecting, cataloging, storing and disseminating samples of tissues, cells and fluids, which are used by researchers to identify diagnostic molecular markers, prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets. The objective of this review was to describe a simple, reliable and reproducible protocol for obtaining and storing samples of urological tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urogenital tumor tissues were collected by the surgeons from the Urology Division of University of Sao Paulo Medical School. The obtained surgical specimens were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen, dry ice or in a tube containing RNAlater ®, and then stored by cryopreservation (-80°C. A mirror fragment was fixed in 10% formalin processed routinely and embedded in Paraplast®. RESULTS: We developed a protocol for the collection, cataloging, storage, conservation and use of tumor samples. During a period of one year the Urological Tumor Bank of the Urology Division stored 274 samples of prostate, bladder, kidney, penis and testicle tumors of different histological types, 74 urine and 271 serum samples. CONCLUSIONS: Having biological materials characterized and available along with the clinical patient information provides an integrated portrait of the patients and their diseases facilitating advances in molecular biology. It also promotes the development of translational research improving methods of diagnosis and cancer treatment.

  10. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  11. Ist die Bank der Zukunft eine Bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.

  12. The ENZYME data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A

    1994-01-01

    The ENZYME data bank is a repository of information relative to the nomenclature of enzymes. It is primarily based on the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and it contains the following data for each type of characterized enzyme for which an EC (Enzyme Commission) number has been provided: EC number Recommended name Alternative names (if any) Catalytic activity Cofactors (if any) Pointers to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence entrie(s) that correspond to the enzyme (if any) Pointers to human disease(s) associated with a deficiency of the enzyme (if any). PMID:7937072

  13. Banking Efficiency in European Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelidou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to unveil whether the tremendous banking sector reforms within the dynamic nature of the EU economic environment have achieved one of the catalyst EU goals, increase financial institutions’ cost efficiency. Using a single stage stochastic frontier approach, cost efficiency of the enlarged EU is estimated and evaluated for the period 2005-2011. The results suggest that EU pursuits have been successful but that stronger controls are needed.

  14. Banking reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  15. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  16. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  17. Ethical aspects of informed consent for the collection, preservation and use of cells and tissues in biological banks for research purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the current and proposed requirements for informed consent for research with biological samples. The establishment of biobanks and the capabilities of collecting, storing, and using cells and tissues for research purposes have noticeably grown. With new abilities come new challenges to ethical questions of consent, specifically concerning genetic information, and unanticipated usage. This paper summarizes these issues in the context of levels of informed consent, subject risk, individual vs. societal benefits, anonymity, legal consensus. PMID:23115828

  18. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  19. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU

    2008-01-01

    Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....

  20. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  1. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-01-01

    The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking) against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking) were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking ...

  2. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...

  3. Specimen Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Microscopy Laboratory We recommend consultation with one of the lab directors before preparing specimens. The methods presented here provide an overview of preparation techniques for a variety of specimens. - **Conductive Specimens** (such as metallic objects): Usually, these specimens do not have to be sputter coated. Simply mount the specimen on a SEM stub using conductive paint or putty. - **Non-conductive Dry Specimens** (ex: ceramics, polymers): Mount on...

  4. What is Shadow Banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Stijn Claessens; Lev Ratnovski

    2014-01-01

    There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow banking as “all financial activities, except traditional banking, which require a private or public backstop to operateâ€. Backstops can come in the form of franchise value of a bank or insurance c...

  5. An interlaminar tension strength specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tension strength, sigma(sub 3c) of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 degrees, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism which was held by the grips of a tensile testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the loading arm length had no effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality. Width was found to affect the value of sigma(sub 3c) only slightly. The wider specimens generally had a slightly lower strength since more material was under high stress, and hence, had a larger probability of containing a significant flaw.

  6. Electrothermal fracturing of tensile specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, H. O.; Hanks, J. G.; Perkins, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pulling device consisting of structural tube, connecting rod, spring-loaded nuts, loading rod, heating element, and three bulkheads fractures tensile specimens. Alternate heating and cooling increases tensile loading by increments until fracturing occurs. Load cell or strain gage, applied to pulling rod, determines forces applied.

  7. Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis

  8. 人二倍体细胞(2BS株)细胞库的建立及生物学特性鉴定%Establishment and biological characteristics of human diploid cell (2BS strain) bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁本; 王佳凤; 侯良玉; 麻广; 李永忠; 李立; 哈秀杰; 李开军; 单玉杰

    2014-01-01

    ,adventitious viral agents,identity,microorgan contamination and tumorigenicity.The cells from working cell bank qualified in overall control tests were inoculated to disposable T75 culture flask,3 L glass flask and 10-layer cell factory,then observed for morphology and counted,onto which varicella virus was inoculated at MOIs of 0.010 5,0.012 8 and 0.018 8.The bulk was harvested and determined for virus titer.Results The cell activities of MCB and WCB were 94.1% and 94.4% respectively.The result of karyotyping of 1 000 cells at mitotic phase was within the specified range of requirements for chromosome analysis of human diploid cells in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume Ⅲ,2010 edition).Both the determination results of human adventitious agents in supernatant and lysate of cells were negative,which met the requirements in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume Ⅲ,2010 edition).All the cells were adherent and fibriform,which were human cells type B.The cell banks were free from contamination with bacteria,fungi,viruses or mycoplasma,and no tumorigenicity was observed.The cells from established cell banks formed monolayer on three kinds of culture dishes within the specified time.The viable cell concentration in unit area was (2.01 ~ 2.59) × 105 cells/cm2,while the titer of harvested virus was 5.0 ~ 5.25 lgPFU / ml,which met the internal requirements for live attenuated varicella vaccine in Chengdu Institute of Biological Products Co.,Ltd.Conclusion The MCB and WCB of 2BS cells were established,which provided a cell source and a theoretical basis for application of 2BS cells to development and production of live attenuated varicella vaccine.

  9. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  10. Preserving Accuracy in GenBank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidartondo, M.I.; Bruns, T. D.; Blackwell, M.;

    2008-01-01

    GenBank, the public repository for nucleotide and protein sequences, is a critical resource for molecular biology, evolutionary biology, and ecology. While some attention has been drawn to sequence errors (1), common annotation errors also reduce the value of this database. In fact, for organisms...... such as fungi, which are notoriously difficult to identify, up to 20% of DNA sequence records may have erroneous lineage designations in GenBank (2). Gene function annotation in protein sequence databases is similarly error-prone (3, 4). Because identity and function of new sequences are often...... unsustainable over the long term as authors eventually leave the field. Although it is possible to link third-party databases to GenBank records, this is a short-term solution that has little guarantee of permanence. Similarly, the current third-party annotation option in GenBank (TPA) complicates rather than...

  11. Oman; Banking Sector Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthakrishnan Prasad; Pierluigi Bologna

    2010-01-01

    This note assesses the impact of the global financial risks on Oman's banking system and highlights the remaining risks. It concludes that the liquidity and prudential measures introduced by the authorities mitigated the adverse effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks continue to make profits despite higher provisioning. Stress tests confirm the resilience of the banking system to credit and market risks. Banks have limited exposure to derivatives and the majority of the off-balanc...

  12. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  13. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Tumer-Alkan, G.

    2008-01-01

    The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’ role is relevant for the smooth functioning and growth of an economy as well. Moreover, when banks and firms enter into a relationship, they are able to overcome problems of asymmetric information and...

  14. Shadow bank monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian,Tobias; Adam B. Ashcraft; Cetorelli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    We provide a framework for monitoring the shadow banking system. The shadow banking system consists of a web of specialized financial institutions that conduct credit, maturity, and liquidity transformation without direct, explicit access to public backstops. The lack of such access to sources of government liquidity and credit backstops makes shadow banks inherently fragile. Shadow banking activities are often intertwined with core regulated institutions such as bank holding companies, secur...

  15. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  16. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  17. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  18. Bank Profitability during Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; Leo de Haan; Marco Hoeberichts; Maarten van Oordt; Job Swank

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the relation between bank profitability and economic downturns using a theoretical model that takes into account the bank's lending history as well as amortization and losses on outstanding loans. We focus on total bank profits and its components: net interest income, other income, and net provisioning plus other costs. Using both aggregate and individual bank panel datasets, our results confirm that pro-cyclicality of bank profits is stronger for deep recessions than dur...

  19. Norges Bank Watch 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Juel, Steinar; Molnar, Krisztina Molnar; Røed, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Norges Bank has gone a long way in being open about its decisions and it is one of the most transparent central banks; this report makes a few recommendations about further improving the bank in this respect. Since Norges Bank already has a history of many years of transparency about its decisions and the principles used to make these decisions, it is possible to make a retrospective analysis and evaluate the bank. We think that evaluating and discussing the monetary policy of ...

  20. Selling Failed Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru

    2014-01-01

    We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...

  1. Outsourcing central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...

  2. Understanding Banking Sector Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles the recent evolution and consequences of banking sector globalization. After presenting trends in international banking, the article overviews macroeconomic consequences of banking sector globalization, including the role of banks in the international transmission of shocks, comovements of business cycles, financial crises, and economic growth. Other consequences of banking globalization have parallels with the effects of real-side foreign direct investment, including te...

  3. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  4. Mobile banking: near future of banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gentiana Gjino; Orkida Ilollari (Findiku)

    2014-01-01

    Banks are now being prepared to take advantage of another profit opportunity which is another product usable by all of us, the 'Mobile phone'. The interest over 'Mobile Banking' product is becoming increasingly intense. Applications and new technologies are spreading through European banks mobilized to embrace this profitable product. It is common knowledge that many users of mobile telephony are actively shifted from PC to mobile devices. It still remains to understand: to what extent this n...

  5. Were Universal Banks More Vulnerable to Banking Failures? Evidence From the 1931 German Banking Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Adalet, Müge

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the 1931 German banking crisis using a bank-level data set. It specifically focuses on the link between banking structure and financial stability. The universality of banks, a key characteristic of the German banking system, is shown to increase the probability of bank failure after controlling for other bank-level characteristics and macroeconomic variables.

  6. Methods of Payment to Banks:e- Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Petronella VLAD; Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2012-01-01

    E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accoun...

  7. Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2009-01-01

    Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η μελέτη της Τραπεζικής του Διαδικτύου. Ειδικότερα η διερεύνηση των μελλοντικών εξελίξεων του Internet Banking αλλά και των επιπτώσεων που αναμένεται να επιφέρει η περαιτέρω ανάπτυξή του στην παραδοσιακή Τραπεζική και τον ευρύτερο Τραπεζικό και χρηματοοικονομικό τομέα. Η εργασία είναι οργανωμένη σε τρεις θεματικές ενότητες-κεφάλαια. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο γίνεται αναφορά σε θεμελιώδη θέματα που αφορούν την Τραπεζική του Διαδικτύου. Πέρα από τους ορισμούς των Τραπεζικ...

  8. Plastination: Preservation Technology Enhances Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Claudia; Glover, Roy

    2003-01-01

    Urges the use of plastinated specimens as an alternative to traditional dissection in biology classrooms. Suggests that plastinated biological specimens heighten student interest and enhance teaching. Interview responses of students, teachers, and administrators to the use of plastinated specimens in selected high schools were found to be very…

  9. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    OpenAIRE

    Kashmari A; Nejad AHG; Nayebyazdi A

    2016-01-01

    Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of...

  10. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  11. Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana R

    2008-01-01

    Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...

