WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological signalling pathways

  1. Interleukins and their signaling pathways in the Reactome biological pathway database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, Steve; Ray, Keith; Roca, Corina Duenas; Varusai, Thawfeek; Shamovsky, Veronica; Stein, Lincoln; D'Eustachio, Peter; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-04-01

    There is a wealth of biological pathway information available in the scientific literature, but it is spread across many thousands of publications. Alongside publications that contain definitive experimental discoveries are many others that have been dismissed as spurious, found to be irreproducible, or are contradicted by later results and consequently now considered controversial. Many descriptions and images of pathways are incomplete stylized representations that assume the reader is an expert and familiar with the established details of the process, which are consequently not fully explained. Pathway representations in publications frequently do not represent a complete, detailed, and unambiguous description of the molecules involved; their precise posttranslational state; or a full account of the molecular events they undergo while participating in a process. Although this might be sufficient to be interpreted by an expert reader, the lack of detail makes such pathways less useful and difficult to understand for anyone unfamiliar with the area and of limited use as the basis for computational models. Reactome was established as a freely accessible knowledge base of human biological pathways. It is manually populated with interconnected molecular events that fully detail the molecular participants linked to published experimental data and background material by using a formal and open data structure that facilitates computational reuse. These data are accessible on a Web site in the form of pathway diagrams that have descriptive summaries and annotations and as downloadable data sets in several formats that can be reused with other computational tools. The entire database and all supporting software can be downloaded and reused under a Creative Commons license. Pathways are authored by expert biologists who work with Reactome curators and editorial staff to represent the consensus in the field. Pathways are represented as interactive diagrams that include as

  2. Radiotracers For Lipid Signaling Pathways In Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S. J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase, which may regulate endocannabinoid tone in animals. Early results were presented at the 2011 ICRS meeting, and at the 2012 Society for Neurosciences. Narachidonoylethanolamine is an endocannabinoid signaling messenger in animals and is known as “anandamide”. It is one of several families of signaling molecules derived from arachidonic acid, the principal omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) in animal species. Other derivatives of arachidonic acid include thromboxanes and prostaglandins. Full details of the studies with the ethanolamide isotopomers were a part of the PhD dissertation of Kun Hu (nee Qian), and were submitted for publication to Nuclear Medicine and Biology in August 2016. Syntheses of [14C]docosahexanoylethanolamine isotopomers and preliminary biological investigations Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the omega-3 PUFA that can be regarded in some respects as the counterpart of arachidonic acid in the omega-6 series. While arachidonic acid is proinflammatory, DHA is anti-inflammatory, and foods high in DHA (or artificially enriched in DHA) are commonly regarded as promoting health. In contrast to the large literature on the Nethanolamide of arachidonic acid (i.e. the endocannabinoid anandamide) as of now (9/25/2016) there are only six papers on the corresponding ethanolamide of DHA, and when our studies under this grant began there were none. Beneficial actions of endogenously produced DHAethanolamine (“synaptamide”) have been indicated, and to help elucidate the possible roles of synaptamide, we have synthesized this molecule for the first time labeled with C-14 in either the ethanolamine moiety or the fatty acid moiety. Studies of the disposition of endogenously administered isotopomers of DHA-ethanolamine are in progress, to complement tissue culture experiments evaluation hypothesized protective effects of this DHA derivative.

  3. Beacon Editor: Capturing Signal Transduction Pathways Using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarakeby, Haitham; Arefiyan, Mostafa; Myers, Elijah; Li, Song; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-12-01

    The Beacon Editor is a cross-platform desktop application for the creation and modification of signal transduction pathways using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow (SBGN-AF) language. Prompted by biologists' requests for enhancements, the Beacon Editor includes numerous powerful features for the benefit of creation and presentation.

  4. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  5. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Becnel

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs, their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs. These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  6. DMPD: Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15189145 Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. Ishii I, Fukushima N, Y...e X, Chun J. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004;73:321-54. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Lysophospholipid receptors...: signaling and biology. PubmedID 15189145 Title Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. Authors

  7. Molecular Signaling Pathways Behind the Biological Effects of Salvia Species Diterpenes in Neuropharmacology and Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, M; Iranshahi, M; Mehri, S

    2016-06-01

    The genus Salvia, from the Lamiaceae family, has diverse biological properties that are primarily attributable to their diterpene contents. There is no comprehensive review on the molecular signaling pathways of these active components. In this review, we investigated the molecular targets of bioactive Salvia diterpenes responsible for the treatment of nervous and cardiovascular diseases. The effects on different pathways, including apoptosis signaling, oxidative stress phenomena, the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques, and tau phosphorylation, have all been considered to be mechanisms of the anti-Alzheimer properties of Salvia diterpenes. Additionally, effects on the benzodiazepine and kappa opioid receptors and neuroprotective effects are noted as neuropharmacological properties of Salvia diterpenes, including tanshinone IIA, salvinorin A, cryptotanshinone, and miltirone. Tanshinone IIA, as the primary diterpene of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has beneficial activities in heart diseases because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and its effects on transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Additionally, tanshinone IIA has also been proposed to have cardioprotective properties including antiarrhythmic activities and effects on myocardial infarction. With respect to the potential therapeutic effects of Salvia diterpenes, comprehensive clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these valuable molecules as lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Supernatant from bifidobacterium differentially modulates transduction signaling pathways for biological functions of human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Hoarau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, the signaling pathways engaged by probiotics are poorly understood. We have previously reported that a fermentation product from Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50sn could induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of DCs via a TLR2 pathway. We therefore studied the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathways on biological functions of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with BbC50sn. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DCs were differentiated from human monocytes with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5 days and cultured with BbC50sn, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Zymosan, with or without specific inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580, ERK (PD98059, PI3K (LY294002 and GSK3 (SB216763. We found that 1 the PI3K pathway was positively involved in the prolonged DC survival induced by BbC50sn, LPS and Zymosan in contrast to p38MAPK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC survival; 2 p38MAPK and PI3K were positively involved in DC maturation, in contrast to ERK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC maturation; 3 ERK and PI3K were positively involved in DC-IL-10 production, in contrast to GSK3 that was positively involved in DC-IL-12 production whereas p38MAPK was positively involved in both; 4 BbC50sn induced a PI3K/Akt phosphorylation similar to Zymosan and a p38MAPK phosphorylation similar to LPS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report for the first time that a fermentation product of a bifidobacteria can differentially activate MAPK, GSK3 and PI3K in order to modulate DC biological functions. These results give new insights on the fine-tuned balance between the maintenance of normal mucosal homeostasis to commensal and probiotic bacteria and the specific inflammatory immune responses to pathogen bacteria.

  9. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Teng, Lei; Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies

  10. DPP4 inhibitors promote biological functions of human endothelial progenitor cells by targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors(oral hypoglycemic agentshave beneficial effects during the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the role of DPP4inhibitorsonthe biological functions of cultured human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. After treating EPCs with the DPP4 inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin, we examined the mRNA expression of DPP4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2,endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, caspase-3,stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4 were measured by RT-PCR. The protein expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was determined by Western blot; cell proliferation was tested by the MTT method, and DPP4 activity was determined by a DPP4 assay. Our results revealed that DPP4 expression and activity were inhibited following the treatment with various doses of DPP4 inhibitors. Cell proliferation and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2andeNOS were up regulated, while cell apoptosis was inhibited by DPP4 inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. DPP4 inhibitors activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, shown by the elevated expression of SDF-1/CXCR4. This further proved that after the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway was blocked by its inhibitor ADM3100, the effects of DPP4 inhibitors on the proliferation and apoptosis, and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2and eNOS of EPCs were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that DPP4 inhibitors promote the biological functions of human EPCs by up regulating the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  11. Disrupted Signaling through the Fanconi Anemia Pathway Leads to Dysfunctional Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselhart, Anja; Lier, Amelie; Walter, Dagmar; Milsom, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. FA patients suffer to varying degrees from a heterogeneous range of developmental defects and, in addition, have an increased likelihood of developing cancer. Almost all FA patients develop a severe, progressive bone marrow failure syndrome, which impacts upon the production of all hematopoietic lineages and, hence, is thought to be driven by a defect at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). This hypothesis would also correlate with the very high incidence of MDS and AML that is observed in FA patients. In this paper, we discuss the evidence that supports the role of dysfunctional HSC biology in driving the etiology of the disease. Furthermore, we consider the different model systems currently available to study the biology of cells defective in the FA signaling pathway and how they are informative in terms of identifying the physiologic mediators of HSC depletion and dissecting their putative mechanism of action. Finally, we ask whether the insights gained using such disease models can be translated into potential novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the hematologic disorders in FA patients. PMID:22675615

  12. Modularized Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Minli; Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-12-01

    The transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. TGFβ signaling can be induced by several factors including ionizing radiation. The pathway is regulated in a negative feedback loop through promoting the nuclear import of the regulatory Smads and a subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad7, that forms ubiquitin ligase with Smurf2, targeting active TGFβ receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze mathematically each component subsystem and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, in the TGFβ signaling pathway is discussed and supported as well by numerical simulation, indicating the robustness of the model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Pathway Distiller - multisource biological pathway consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doderer, Mark S; Anguiano, Zachry; Suresh, Uthra; Dashnamoorthy, Ravi; Bishop, Alexander J R; Chen, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    One method to understand and evaluate an experiment that produces a large set of genes, such as a gene expression microarray analysis, is to identify overrepresentation or enrichment for biological pathways. Because pathways are able to functionally describe the set of genes, much effort has been made to collect curated biological pathways into publicly accessible databases. When combining disparate databases, highly related or redundant pathways exist, making their consolidation into pathway concepts essential. This will facilitate unbiased, comprehensive yet streamlined analysis of experiments that result in large gene sets. After gene set enrichment finds representative pathways for large gene sets, pathways are consolidated into representative pathway concepts. Three complementary, but different methods of pathway consolidation are explored. Enrichment Consolidation combines the set of the pathways enriched for the signature gene list through iterative combining of enriched pathways with other pathways with similar signature gene sets; Weighted Consolidation utilizes a Protein-Protein Interaction network based gene-weighting approach that finds clusters of both enriched and non-enriched pathways limited to the experiments' resultant gene list; and finally the de novo Consolidation method uses several measurements of pathway similarity, that finds static pathway clusters independent of any given experiment. We demonstrate that the three consolidation methods provide unified yet different functional insights of a resultant gene set derived from a genome-wide profiling experiment. Results from the methods are presented, demonstrating their applications in biological studies and comparing with a pathway web-based framework that also combines several pathway databases. Additionally a web-based consolidation framework that encompasses all three methods discussed in this paper, Pathway Distiller (http://cbbiweb.uthscsa.edu/PathwayDistiller), is established to allow

  14. Signaling pathways regulating murine pancreatic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The recent decades have seen a huge expansion in our knowledge about pancreatic development. Numerous lineage-restricted transcription factor genes have been identified and much has been learned about their function. Similarly, numerous signaling pathways important for pancreas development have...... been identified and the specific roles have been investigated by genetic and cell biological methods. The present review presents an overview of the principal signaling pathways involved in regulating murine pancreatic growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation....