  12. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  13. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  14. Bank Funding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart I. Greenbaum; Anjan V. Thakor

    2004-01-01

    We examine a bank's choice of whether to fund the loans it originates by emitting deposits or to sell the loans to investors. With common knowledge of loan quality and laissez faire banking, we find that the choice is irrelevant. With asymmetric information but without government intervention, we find that better quality assets will be sold (securitized) and poorer quality assets will be funded with deposits. Public regulation can influence the bank's choice; subsidies can cause a bank to fav...

  15. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  16. Securitization and Bank Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Casu, B; Clare, A; Sarkisyan, A.; Thomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using predominantly precrisis U.S. commercial bank data, this paper employs a propensity score matching approach to analyze whether individual banks did improve their performance through securitization. On average, our results show that securitizing banks tend to be more profitable institutions, with higher credit risk exposure. Despite a more diversified funding structure, they face higher funding costs. We also find that securitizing banks tend to hold larger and less diversified loan portf...

  17. The Shanxi Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Fan Yang

    2010-01-01

    The remote inland province of Shanxi was late Qing dynasty China's paramount banking center. Its remoteness and China's almost complete isolation from foreign influence at the time lead historians to posit a Chinese invention of modern banking. However, Shanxi merchants ran a tea trade north into Siberia, travelled to Moscow and St. Petersburg, and may well have observed Western banking there. Nonetheless, the Shanxi banks were unique. Their dual class shares let owners vote only on insiders'...

  18. Early public banks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberds, William; Velde, François R.

    2014-01-01

    Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the fifteenth century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was however never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitat...

  19. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  20. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger

    2011-01-01

    We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...

  1. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  2. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  3. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  4. A BANK MANAGER SPEAKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.

  5. Banking on Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc

  6. Polymer bank notes

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lang; John Barry

    1999-01-01

    On 3 May 1999 the Bank issued a new $20 bank note into circulation that had been printed on a polymer substrate. This article traces the history of polymer, briefly describes the process of production, and highlights the benefits of the substrate and the implications for the future of bank note handling within the country.

  7. Banking on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  8. More Localized Foreign Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The country's banking watchdog says that to engage in the retail renminbi business, foreign banks must become Chinese legal entities According to China's commitment at its accession to the WTO, as of December 11 this year, it will fully open renminbi business to foreign-funded banks. However, this does not mean that the 103 China branches of foreign

  9. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if politica...

  10. Esterilização por óxido de etileno: II. Influência de corpos de prova no desempenho de monitores biológicos e sua avaliação Ethylene oxide sterilization: II. The influence of test specimens on the performance of biological monitors and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus A. Pinto

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância da garantia de esterilidade em produto médico-hospitalares e pela predominância da forma tubular dentre estes produtos, conduziu-se o estudo de monitores biológicos em que os corpos de prova apresentavam diferentes comprimentos e diâmetros. O sensor biológico foi constituído de esporos de Bacillus subtilis var. niger adquirido do mercado nacional sob tiras de papel. Após esterilização por processo industrial, seguiu-se a recuperação dos esporos sobreviventes através de inoculação dos suportes em caldo tioglicolato, caldo caseína-soja e este adicionado de azul de bromotimol. A capacidade promotora de crescimento destes 3 meios de cultura não apresentou diferenças. A eficácia esterilizante foi dependente do tamanho de corpos de prova. A determinação periódica do teor residual de gás nos corpos de prova, bem como a monitoração ambiental industrial indicaram a importância da legislação em vigor, devendo ser obedecida a fim de garantir inocuidade aos pacientes e operadores.In view of the importance of the assurance of the sterility of medical devices, with a large incidence of tubular forms, a study of biological monitors was undertaken, using paper as a carrier, the dimension of the test specimens being the variable considered. After the sterilization process in an industrial cycle, followed by the recovery of the surviving spores through inoculation of the carriers into thioglicolate broth, soybean-casein broth and this last with the addition of bromothymol blue. No differences were found between the growth promoting capacity of these 3 media. The effectiveness of sterilization was dependent on the dimension of the test specimens. The periodic determination of residual gas content on the test specimens, as well as the monitoring of the industrial environment demonstrate the need and importance of the legislation in force.

  11. Relief- and apodized-phase-contrast imaging of biological specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelc, Radek; Hostounský, Z.; Otaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, 4 suppl. (2008), s. 1073-1074. ISSN 1225-6773. [Asia-Pacific Microscopy Conference /9./. 02.11.2008-07.11.2008, Jeju] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * phase contrast * microscopy * apodization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  12. Volume visualization of biological tissue specimens using confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Martin; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Smrčka, P.; Hána, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2006), s. 240-244. ISSN 0301-5491. [Biomedical Engineering Conference of Young Biomedical Engineers and Researchers /2./. Kladno, 19.07.2006-21.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200510; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  13. Better borrowers, fewer banks?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Frédéric Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between borrower quality and the structure of the pool of banks. First, we develop a theoretical model where the size of the banking pool is a credible signal of firm quality. We argue that better borrowers seek to disclose their quality in a credible way through the structure of the banking pool involving fewer banks. Second, we test our prediction using a sample of more than 3,000 loans from 19 European countries. We perform regressions of the number of bank ...

  14. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  15. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  16. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  17. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záveská Drábková, Lenka

    vol.1115. New York : Springer Science+Business Media, 2014 - (Besse, P.), s. 67-84 ISBN 978-1-62703-766-2. - (Methods in Molecular Biology) R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774; GA ČR GP206/07/P147 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA * herbarium speciemen * plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Extreme Spillover Between Shadow Banking and Regular Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Paraschiv, Florentina; Qin, Minzi

    2013-01-01

    The current financial crisis brought light to a large banking sector that existed for decades within the "darkness" of the financial system - the shadow banking sector. Shadow bank assets are widely traded in the financial markets and shadow banking activities are intertwined with the daily business of regular banks. This unregulated banking sector has become systematically important. Its failure affected the entire banking system. We present a model based on multivariate extreme value theory...

  19. THE BANKING SECTOR - INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BANKING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela CIOCAN

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...

  20. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Cargill, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  1. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be...

  2. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC’s experience teaches us three important lessons: first, systemically important institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient to...

  3. Saltmarsh creek bank stability: Biostabilisation and consolidation with depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Collins, M. B.

    2012-03-01

    The stability of cohesive sediments of a saltmarsh in Southern England was measured in the field and the laboratory using a Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) and a shear vane apparatus. Cores and sediment samples were collected from two tidal creek banks, covered by Atriplex portulacoides (Sea Purslane) and Juncus maritimus (Sea Rush), respectively. The objectives of the study were to examine the variation of sediment stability throughout banks with cantilevers present and investigate the influence of roots and downcore consolidation on bank stability. Data on erosion threshold and shear strength were interpreted with reference to bank depth, sediment properties and biological influences. The higher average erosion threshold was from the Sea Purslane bank whilst the Sea Rush bank showed higher average vane shear strength. The vertical variation in core sediment stability was mainly affected by roots and downcore consolidation with depth. The data obtained from the bank faces revealed that vertical variations in both erosion threshold and vane shear strength were affected primarily by roots and algae. A quantitative estimate of the relative contributions of roots and downcore consolidation to bank sediment stability was undertaken using the bank stability data and sediment density data. This showed that roots contributed more to the Sea Purslane bank stability than downcore consolidation, whilst downcore consolidation has more pronounced effects on the Sea Rush bank stability.

  4. PS1-59: Collecting Biomedical Specimens in Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Survey research organizations are increasingly being tasked with obtaining consent and, in some cases, collecting biological specimens from potential respondents. In order to obtain high response rates in these types of studies, it is crucial that survey methodologists investigate best practices to improve response in the collection of these types of data. Under what circumstances are participants willing to consent to these procedures? What methods can be utilized to best facilitate the coll...

  5. Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  6. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  7. Customer Experience in Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...

  8. Do Foreign Banks Lead in Internet Banking Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooi Guan CHEAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.

  9. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  10. Islamic Banking and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    AlFarra, Diaa M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Islamic Banking and Finance has been growing rapidly during the last decades. Descriptive analysis has been used in order to introduce the Islamic banking and finance and how it works. On other hand, clarify the Islamic Banking and Finance Systems and show how it works in part of liability and also profit and loss sharing basis. In addition to that, the main similarities and differences were properly identified, introduced and discussed in the paper. It is obvious that there are many similari...

  11. Essays on Bank Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cabiles, Neil Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This PhD Thesis is composed of three chapters, each discussing a specific type of risk that banks face. The first chapter talks about Systemic Risk and how banks get exposed to it through the Interbank Funding Market. Exposures in the said market have Systemic Risk implications because the market creates linkages, where the failure of one party can affect the others in the market. By showing that CDS Spreads, as bank risk indicators, are positively related to their Net Interbank Funding ...

  12. Method of Banks Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Horvátová

    2010-01-01

    Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...

  13. Bank Customers Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is A...

  14. Banks on Board

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fear; Christopher Kobrak

    2007-01-01

    As part of a series of related papers, the authors examine the conceptual foundations of German and American corporate governance, specifically highlighting the role of banks' relationships to corporations and the stock market. This paper focuses on how the regulatory and macroeconomic environments of the two countries helped shape how banks, especially money-centred bankers, actually interacted with their clients. Prior to 1914, despite many regulatory obstacles, American banks wielded more ...

  15. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  16. BANKING PRIVATIZATION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, İmre

    2015-01-01

    It seems impossible to drive a general rule concerning the outcomes of privatization that would be applicable to each country or sector. Privatization may lead to better use of resources but also to extraction of profit overseas and growing industrial concentration. Privatization of banking is more delicate an issue because of the potential to undermine confidence in the system. Moreover, there is the problem of obtaining data on bank privatization as public banks have always been an importan...

  17. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  18. Bank Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jokipii, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...

  19. PENGELOLAAN LIKUIDITAS BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management.  this  article  is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks.DOI:10.15408/ijies.v6i1.1371

  20. Potential doses from geological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Geology departments in Universities and many private collectors have geological samples which contain examples of Uranium and Thorium salts. Many of these are from old collections and were collected from areas where the Uranium and Thorium content of the samples is very high. Aberdeen University holds such a collection which was having to be relocated and concentrated into a small room. During measurements taken during the introduction of measures to control the radon problem arising from the samples (which was not insignificant) it also became clear that a problem existed with regard to the potential finger dose to researchers w ho were to handle these samples frequently and possibly as a whole body dose to persons who were working adjacent to the radioactive samples on some of the non active rock samples. The paper will describe the dose rates measured round a wide variety of geological specimens. As well as the geological description of these samples a gamma spectral analysis has been carried out and the principle radionuclides present identified. These dose rates have been used to calculate the doses received during exposure scenarios of a variety of persons ranging from research workers handling the sources on a daily basis to people who may be keeping samples in a display cabinet in their homes. Suggested strategies for restricting these doses have been identified. The methodology of the measurement of the dose rates will be described and the dose rates measured presented. The gamma spectral analysis of the samples against the geological type will be shown. Under the different exposure scenarios maximum finger doses of sever al tens of mSv/y are easily achievable and it would be possible to get substantial doses from samples held in a display cabinet in a private home. These doses will be presented. (authors)

  1. Banking union and a single bank supervisory mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This note considers why a banking union is an essential component of a well-functioning monetary union. I describe some the consequences of banking union for the euro area. I describe how the European banking union should be designed.

  2. Private Banking and Wealth Management Services Offered by Banks

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...