  15. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...... using insulin signalling as a model system....

  16. Cancer-related marketing centrality motifs acting as pivot units in the human signaling network and mediating cross-talk between biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia; Jia, Xu; Feng, Chenchen; Zhang, Liangcai; He, Weiming; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Li, Weiguo; Qu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yanyan; Shi, Yuchen

    2013-12-01

    Network motifs in central positions are considered to not only have more in-coming and out-going connections but are also localized in an area where more paths reach the networks. These central motifs have been extensively investigated to determine their consistent functions or associations with specific function categories. However, their functional potentials in the maintenance of cross-talk between different functional communities are unclear. In this paper, we constructed an integrated human signaling network from the Pathway Interaction Database. We identified 39 essential cancer-related motifs in central roles, which we called cancer-related marketing centrality motifs, using combined centrality indices on the system level. Our results demonstrated that these cancer-related marketing centrality motifs were pivotal units in the signaling network, and could mediate cross-talk between 61 biological pathways (25 could be mediated by one motif on average), most of which were cancer-related pathways. Further analysis showed that molecules of most marketing centrality motifs were in the same or adjacent subcellular localizations, such as the motif containing PI3K, PDK1 and AKT1 in the plasma membrane, to mediate signal transduction between 32 cancer-related pathways. Finally, we analyzed the pivotal roles of cancer genes in these marketing centrality motifs in the pathogenesis of cancers, and found that non-cancer genes were potential cancer-related genes.

  17. Non-Smad signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yabing; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a key regulator of cell fate during embryogenesis and has also emerged as a potent driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumor progression. TGFβ signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (TβRI and TβRII, respectively). The activated TβR complex phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, converting them into transcriptional regulators that complex with Smad4. TGFβ also uses non-Smad signaling pathways such as the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to convey its signals. Ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TGFβ-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) have recently been shown to be crucial for the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Other TGFβ-induced non-Smad signaling pathways include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway, the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, and the Ras-Erk-MAPK pathway. Signals induced by TGFβ are tightly regulated and specified by post-translational modifications of the signaling components, since they dictate the subcellular localization, activity, and duration of the signal. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of TGFβ-induced responses by non-Smad signaling pathways.

  18. Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

  19. Regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hui Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29. Methods: Colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and divided into blank control group and evodiamine group, and after different treatment, cell viability, proportion of different cell cycle as well as the contents of VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3, MMP14, Wnt and β-catenin were detected. Results: (1 Cell viability: MTT value of evodiamine group was significantly lower than that of blank control group; (2 Cell cycle: proportion of both S phase and G2/M phase of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group, and proportion of G0/ G1 phase was higher than that of blank control group; (3 VEGF and MMP contents: VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3 and MMP14 contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group; (4 Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway: Wnt and β-catenin contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group. Conclusion: Evodiamine can inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and down-regulate the expression of VEGF and MMP, and the effect may be achieved by inhibiting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  20. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  1. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  2. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  3. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, Francis A [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  4. The Fog signaling pathway: Insights into signaling in morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelia form the building blocks of many tissue and organ types. Epithelial cells often form a contiguous 2-dimensional sheet that is held together by strong adhesions. The mechanical properties conferred by these adhesions allow the cells to undergo dramatic three-dimensional morphogenetic movements while maintaining cell–cell contacts during embryogenesis and post-embryonic development. The Drosophila Folded gastrulation pathway triggers epithelial cell shape changes that drive gastrulation and tissue folding and is one of the most extensively studied examples of epithelial morphogenesis. This pathway has yielded key insights into the signaling mechanisms and cellular machinery involved in epithelial remodeling. In this review, we discuss principles of morphogenesis and signaling that have been discovered through genetic and cell biological examination of this pathway. We also consider various regulatory mechanisms and the system's relevance to mammalian development. We propose future directions that will continue to broaden our knowledge of morphogenesis across taxa. PMID:25127992

  5. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  6. DMPD: Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16920490 Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macroph...tml) (.csml) Show Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. PubmedID 16920490 Title Signal inte...gration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in

  7. Molecular profiles to biology and pathways: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Vermeulen, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Interpreting molecular profiles in a biological context requires specialized analysis strategies. Initially, lists of relevant genes were screened to identify enriched concepts associated with pathways or specific molecular processes. However, the shortcoming of interpreting gene lists by using predefined sets of genes has resulted in the development of novel methods that heavily rely on network-based concepts. These algorithms have the advantage that they allow a more holistic view of the signaling properties of the condition under study as well as that they are suitable for integrating different data types like gene expression, gene mutation, and even histological parameters.

  8. Dissection of the insulin signaling pathway via quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Marcus; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2008-01-01

    spectrum of the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, we have defined the tyrosine-phosphoproteome of the insulin signaling pathway, using high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC......The insulin signaling pathway is of pivotal importance in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, and in cellular processes, such as aging. Insulin activates a tyrosine phosphorylation cascade that branches to create a complex network affecting multiple biological processes. To understand the full...

  9. Decoding resistant hypertension signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Lacerda, Leandro Heleno Guimarães; Vasconcellos, Rebecca; Lima, Swiany Silveira; Santos, Anderson Kenedy; Fontana, Vanessa; Sandrim, Valéria Cristina; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2017-12-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a clinical condition in which the hypertensive patient has become resistant to drug therapy and is often associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several signalling pathways have been studied and related to the development and progression of RH: modulation of sympathetic activity by leptin and aldosterone, primary aldosteronism, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and variations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). miRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in the development of both cardiovascular damage and hypertension. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms that lead to development and progression of this condition. This review aims to cover the potential roles of miRNAs in the mechanisms associated with the development and consequences of RH, and explore the current state of the art of diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on miRNA approaches. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. A systems biology approach for pathway level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, Sorin; Khatri, Purvesh; Tarca, Adi Laurentiu; Amin, Kashyap; Done, Arina; Voichita, Calin; Georgescu, Constantin; Romero, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A common challenge in the analysis of genomics data is trying to understand the underlying phenomenon in the context of all complex interactions taking place on various signaling pathways. A statistical approach using various models is universally used to identify the most relevant pathways in a given experiment. Here, we show that the existing pathway analysis methods fail to take into consideration important biological aspects and may provide incorrect results in certain situations. By usin...

  11. Impact of constitutional copy number variants on biological pathway evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poptsova, Maria; Banerjee, Samprit; Gokcumen, Omer; Rubin, Mark A; Demichelis, Francesca

    2013-01-23

    Inherited Copy Number Variants (CNVs) can modulate the expression levels of individual genes. However, little is known about how CNVs alter biological pathways and how this varies across different populations. To trace potential evolutionary changes of well-described biological pathways, we jointly queried the genomes and the transcriptomes of a collection of individuals with Caucasian, Asian or Yoruban descent combining high-resolution array and sequencing data. We implemented an enrichment analysis of pathways accounting for CNVs and genes sizes and detected significant enrichment not only in signal transduction and extracellular biological processes, but also in metabolism pathways. Upon the estimation of CNV population differentiation (CNVs with different polymorphism frequencies across populations), we evaluated that 22% of the pathways contain at least one gene that is proximal to a CNV (CNV-gene pair) that shows significant population differentiation. The majority of these CNV-gene pairs belong to signal transduction pathways and 6% of the CNV-gene pairs show statistical association between the copy number states and the transcript levels. The analysis suggested possible examples of positive selection within individual populations including NF-kB, MAPK signaling pathways, and Alu/L1 retrotransposition factors. Altogether, our results suggest that constitutional CNVs may modulate subtle pathway changes through specific pathway enzymes, which may become fixed in some populations.

  12. Modeling biological pathway dynamics with timed automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Stefano; Scholma, Jetse; Wanders, Brend; Urquidi Camacho, Ricardo A; van der Vet, Paul E; Karperien, Marcel; Langerak, Rom; van de Pol, Jaco; Post, Janine N

    2014-05-01

    Living cells are constantly subjected to a plethora of environmental stimuli that require integration into an appropriate cellular response. This integration takes place through signal transduction events that form tightly interconnected networks. The understanding of these networks requires capturing their dynamics through computational support and models. ANIMO (analysis of Networks with Interactive Modeling) is a tool that enables the construction and exploration of executable models of biological networks, helping to derive hypotheses and to plan wet-lab experiments. The tool is based on the formalism of Timed Automata, which can be analyzed via the UPPAAL model checker. Thanks to Timed Automata, we can provide a formal semantics for the domain-specific language used to represent signaling networks. This enforces precision and uniformity in the definition of signaling pathways, contributing to the integration of isolated signaling events into complex network models. We propose an approach to discretization of reaction kinetics that allows us to efficiently use UPPAAL as the computational engine to explore the dynamic behavior of the network of interest. A user-friendly interface hides the use of Timed Automata from the user, while keeping the expressive power intact. Abstraction to single-parameter kinetics speeds up construction of models that remain faithful enough to provide meaningful insight. The resulting dynamic behavior of the network components is displayed graphically, allowing for an intuitive and interactive modeling experience.

  13. Radioresistance-related signaling pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya; Zhu Xiaodong; Qu Song; Su Fang; Wang Qi; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference of gene expression profile between the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and CNE-2, and to screen the signaling pathway associated with radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R was constructed from the original cell line CNE-2. CNE-2R and CNE-2 cells were cultured and administered with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 400 cGy for 15 times. Human-6v 3.0 whole genome expression profile was used to screen the differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the pathways related to radioresistance. Results: The number of the differentially expressed genes that were found in these 2 experiments was 374. The Kegg pathway and Biocarta pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the biological importance of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1 R-mediated signal transduction pathway to the radioresistance of the CNE-2R cells and the significant differences of 13 genes in these 2 pathways,including JUN, MYD88, CCL5, CXCL10, STAT1, LY96, FOS, CCL3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IRAK2 (t=13.47-66.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1R-mediated signal transduction pathway might be related to the occurrence of radioresistance. (authors)

  14. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  15. TSLP signaling pathway map: a platform for analysis of TSLP-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Sharma, Jyoti; Raju, Rajesh; Palapetta, Shyam Mohan; Prasad, T S Keshava; Huang, Tai-Chung; Yoda, Akinori; Tyner, Jeffrey W; van Bodegom, Diederik; Weinstock, David M; Ziegler, Steven F; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a four-helix bundle cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses and in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. TSLP signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of an interleukin-7 receptor α chain and a unique TSLP receptor (TSLPR) [also known as cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2)]. Cellular targets of TSLP include dendritic cells, B cells, mast cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The TSLP/TSLPR axis can activate multiple signaling transduction pathways including the JAK/STAT pathway and the PI-3 kinase pathway. Aberrant TSLP/TSLPR signaling has been associated with a variety of human diseases including asthma, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, eosinophilic eosophagitis and, most recently, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A centralized resource of the TSLP signaling pathway cataloging signaling events is not yet available. In this study, we present a literature-annotated resource of reactions in the TSLP signaling pathway. This pathway map is publicly available through NetPath (http://www.netpath.org/), an open access signal transduction pathway resource developed previously by our group. This map includes 236 molecules and 252 reactions that are involved in TSLP/TSLPR signaling pathway. We expect that the TSLP signaling pathway map will provide a rich resource to study the biology of this important cytokine as well as to identify novel therapeutic targets for diseases associated with dysregulated TSLP/TSLPR signaling. Database URL: http://www.netpath.org/pathways?path_id=NetPath_24.