  3. World Bank Group/World Bank Corporate Scorecards, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...

  4. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  5. Flat tensile specimen design for advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element analyses of flat, reduced gage section tensile specimens with various transition region contours were performed. Within dimensional constraints, such as maximum length, tab region width, gage width, gage length, and minimum tab length, a transition contour radius of 41.9 cm produced the lowest stress values in the specimen transition region. The stresses in the transition region were not sensitive to specimen material properties. The stresses in the tab region were sensitive to specimen composite and/or tab material properties. An evaluation of stresses with different specimen composite and tab material combinations must account for material nonlinearity of both the tab and the specimen composite. Material nonlinearity can either relieve stresses in the composite under the tab or elevate them to cause failure under the tab.

  6. Standardizing the Handling of Surgical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Cheryl; Perrego, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    To standardize the handling of surgical specimens, the OR clinical educators in a community hospital setting devised a series of departmental changes as a quality improvement project. A newly created skill validation was reviewed in an hour-long educational meeting with all OR staff members. In addition to creating a new annual skill validation, discussions about specimens were included in the hand over, the time out, and a newly instituted debriefing tool to be used toward the end of a procedure. This interdisciplinary group devised interventions to improve the process of handling specimens such as standardizing the labeling process and changing the transparency of the specimen container. The goal was to assure standardization of specimen handling, specifically to assist novice staff members, and to harmonize inconsistencies between specialties within the practice of existing staff members. These combined methods helped to ensure accurate communication and procurement of specimens for all procedures. PMID:26514715

  7. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Agida S Adoga; Danle N Ma`an; Samuel I Nuhu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Mater...

  8. Testing Research on the Coal Specimen Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Peide Sun

    2006-01-01

    The three-dimensional compression tests to coal specimen containing methane gas were carried out with various confining pressures and pore pressures in this study. The rule for three-dimensional compression deformation on the gas permeability of the coal specimens was systematically studied by the tests. The new empiric equations for the gas permeability of the coal specimens were formulated by the numerical fit of the test data and they were successfully used in the visual numerical simulati...

  9. Percutaneous renal biopsy specimens in stone formers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, D.J.; Inglis, J A; Tolley, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of renal biopsy specimens taken at the time of percutaneous nephrolithotomy were investigated for the presence and location of foci of microcalcification. Calcium was found in 18 of 25 (72%) of biopsy specimens from stone formers and in only seven of 30 (23%) of control biopsy specimens. This may indicate defective intrarenal handling of calcium as plasma calcium concentration was normal and 40% had a raised 24 hour urinary calcium excretion.

  10. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  11. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  12. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  13. Innovative strategies of bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Peresadko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.

  14. Polymer bank notes

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lang

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999 the Reserve Bank issued its first polymer bank notes into circulation. By March 2000 all denominations had been converted from paper to polymer. By the end of 2001 approximately 110 million polymer notes had been issued into circulation. This article assesses the performance of polymer notes compared with our expectations at the time they were introduced.

  15. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  16. Marketing of bank innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Vasileva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is determined the specificity of bank innovations. Level of their introduction in Ukraine is analyse. General tendencies in development of marketing of bank innovations are proved and the scientifically-methodical approach to an estimation of its efficiency is offered.

  17. GREEN BANKING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. KHAWASPATIL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable enlargement can best be achieved by permitting markets to work within an appropriate framework of cost efficient regulations and economic instruments. One of the major economic agents influencing overall industrial activity and economic growth is the financial institutions such as banking sector. In a globalised economy, the industries and firms are vulnerable to stringent environmental policies, severe law suits or consumer boycotts. Since banking sector is one of the major stake holders in the Industrial sector, it can find itself faced with credit risk and liability risks. Further, environmental impact might affect the quality of assets and also rate of return of banks in the long-run. Thus the banks should go green and play a pro-active role to take environmental and ecological aspects as part of their lending principle, which would force industries to go for mandated investment for environmental management, use of appropriate technologies and management systems. This paper explores the importance of Green Banking, sites international experiences and highlights important lessons for sustainable banking and development in India. However, we find that there has not been much initiative in this regard by the banks and other financial institutions in India though they play an active role in India's emerging economy. Therefore, we suggest possible policy measures and initiative to promote green banking in India.

  18. iBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  19. The Solar Bank concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)

  20. Bank Value and Financial Fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Gobert, Karine; González, Patrick; Poitevin, Michel

    2002-01-01

    We propose a valuation model for a bank which faces a bankruptcy risk. Banks are identified with a possibly infinite random sequence of net benefits. A bank is solvent as long as its benefits remain non-negative. To preserve distressed banks from destruction, banks will be pooled within a financial coalition. When possible, those with current positive balance sheet will refinance those in need of liquidity. Banks are refinanced to the extent that their current needs for liquidity do not excee...

  1. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Rice; Cyril Peter

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their...

  2. Derivatives Activity at Troubled Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Rosengren, Eric S.

    1996-01-01

    Derivatives have become an essential instrument for hedging risks, yet moral hazard can lead to their misuse by problem banks. Given that the absence of comprehensive data on bank derivatives activities prevents an accurate assessment of bank risk-taking, banks have an opportunity to take unmonitored second bets. Thus , troubled banks have the motive to increase risk, and derivatives provide the means to do so. The role of bank supervisors should be to limit the opportunity through more compr...

  3. Evaluation of MCM-2 expression in TMA cervical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcina F Nicol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM are highly expressed in actively replicating cells. The need for biological markers for cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions is emerging. Our main aim was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of MCM-2 in HIV-positive and -negative dysplastic cervical specimens. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of MCM-2 was performed in a total of 352 cervical TMA specimens of normal control, low-grade CIN, high-grade CIN and invasive tumor. 38 specimens were from HIV-positive women. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was constructed to determine the best cutoff to diagnose high-grade CIN and invasive cervical cancer. RESULTS: In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade CIN and invasive tumor we found significant differences in the MCM-2 expression (p<0.05. Based on the ROC curve of 80% with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.78, expression of MCM-2 to diagnose high-grade CIN and invasive tumor resulted in sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 66%, a positive predictive value (PPV of 86% and a negative predictive value (NPV of 57%. HIV-positive cervices revealed a decreasing expression of MCM-2 in both LGCIN and HGCIN compared with HIV-negative specimens (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that immunohistochemical MCM-2 may not be a promising biomarker for diagnosing high-grade CIN and invasive cancer.

  4. Banking union and bank regulation: Banking sector stability in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bremus, Franziska M.; Lambert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the most recent period of calm on the financial markets, the long-term resilience of the European financial system is not yet assured, even several years after the financial crisis began. However, the stability of the financial system playsa crucial role for real economic development and consequently for growth and prosperity. The financial crisis has shown that stricter regulation is required to improve the stability and resilience of the banking system. Further, it has become eviden...

  5. Making Ceramic Reference Specimens Containing Seeded Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Roth, Don J.

    1994-01-01

    Internal and surface voids of known sizes incorporated into silicon carbide and silicon nitride ceramic reference specimens at prescribed locations. Specimens used to demonstrate sensitivity and resolution in nondestructive examination techniques like scanning laser acoustic microscopy and x-radiography, and to assist in establishing proper examination procedures.

  6. Examination of simulated borehole specimens. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the contact between portland cement grout and surrounding rock will be of prime importance if grout is used to seal boreholes for the isolation of nuclear waste. The contact will need to be tight and relatively impermeable. In the study reported herein, simulated borehole (SBH) specimens were prepared and tested in the laboratory. The specimens consisted of grout poured into a hole in sections of anhydrite rock core that had been grouted into a steel pipe to provide restraint. The study was largely devoted to investigating methods of avoiding artifacts during preparation of these SBH specimens for study of the grout-to-rock contact. The work was conducted and is reported in two parts. The first part was a study in which only large round SBH specimens (about 6 by 6 in.) were used, while the second also included some smaller round SBH specimens

  7. MR-pathologic correlation of lung specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new MR-pathologic correlation method utilizing a high-resolution MR technique with a 3-inch surface coil and elimination of susceptibility by replacing air in the pulmonary alveoli of lung specimens with water. Inflated cadaver lung specimens of various lung disorders were imaged using a conventional spin echo (SE) sequence in a clinical 1.5T MR scanner. The MR images were correlated with pathologic specimens. In six out of seven specimens, MR revealed detailed images corresponding to pathological changes. MR may provide a non-invasive and non-destructive method for examining lung specimens and for image-pathologic correlation

  8. Surveillance specimen assemblies for housing and supporting irradiation specimens within nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an apparatus used inside nuclear reactors which contains representative reactor material specimens for irradiation effect measurements. Details are given of the assembly used to support and house the specimens under test. (UK)

  9. Bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon

    2004-01-01

    The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.

  10. Swiss Bank Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martin; Döbeli, Barbara; Sauré, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We examine the origin of deposits with Swiss banks on a country-by-country basis for the period 1987-2007. We relate the volume of Swiss bank deposits for 99 countries to the taxation of personal income as well as to political governance in these countries. Our results suggest that higher taxation in origin countries is not associated with a larger volume of deposits with Swiss banks. Our results do show however that countries with weak political governance, e.g. corruption, internal conflict...

  11. PENGELOLAAN LIKUIDITAS BANK SYARIAH

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Islamic Banking Liquidity Management.  this  article  is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt) on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Thr...

  12. PERCEIVED BARRIERS OF INNOVATIVE BANKING AMONG MALAYSIAN RETAIL BANKING CUSTOMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman Munusamy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify perceptual barriers of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The per ceptual barrier factors that analyzed were difficulty to operate, hassle to use, unreliable, perceived risk and high connection fees. This study employs a quantitative approach using questionnaire survey at selected banks in Malaysia. The results indicate that there are significant barriers exist in the perception of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The results indicate several implications for bank managers to change the perceptions of retail internet banking customers.

  13. Varying Impacts of Electronic Banking on the Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Bakare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry has undergone tremendous changes with the introduction of information technology (IT. Electronic banking (EB is a new paradigm in banks’ product and service delivery. Electronic banking products and services have become increasingly popular in the past three decades as the banking industry operating in a complex and competitive environment has experienced the awareness to serve its customers electronically. Online banking has become the preferred way for many Americans to conduct financial activities. This paper explores a few published articles that reported on the impacts of electronic banking on the banking industry. The articles vary in their findings. Impacts on the banking industry from the points of view of consumers and bank employees were reported. This paper examines the study of few other articles to propose that more research be conducted utilizing a different research methodology such as qualitative method to fully understand how EB impacts the banking industry and address cyber crime threats.

  14. Metamorphosis of Banking Products - A Perception of Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.

  15. World bank and the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion

  16. Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Azmi Omar; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Rosylin Mohd. Yusof; M. Shabri Abd. Majid; Mohd. Eskandar Shah Mohd. Rasid

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the change in the productivity of banking industry during the period of 2000 to 2004. The data consists of a panel of 11 commercial banks in Malaysia namely Malayan Banking, Bumiputra-Commerce, Public Bank, RHB Bank, Hong Leong Berhad, EON Bank, Affin Bank, Southern Bank Berhad, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB), Ambank and Bank Muamalat. Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. The Malmquist productivity measu...

  17. The Bulgarian Banks' competitiveness: the case of Remote banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the banks have started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking becomes one of the main channels for bank services distribution. This paper presents results from a research, which aims to describe actual picture of remote banking products and services offered by ...

  18. Statistical comparison of comparable banking products in selected banks

    OpenAIRE

    Elstnerová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis describes the current situation in the market of commercial banks in the Czech Republic, analyzes products offer in selected banks depending on the client preferences of individual commercial banks, and evaluates the influences and circumstances that determine the behavior of clients in relation to banks and financial products. Furthermore, it assesses the impact of demographic, social and economic factors on the usage of offered banking products. The thesis also includes a...

  19. Optimal design of biaxial tensile cruciform specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmerle, S.; Boehler, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    F OR EXPERIMENTAL investigations concerning the mechanical behaviour under biaxial stress states of rolled sheet metals, mostly cruciform flat specimens are used. By means of empirical methods, different specimen geometries have been proposed in the literature. In order to evaluate the suitability of a specimen design, a mathematically well defined criterion is developed, based on the standard deviations of the values of the stresses in the test section. Applied to the finite element method, the criterion is employed to realize the shape optimization of biaxial cruciform specimens for isotropic elastic materials. Furthermore, the performance of the obtained optimized specimen design is investigated in the case of off-axes tests on anisotropic materials. Therefore, for the first time, an original testing device, consisting of hinged fixtures with knife edges at each arm of the specimen, is applied to the biaxial test. The obtained results indicate the decisive superiority of the optimized specimens for the proper performance on isotropic materials, as well as the paramount importance of the proposed off-axes testing technique for biaxial tests on anisotropic materials.

  20. The Corporate Governance of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. The role of banks and what is different in banks? 3. Corporate Governance and risk management 4. Risk taking and executive board composition 5. Compensation structures – how to improve models for banks? 6. Banking supervision and regulation 7. Reform of European institutions for financial stability

  1. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.

  2. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future...... legitimacy claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  3. Banking on technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Carole J

    2007-04-01

    New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service. PMID:17427461

  4. A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the University of California, Davis experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Brandi; Wacker, Charlotte; Ikemoto, Lisa; Meyers, Frederick J; Pomeroy, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of a University of California (UC) system of oversight, education, tracking, and accountability for human anatomical specimen use in education and research activities. This program was created and initially implemented at UC Davis in 2005. Several incidents arising out of the handling of human anatomical specimens at UC campuses revealed significant challenges in the system for maintaining control of human anatomical specimens used in education and research. These events combined to undermine the public perception for research and educational endeavors involving anatomical materials at public institutions. Risks associated with the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of these specimens were not fully understood by the faculty, staff, and students who used them. Laws governing sources of specimens are grouped with those that govern organ procurement and tissue banking, and sometimes are found in cemetery and funeral regulations. These variables complicate interpretations and may hinder compliance. To regain confidence in the system, the need to set appropriate and realistic guidelines that mitigate risk and facilitate an institution's research and educational mission was identified. This article chronicles a multiyear process in which diverse stakeholders developed (1) a regulatory policy for oversight, (2) a policy education program, (3) procedures for tracking and accountability, and (4) a reporting and enforcement mechanism for appropriate and ethical use of human anatomical specimens in university education and research. PMID:24448034

  5. Consumer protection in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pohanková, Martina

    2013-01-01

    In real world, a market functioning is not perfect. Usually, there is one party in a contract that has weaker position than the other one. In a consumer contract it is a consumer who does not have sufficient information and knowledge. In developed countries, a consumer protection is therefore a part of law regulation. The thesis deals with the consumer protection in banking. It focuses on general topics as well as specific topics, such as banking accounts, electronic fund transfers and consum...

  6. Debt, Taxes, and Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Keen; Ruud A. de Mooij

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the asymmetric tax treatment of debt and equity on the capital structures of financial institutions is critical to shaping and assessing responses to the problem of excessive leverage that underlay the 2009 financial crisis - but there is no empirical evidence to draw on. Guided by a simple model of banks? financing decisions in the presence of both regulatory constraints and tax asymmetries, this paper explores the impact of corporate tax bias on bank leverage, th...

  7. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  8. International Banking in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Yiallouros, Kristie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the sector of the Cyprus economy that deals with the International Banking or Offshore Banking as otherwise is being called in Cyprus. During the last two decades the island of Cyprus has managed to establish itself as a reputable international financial centre. Therefore the literature review of this paper examines the research theme from two different aspects. First it examines the financial system of Cyprus as related to international ban...

  9. Securitization and Bank Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of CDO issuance on the risk of default of banks. Previous literature showed that the overall riskiness of a bank can increase when it sells part of the loans in its portfolio by issuing a CDO of which it retains the equity tranche. Using Monte Carlo simulations, this paper confirms previous results but also highlights that they can change substantially if one modifies the hypothesis regarding how the proceeds of securitizations are reinvested. The assessment of...

  10. Norges Bank Watch 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Ekeli, Thomas; Haug, Anne Kari; Houg, Kjetil; Steigum, Erling, Jr

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at the BI Norwegian School of Management has for the fourth time invited a committee of economists to participate on Norges Bank Watch, with the objective of evaluating the monetary policy regime in Norway and Norges Bank’s conduct of monetary policy. This time the committee has focused on the conduct of policy rather than addressing institutional issues. The committee refers to Norges Bank Watch 2002 for a detailed assessment of the mone...

  11. Norges Bank Watch 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Lars E.O.; Houg, Kjetil; Solheim, Haakon O. Aa.; Steigum, Erling, Jr

    2002-01-01

    The Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at the Norwegian School of Management BI has for the third time invited a committee of economists for Norges Bank Watch, with the objective to evaluate the monetary-policy regime in Norway and Norges Bank’s conduct of monetary policy. The committee for Norges Bank Watch 2002 consists of Professor Lars E.O. Svensson (chair), Princeton University, Chief Economist Kjetil Houg, Alfred Berg, Doctorate Student Haakon O.Aa. Solheim, Norwegian ...

  12. Banking structure redesigned

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2009-01-01

    Banking structure is redesigned to make India a fully digital nation and to usher in 100% E-governance. Multi dimensional and multipurpose savings account - It is the main keel of this restructured banking. Purpose of this multi dimensional account 1. This savings account can be used for receiving, storing and spending of money. 2. It can be used for buying, selling and holding property rights of immovable properties like lands, plots, flats and commercial establishments. 3...

  13. Bank collapse and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, John

    1980-01-01

    The recurrent banking panics of the 19th century and the Great Depression of the 1930s are widely viewed as failures of our economic system. A simple version of Samuelson’s overlapping generations model is used to generate such failures of Walrasian equilibrium. The spontaneous “panics” generated involve a collapse of bank credit, causing in turn a drop in investment demand. The model suggests that both the recent technological advances in the intermediation industry and the current move towa...

  14. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  15. The Empirics of Banking Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tchana Tchana, Fulbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper empirically assesses whether banking regulation is effective at preventing banking crises. We use a monthly index of banking system fragility, which captures almost every source of risk in the banking system, to estimate the effect of regulatory measures (entry restriction, reserve requirement, deposit insurance, and capital adequacy requirement) on banking stability in the context of a Markov-switching model. Our methodology is less prone to selection and simultaneity bias which a...

  16. New Issues in Bank Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin S. Khan

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation, technology, and financial innovation are transforming banking. Indeed, banking is no longer the business it was even a few decades ago. The way banking services are provided has changed dramatically, and in many countries they are even offered by institutions that are quite different from traditional banks. As the old institutional demarcations become increasingly irrelevant, increased competition from other intermediaries has led to a decline in traditional banking in which ban...

  17. Risk Assessment for Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Elsinger; Alfred Lehar; Martin Summer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a new approach to risk assessment for banks. Rather than looking at them individually we try to undertake an analysis at the level of the banking system. Such a perspective is necessary because the complicated network of mutual credit obligations can make the actual risk exposure of banks invisible at the level of individual institutions. We apply our framework to a cross section of individual bank data as they are usually collected at the central bank. Using standard...

  18. Public Disclosure and Bank Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Tito Cordella

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of public disclosure of banks’ risk exposure on banks’ risk taking incentives and its implications in terms of soundness of the banking system. We find that, when banks have a complete control over the volatility of their loan portfolio, public disclosure reduces the probability of banking crises. When asset risk is driven largely by exogenous factors beyond the control of bank managers, however, information disclosure may increase banking sector fragility, as t...

  19. Corporate governance and banking regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kern

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation. The traditional principal-agent framework will be used to analyse some of the major issues involving corporate governance and banking institutions. It begins by analysing the emerging international regime of bank corporate governance. This has been...

  20. INTERNAL AUDIT APPROACH IN BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria STANCIU

    2008-01-01

    Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and ...

  1. Cost leadership and bank internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Galema, Rients; Koetter, Michael; Liesegang, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We adapt a theoretical model from the goods trade literature to test whether banks with a comparative cost advantage are more likely to enter foreign markets by means of foreign direct investment. We combine detailed proprietary bank-level data on the international activities of all German banks with publicly available bank micro data from possible destination markets to show that the decision to go abroad is driven by relative cost differences. Banks enter markets where they are cost leaders...

  2. The Banks and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Madzova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of the banks in supporting sustainable development. Its objective is to examine recent trends in banking and sustainable development, as well as to assess the implementation and application of the sustainable development policies adopted by the banks in the banking sector in Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose it is made a comprehensive analysis on the trends of “sustainable finance”, as well as research on the practices in the Macedonian banking sector in s...

  3. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  4. The Ethical Stance in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...

  5. Three myths about central banks

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey P. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Do central banks control the business cycle? Should price stability be their only monetary policy goal? Do politicians give up a degree of power and gain nothing personally when they grant central banks independence? This Commentary argues that none of these widely held notions is true. The Commentary is based on a speech presented to participants at the conference on the Origins and Evolution of Central Banking, sponsored by the Central Bank Institute of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland...

  6. Specimen for high-temperature tensile tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Split nut with internal taper to hold specially formed specimen composed of filaments of refractory material provides means for holding at high temperature and under tension so that performance evaluations may be made.

  7. CPS Trawl Life History Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Individual specimens measured (weight in grams and length in mm) and sexed from mainly targeted species caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of...

  8. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  9. Tissue banking for management of nuclear casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear material and technology has made the acquisition and adversarial use more probable than ever. Devastating medical consequences would follow a nuclear detonation due to the thermal, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Atomic explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki demonstrated the human agonies on vast scale. A full range of medical modalities are required to decrease the morbidity and mortality as a result of the use of nuclear weapons. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Processed tissues can be provided by the tissue banks and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. The aim of the tissue bank is to provide a wide range of processed biological tissues free from any transmissible disease, that help to restore the growth and function of the damaged tissues. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone allografts can be used for reconstructive approaches to the skeletal system. Tissue banking would thus ensure health care to the military personnel and population following a nuclear detonation. (author)

  10. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  11. INTERNAL AUDIT APPROACH IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria STANCIU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and practice in the field. In the dynamic banking environment the internal audit has to define and strengthen its statute and role. We can say that in the new context – regulatory environment for banking system and professional requirements – internal audit become one of the most influential and value added function in the bank. The present paper presents the role of internal audit in the Romanian banks and its major areas of interest.