  16. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling Pathways for Anticancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulda, Simone, E-mail: simone.fulda@kgu.de [Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-08-29

    Treatment approaches for cancer, for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, primarily act by inducing cell death in cancer cells. Consequently, the inability to trigger cell death pathways or alternatively, evasion of cancer cells to the induction of cell death pathways can result in resistance of cancers to current treatment protocols. Therefore, in order to overcome treatment resistance a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell death and survival pathways in cancers and in response to cancer therapy is necessary to develop molecular-targeted therapies. This strategy should lead to more effective and individualized treatment strategies that selectively target deregulated signaling pathways in a tumor type- and patient-specific manner.

  17. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling Pathways for Anticancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Treatment approaches for cancer, for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, primarily act by inducing cell death in cancer cells. Consequently, the inability to trigger cell death pathways or alternatively, evasion of cancer cells to the induction of cell death pathways can result in resistance of cancers to current treatment protocols. Therefore, in order to overcome treatment resistance a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell death and survival pathways in cancers and in response to cancer therapy is necessary to develop molecular-targeted therapies. This strategy should lead to more effective and individualized treatment strategies that selectively target deregulated signaling pathways in a tumor type- and patient-specific manner.

  18. Hedgehog signaling pathway in neuroblastoma differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souzaki, Ryota; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Souzaki, Masae; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Sakura; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Katano, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2010-12-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is activated in some adult cancers. On the other hand, the Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of the neural crest in embryos. The aim of this study is to show the activation of Hh signaling pathway in neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric malignancy arising from neural crest cells, and to reveal the meaning of the Hh signaling pathway in NB development. This study analyzed the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), GLI1, and Patched 1 (Ptch1), transactivators of Hh signaling pathway, by immunohistochemistry in 82 NB and 10 ganglioneuroblastoma cases. All 92 cases were evaluated for the status of MYCN amplification. Of the 92 cases, 67 (73%) were positive for Shh, 62 cases (67%) were positive for GLI1, and 73 cases (79%) were positive for Ptch1. Only 2 (10%) of the 20 cases with MYCN amplification were positive for Shh and GLI1, and 4 cases (20%) were positive for Ptch1 (MYCN amplification vs no MYCN amplification, P ≦ .01). The percentage of GLI1-positive cells in the cases with INSS stage 1 without MYCN amplification was significantly higher than that with INSS stage 4. Of 72 cases without MYCN amplification, 60 were GLI1-positive. Twelve cases were GLI1-negative, and the prognosis of the GLI1-positive cases was significantly better than that of the GLI1-negative cases (P = .015). Most of NBs without MYCN amplification were positive for Shh, GLI1, and Ptch1. In the cases without MYCN amplification, the high expression of GLI1 was significantly associated with early clinical stage and a good prognosis of the patients. In contrast to adult cancers, the activation of the Hh signaling pathway in NB may be associated with the differentiation of the NB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xinhua [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Wang, Xiaoyuan [Department of Nephrology, Xi An Honghui Hospital, Xi an (China); Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Zhang, Hongqi, E-mail: zhq9699@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China)

    2015-07-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.

  20. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression

  1. Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xianquan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We obtained a series of pituitary adenoma proteomic expression data, including protein-mapping data (111 proteins, comparative proteomic data (56 differentially expressed proteins, and nitroproteomic data (17 nitroproteins. There is a pressing need to clarify the significant signaling pathway networks that derive from those proteins in order to clarify and to better understand the molecular basis of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis and to discover biomarkers. Here, we describe the significant signaling pathway networks that were mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomic data with the Ingenuity pathway analysis system. Methods The Ingenuity pathway analysis system was used to analyze signal pathway networks and canonical pathways from protein-mapping data, comparative proteomic data, adenoma nitroproteomic data, and control nitroproteomic data. A Fisher's exact test was used to test the statistical significance with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical significant results were rationalized within the pituitary adenoma biological system with literature-based bioinformatics analyses. Results For the protein-mapping data, the top pathway networks were related to cancer, cell death, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included acute-phase response, oxidative-stress response, oxidative stress, and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. For the comparative proteomic data, top pathway networks were related to cancer, endocrine system development and function, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative-stress response, and ERK/MAPK signaling. The nitroproteomic data from a pituitary adenoma were related to cancer, cell death, lipid metabolism, and reproductive system disease, and the top canonical toxicity pathways mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. Nitroproteins from a

  2. Computational identification of signalling pathways in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelade, Jelili; Ewejobi, Itunu; Brors, Benedikt; Eils, Roland; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is one of the world's most common and serious diseases causing death of about 3 million people each year. Its most severe occurrence is caused by the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Reports have shown that the resistance of the parasite to existing drugs is increasing. Therefore, there is a huge and urgent need to discover and validate new drug or vaccine targets to enable the development of new treatments for malaria. The ability to discover these drug or vaccine targets can only be enhanced from our deep understanding of the detailed biology of the parasite, for example how cells function and how proteins organize into modules such as metabolic, regulatory and signal transduction pathways. It has been noted that the knowledge of signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium is fundamental to aid the design of new strategies against malaria. This work uses a linear-time algorithm for finding paths in a network under modified biologically motivated constraints. We predicted several important signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium falciparum. We have predicted a viable signalling pathway characterized in terms of the genes responsible that may be the PfPKB pathway recently elucidated in Plasmodium falciparum. We obtained from the FIKK family, a signal transduction pathway that ends up on a chloroquine resistance marker protein, which indicates that interference with FIKK proteins might reverse Plasmodium falciparum from resistant to sensitive phenotype. We also proposed a hypothesis that showed the FIKK proteins in this pathway as enabling the resistance parasite to have a mechanism for releasing chloroquine (via an efflux process). Furthermore, we also predicted a signalling pathway that may have been responsible for signalling the start of the invasion process of Red Blood Cell (RBC) by the merozoites. It has been noted that the understanding of this pathway will give insight into the parasite virulence and will facilitate rational vaccine design

  3. Partitioning of genomic variance using biological pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Janss, Luc; Madsen, Per

    and that these variants are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways or for likely functional effects on genes. These biological findings provide valuable insight for developing better genomic models. These are statistical models for predicting complex trait phenotypes on the basis of SNP......-data and trait phenotypes and can account for a much larger fraction of the heritable component. A disadvantage is that this “black-box” modelling approach conceals the biological mechanisms underlying the trait. We propose to open the “black-box” by building SNP-set genomic models that evaluate the collective...... action of multiple SNPs in genes, biological pathways or other external findings on the trait phenotype. As proof of concept we have tested the modelling framework on several traits in dairy cattle....

  4. An algorithm for modularization of MAPK and calcium signaling pathways: comparative analysis among different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Losiana; De, Rajat K

    2007-12-01

    Signaling pathways are large complex biochemical networks. It is difficult to analyze the underlying mechanism of such networks as a whole. In the present article, we have proposed an algorithm for modularization of signal transduction pathways. Unlike studying a signaling pathway as a whole, this enables one to study the individual modules (less complex smaller units) easily and hence to study the entire pathway better. A comparative study of modules belonging to different species (for the same signaling pathway) has been made, which gives an overall idea about development of the signaling pathways over the taken set of species of calcium and MAPK signaling pathways. The superior performance, in terms of biological significance, of the proposed algorithm over an existing community finding algorithm of Newman [Newman MEJ. Modularity and community structure in networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(23):8577-82] has been demonstrated using the aforesaid pathways of H. sapiens.

  5. Precise generation of systems biology models from KEGG pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzodek, Clemens; Büchel, Finja; Ruff, Manuel; Dräger, Andreas; Zell, Andreas

    2013-02-21

    The KEGG PATHWAY database provides a plethora of pathways for a diversity of organisms. All pathway components are directly linked to other KEGG databases, such as KEGG COMPOUND or KEGG REACTION. Therefore, the pathways can be extended with an enormous amount of information and provide a foundation for initial structural modeling approaches. As a drawback, KGML-formatted KEGG pathways are primarily designed for visualization purposes and often omit important details for the sake of a clear arrangement of its entries. Thus, a direct conversion into systems biology models would produce incomplete and erroneous models. Here, we present a precise method for processing and converting KEGG pathways into initial metabolic and signaling models encoded in the standardized community pathway formats SBML (Levels 2 and 3) and BioPAX (Levels 2 and 3). This method involves correcting invalid or incomplete KGML content, creating complete and valid stoichiometric reactions, translating relations to signaling models and augmenting the pathway content with various information, such as cross-references to Entrez Gene, OMIM, UniProt ChEBI, and many more.Finally, we compare several existing conversion tools for KEGG pathways and show that the conversion from KEGG to BioPAX does not involve a loss of information, whilst lossless translations to SBML can only be performed using SBML Level 3, including its recently proposed qualitative models and groups extension packages. Building correct BioPAX and SBML signaling models from the KEGG database is a unique characteristic of the proposed method. Further, there is no other approach that is able to appropriately construct metabolic models from KEGG pathways, including correct reactions with stoichiometry. The resulting initial models, which contain valid and comprehensive SBML or BioPAX code and a multitude of cross-references, lay the foundation to facilitate further modeling steps.

  6. Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Myocyte Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Liu, Yuening

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, the number 1 cause of death worldwide, are frequently associated with apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a highly regulated process, pharmacological intervention of apoptosis pathways may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders including myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, chemotherapy cardiotoxicity, and end-stage heart failure. Despite rapid growth of our knowledge in apoptosis signaling pathways, a clinically applicable treatment targeting this cellular process is currently unavailable. To help identify potential innovative directions for future research, it is necessary to have a full understanding of the apoptotic pathways currently known to be functional in cardiac myocytes. Here, we summarize recent progress in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by multiple signaling molecules and pathways, with a focus on the involvement of these pathways in the pathogenesis of heart disease. In addition, we provide an update regarding bench to bedside translation of this knowledge and discuss unanswered questions that need further investigation. PMID:28101515

  7. An overview of bioinformatics methods for modeling biological pathways in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Acharya, Lipi; Zhu, Dongxiao; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-03-01

    The advent of high-throughput genomics techniques, along with the completion of genome sequencing projects, identification of protein-protein interactions and reconstruction of genome-scale pathways, has accelerated the development of systems biology research in the yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae In particular, discovery of biological pathways in yeast has become an important forefront in systems biology, which aims to understand the interactions among molecules within a cell leading to certain cellular processes in response to a specific environment. While the existing theoretical and experimental approaches enable the investigation of well-known pathways involved in metabolism, gene regulation and signal transduction, bioinformatics methods offer new insights into computational modeling of biological pathways. A wide range of computational approaches has been proposed in the past for reconstructing biological pathways from high-throughput datasets. Here we review selected bioinformatics approaches for modeling biological pathways inS. cerevisiae, including metabolic pathways, gene-regulatory pathways and signaling pathways. We start with reviewing the research on biological pathways followed by discussing key biological databases. In addition, several representative computational approaches for modeling biological pathways in yeast are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  10. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells

  11. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-03-02

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions.

  12. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy eSmith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori, the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx , the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the effects of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin on ecdysone secretion and molting.

  13. Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P

    1995-08-15

    The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors.

  14. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  15. Glucocorticoid Signaling and Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, T

    2016-11-01

    Since glucocorticoids remain an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. Fractures may occur in as many as 30-50% of patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Under physiological conditions, glucocorticoids are required for normal bone development due to their regulation of osteoblast differentiation, possibly via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and TSC22D3. However, serum levels of endogenous corticosterone are elevated in aged mice and glucocorticoids exert negative effects on the survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes as well as angiogenesis. Glucocorticoid treatments impair bone formation and enhance bone resorption. Excess glucocorticoids induce osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis by increasing pro-apoptotic molecules, reactive oxygen species, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Autophagy protects osteocytes from glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, but passed some threshold, the process of autophagy leads the cells to apoptosis. Excess glucocorticoids impair osteoblastogenesis by inducing Wnt antagonists, including Dkk1, Sost, and sFRP-1. However, the findings are controversial and the involvement of Wnt antagonists requires further study. Excess glucocorticoids reduce the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β, which enhances the degradation of β-catenin. Excess glucocorticoids have been shown to modulate the expression of miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-34a-5p, and miR-199a-5p, which regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells. Excess glucocorticoids also enhance bone resorption by reducing OPG expression, increasing Rankl expression and reactive oxygen species, and prolonging the life span of osteoclasts; however, they also suppress the bone-degrading capacity of osteoclasts by disturbing the organization of the cytoskeleton. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  16. The Wnt signaling pathway in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Scott M; Andreoli, Christopher M; Mukai, Shizuo

    2007-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved among species and has an important role in many cell biological processes throughout the body. This signaling cascade is involved in regulating ocular growth and development, and recent findings indicate that this is particularly true in the retina. Mutations involving different aspects of the Wnt signaling pathway are being linked to several diseases of retinal development. The aim of this article is to first review the Wnt signaling pathway. We will then describe two conditions, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), which have been shown to be caused in part by defects in the Wnt signaling cascade.

  17. Non-Smad pathways in TGF-β signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying E

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β utilizes a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways in addition to Smads to regulate a wide array of cellular functions. These non-canonical, non-Smad pathways are activated directly by ligand-occupied receptors to reinforce, attenuate, or otherwise modulate downstream cellular responses. These non-Smad pathways include various branches of MAP kinase pathways, Rho-like GTPase signaling pathways, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathways. This review focu...

  18. Agmatine modulates melanogenesis via MITF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on the protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, C-KIT, p-p38, MITF and C-FOS were examined by western blot analysis. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was carried out to visualize the location of MITF expression in cell. Agmatine at 256μM or more increased melanin synthesis as well as tyrosinase activity. Moreover, whereas agmatine increased the expression levels of TRP-1, BMP-6, p-p38 and MITF, it reduced the expression level of BMP-4. It was also found that agmatine enhanced the expression level of MITF in nucleus. These results suggest that agmatine could induce melanin synthesis though the regulation of MITF transcription factor via BMP-6/p38 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DMPD: When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-...uction. PubmedID 18631453 Title When signaling pathways collide: positive and neg...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...likereceptor signal transduction. O'Neill LA. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18;29(1):12-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csm

  20. DMPD: Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18549796 Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Moore CB, Ting J...P. Immunity. 2008 Jun;28(6):735-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral ...signaling pathways. PubmedID 18549796 Title Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Author

  1. DMPD: Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17303405 Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr ...Opin Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;19(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling pathways activated by microorg...anisms. PubmedID 17303405 Title Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Auth

  2. Targeting embryonic signaling pathways in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Pamela Jo; Speranza, Giovanna; Dansky Ullmann, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic signaling pathways (ESP), Hedgehog, Notch and Wnt, are critical for the regulation of normal stem cells and cellular development processes. They are also activated in the majority of cancers. ESP are operational in putative cancer stem cells (CSC), which drive initial tumorigenesis and sustain cancer progression and recurrence in non-CSC bulk subpopulations. ESP represent novel therapeutic targets. A variety of inhibitors and targeting strategies are being developed. This review discusses the rationale for targeting ESP for cancer treatment, as well as specific inhibitors under development; mainly focusing on those approaching clinical use and the challenges that lie ahead. The data sources utilized are several database search engines (PubMed, Google, Clinicaltrials.gov), and the authors' involvement in the field. CSC research is rapidly evolving. Expectations regarding their therapeutic targeting are rising quickly. Further definition of what constitutes a true CSC, proper validation of CSC markers, a better understanding of cross-talk among ESP and other pathways, and interactions with tumor non-CSC and the tumor microenvironment are needed. The appropriate patient population, the right clinical setting and combination strategies to test these therapies, as well as the proper pharmacodynamic markers to measure, need to be further established.

  3. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Walley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA and ethylene (ET signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  4. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies

  5. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  6. ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an infectious diseases perspective (Intracellular signaling pathways: tyrosine kinase and mTOR inhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwald, M; Silva, J T; Mueller, N J; Fortún, J; Garzoni, C; de Fijter, J W; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Grossi, P; Aguado, J M

    2018-06-01

    The present review is part of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biologic therapies. To review, from an infectious diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting different intracellular signaling pathways and to suggest preventive recommendations. Computer-based Medline searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family. Although BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors modestly increase the overall risk of infection, dasatinib has been associated with cytomegalovirus and hepatitis B virus reactivation. BRAF/MEK kinase inhibitors do not significantly affect infection susceptibility. The effect of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ibrutinib) among patients with B-cell malignancies is difficult to distinguish from that of previous immunosuppression. However, cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), invasive fungal infection and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy have been occasionally reported. Because phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors (idelalisib) may predispose to opportunistic infections, anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis and prevention strategies for cytomegalovirus are recommended. No increased rates of infection have been observed with venetoclax (antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 inhibitor). Therapy with Janus kinase inhibitors markedly increases the incidence of infection. Pretreatment screening for chronic hepatitis B virus and latent tuberculosis infection must be performed, and anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis should be considered for patients with additional risk factors. Cancer patients receiving mTOR inhibitors face an increased incidence of overall infection, especially those with additional risk factors (prior therapies or delayed wound healing). Specific preventive approaches are warranted in view of the increased risk of infection associated with some of the

  7. Radiation-induced adaptive response and intracellular signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Akira

    2009-01-01

    As an essential biological function, cells can sense the radiation even at low dose and respond to it, and which is one of bases of the radiation-induced adaptive response (AR) where effects caused by high dose radiation are reduced by prior exposure to low dose radiation (LDR). Here described are studies of AR in well established m5S cells on the intracellular signal transduction that involves sensing of LDR and transmitting of its signal within the cell network. The first signal for AR yielded by LDR on the cell membrane is exactly unknown though hydrogen peroxide and phorbol ester (PMA) can reportedly cause AR. As PMA activates protein kinase C (PKC) and its inhibitors suppress AR, participation of PKC in AR has been suggested and supported by studies showing PKCα activation by LDR. In addition, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is shown to participate in AR by those facts that the enzyme is activated by LDR, a p38 MAPK inhibitor suppresses AR, and PKC inhibitors suppress the enzyme activation, which also suggesting that the signaling from PKC to p38 MAPK can become operative by LDR. However, the possible reverse signaling is also suggested, and thus the activation of positive feedback mechanism is postulated in PKC/p38 MAPK/phospholipase δ1/ PKC pathway. Cells introduced with siRNA against Prkca gene (coding PKCs) produce reduced amount of the enzyme, particularly, of PKCα. In those cells, AR by 5 Gy X-ray is not observed and thereby PKCα is involved in AR. The signaling in AR is only partly elucidated at present as above, and more detailed studies including identification of more PKC subtypes and signaling to DNA repair system are considered necessary. (K.T.)

  8. DMPD: Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17904888 Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Edwards M...hways mediating type I interferon gene expression. PubmedID 17904888 Title Signalling pathways...R, Slater L, Johnston SL. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep;9(11):1245-51. Epub 2007 Jul 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling pat

  9. Antagonism between Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways regulates tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The crosstalk of multiple cellular signaling pathways is crucial in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation may result in tumor formation and metastasis. The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling pathways are both considered to be essential regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways are closely associated and involved in regulating embryogenesis and cellular differentiation. Hh signaling acts upstream of the Wnt signaling pathway, and negative regulates Wnt activity via secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway downregulates Hh activity through glioma-associated oncogene homolog 3 transcriptional regulation. This evidence suggests that the imbalance of Hh and Wnt regulation serves a crucial role in cancer-associated processes. The activation of SFRP1, which inhibits Wnt, has been demonstrated to be an important cross-point between the two signaling pathways. The present study reviews the complex interaction between the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways in embryogenesis and tumorigenicity, and the role of SFRP1 as an important mediator associated with the dysregulation of the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways.

  10. Signal transduction in mitogenesis: Further evidence for multiple pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozengurt, E.; Erusalimsky, J.; Mehmet, H.; Morris, C.; Nanberg, E.; Sinnett-Smith, J.

    1988-01-01

    Growth factors are implicated in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, would healing, immune responses, atherosclerosis, and neoplasia. An important link between growth factors and their receptors and oncogene products has also been established. Thus, the elucidation of the mechanism of action of growth factors has emerged as one of the fundamental problems in biology and may prove crucial for understanding the unrestrained proliferation of cancer cells. A new and intriguing development is the discovery that neuropeptides localized in neural and neuroendocrine cells of mammalian tissue can also act as growth factors for cells in culture. Furthermore, indirect evidence is accumulating that the mitogenic effects of neuropeptides may be relevant for a variety of long-term biological processes, including development and oncogenesis. In this context, the peptides of the bombesin family are of particular significance. These peptides are potent mitogens for Swiss 3T3 cells and may act as autocrine growth factors for small cell lung cancer. Here, the authors summarize their recent studies using bombesin-like peptides for elucidating the signal transduction pathways leading to mitogenesis and compare these pathways with those elicited by other growth factors

  11. The role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in cancer: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marija Skoda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway was first identified in the common fruit fly. It is a highly conserved evolutionary pathway of signal transmission from the cell membrane to the nucleus. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development. It exerts its biological effects through a signaling cascade that culminates in a change of balance between activator and repressor forms of glioma-associated oncogene (Gli transcription factors. The components of the Hh signaling pathway involved in the signaling transfer to the Gli transcription factors include Hedgehog ligands (Sonic Hh [SHh], Indian Hh [IHh], and Desert Hh [DHh], Patched receptor (Ptch1, Ptch2, Smoothened receptor (Smo, Suppressor of fused homolog (Sufu, kinesin protein Kif7, protein kinase A (PKA, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. The activator form of Gli travels to the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of the target genes by binding to their promoters. The main target genes of the Hh signaling pathway are PTCH1, PTCH2, and GLI1. Deregulation of the Hh signaling pathway is associated with developmental anomalies and cancer, including Gorlin syndrome, and sporadic cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, pancreatic, breast, colon, ovarian, and small-cell lung carcinomas. The aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is caused by mutations in the related genes (ligand-independent signaling or by the excessive expression of the Hh signaling molecules (ligand-dependent signaling – autocrine or paracrine. Several Hh signaling pathway inhibitors, such as vismodegib and sonidegib, have been developed for cancer treatment. These drugs are regarded as promising cancer therapies, especially for patients with refractory/advanced cancers.