  12. Submission to the Georges Bank Review Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Georges Bank, off southwestern Nova Scotia, is one of the most biologically productive continental shelf ecosystems in the world. It supports a wide diversity of species, including many seabirds. In 1988, federal and provincial legislation placed a moratorium on petroleum exploration and drilling on the Georges Bank, directing the ministers of Natural Resources Canada, and of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources to make a decision regarding the moratorium by January 1, 2000. This report by the Ecology Action Centre (EAC) asks the Georges Bank Review Panel to recommend extending the moratorium on Georges Bank and adjacent areas until 2012, in part to match the American moratorium. Other reasons why the panel made this recommendation were explored. The principal reason is the EAC concern that when the moratorium is lifted, several oil and gas developments will proceed in this ecologically significant offshore area that could result in the loss of the ecological integrity of Georges Bank. The EAC contends that before oil and gas development in the region could begin, the following issues would have to be resolved: (1) disposal of drill muds and cuttings, (2) volume and disposal of produced water, (3) effects of small and large spills, (4) impact of seismic activities on whales and turtles, and (5) carbon dioxide emission through venting and flaring. Also, the EAC does not believe that developing Georges Bank will create as many jobs in the affected communities as some people suggest. Lifting the moratorium by Canada would also frustrate American environmental goals, as well as compromise Canada's position in international environmental partnerships such as the Gulf of Maine Council. 19 refs., tabs., figs

  13. Development of tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  14. Materials information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system

  15. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  16. MANAGING BANK SERVICES QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Mandić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become the basicfactor of economic efficiency and the basicprinciple of business activities of successfulorganizations. Its consequence is revolution in thearea of quality that has comprised all kinds ofproducts and services including the bank servicesas well. To understand the present and future needsof clients and to know how to fulfill and try toexceed their expectations is the task of everyefficient economy. Therefore, the banks in thedeveloped economies try to re-orientateorganizationally, technologically andinformatically their business activities placing theclient in the core of this business activity.Significant indicators of quality services that banksoffer are measured by the time clients wait for theprovision of the desired service and the number ofclients who give up to enter the bank due to thelong waiting for provision of the desired serviceand the number of clients who give up to enter thebank due to the long waiting queues. Dissatisfiedclient is the worst result of the bank's work andactivity. The great effort is made to improve thequality of services, which means professionalismand communication of personnel with whom theclients come in contact, giving punctual and clearinformation and short waiting period of standing inthe queues. The aim of this paper is to present anddescribe the functioning of the bank system underthe conditions of establishing quality in provision ofservices to clients and to recognize basic guidelinesfor improvement of quality in the work of thebanking sector.

  17. Materials information data bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.E.

    1978-03-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system.

  18. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  19. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  20. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  1. NEA Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coordination of nuclear data compilation within the OECD countries was initiated in 1964, with the creation of the Neutron Data Compilation Centre (CCDN) at Saclay close to Paris, France. This centre participated from the start in the 4-centre network. The NEA Data Bank was established at Saclay in 1978, by merging the CCDN and the Computer Program Library (CPL), Ispra, Italy. NEA Data Bank activities have evolved beyond nuclear data and computer programs, and now also include projects such as the coordination of the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) library of nuclear data, the compilation and critical review of chemical thermodynamic data for waste management applications, and the compilation of information relevant to computer code validation in the areas of: integral experiments, shielding, criticality safety, fuel behaviour, reactor physics and reactor safety. The Executive Group of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee manages the work programme of the NEA Data Bank.

  2. On Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Jarrett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to note the likelihood of continued growth of internet banking and commerce as individual consumers purchase more and more products to access the internet and complete both financial and consumer transactions. The growth is commercial and banking services on-line will grow as long as the hardware producers innovate with new faster and easy to use products. The pitfalls include attacks by savage interventionists who attempt to steal information and prevent end-users from employing the internet for purposes with good intentions. A challenge is made to software and hardware producers to use modern methods and techniques to predict where problems exist in internet banking and commerce. Serious solutions are necessary.

  3. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  4. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  5. PRECIS, the Botanical Research Institute herbarium data bank

    OpenAIRE

    R. E. Magill; G. E. Gibbs Russell; J. W. Morris; P. Gonsalves

    1983-01-01

    PRECIS has been modified to make it more useful to taxonomists. The simplified system contains only specimen-related data, and the resulting decrease in the size of the data bank will make it more efficient to operate and maintain. The methods used to encode herbarium data, the operation of the storage and retrieval system, and several examples of system output, demonstrating the flexibility and versatility of PRECIS and its applications in herbarium curation and taxonomic research are descri...

  6. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  7. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An earlier version of this paper won the Best Paper Award of the Corporate Governance SIG at EURAM. Abstract We construct a comprehensive data set with detailed biographic data on 12,010 board directors working for 740 large banks from 41 countries over the period 2000-2008. The data allow us to create a novel and reliable measure of director independence. We report many new findings. Bank board independence increases rapidly and substantially in the pre-crisis period, peaking at abou...

  8. Crash Testing German Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Duellmann; Martin Erdelmeier

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of twenty-eight German banks based on a Merton-type multifactor credit-risk model. The stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile sector. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low for all banks in the sample, the expected loss conditional on the stress event increases substantially by 70–80 percent for the total portfolio. This result confirms the need to account for hidden sectoral concentration r...

  9. Some banking activities of the Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.

  10. The Effect of Banks Merger on Electronic Banking Services Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Z. Siam

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study is conducted to present benefits and consequences of latest technology used in banking industries. In addition, it has focused on the dynamics of banking sector, electronic banking services and new courses especially with mergers that constitute most of these mechanisms. Approach: The study discussed this new activity and the extent of response level of services while the need, wants and demands of customers are met. Furthermore, how banks deal with such services...

  11. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR FROM ONLINE BANKING TO MOBILE BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Chian-Son Yu

    2014-01-01

    Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resou...

  12. Bank Risk Measurement: A Critical Evaluation at a European Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Wahlström

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses bank management’s perspective on the use and effectiveness of the risk measurement system under Basel II that setcapital requirements for banks. These requirements encouraged the use of risk measurement. Semi-structured interviews with various bank managers at Viking Bank (a fictitious name) provide the empirical data for this research. These interviews were conducted after the global financial crisis that led, among other events, to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers. Vi...

  13. Some banking activities of the Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2013-01-01

    Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.

  14. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  15. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences are present in lung patient specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Padilla Cristina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported on the presence of Murine Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV-like gene sequences in human cancer tissue specimens. Here, we search for MMTV-like gene sequences in lung diseases including carcinomas specimens from a Mexican population. This study was based on our previous study reporting that the INER51 lung cancer cell line, from a pleural effusion of a Mexican patient, contains MMTV-like env gene sequences. Results The MMTV-like env gene sequences have been detected in three out of 18 specimens studied, by PCR using a specific set of MMTV-like primers. The three identified MMTV-like gene sequences, which were assigned as INER6, HZ101, and HZ14, were 99%, 98%, and 97% homologous, respectively, as compared to GenBank sequence accession number AY161347. The INER6 and HZ-101 samples were isolated from lung cancer specimens, and the HZ-14 was isolated from an acute inflammatory lung infiltrate sample. Two of the env sequences exhibited disruption of the reading frame due to mutations. Conclusion In summary, we identified the presence of MMTV-like gene sequences in 2 out of 11 (18% of the lung carcinomas and 1 out of 7 (14% of acute inflamatory lung infiltrate specimens studied of a Mexican Population.

  16. Evolution of central banking? De Nederlandsche Bank 1814-1852

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both

  17. Keeping Banking Competitive: Evaluating Proposed Bank Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    All bank mergers and acquisitions (M&A) require the approval of regulators. This article describes the methods used by the Federal Reserve to evaluate whether a bank merger or acquisition is acceptable under federal antitrust laws and its Board of Governors’ bank competition policy.

  18. Roentgenographic apparatus for high level radioactive specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a highly radioactive specimen such as a nuclear fuel element, is nondestructively tested by X-ray photography, the entire area of the film is blackened by radioactive rays emanating from the specimen itself, and an X-ray photograph of good contrast cannot be acquired. As an expedient for eliminating the drawback, it is known that a grid which is made of a heavy metal such as lead and which has slits extending in the direction of the radiating X-rays may be interposed between the specimen and the film so as to intercept a major portion of the radioactive rays of the specimen. In this case, in order to take off the shadow of the grid as projected on the film, it is necessary to move the grid in a direction orthogonal to its stripes during the photographic procedure. On the other hand, the X-ray penetrability through specimens and accordingly the exposure time differ in dependence on the wrapping material of the nuclear fuel, etc. It is therefore customary to reciprocate the grid at predetermined periods. In the case of such reciprocation, the grid stops momentarily at the turn-back points of the motion, and hence, the stripe-shaped shadow of the grid remains on the film. According to this invention, in order to obviate the stripe-shaped shadow, an X-ray shutter located between the specimen and the grid is closed immediately before the grid reaches the turn-back points, while the shutter is opened again when the grid passes through the turn-back points. By the actuation of microswitches disposed in the vicinity of the turn-back points, a magnet valve provided in the pneumatic system of an air cylinder is changed-over to open and close the shutter. (Takasuka, S.)

  19. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  20. MODELS OF BANKING RISKS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bente Corneliu Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Banking risks management as a fundamental element of banking management aims at diminishing as much as possible the negative impact of risk factors, at minimizing losses by expenditures cut-off and maximizing direct and transferred influxes, changing the

  1. Banking Scandals Force Governance Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spate of recent scandals in the banking sector again raises the question of whether corporate governance in banks has been improved to a degree whereby ESOP is a correct and timely consideration.

  2. A Banking System in Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ZHIPENG

    2002-01-01

    THE four large state-owned commercial banks - the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Construction Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, constitute the backbone of the Chinese banking system. Owing to low efficiency, lack of capital, and a high rate of bad debts over time, however, the system was weak and ineffective. In order to redress the situation, late last century the Chinese government launched reforms to streamline these four commercial banks and their operations. The banks subsequently set up asset management companies to buy back and resolve non-performing assets. Their operational structure was also upgraded and optimized so as to improve management efficiency and economic performance.

  3. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  4. Chinese Commercial Banks Risk Management Practices: A Research in China Banking Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses a qualitative research approach, and examines the importance and its current situation of banks risk management in China banking. The commercial banking analysis covers China state-own commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks as well as local city commercial banks, but mainly analysis stems from state-owned and joint-stock commercial banks, excluding foreign banks in China. In addition, this dissertation reveals that China Center Bank and China Bank Regulatory ...

  5. Inconsistent Regulators: Evidence From Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; David Lucca; Amit Seru; Francesco Trebbi

    2012-01-01

    US state chartered commercial banks are supervised alternately by state and federal regulators. Each regulator supervises a given bank for a fixed time period according to a predetermined rotation schedule. We use unique data to examine differences between federal and state regulators for these banks. Federal regulators are significantly less lenient, downgrading supervisory ratings about twice as frequently as state supervisors. Under federal regulators, banks report higher nonperforming loa...

  6. Auditing and bank capital regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Simpson Prescott

    2004-01-01

    Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...

  7. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  8. Banking Crises and Financial Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores whether the level of financial integration of banks in a country increases the incidence of systemic banking crises. The paper uses a de facto proxy for financial integration based on network statistics of banks participating in the global market of interbank syndicated loans. Specifically, the network statistics degree and betweenness are used to proxy for the de facto integration of the average bank in a country. The paper fits a count data model in the cross-section for...

  9. One Bank,Two Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC),the only non-listed bank among China’s"big four"state-owned commercial banks,is currently un- der the glare of the reform spotlight.This follows on the heals of Premier Wen Jiabao’s announcement during his government work report in March, that a shareholding system will be introduced in the bank and its role in serving agriculture,farmers and rural areas will remain unchanged.