  12. Aberrant signaling pathways in medulloblastomas: a stem cell connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Oliveira Rodini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system. It represents the most frequent type of solid tumor and the leading cause of death related to cancer in early childhood. Current treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may lead to severe cognitive impairment and secondary brain tumors. New perspectives for therapeutic development have emerged with the identification of stem-like cells displaying high tumorigenic potential and increased radio- and chemo-resistance in gliomas. Under the cancer stem cell hypothesis, transformation of neural stem cells and/or granular neuron progenitors of the cerebellum are though to be involved in medulloblastoma development. Dissecting the genetic and molecular alterations associated with this process should significantly impact both basic and applied cancer research. Based on cumulative evidences in the fields of genetics and molecular biology of medulloblastomas, we discuss the possible involvement of developmental signaling pathways as critical biochemical switches determining normal neurogenesis or tumorigenesis. From the clinical viewpoint, modulation of signaling pathways such as TGFβ, regulating neural stem cell proliferation and tumor development, might be attempted as an alternative strategy for future drug development aiming at more efficient therapies and improved clinical outcome of patients with pediatric brain cancers.

  13. Signaling Pathways Regulating Redox Balance in Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Maria Chiara; Porporato, Paolo Ettore; Martini, Miriam; Morandi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The interplay between rewiring tumor metabolism and oncogenic driver mutations is only beginning to be appreciated. Metabolic deregulation has been described for decades as a bystander effect of genomic aberrations. However, for the biology of malignant cells, metabolic reprogramming is essential to tackle a harsh environment, including nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen withdrawal. Besides the well-investigated glycolytic metabolism, it is emerging that several other metabolic fluxes are relevant for tumorigenesis in supporting redox balance, most notably pentose phosphate pathway, folate, and mitochondrial metabolism. The relationship between metabolic rewiring and mutant genes is still unclear and, therefore, we will discuss how metabolic needs and oncogene mutations influence each other to satisfy cancer cells' demands. Mutations in oncogenes, i.e., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS pathway, and MYC, and tumor suppressors, i.e., p53 and liver kinase B1, result in metabolic flexibility and may influence response to therapy. Since metabolic rewiring is shaped by oncogenic driver mutations, understanding how specific alterations in signaling pathways affect different metabolic fluxes will be instrumental for the development of novel targeted therapies. In the era of personalized medicine, the combination of driver mutations, metabolite levels, and tissue of origins will pave the way to innovative therapeutic interventions.

  14. Research advances in Hedgehog signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is present in many animals and plays an important role in regulating embryonic development and differentiation. Aberrant activation of Hh signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of many malignancies. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated Hh signaling pathway participates in the tumorigenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Investigation of the relationship between Hh signaling pathway and HCC will help elucidate the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of HCC and provide a new insight into the development of novel anticancer therapy and therapeutic target.

  15. Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.

  16. Inferring the functional effect of gene expression changes in signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-León, Patricia; Carbonell, José; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways constitute a valuable source of information that allows interpreting the way in which alterations in gene activities affect to particular cell functionalities. There are web tools available that allow viewing and editing pathways, as well as representing experimental data on them. However, few methods aimed to identify the signaling circuits, within a pathway, associated to the biological problem studied exist and none of them provide a convenient graphical web interface. We present PATHiWAYS, a web-based signaling pathway visualization system that infers changes in signaling that affect cell functionality from the measurements of gene expression values in typical expression microarray case–control experiments. A simple probabilistic model of the pathway is used to estimate the probabilities for signal transmission from any receptor to any final effector molecule (taking into account the pathway topology) using for this the individual probabilities of gene product presence/absence inferred from gene expression values. Significant changes in these probabilities allow linking different cell functionalities triggered by the pathway to the biological problem studied. PATHiWAYS is available at: http://pathiways.babelomics.org/. PMID:23748960

  17. Computational Modeling of Biological Systems From Molecules to Pathways

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling is emerging as a powerful new approach for studying and manipulating biological systems. Many diverse methods have been developed to model, visualize, and rationally alter these systems at various length scales, from atomic resolution to the level of cellular pathways. Processes taking place at larger time and length scales, such as molecular evolution, have also greatly benefited from new breeds of computational approaches. Computational Modeling of Biological Systems: From Molecules to Pathways provides an overview of established computational methods for the modeling of biologically and medically relevant systems. It is suitable for researchers and professionals working in the fields of biophysics, computational biology, systems biology, and molecular medicine.

  18. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reski Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gibberellins (GA are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth.

  19. Integrated pathway clusters with coherent biological themes for target prioritisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Chen

    Full Text Available Prioritising candidate genes for further experimental characterisation is an essential, yet challenging task in biomedical research. One way of achieving this goal is to identify specific biological themes that are enriched within the gene set of interest to obtain insights into the biological phenomena under study. Biological pathway data have been particularly useful in identifying functional associations of genes and/or gene sets. However, biological pathway information as compiled in varied repositories often differs in scope and content, preventing a more effective and comprehensive characterisation of gene sets. Here we describe a new approach to constructing biologically coherent gene sets from pathway data in major public repositories and employing them for functional analysis of large gene sets. We first revealed significant overlaps in gene content between different pathways and then defined a clustering method based on the shared gene content and the similarity of gene overlap patterns. We established the biological relevance of the constructed pathway clusters using independent quantitative measures and we finally demonstrated the effectiveness of the constructed pathway clusters in comparative functional enrichment analysis of gene sets associated with diverse human diseases gathered from the literature. The pathway clusters and gene mappings have been integrated into the TargetMine data warehouse and are likely to provide a concise, manageable and biologically relevant means of functional analysis of gene sets and to facilitate candidate gene prioritisation.

  20. Intricacies of hedgehog signaling pathways: A perspective in tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta; Shilpi, Arunima; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar; Patra, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.

  1. Intricacies of hedgehog signaling pathways: A perspective in tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta; Shilpi, Arunima; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar [Epigenetics and Cancer Research Laboratory, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Patra, Samir Kumar, E-mail: samirp@nitrkl.ac.in [Epigenetics and Cancer Research Laboratory, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India)

    2012-10-01

    The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.

  2. Balancing act: matching growth with environment by the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rossana; Bögre, László; Horváth, Beátrix; Magyar, Zoltán

    2014-06-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of growth in plants is its plasticity in relation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Growth of meristematic cells relies predominantly on protein synthesis, one of the most energy-consuming activities in cells, and thus is tightly regulated in accordance with the available nutrient and energy supplies. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway takes a central position in this regulation. The core of the TOR signalling pathway is conserved throughout evolution, and can be traced back to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. In plants, a single complex constitutes the TOR signalling pathway. Manipulating the components of the TOR complex in Arabidopsis highlighted its common role as a major regulator of protein synthesis and metabolism, that is also involved in other biological functions such as cell-wall integrity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cell size. TOR, as an integral part of the auxin signalling pathway, connects hormonal and nutrient pathways. Downstream of TOR, S6 kinase and the ribosomal S6 protein have been shown to mediate several of these responses, although there is evidence of other complex non-linear TOR signalling pathway structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. cPath: open source software for collecting, storing, and querying biological pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Benjamin E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological pathways, including metabolic pathways, protein interaction networks, signal transduction pathways, and gene regulatory networks, are currently represented in over 220 diverse databases. These data are crucial for the study of specific biological processes, including human diseases. Standard exchange formats for pathway information, such as BioPAX, CellML, SBML and PSI-MI, enable convenient collection of this data for biological research, but mechanisms for common storage and communication are required. Results We have developed cPath, an open source database and web application for collecting, storing, and querying biological pathway data. cPath makes it easy to aggregate custom pathway data sets available in standard exchange formats from multiple databases, present pathway data to biologists via a customizable web interface, and export pathway data via a web service to third-party software, such as Cytoscape, for visualization and analysis. cPath is software only, and does not include new pathway information. Key features include: a built-in identifier mapping service for linking identical interactors and linking to external resources; built-in support for PSI-MI and BioPAX standard pathway exchange formats; a web service interface for searching and retrieving pathway data sets; and thorough documentation. The cPath software is freely available under the LGPL open source license for academic and commercial use. Conclusion cPath is a robust, scalable, modular, professional-grade software platform for collecting, storing, and querying biological pathways. It can serve as the core data handling component in information systems for pathway visualization, analysis and modeling.

  4. The Transcriptional Landscape of p53 Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizu Tanikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although recent cancer genomics studies have identified a large number of genes that were mutated in human cancers, p53 remains as the most frequently mutated gene. To further elucidate the p53-signalling network, we performed transcriptome analysis on 24 tissues in p53+/+ or p53−/− mice after whole-body X-ray irradiation. Here we found transactivation of a total of 3551 genes in one or more of the 24 tissues only in p53+/+ mice, while 2576 genes were downregulated. p53 mRNA expression level in each tissue was significantly associated with the number of genes upregulated by irradiation. Annotation using TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that p53 negatively regulated mRNA expression of several cancer therapeutic targets or pathways such as BTK, SYK, and CTLA4 in breast cancer tissues. In addition, stomach exhibited the induction of Krt6, Krt16, and Krt17 as well as loricrin, an epidermal differentiation marker, after the X-ray irradiation only in p53+/+ mice, implying a mechanism to protect damaged tissues by rapid induction of differentiation. Our comprehensive transcriptome analysis elucidated tissue specific roles of p53 and its signalling networks in DNA-damage response that will enhance our understanding of cancer biology.