  10. Bank panics in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Juha-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses recent bank runs in seven transition economies (Russia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania), comparing them against the older US experience and theoretical research. Bank runs seem to usually be information based. For example, improvements in bank transparency such as new accounting rules can reveal a bank’s insolvency and trigger a run. However, bank runs, as seen a few years ago in East Asia, Bulgaria and Russia, may also be accompanied by runs on...

  11. Innovative Secure Mobile Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa T AL-Akhras; Rizik Al-Sayyed; Marwah Alian; Doaa Qwasmi

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of computer technologies in almost all aspects of life, organisations that are connected to the Internet started extending their services to their customers to include new applications and services that satisfy their customers’ desires to make better businesses. One of these emerging applications is mobile banking. The term mobile banking (or m-banking) describes the banking services that the user can perform via a mobile device ubiquitously at anytime and from anywh...

  12. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  13. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  14. Career Concerns of Banking Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Wu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    We study how career concerns influence banking analysts’ forecasts and how their forecasting behavior benefits both them and bank managers. We show that banking analysts issue early in the year relatively more optimistic and later in the year more pessimistic forecasts for banks that could be their future employers. This pattern is not observed when the same analysts forecast earnings of companies that are not likely to be their future employers. Moreover, we use the Global Settlement as an e...

  15. Internet Banking: Boon or Bane ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Shanmugam

    2004-01-01

    There is little doubt that the Internet has revolutionized the entire communication system. As much as banking involves communication in one way or the other, banks have joined the communication bandwagon. Having observed the astronomical growth rate and acknowledging the potential banks adapting and often adapting the Internet to suit their functions and roles. As in any new venture there are setbacks in terms of issue of security and associated costs. As a consequence banks are working towa...

  16. Credit risk in Egyptian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Hussein

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to identify the currently used techniques in evaluating credit risk in Egypt’s banking sector, then to evaluate these techniques and to develop model(s) to evaluate credit risk in Egyptian banks. In a pilot study, the researcher conducted informal interviews with key personnel in three of the Egyptian banks, in order to evaluate credit risk policies. The pilot study showed that these banks do not use any of the statistical techniques in the evaluation pr...

  17. Traditional versus shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Wolla, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern economies rely heavily on financial intermediaries to channel funds between borrowers and lenders. In the first edition of the Page One Economics Newsletter, the role of traditional banking is outlined and a parallel system—shadow banking—is explored.

  18. How Banks Create Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  19. Shadow banking in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianjun; Hsu, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This is an English summary of a 300-page report produced by Jianjun Li, Sara Hsu and Guangning Tian, “The Annual Report of China Shadow Banking System,” Project Sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project Number 71173246,

  20. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  1. The Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  2. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...

  3. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...

  4. Norges Bank Watch 2009

    OpenAIRE

    BERGMAN, MICHAEL; Juel, Steinar; Steigum, Erling, Jr

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluates the conduct of monetary policy in Norway in 2008. We will not discuss the institutional framework for monetary policy. The report offers, however, an evaluation of the new price index, CPIXE, which Norges Bank adopted in 2008 for measuring underlying inflation.

  5. UBS BANK INFORMATION

    CERN Multimedia

    UBS, CERN branch

    2002-01-01

    UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...

  6. 77 FR 12584 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 77 FR 56209 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 75349 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 42522 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 76 FR 21367 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 78 FR 50056 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 77 FR 4560 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 78 FR 24747 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 78 FR 41063 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 3897 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 78 FR 300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 77 FR 14368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 69454 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 66762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 ] CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 77 FR 40058 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  1. 75 FR 1621 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  2. 75 FR 63183 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 65311 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 78 FR 70300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 49268 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 78 FR 37222 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 77 FR 42312 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 22879 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 75 FR 70004 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 78 FR 59689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 78 FR 53457 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 78 FR 2273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 76 FR 28435 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 77 FR 29643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 97 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 78 FR 23565 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  17. 78 FR 41929 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 26280 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 65484 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 51726 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 77 FR 67365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 78357 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 78 FR 38978 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 33093 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 78 FR 7430 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 78 FR 68073 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 75 FR 65631 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 62301 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 78 FR 3425 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 29347 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 75 FR 78705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 76 FR 38178 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  15. 76 FR 41259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 78 FR 33092 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 78 FR 25273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 26759 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 31549 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 77 FR 32637 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 77 FR 31855 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 78 FR 35271 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 67146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 78 FR 27389 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  6. Islamic economics, banking and finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dastgir, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    The normal operations of commercial banks in Western economies do not conform to the religious requirements of the Islamic faith. In this article, Shabbir Dastgir explores the differences and outlines how the worldwide industry in Islamic banking has developed new banking practices.

  7. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  8. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 x 5.0 x 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 x 3.33 x 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at -40 degrees C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine

  9. Recent progress in small specimen test technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G. E.; Odette, G. R.; Sokolov, M.; Spätig, P.; Yamamoto, T.; Jung, P.

    2002-12-01

    Small specimen test technology (SSTT) has enabled the development of fusion materials by efficiently using available irradiation volumes. The technology has also evolved in anticipation of the construction and operation of a high-energy neutron source for development and verification of an engineering database for materials for fusion power reactors. Work to date has brought SSTT to a robust state of maturity. SSTT specimens and techniques now routinely serve as the foundation for a number of ongoing and planned experimental programs. Moreover, the need to use small specimens has given rise to the development of new approaches to fracture assessment, such as the master curves-shifts method. Nonetheless a wealth of opportunities exists to further develop new and very innovative SSTT methods not only for characterizing standard mechanical properties but also to enable both large matrix single variable experiments and highly controlled basic mechanism studies. This paper reviews briefly the recent progress on developing a more science-based SSTT, including some future opportunities. The importance and utility of applying a variety of quasi-non-destructive evaluations to a single specimen and closely integrating finite element simulations and fundamental models of deformation and fracture are emphasized.

  10. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odette, G. R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65×1.65×9 mm 3, or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation.

  11. Recent progress in small specimen test technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small specimen test technology (SSTT) has enabled the development of fusion materials by efficiently using available irradiation volumes. The technology has also evolved in anticipation of the construction and operation of a high-energy neutron source for development and verification of an engineering database for materials for fusion power reactors. Work to date has brought SSTT to a robust state of maturity. SSTT specimens and techniques now routinely serve as the foundation for a number of ongoing and planned experimental programs. Moreover, the need to use small specimens has given rise to the development of new approaches to fracture assessment, such as the master curves-shifts method. Nonetheless a wealth of opportunities exists to further develop new and very innovative SSTT methods not only for characterizing standard mechanical properties but also to enable both large matrix single variable experiments and highly controlled basic mechanism studies. This paper reviews briefly the recent progress on developing a more science-based SSTT, including some future opportunities. The importance and utility of applying a variety of quasi-non-destructive evaluations to a single specimen and closely integrating finite element simulations and fundamental models of deformation and fracture are emphasized

  12. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm3, or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  13. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representative of a reputable scientific or educational institution or a State or Federal agency for the purpose... resource management goals of the institution or agency and that all applicable Federal and State permits... of the specimen would result in damage to other natural or cultural resources, affect...

  14. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  15. Myocardial Sleeve Tissues in Surgical Lung Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Kamata, Tsugumasa; Iwasa, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Left atrial myocardial extensions over the pulmonary veins (PVs), known as myocardial sleeves, are present in the physiological anatomy of most individuals. Although this structure has recently received clinical attention as a major origin of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), it has not been documented in surgical specimens. Here, we examine incidentally identified myocardial sleeve tissue in routinely processed lung resection specimens to determine its incidence and diagnostic implications. Among 694 lung resection specimens with evaluable PV margins, myocardial sleeve tissue was identified in 26 cases (3.7%). The tissue was located within the adventitia of the PVs, mostly in margin preparations, and existed outside the pericardium in the majority of cases. Carcinoma infiltration of the sleeves was evident in 6 cases. No heart injuries were observed, and no tumors invaded the heart. Preoperative electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm in all cases, whereas postoperative monitoring revealed sinus rhythm in all patients except one who showed AF and flutter. Myocardial sleeve tissue is an underrecognized incidental finding in lung resection specimens, and it is not indicative of heart injury. Cancer infiltration into this tissue indicates neither heart invasion nor, by itself, invasion into the pericardium. Although surgical transection of the myocardial sleeve did not evoke immediate arrhythmia in most cases, the overall influence of this procedure on the postsurgical risk of AF remains to be determined in further studies involving extensive rhythm assessment. PMID:26099012

  16. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Federal Register on January 10, 2013 (78 FR 2290). The subject firm supplies banking and financial... ``Project Manager for PNC Bank at Tata Consultancy Services'' in India. The request also states that...

  17. Quality assurance in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the different kinds of human allografts have the full acceptance for the clinical application for the treatment of a very wide range of indications in many medical disciplines. An essential aspect of this acceptance of these allografts is the complete biological safety, first of all the exclusion of virus contaminations. The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) is functioning as a national tissue bank cooperating with more than 300 hospitals in Germany and Austria. Its profile is determined by the processing of tissue allografts like cortical and cancellous bone, fascia lata, tendon as well as skin, skin substitutes and cultured autologous and allogenic kerytinocytes. DIZG is licensed by the German Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Products and the country health authorities. To ensure that the allografts fulfill the highest quality requirements a controlled and certified quality management system has been established. In accordance with the Good Manufacturing Practice all procedures are perform-ned on the basis of validated methods. All non-vital allografts are sterilized by a chemical sterilisation method with peracetic acid (PAA) that is validated by the Robert Koch Institute, an independent governmental institution, for the inactivation of bacteria, fungi and viruses. The used test viruses are Pseudorabies V, Polio V, Bovine Virusdiarrhoe V, Parvo V, Hepatitis A V, HIV). The DIZG quality management system (QMS) is based on ISO 9001 which is required for institutions that are involved in processing, research and education and is certified by an international auditing body. With this presentation the validation design shall be introduced and the responsibility of regional and national tissue banks for internal and external quality control and quality assurance shall be discussed

  18. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders, and...... blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress...

  19. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  20. Contribution of Internet Banking toward Profitability of Banking in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karimzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.

  1. Are Chinese Banks Ready for Foreigners?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Banking reform is crucial to China, as banks dominate the country's financial system. The banking sector is dominated by four state-owned commercial banks-the ICBC, the CCB, the BOC, and the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC). The listing of the Bank of Communications (BOCOM), China's fifth

  2. BrainNet Europe's Code of Conduct for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klioueva, Natasja M; Rademaker, Marleen C; Dexter, David T; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Seilhean, Danielle; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Schmitz, Peer; Bell, Jeanne E; Ironside, James W; Arzberger, Thomas; Huitinga, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Research utilizing human tissue and its removal at post-mortem has given rise to many controversies in the media and posed many dilemmas in the fields of law and ethics. The law often lacks clear instructions and unambiguous guidelines. The absence of a harmonized international legislation with regard to post-mortem medical procedures and donation of tissue and organs contributes to the complexity of the issue. Therefore, within the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium, a consortium of 19 European brain banks, we drafted an ethical Code of Conduct for brain banking that covers basic legal rules and bioethical principles involved in brain banking. Sources include laws, regulations and guidelines (Declarations, Conventions, Recommendations, Guidelines and Directives) issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association and World Health Organization. The Code of Conduct addresses fundamental topics as the rights of the persons donating their tissue, the obligations of the brain bank with regard to respect and observance of such rights, informed consent, confidentiality, protection of personal data, collections of human biological material and their management, and transparency and accountability within the organization of a brain bank. The Code of Conduct for brain banking is being adopted by the BNE network prior to being enshrined in official legislation for brain banking in Europe and beyond. PMID:25578485

  3. The world bank and the environment, exercise 1992. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  4. Comparative Study on the Banking Performances at BCR ERSTE BANK, BRD – GSG and Raiffeisen Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MITITELU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a comparison between the performances of three banks in the banking system in Romania, considered the most representative but also to achieve their classifications and identify correlations between a number of used indicators and indicators expressing banking performance.

  5. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  6. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  7. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  8. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks......, they have done nothing to curb the risk of relatively risky banks, which presumably pose the greatest threat to financial stability...

  9. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... bank directors and size of bank board. (a) Staggered terms. Any national bank may adopt bylaws that... bylaws so amended. (b) Maximum term. Any national bank director may hold office for a term that does...

  10. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI, dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini menunjukkan bahwa DPK, NPF, dan Bonus SWBI berpengaruh secara simultan terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 99,2% dan sisanya 0,8%  dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain yang tidak diungkap dalam penelitian ini. Secara parsial DPK berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 98,65%, sedangkan NPF dan Bonus SWBI tidak signifikan berpengaruh secara parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  11. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their banks CSR programme? These were some of the issues addressed but due to the small sample size, the findings cannot be generalised. The study did not find any significant, positive nor negative relationship, between CSR and the bank customers; meaning the tests could not provide evidence that for instance CSR programmes should be targeted towards female customers or customers of a certain age or income bracket. More importantly 80% of the respondents did not consider CSR an issue that was important enough to affect their choice of banks. They will not switch banks purely based on a bank’s CSR programme. Understandably they were more interested in bank fees and interest rates. These issues directly affected their reason for choosing a particular bank. So the question of why banks, and presumably other businesses, still participate and spend a lot of money on CSR when their customers do not seem to place much value on it, still persists. The findings suggest that a much larger study on the topic is warranted. It will aid banks and other businesses decide on their role in corporate social responsibility. Whose needs are being satisfied by participating in CSR?

  12. Danske Bank vildleder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...

  13. Georges Bank conflict resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

  14. Measuring Central Bank Communication:

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi

    2008-01-01

    We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...

  15. Filter Bank Fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Chebira, Amina; Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using ...

  16. THE BANK PAYMENT OBLIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita YUrevich DENISOV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In clause the attention of essence and is paid to features ВРО, as tool of interbank calculations applied with recent times in sphere of international trade. The author, com-paring the bank payment obligation with the documen-tary letter of credit, allocates its advantages and brings to a focus to lacks on the basis of what does conclusions concerning a scope and economic expediency of the new tool.

  17. Norges Bank Watch 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dørum, Øystein; Holden, Steinar; Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2005-01-01

    Monetary policy in Norway is quite successful. The series of cuts in the signalling rate starting in December 2002, and a low interest rate during 2004, seems the appropriate policy choice. The analyses on monetary policy done in the Bank document a highly competent staff. Communication with the market is good and steadily improving. Not surprisingly, there is still room for improvement in the conduct of monetary policy in Norway. Those areas should receive particular attention in a Report li...

  18. Norges Bank Watch 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.; Wilhelmsen, Bjørn Roger

    2011-01-01

    Each year the Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at The Department of Economics, BI Norwegian School of Management appoints an independent group of experts to evaluate monetary policy in Norway. The Ministry of Finance partly funds the Norges Bank Watch reports, which contain useful information and analyses for the Ministry’s evaluation of monetary policy that is presented each year in a White Paper to Parliament.

  19. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  20. Bank Liabilities Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Quadrini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The financial intermediation sector is important not only for channeling resources from agents in excess of funds to agents in need of funds (lending channel). By issuing liabilities it also creates financial assets held by other sectors of the economy for insurance purpose. When the intermediation sector creates less liabilities or their value falls, agents are less willing to engage in activities that are individually risky but desirable in aggregate (bank liabilities channel). The paper st...

  1. Bank Liabilities Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Quadrini

    2015-01-01

    The financial intermediation sector is important not only for channeling resources from agents in excess of funds to agents in need of funds (lending channel). By issuing liabilities it also creates financial assets held by other sectors of the economy for insurance purpose. When the intermediation sector creates less liabilities or their value falls, agents are less willing to engage in activities that are individually risky but desirable in aggregate (bank liabilities channel). The paper st...

  2. Banking Software Applications Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alexandru Bubu

    2015-01-01

    Computer software products are among the most complex artifacts, if not the most complex artifacts mankind has created. Securing those artifacts against intelligent attackers who try to exploit flaws in software design and construct is a great challenge too.The purpose of this paper is to introduce a secure alternative to banking software applications that are currently in use. This new application aims to cover most of the well-known vulnerabilities that plague the majority of current softwa...

  3. Crowdfunding: disintermediated investment banking

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinton, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces crowdfunding as a concept and model for the evolution of investment banking. Crowdfunding, an application of crowdsourcing, is defined as one party’s attempt to finance a project by offering three types of investment opportunities to potential investors. The investment opportunities are donations, passive investments, and active investments. From this foundation I develop a model in which interdependent agents operate in a dynamic, discrete setting. Potential investors d...

  4. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  5. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn CL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  6. General views about specimen irradiations in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimen irradiation of fissile or non-fissile materials, carried out under circumstances becoming more and more severe and in reactor of increasing flux bas led to an evolution of irradiation rigs. A survey of the problems arising from irradiating under these various circumstances leads to conclude that it is possible to devise one capsule type suitable to every particular case, and that in a wide temperature range. Consequently, once the various irradiation-parameters known, a general method of calculation can be followed so as to determine the various sizes of the parts constituting the capsule. These theoretical calculations might sometimes be corrected through benefits gained from previous irradiations. Similarly, practical experimentation might allow to foresee more handy assembling of the capsule, specimen loading-and unloading being easier at the same time. (author)

  7. LTO and surveillance specimen programme of RPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant life extension (as well as Long Term Operation) to 60 or 80 years of operation also requires a reliable information about the potential irradiation embrittlement (and also thermal ageing) of reactor pressure vessel materials. Such information is usually obtained from testing specimens within the surveillance specimen programme that is designed for the design RPV life, regularly for 40 years only. Life extension requires modification of such programme (if there is still time to perform it) or a design of a new extended one. Such programme should have to contain RPV archive materials that are not in every case available. Thus, combination of archive materials and possible surrogate materials must be taken into account for this programme. Some complication can be expected with thermal ageing data as some laboratory tests at higher temperatures must be realized. The paper describes such program for NPP Dukovany, Czech Republic with WWER-440 type reactors. (authors)

  8. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Bank Sebelum dan Sesudah Diakuisisi oleh Investor Asing: Studi Empiris pada Bank Central Asia dan Bank Niaga

    OpenAIRE

    Yen Sun

    2011-01-01

    Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the ...

  9. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  10. SQA specimen paper 2013, national 5, mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    SQA

    2013-01-01

    Practise for your exam on the offical National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Plus each book includes additional model papers and extra revision guidance, making them an essential purchase for any student.; Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners.; Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections.; Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips

  11. Characterization of Brevibacterium spp. from clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Pfyffer, G E; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Nonfermenting coryneform bacteria identified as Brevibacterium spp. were isolated from routine clinical specimens. Four strains were derived from peritoneal fluid and has presumably been involved in the pathogenesis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Another five isolates most probably represented skin contaminants. Cell wall and lipid analyses confirmed the genus identification. Strains in this taxon are difficult to distinguish from other biochemically inactive and no...

  12. The working procedure of human autopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

  13. Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Güven; Arslan, Seza; Ekener, Serpil

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The various culture specimens of patients were investigated in our research. Material and methods: 123 Candida strains were isolated. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, formation of membranes in sabouraud medium, and the tests of ascospore in the mediums with cycloheximide and the test of nitrate were...

  14. Internet Banking and the question of Bank Run: lesson from the Northern Rock Bank case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Janson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The subprime crisis triggered a series of bankruptcies and bank runs at a level never experienced since the Great Depression. The banking environment radically changed since the 1930’s, in particular the development of infor mation technology decreases considerably the cost of information. Furthermore internet banking increases severely the speed at which the demand for withdrawals are addressed to troubled banks. In the past demand for withdrawals could be slow down by fact t hat depositors had to physically « queue » and by the existence of opening hours of banks branches. Given these new circumstances a liquidity shortage may have an even more severe consequence on a bank since the delay between the « bad news » and the bank run can shorten dramatically. Indeed the Northern Rock Bank case in Great Britain illustrates that situation where a bank unable to borrow from its peers in the interbank market is within few hours ran by its depositors. The aim of the paper is to analyze the consequences of the major instability introduced by internet banking on the bank’s ability to manage a liquidity crisis and an opportunity to discuss further the so - called “endemic instability” of the fractional reserve banking system

  15. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  16. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  17. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  18. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since...

  19. Strategic positioning in banking industry: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Mashoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.

  20. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR FROM ONLINE BANKING TO MOBILE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Son Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, mobile banking emerged as superior to Internet banking for other constructs. By adding a comparative concept into an extended decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB model, this study may expand the applicable domain of current social psychology theories from the adoption of single products or services to the choice between competing products or services that achieve similar purposes and functions.

  1. BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY: COMMERCIAL AND CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  2. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  3. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton;

    2010-01-01

    epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...... analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively...

  4. UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD BANKS. ETHICAL ASPECTS. PUBLIC VERSUS PRIVATE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Aznar Lucea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  5. Bank Debt Regulations Implications for Bank Capital and Bond Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stig Helberg; Snorre Lindset

    2013-01-01

    We use a structural model of default risk to study how optimal bank capital and bond risk are influenced by deposit insurance, implicit guarantees, depositor preference, asset encumbrance, and bail-in resolution frameworks. We find that these features of bank financing, in addition to having an immediate impact on bond debt risk, also change optimal bank capital, countering the first-order effect on bond debt risk. Bondholders' risk is thereby not materially affected, but shareholder value an...

  6. Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Viral V; Iftekhar Hasan; Anthony Saunders

    2006-01-01

    We study empirically the effect of focus (specialization) vs. diversification on the return and the risk of banks using data from 105 Italian banks over the period 1993-1999. Specifically, we analyze the tradeoffs between (loan portfolio) focus and diversification using a unique data set that is able to identify individual bank loan exposures to different industries, to different sectors, and to different geographical regions. Our results are consistent with a theory that predicts a deteriora...

  7. Performance of Tunisian Banks Following Transformations of Banking Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Bassem Salhi; Younes Boujelbene

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to study the impact of new forms of banking intermediation on the performance of Tunisianbanks. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 10 Tunisian banks for a period of analysis that spans 13 years,from 1997 until 2009. To make better use of our database, we have utilized the panel data technique.Our empirical validation shows that the context of bank intermediation is still traditional, despite the reforms offinancial liberalization; they still carry the traditional busi...

  8. Banking Governance and Risk: The Case of Tunisian Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rachdi Houssem; Trabelsi Mohamed Ali; Trad Naama

    2013-01-01

    Banks are in the business of taking risks. The 3 pillars of Basel II capital accord highlight the crucial role of informative risk disclosures in enhancing market discipline. The specific role and responsibilities of the board of directors or supervisory boards in banking institutions continue, however, to fuel debate. Findings of the literature are often inconclusive. The main contribution of this study is examining how board characteristics affect risk in banking industry. We explore this r...