  5. Signaling Pathways in Pathogenesis of Diamond Blackfan Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0590 TITLE: SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: KATHLEEN M...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0590 SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT: Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a disorder that results in pure red cell aplasia, congenital

  6. Rapidly exploring structural and dynamic properties of signaling networks using PathwayOracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prahlad T

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In systems biology the experimentalist is presented with a selection of software for analyzing dynamic properties of signaling networks. These tools either assume that the network is in steady-state or require highly parameterized models of the network of interest. For biologists interested in assessing how signal propagates through a network under specific conditions, the first class of methods does not provide sufficiently detailed results and the second class requires models which may not be easily and accurately constructed. A tool that is able to characterize the dynamics of a signaling network using an unparameterized model of the network would allow biologists to quickly obtain insights into a signaling network's behavior. Results We introduce PathwayOracle, an integrated suite of software tools for computationally inferring and analyzing structural and dynamic properties of a signaling network. The feature which differentiates PathwayOracle from other tools is a method that can predict the response of a signaling network to various experimental conditions and stimuli using only the connectivity of the signaling network. Thus signaling models are relatively easy to build. The method allows for tracking signal flow in a network and comparison of signal flows under different experimental conditions. In addition, PathwayOracle includes tools for the enumeration and visualization of coherent and incoherent signaling paths between proteins, and for experimental analysis – loading and superimposing experimental data, such as microarray intensities, on the network model. Conclusion PathwayOracle provides an integrated environment in which both structural and dynamic analysis of a signaling network can be quickly conducted and visualized along side experimental results. By using the signaling network connectivity, analyses and predictions can be performed quickly using relatively easily constructed signaling network models

  7. The Biological Connection Markup Language: a SBGN-compliant format for visualization, filtering and analysis of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Luca; Calura, Enrica; Popovici, Razvan R; Rizzetto, Lisa; Guedez, Damariz Rivero; Donato, Michele; Romualdi, Chiara; Draghici, Sorin; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2011-08-01

    Many models and analysis of signaling pathways have been proposed. However, neither of them takes into account that a biological pathway is not a fixed system, but instead it depends on the organism, tissue and cell type as well as on physiological, pathological and experimental conditions. The Biological Connection Markup Language (BCML) is a format to describe, annotate and visualize pathways. BCML is able to store multiple information, permitting a selective view of the pathway as it exists and/or behave in specific organisms, tissues and cells. Furthermore, BCML can be automatically converted into data formats suitable for analysis and into a fully SBGN-compliant graphical representation, making it an important tool that can be used by both computational biologists and 'wet lab' scientists. The XML schema and the BCML software suite are freely available under the LGPL for download at http://bcml.dc-atlas.net. They are implemented in Java and supported on MS Windows, Linux and OS X.

  8. Modelling and Analysis of Biochemical Signalling Pathway Cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Donaldson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Signalling pathways are abstractions that help life scientists structure the coordination of cellular activity. Cross-talk between pathways accounts for many of the complex behaviours exhibited by signalling pathways and is often critical in producing the correct signal-response relationship. Formal models of signalling pathways and cross-talk in particular can aid understanding and drive experimentation. We define an approach to modelling based on the concept that a pathway is the (synchronising parallel composition of instances of generic modules (with internal and external labels. Pathways are then composed by (synchronising parallel composition and renaming; different types of cross-talk result from different combinations of synchronisation and renaming. We define a number of generic modules in PRISM and five types of cross-talk: signal flow, substrate availability, receptor function, gene expression and intracellular communication. We show that Continuous Stochastic Logic properties can both detect and distinguish the types of cross-talk. The approach is illustrated with small examples and an analysis of the cross-talk between the TGF-b/BMP, WNT and MAPK pathways.

  9. Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Mina, Marco; Armenia, Joshua; Chatila, Walid K.; Luna, Augustin; La, Konnor C.; Dimitriadoy, Sofia; Liu, David L.; Kantheti, Havish S.; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Chakravarty, Debyani; Daian, Foysal; Gao, Qingsong; Bailey, Matthew H.; Liang, Wen Wei; Foltz, Steven M.; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ding, Li; Heins, Zachary J.; Ochoa, Angelica; Gross, Benjamin E.; Gao, Jianjiong; Zhang, Hongxin; Kundra, Ritika; Kandoth, Cyriac; Bahceci, Istemi; Dervishi, Leonard; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Zhou, Wanding; Shen, Hui; Laird, Peter W.; Way, Gregory P.; Greene, Casey S.; Liang, Han; Xiao, Yonghong; Wang, Chen; Iavarone, Antonio; Berger, Alice H.; Bivona, Trever G.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Hammer, Gary D.; Giordano, Thomas; Kwong, Lawrence N.; McArthur, Grant; Huang, Chenfei; Tward, Aaron D.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; McCormick, Frank; Meyerson, Matthew; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ciriello, Giovanni; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number

  10. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  11. Review of Signaling Pathways Governing MSC Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are multipotent cells, functioning as precursors to a variety of cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Between osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation, a theoretical inverse relationship exists, such that differentiation towards an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocytic phenotype. This balance is regulated by numerous, intersecting signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of two main transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2. These two transcription factors, PPARγ and Runx2, are generally regarded as the master regulators of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This review will summarize signaling pathways that govern MSC fate towards osteogenic or adipocytic differentiation. A number of signaling pathways follow the inverse balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and are generally proosteogenic/antiadipogenic stimuli. These include β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and NELL-1 signaling. However, other signaling pathways exhibit more context-dependent effects on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. These include bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling and insulin growth factor (IGF signaling, which display both proosteogenic and proadipogenic effects. In summary, understanding those factors that govern osteogenic versus adipogenic MSC differentiation has significant implications in diverse areas of human health, from obesity to osteoporosis to regenerative medicine.

  12. Anchoring Proteins as Regulators of Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Alessia; Ghigo, Alessandra; Scott, John D.; Hirsch, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal organization of signal transduction is coordinated through the segregation of signaling enzymes in selected cellular compartments. This highly evolved regulatory mechanism ensures the activation of selected enzymes only in the vicinity of their target proteins. In this context, cAMP-responsive triggering of protein kinase A is modulated by a family of scaffold proteins referred to as A-kinase anchoring proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins form the core of multiprotein complexes and enable simultaneous but segregated cAMP signaling events to occur in defined cellular compartments. In this review we will focus on the description of A-kinase anchoring protein function in the regulation of cardiac physiopathology. PMID:22859670

  13. Linking proteins to signaling pathways for experiment design and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illés J Farkas

    Full Text Available Biomedical experimental work often focuses on altering the functions of selected proteins. These changes can hit signaling pathways, and can therefore unexpectedly and non-specifically affect cellular processes. We propose PathwayLinker, an online tool that can provide a first estimate of the possible signaling effects of such changes, e.g., drug or microRNA treatments. PathwayLinker minimizes the users' efforts by integrating protein-protein interaction and signaling pathway data from several sources with statistical significance tests and clear visualization. We demonstrate through three case studies that the developed tool can point out unexpected signaling bias in normal laboratory experiments and identify likely novel signaling proteins among the interactors of known drug targets. In our first case study we show that knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans gene cdc-25.1 (meant to avoid progeny may globally affect the signaling system and unexpectedly bias experiments. In the second case study we evaluate the loss-of-function phenotypes of a less known C. elegans gene to predict its function. In the third case study we analyze GJA1, an anti-cancer drug target protein in human, and predict for this protein novel signaling pathway memberships, which may be sources of side effects. Compared to similar services, a major advantage of PathwayLinker is that it drastically reduces the necessary amount of manual literature searches and can be used without a computational background. PathwayLinker is available at http://PathwayLinker.org. Detailed documentation and source code are available at the website.

  14. Building executable biological pathway models automatically from BioPAX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Timo; Feenstra, Anton; Groth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The amount of biological data exposed in semantic formats is steadily increasing. In particular, pathway information (a model of how molecules interact within a cell) from databases such as KEGG and WikiPathways are available in a standard RDF-based format BioPAX. However, these models are

  15. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  16. Evaluation of Notch and Hypoxia Signaling Pathways in Chemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common worldwide malignancy. Notch signaling pathway contributes to the genesis of diverse cancers, however, its role in HCC is unclear. Hypoxia is a common feature of HCC. Signal integration between Notch and hypoxia may be involved in HCC. The aim of this study was to ...

  17. DMPD: TLR signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2007 Feb 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR signaling. PubmedID 17275323 Title TLR signaling. Author...s Kawai T, Akira S. Publication Semin Immunol. 2007 Feb;19(1):24-32. Epub 2007 Feb 1. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML... File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOP

  18. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  19. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  20. Inferring hidden causal relations between pathway members using reduced Google matrix of directed biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Signaling pathways represent parts of the global biological molecular network which connects them into a seamless whole through complex direct and indirect (hidden) crosstalk whose structure can change during development or in pathological conditions. We suggest a novel methodology, called Googlomics, for the structural analysis of directed biological networks using spectral analysis of their Google matrices, using parallels with quantum scattering theory, developed for nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos. We introduce analytical “reduced Google matrix” method for the analysis of biological network structure. The method allows inferring hidden causal relations between the members of a signaling pathway or a functionally related group of genes. We investigate how the structure of hidden causal relations can be reprogrammed as a result of changes in the transcriptional network layer during cancerogenesis. The suggested Googlomics approach rigorously characterizes complex systemic changes in the wiring of large causal biological networks in a computationally efficient way. PMID:29370181

  1. Mast cell chemotaxis - chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 119 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Grant - others:ECST(XE) BM1007; AV ČR(CZ) MC200520901 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mast cell * IgE receptor * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    forebrain development. The primary target is Wnt 8b, which is elevated in this period 4. Fox G1 is also genetically associated with infantile spasms 8...the Warburg effect’s role in non- cancerous tissues is largely unexplored. Second, in other diseases such as diabetes , Wnt signaling has emerged as...epilepsy and infantile spasms, we found that both mechanisms appeared to contribute. Two of the three genes came from our observation that several genes

  3. CCR7 signaling pathway and retinal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hui Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization diseases are the major causes of blindness. C-C chemokine receptor type 7(CCR7can promote the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFthrough the extracellular signal regulated kinase(ERKpathway, leading to vascular leakage, proliferation of vascular endothelial cell, neovascularization and etc. The detection of CCR7 can guide the diagnosis and treatments of retinal neovascularization diseases.

  4. Microenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular photobiomodulation on a cellular function has been shown to be homeostatic. Its function-specific pathway mechanism would be further discussed in this paper. The signal transduction pathways maintaining a normal function in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH, resisting the activation of many other irrelative signal transduction pathways, are so sparse that it can be supposed that there may be normal function-specific signal transduction pathways (NSPs. A low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light may promote the activation of partially activated NSP and/or its redundant NSP so that it may induce the second-order phase transition of a function from its dysfunctional one far from its FSH to its normal one in a function-specific microenvironment and may also induce the first-order functional phase transition of the normal function from low level to high level.