  9. An IDS Assessment of Electronic Banking Performance in Retail Banking

    OpenAIRE

    David-West, Olayinka

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of electronic self-service systems (SSTs), using informationtechnology (IT) devices and channels, for the provision of banking services(also known as electronic banking or e-banking) has evolved in the last decadein emerging markets. In Nigeria, for instance, this development is driving themovement towards a cashless economy. These services, however, are fraughtwith problems ranging from incidents of fraud, empty automated teller machines(ATMs), the inability of the ATMs to dispe...

  10. Ownership Concentration and Bank Performance: Evidence from MENA Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rim Boussaada; Majdi Karmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of ownership concentration on MENA banks’ performance over the period 2004-2011. The sample includes 38 commercial banks belonging to ten countries of the MENA region. We use an econometric method that deals with the endogeneity problems that have arisen in the corporate governance literature. We show that ownership concentration is significant in explaining performance differences between MENA banks. Our analysis shows that bank performance depends on the ident...

  11. Banking and the Macroeconomy in China: A Banking Crisis Deferred?

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Vo Phuong Mai; Matthews, Kent; Meenagh, David; Minford, Patrick; Xiao, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    The downturn in the world economy following the global banking crisis has left the Chinese economy relatively unscathed. This paper develops a model of the Chinese economy using a DSGE framework with a banking sector to shed light on this episode. It differs from other applications in the use of indirect inference procedure to test the fitted model. The model finds that the main shocks hitting China in the crisis were international and that domestic banking shocks were unimportant. However, d...

  12. Banks and sovereign risk: A granular view

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Claudia M.; Koetter, Michael; Ohls, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use detailed data on the sovereign debt holdings of all German banks to analyse the determinants of sovereign debt exposures and the implications of sovereign exposures for bank risk. Our main findings are as follows. First, sovereign bond holdings are heterogeneous across banks. Larger, weakly capitalised banks and banks with a small depositor base hold more sovereign bonds. Around 31% of all German banks hold no sovereign bonds at all. Second, the sensitivity of banks to m...

  13. Bank ties and firm performance in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, major Japanese banks have sold off a significant portion of their holdings of corporate equity. Using information on the identity of Japanese firms' top 10 shareholders, this paper explores the process of banks' equity disposal. There is some evidence that, after FY2001, banks' sales of equity accelerated, even holdings in firms for which the bank served as the main bank. However, affiliation with a main bank - proxied by firm-bank loan and shareholding ties - continues t...

  14. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, join...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  15. Customer perceptions on Internet banking information protection

    OpenAIRE

    André Redlinghuis; Chris Rensleigh

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Africa has a well-developed and established banking system which compares favourably with those in many developed countries (e.g. USA), but also sets South Africa apart from many other emerging market countries like Egypt and Brazil. Four dominant banks, namely the Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA), Standard Bank, Nedcor and First National Bank (FNB) influence the South African banking environment. Internet banking has slowly been taking off in South Africa since 1996...

  16. Preparation of Regular Specimens for Atom Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kim; Wishard, James

    2003-01-01

    A method of preparation of specimens of non-electropolishable materials for analysis by atom probes is being developed as a superior alternative to a prior method. In comparison with the prior method, the present method involves less processing time. Also, whereas the prior method yields irregularly shaped and sized specimens, the present developmental method offers the potential to prepare specimens of regular shape and size. The prior method is called the method of sharp shards because it involves crushing the material of interest and selecting microscopic sharp shards of the material for use as specimens. Each selected shard is oriented with its sharp tip facing away from the tip of a stainless-steel pin and is glued to the tip of the pin by use of silver epoxy. Then the shard is milled by use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to make the shard very thin (relative to its length) and to make its tip sharp enough for atom-probe analysis. The method of sharp shards is extremely time-consuming because the selection of shards must be performed with the help of a microscope, the shards must be positioned on the pins by use of micromanipulators, and the irregularity of size and shape necessitates many hours of FIB milling to sharpen each shard. In the present method, a flat slab of the material of interest (e.g., a polished sample of rock or a coated semiconductor wafer) is mounted in the sample holder of a dicing saw of the type conventionally used to cut individual integrated circuits out of the wafers on which they are fabricated in batches. A saw blade appropriate to the material of interest is selected. The depth of cut and the distance between successive parallel cuts is made such that what is left after the cuts is a series of thin, parallel ridges on a solid base. Then the workpiece is rotated 90 and the pattern of cuts is repeated, leaving behind a square array of square posts on the solid base. The posts can be made regular, long, and thin, as required for samples

  17. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  18. BankCaR (Bank Capital-at-Risk): A credit risk model for US commercial bank charge-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Jon; Pelz, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    BankCaR is a credit risk model that forecasts the distribution of a commercial bank's charge-offs. The distribution depends only on systematic factors; BankCaR takes each bank and projects its expected charge-off across a distribution of good years and bad years. Since most bank failures occur in bad years, this analysis has promise for both banks and bank supervisors. In BankCaR, charge-offs depend on the bank's loan balances and the charge-off rates of twelve categories of lending. A joint ...

  19. 78 FR 62333 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-17

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...

  20. 76 FR 16776 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Apple Valley, Minnesota; to acquire voting shares of Bridgewater Bancshares, Inc., and...

  1. 77 FR 17478 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors..., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Sharon Bauman, Apple Valley, Minnesota; Virginia Bauman,...

  2. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tulig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate.Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation’s new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time.

  3. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently, they...... share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  4. MANAGING OPERATIONAL RISK IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria STANCIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have emphasized focus on risk management, and it became clear that there is an urgent need for a robust framework to effectively manage risk. The financial and economic crisis showed the importance of a strong risk management process and forced banks to take a critical look at how they manage risks. Romanian banking system has known significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements. These requirements determined an important effort of the banks to improve their risk management process.Operational risk is considered a significant risk and has an important impact on banks activity and results. Now, there is a clear effort of the banks for applying more advanced methods on operational risk so that their control and management to be improved. The present paper presents the specificity of the operational risk management and the author’s solution for the operational risk management in banks.

  5. The role of radiation in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of safe and effective tissue allografts for the treatment of various bone defects has been the primary concern of orthopedic surgeons in the Philippine over the past few decades. With the growing industrialization of the country and the improvement of medical facilities over the past few years, the problems related to limb preservation or limb salvage procedures have been increasing. Related to this is the need for tissue allografts for biologic dressings and soft tissue reconstruction like tendons, fascia and ligaments. Thus the Department of Orthopedics at the University of the Philippines - Philippine General Hospital stated the project of tissue preservation - tissue banking in 1984 as a study funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This initial study became the basis of the establishment of the first and only existing tissue bank in the country today. Aside from the proper donor selection, procurement and processing, a most important aspect in this project is the sterilization of these allografts. Various methods of tissue sterilization have been established but so far the most popular, practical and safest has been the use of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the history, the practice and current status of tissue and bone banking and the important role of radiation as the primary method of sterilization of the tissue allografts for the safe use in reconstruction of various orthopedic conditions in the Philippines. The recent experience of the author on bone transplantation and limb salvage procedures will be presented. (author)

  6. Oligopoly banking and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto

    2000-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...

  7. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  8. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  9. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  10. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian PÂNZARU

    2011-01-01

    The current state of development of financial markets and financial system, and environmental developments in which they operate have imposed a different perspective approach to economic risk issues generally and the banking in particular. Until the 1970s the banking risks took into consideration just the credit risks in the bank’s relationships with customers and the payment system; as instability has already become a dominant feature of the economic environment, banks face new risks. To mee...

  11. Customer Loyalty in Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Aysha Fathima; S. Muthumani

    2015-01-01

    In the era of challenges and cut throat competition in banking sector it has become inevitable for the banks to devise defensive strategies to retain their customers and build customer loyalty. The main aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting customer loyalty in online banks. To achieve this purpose, a detailed review of relevant literature was made and seven constructs were identified for the study. A survey was conducted and data was collected with a structured questionnaire. ...

  12. Managing Operational Risk In Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria STANCIU

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have emphasized focus on risk management, and it became clear that there is an urgent need for a robust framework to effectively manage risk. The financial and economic crisis showed the importance of a strong risk management process and forced banks to take a critical look at how they manage risks. Romanian banking system has known significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements. These requirements determined an important effort of the banks to impr...

  13. Strategic online-banking adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Fuentes; Rubén Hernández-Murillo; Gerard Llobet

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the determinants of banks’ decision to adopt a transactional website for their customers. Using a panel of commercial banks in the United States for the period 2003-2006, we show that although bank-specific characteristics are important determinants of banks’ adoption decisions, competition also plays a prominent role. The extent of competition is related to the geographical overlap of banks in different markets and their relative market share in terms of deposits. In m...

  14. Real effects of bank competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli

    2004-01-01

    Does banking market power contribute to the formation of non-financial industries populated by few, large firms, or does it instead enhance industry entry? Theoretical arguments could be made to support either side. The banking industry of European Union (EU) countries has been significantly deregulated in the early 1990s. Under the old regime, cross-border expansions were heavily constrained, while after deregulation banks from EU countries have instead been allowed to branch freely into oth...

  15. French banks performance in 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Capitaine G.; Guilmo J.; Mercier L.; Point E.

    2013-01-01

    In a challenging economic environment for 2012, characterised by a 0.6% drop in Eurozone GDP, the French largest banking groups benefited from the stabilisation of markets following decisive actions by the European Central Bank (ECB) introducing Very Long Term Refinancing Operation (VLTRO) and Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT). In 2012 the top 6 French banking groups generated an aggregated profit after tax of EUR 8.4 billion, sharply down, as compared with EUR 14.5 billion in 2011, owing ...

  16. The Promotion of Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    IVAN Rica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the scientific approach is to demonstrate the usefulness of the adoption of modern promotion techniques in the actual financialbanking sector, in addition to the classical techniques. To achieve this end, the investigation of the Romanianfinancial-banking sector has been deeply conducted, by evaluating the market relations existing between the financial and banking institutions and individuals, as well as promotional techniques adopted by banks, during the communication process...

  17. Risk management in Islamic banks

    OpenAIRE

    Helmy, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The use of financial services and products that comply with the Shariah principles cause special issues for supervision and risk management. Efficient risk management in Islamic banking has assumed particular importance as they try to cope with the challenges of globalization. This paper highlights the special and general risks surrounding Islamic banking. It also explains the key challenges ahead to promote further development of Islamic banking in the global financial syst...

  18. Current trends of banking innovations

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Karminskiy; O.R. Zhdanova

    2013-01-01

    The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the devel...

  19. 12 CFR 944.6 - Bank community support programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank community support programs. 944.6 Section 944.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 944.6 Bank community support programs. (a) Requirement. Consistent with the safe and sound operation of the Bank, each Bank...

  20. Halcyon Days of the Banks?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With limited exposure to the global financial crisis, Chinese banks have remained profitable for the past three quarters while the rest of the world has groaned under the spreading global financial turmoil, China’s banking industry reported another season of good harvest when 14 listed banks all managed to secure high net profit growth in the first three quarters of this year. According to their quarterly reports, the 14 banks reaped a total of 334.1 billion yuan ($49 billion) in net profit during the period,