  5. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haybaeck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Response to platinum-based chemotherapy is poor in some patients and, thus, current research is focusing on new therapy options. The various histological types of OC are characterized by distinctive molecular genetic alterations that are relevant for ovarian tumorigenesis. The understanding of these molecular pathways is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Purpose: We want to give an overview on the molecular genetic changes of the histopathological types of OC and their role as putative therapeutic targets. In Depth Review of Existing Data: In 2012, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, bevacizumab, was approved for OC treatment. Bevacizumab has shown promising results as single agent and in combination with conventional chemotherapy, but its target is not distinctive when analyzed before treatment. At present, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors and components of the EGFR pathway are in the focus of clinical research. Interestingly, some phytochemical substances show good synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapy. Conclusion: Ongoing studies of targeted agents in conjunction with chemotherapy will show whether there are alternative options to bevacizumab available for OC patients. Novel targets which can be assessed before therapy to predict efficacy are needed. The assessment of therapeutic targets is continuously improved by molecular pathological analyses on tumor tissue. A careful selection of patients for personalized treatment will help to reduce putative side effects and toxicity.

  6. Perturbation Biology: Inferring Signaling Networks in Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin L.; Gauthier, Nicholas P.; Jing, Xiaohong; Kaushik, Poorvi; He, Qin; Mills, Gordon; Solit, David B.; Pratilas, Christine A.; Weigt, Martin; Braunstein, Alfredo; Pagnani, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Sander, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present a powerful experimental-computational technology for inferring network models that predict the response of cells to perturbations, and that may be useful in the design of combinatorial therapy against cancer. The experiments are systematic series of perturbations of cancer cell lines by targeted drugs, singly or in combination. The response to perturbation is quantified in terms of relative changes in the measured levels of proteins, phospho-proteins and cellular phenotypes such as viability. Computational network models are derived de novo, i.e., without prior knowledge of signaling pathways, and are based on simple non-linear differential equations. The prohibitively large solution space of all possible network models is explored efficiently using a probabilistic algorithm, Belief Propagation (BP), which is three orders of magnitude faster than standard Monte Carlo methods. Explicit executable models are derived for a set of perturbation experiments in SKMEL-133 melanoma cell lines, which are resistant to the therapeutically important inhibitor of RAF kinase. The resulting network models reproduce and extend known pathway biology. They empower potential discoveries of new molecular interactions and predict efficacious novel drug perturbations, such as the inhibition of PLK1, which is verified experimentally. This technology is suitable for application to larger systems in diverse areas of molecular biology. PMID:24367245

  7. Autophagy and the nutritional signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During their growth and development, animals adapt to tremendous changes in order to survive. These include responses to both environmental and physiological changes and autophagy is one of most important adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy is defined as an autolytic process to clear damaged cellular organelles and recycle the nutrients via lysosomic degradation. The process of autophagy responds to special conditions such as nutrient withdrawal. Once autophagy is induced, phagophores form and then elongate and curve to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes then engulf cargo, fuse with endosomes, and finally fuse with lysosomes for maturation. During the initiation process, the ATG1/ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1 and VPS34 (which encodes a class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns 3-kinase complexes are critical in recruitment and assembly of other complexes required for autophagy. The process of autophagy is regulated by autophagy related genes (ATGs. Amino acid and energy starvation mediate autophagy by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK is the energy status sensor, the core nutrient signaling component and the metabolic kinase of cells. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of autophagy regulated by nutrient signaling especially for the two important complexes, ULK1 and VPS34.

  8. Modular and Stochastic Approaches to Molecular Pathway Models of ATM, TGF beta, and WNT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.

  9. Interaction of TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways during chondrogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Keller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways exhibit antagonistic activities during the development of many tissues. Although the crosstalk between BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways is well established in bone development, the relationship between these two pathways is less well defined during cartilage development and postnatal homeostasis. We generated hypomorphic mouse models of cartilage-specific loss of BMP and TGFβ signaling to assess the interaction of these pathways in postnatal growth plate homeostasis. We further used the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line to test effects of BMP and TGFβ signaling on each other's downstream targets. We found that conditional deletion of Smad1 in chondrocytes resulted in a shortening of the growth plate. The addition of Smad5 haploinsufficiency led to a more severe phenotype with shorter prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones and decreased chondrocyte proliferation. The opposite growth plate phenotype was observed in a transgenic mouse model of decreased chondrocytic TGFβ signaling that was generated by expressing a dominant negative form of the TGFβ receptor I (ΔTβRI in cartilage. Histological analysis demonstrated elongated growth plates with enhanced Ihh expression, as well as an increased proliferation rate with altered production of extracellular matrix components. In contrast, in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, TGFβ was able to enhance BMP signaling, while BMP2 significantly reduces levels of TGF signaling. In summary, our data demonstrate that during endochondral ossification, BMP and TGFβ signaling can have antagonistic effects on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in vivo. We also found evidence of direct interaction between the two signaling pathways in a cell model of chondrogenesis in vitro.

  10. Signaling flux redistribution at toll-like receptor pathway junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Selvarajoo

    Full Text Available Various receptors on cell surface recognize specific extracellular molecules and trigger signal transduction altering gene expression in the nucleus. Gain or loss-of-function mutations of one molecule have shown to affect alternative signaling pathways with a poorly understood mechanism. In Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling, which branches into MyD88- and TRAM-dependent pathways upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, we investigated the gain or loss-of-function mutations of MyD88. We predict, using a computational model built on the perturbation-response approach and the law of mass conservation, that removal and addition of MyD88 in TLR4 activation, enhances and impairs, respectively, the alternative TRAM-dependent pathway through signaling flux redistribution (SFR at pathway branches. To verify SFR, we treated MyD88-deficient macrophages with LPS and observed enhancement of TRAM-dependent pathway based on increased IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Furthermore, increasing the amount of MyD88 in cultured cells showed decreased TRAM binding to TLR4. Investigating another TLR4 pathway junction, from TRIF to TRAF6, RIP1 and TBK1, the removal of MyD88-dependent TRAF6 increased expression of TRAM-dependent Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Thus, we demonstrate that SFR is a novel mechanism for enhanced activation of alternative pathways when molecules at pathway junctions are removed. Our data suggest that SFR may enlighten hitherto unexplainable intracellular signaling alterations in genetic diseases where gain or loss-of-function mutations are observed.

  11. Improved Protein Arrays for Quantitative Systems Analysis of the Dynamics of Signaling Pathway Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chin-Rang [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). National Heart, Lung and Blood Inst.

    2013-12-11

    Astronauts and workers in nuclear plants who repeatedly exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR, <10 cGy) are likely to incur specific changes in signal transduction and gene expression in various tissues of their body. Remarkable advances in high throughput genomics and proteomics technologies enable researchers to broaden their focus from examining single gene/protein kinetics to better understanding global gene/protein expression profiling and biological pathway analyses, namely Systems Biology. An ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop dynamic mathematical models of interacting biological systems capable of simulating living systems in a computer. This Glue Grant is to complement Dr. Boothman’s existing DOE grant (No. DE-FG02-06ER64186) entitled “The IGF1/IGF-1R-MAPK-Secretory Clusterin (sCLU) Pathway: Mediator of a Low Dose IR-Inducible Bystander Effect” to develop sensitive and quantitative proteomic technology that suitable for low dose radiobiology researches. An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states for systems biology modeling is presented. The signals are amplified by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots and show the good linearity that is impossible for the signals of HRP-amplification. Therefore this improved protein array technology is suitable to detect weak responses of low dose radiation. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readout of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.

  12. Using Proteomics To Elucidate Critical Signaling Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Heba

    2012-11-01

    Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the majority of patients will die from their disease (Appelbaum, Rowe, Radich, & Dick, 2001). Characterization of the aberrant molecular pathways responsible for this malignancy provides a platform to discover alternative treatments to help alter the fate of patients. AML is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells resulting in the accumulation of highly proliferating immature hematopoietic cells. Since treatments such as chemotherapy rarely destroy the leukemic cells entirely, differentiation induction therapy has become a very attractive treatment option. Interestingly, previous experiments have shown that ligation of CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein strongly expressed on all AML cells, with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could reverse this block in differentiation of leukemic blasts regardless of the AML subtype. To expand the understanding of the cellular regulation and circuitry involved, we aim to apply quantitative phosphoproteomics to monitor dynamic changes in phosphorylation state in response to anti-CD44 treatment. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a highly controlled biochemical process that responds to various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. As phosphorylation is a dynamic process, quantification of these phosphorylation events would be vastly insightful. The main objective of this project is to determine the differentiation-dependent phosphoproteome of AML cells upon treatment of cells with the anti-CD44 mAb.In these experiments, optimization of protein extraction, phosphopeptide enrichment and data processing and analysis has been achieved. The primary results show successful phosphoproteome extraction complemented with efficient phosphopeptide enrichment and informative data processing. Further quantification with stable isotope labeling techniques is anticipated to provide candidates for targeted therapy.

  13. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Douglas F

    2009-07-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  14. Rac1 promotes chondrogenesis by regulating STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoin; Sonn, Jong Kyung

    2016-09-01

    The small GTPase protein Rac1 is involved in a wide range of biological processes including cell differentiation. Previously, Rac1 was shown to promote chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of limb mesenchyme. However, the pathways mediating Rac1's role in chondrogenesis are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms by which Rac1 regulates chondrogenic differentiation. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased as chondrogenesis proceeded in micromass cultures of chick wing bud mesenchyme. Inhibition of Rac1 with NSC23766, janus kinase 2 (JAK2) with AG490, or STAT3 with stattic inhibited chondrogenesis and reduced phosphorylation of STAT3. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac L61) increased phosphorylation of STAT3. Rac L61 expression resulted in increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and treatment with IL-6 increased phosphorylation of STAT3. NSC23766, AG490, and stattic prohibited cell aggregation, whereas expression of Rac L61 increased cell aggregation, which was reduced by stattic treatment. Our studies indicate that Rac1 induces STAT3 activation through expression and action of IL-6. Overexpression of Rac L61 increased expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4). BMP4 promoted chondrogenesis, which was inhibited by K02288, an activin receptor-like kinase-2 inhibitor, and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. Overexpression of Rac L61 also increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was reduced by K02288. These results suggest that Rac1 activates STAT3 by expression of IL-6, which in turn increases expression and activity of BMP4, leading to the promotion of chondrogenesis. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. SPV: a JavaScript Signaling Pathway Visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Alberto; Cesareni, Gianni

    2018-03-24

    The visualization of molecular interactions annotated in web resources is useful to offer to users such information in a clear intuitive layout. These interactions are frequently represented as binary interactions that are laid out in free space where, different entities, cellular compartments and interaction types are hardly distinguishable. SPV (Signaling Pathway Visualizer) is a free open source JavaScript library which offers a series of pre-defined elements, compartments and interaction types meant to facilitate the representation of signaling pathways consisting of causal interactions without neglecting simple protein-protein interaction networks. freely available under Apache version 2 license; Source code: https://github.com/Sinnefa/SPV_Signaling_Pathway_Visualizer_v1.0. Language: JavaScript; Web technology: Scalable Vector Graphics; Libraries: D3.js. sinnefa@gmail.com.

  16. Identifying biological pathway interrupting toxins using multi-tree ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Barta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry constantly seeks new ways to improve current methods that scientists use to evaluate environmental chemicals and develop new medicines. Various automated steps are involved in the process as testing hundreds of thousands of chemicals manually would be infeasible. Our research effort and the Toxicology in the 21st Century Data Challenge focused on cost-effective automation of toxicological testing, a chemical substance screening process looking for possible toxic effects caused by interrupting biological pathways. The computational models we propose in this paper successfully combine various publicly available substance fingerprinting tools with advanced machine learning techniques. In our paper, we explore the significance and utility of assorted feature selection methods as the structural analyzers generate a plethora of features for each substance. Machine learning models were carefully selected and evaluated based on their capability to cope with the high-dimensional high-variety data with multi-tree ensemble methods coming out on top. Techniques like Random forests and Extra trees combine numerous simple tree models and proved to produce reliable predictions on toxic activity while being nearly non-parametric and insensitive to dimensionality extremes. The Tox21 Data Challenge contest offered a great platform to compare a wide range of solutions in a controlled and orderly manner. The results clearly demonstrate that the generic approach presented in this paper is comparable to advanced deep learning and domain-specific solutions. Even surpassing the competition in some nuclear receptor signaling and stress pathway assays and achieving an accuracy of up to 94 percent.

  17. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.

  18. [Advance in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway and synthetic biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Qiu; Wang, Cai-Xia; Kuang, Xue-Jun; Li, Ying; Sun, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are the valuable components in medicinal plants, which possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. There is an unambiguous understanding about flavonoids biosynthetic pathway, that is,2S-flavanones including naringenin and pinocembrin are the skeleton of other flavonoids and they can transform to other flavonoids through branched metabolic pathway. Elucidation of the flavonoids biosynthetic pathway lays a solid foundation for their synthetic biology. A few flavonoids have been produced in Escherichia coli or yeast with synthetic biological technologies, such as naringenin, pinocembrin and fisetin. Synthetic biology will provide a new way to get valuable flavonoids and promote the research and development of flavonoid drugs and health products, making flavonoids play more important roles in human diet and health. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Clinical Implications of Hedgehog Pathway Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Suzman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity in the Hedgehog pathway, which regulates GLI-mediated transcription, is important in organogenesis and stem cell regulation in self-renewing organs, but is pathologically elevated in many human malignancies. Mutations leading to constitutive activation of the pathway have been implicated in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma, and inhibition of the pathway has demonstrated clinical responses leading to the approval of the Smoothened inhibitor, vismodegib, for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Aberrant Hedgehog pathway signaling has also been noted in prostate cancer with evidence suggesting that it may render prostate epithelial cells tumorigenic, drive the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and contribute towards the development of castration-resistance through autocrine and paracrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment and cross-talk with the androgen pathway. In addition, there are emerging clinical data suggesting that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may be effective in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. Here we will review these data and highlight areas of active clinical research as they relate to Hedgehog pathway inhibition in prostate cancer.

  20. Constraint-based modeling and kinetic analysis of the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Zi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of dynamics and regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway is central to the understanding of complex cellular processes such as growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we aim at using systems biology approach to provide dynamic analysis on this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We proposed a constraint-based modeling method to build a comprehensive mathematical model for the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway by fitting the experimental data and incorporating the qualitative constraints from the experimental analysis. The performance of the model generated by constraint-based modeling method is significantly improved compared to the model obtained by only fitting the quantitative data. The model agrees well with the experimental analysis of TGF-beta pathway, such as the time course of nuclear phosphorylated Smad, the subcellular location of Smad and signal response of Smad phosphorylation to different doses of TGF-beta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The simulation results indicate that the signal response to TGF-beta is regulated by the balance between clathrin dependent endocytosis and non-clathrin mediated endocytosis. This model is useful to be built upon as new precise experimental data are emerging. The constraint-based modeling method can also be applied to quantitative modeling of other signaling pathways.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of stress signalling pathways in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Ian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbes must sense environmental stresses, transduce these signals and mount protective responses to survive in hostile environments. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that fungal stress signalling pathways have evolved rapidly in a niche-specific fashion that is independent of phylogeny. To test this hypothesis we have compared the conservation of stress signalling molecules in diverse fungal species with their stress resistance. These fungi, which include ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and microsporidia, occupy highly divergent niches from saline environments to plant or mammalian hosts. Results The fungi displayed significant variation in their resistance to osmotic (NaCl and sorbitol, oxidative (H2O2 and menadione and cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red. There was no strict correlation between fungal phylogeny and stress resistance. Rather, the human pathogens tended to be more resistant to all three types of stress, an exception being the sensitivity of Candida albicans to the cell wall stress, Calcofluor White. In contrast, the plant pathogens were relatively sensitive to oxidative stress. The degree of conservation of osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress signalling pathways amongst the eighteen fungal species was examined. Putative orthologues of functionally defined signalling components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by performing reciprocal BLASTP searches, and the percent amino acid identities of these orthologues recorded. This revealed that in general, central components of the osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress signalling pathways are relatively well conserved, whereas the sensors lying upstream and transcriptional regulators lying downstream of these modules have diverged significantly. There was no obvious correlation between the degree of conservation of stress signalling pathways and the resistance of a particular fungus to the corresponding stress. Conclusion Our

  2. Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuge, Marike M; Ten Dam, Evert-Jan P M; Werker, Paul M N; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya; Li, Ming-Yang; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: ► YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. ► YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. ► Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap-overexpression phenotype in P19 cells. ► Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  4. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Yang [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Tien-Shun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Wei [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jenn-Yah [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-10

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  5. DMPD: Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12213596 Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regula...(.html) (.csml) Show Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3.... PubmedID 12213596 Title Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of

  6. Signaling Pathways in Leiomyoma: Understanding Pathobiology and Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borahay, Mostafa A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Kilic, Gokhan S; Boehning, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors of the female genital tract, affecting 50% to 70% of females by the age of 50. Despite their prevalence and enormous medical and economic impact, no effective medical treatment is currently available. This is, in part, due to the poor understanding of their underlying pathobiology. Although they are thought to start as a clonal proliferation of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell, these early cytogenetic alterations are considered insufficient for tumor development and additional complex signaling pathway alterations are crucial. These include steroids, growth factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/Smad; wingless-type (Wnt)/β-catenin, retinoic acid, vitamin D, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). An important finding is that several of these pathways converge in a summative way. For example, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways seem to act as signal integrators, incorporating input from several signaling pathways, including growth factors, estrogen and vitamin D. This underlines the multifactorial origin and complex nature of these tumors. In this review, we aim to dissect these pathways and discuss their interconnections, aberrations and role in leiomyoma pathobiology. We also aim to identify potential targets for development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25879625

  7. Network features and pathway analyses of a signal transduction cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Yanashima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The scale-free and small-world network models reflect the functional units of networks. However, when we investigated the network properties of a signaling pathway using these models, no significant differences were found between the original undirected graphs and the graphs in which inactive proteins were eliminated from the gene expression data. We analyzed signaling networks by focusing on those pathways that best reflected cellular function. Therefore, our analysis of pathways started from the ligands and progressed to transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins. We employed the Python module to assess the target network. This involved comparing the original and restricted signaling cascades as a directed graph using microarray gene expression profiles of late onset Alzheimer's disease. The most commonly used method of shortest-path analysis neglects to consider the influences of alternative pathways that can affect the activation of transcription factors or cytoskeletal proteins. We therefore introduced included k-shortest paths and k-cycles in our network analysis using the Python modules, which allowed us to attain a reasonable computational time and identify k-shortest paths. This technique reflected results found in vivo and identified pathways not found when shortest path or degree analysis was applied. Our module enabled us to comprehensively analyse the characteristics of biomolecular networks and also enabled analysis of the effects of diseases considering the feedback loop and feedforward loop control structures as an alternative path.

  8. Interaction Dynamics Determine Signaling and Output Pathway Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Stojanovski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of interaction dynamics in signaling pathways can shed light on pathway architecture and provide insights into targets for intervention. Here, we explored the relevance of kinetic rate constants of a key upstream osmosensor in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol-mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG-MAPK pathway to signaling output responses. We created mutant pairs of the Sln1-Ypd1 complex interface that caused major compensating changes in the association (kon and dissociation (koff rate constants (kinetic perturbations but only moderate changes in the overall complex affinity (Kd. Yeast cells carrying a Sln1-Ypd1 mutant pair with moderate increases in kon and koff displayed a lower threshold of HOG pathway activation than wild-type cells. Mutants with higher kon and koff rates gave rise to higher basal signaling and gene expression but impaired osmoadaptation. Thus, the kon and koff rates of the components in the Sln1 osmosensor determine proper signaling dynamics and osmoadaptation.

  9. DMPD: TLR signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kira S. Publication Cell Death Differ. 2006 May;13(5):816-25. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html...16410796 TLR signaling. Kawai T, Akira S. Cell Death Differ. 2006 May;13(5):816-25. (.png) (.svg) (.html

  10. Regulation of insect behavior via the insulin-signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eErion

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS pathway is well established as a critical regulator of growth and metabolic homeostasis across the animal kingdom. Insulin-like peptides (ILPs, the functional analogs of mammalian insulin, were initially discovered in the silkmoth Bombyx mori and subsequently identified in many other insect species. Initial research focused on the role of insulin signaling in metabolism, cell proliferation, development, reproduction and aging. More recently however, increasing attention has been given to the role of insulin in the regulation of neuronal function and behavior. Here we review the role of insulin signaling in two specific insect behaviors: feeding and locomotion.

  11. Syndecans – key regulators of cell signaling and biological functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afratis, Nikolaos A.; Nikitovic, Dragana; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2017-01-01

    molecules during cancer initiation and progression. Particularly syndecans interact with other cell surface receptors, such as growth factor receptors and integrins, which lead to activation of downstream signaling pathways, which are critical for the cellular behavior. Moreover, this review describes...

  12. Role of Notch signalling pathway in cancer and its association with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Notch signalling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cell signalling pathway involved in the development of organ- ... Abnormal Notch signalling is seen in many cancers like T-cell acute ...... Morgan T. H. 1917 The theory of the gene.

  13. Dynamics and control of the ERK signaling pathway: Sensitivity, bistability, and oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkun, Yaman; Yasemi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Cell signaling is the process by which extracellular information is transmitted into the cell to perform useful biological functions. The ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signaling controls several cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The ERK signaling pathway considered in this work starts with an extracellular stimulus and ends with activated (double phosphorylated) ERK which gets translocated into the nucleus. We model and analyze this complex pathway by decomposing it into three functional subsystems. The first subsystem spans the initial part of the pathway from the extracellular growth factor to the formation of the SOS complex, ShC-Grb2-SOS. The second subsystem includes the activation of Ras which is mediated by the SOS complex. This is followed by the MAPK subsystem (or the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) which produces the double phosphorylated ERK upon being activated by Ras. Although separate models exist in the literature at the subsystems level, a comprehensive model for the complete system including the important regulatory feedback loops is missing. Our dynamic model combines the existing subsystem models and studies their steady-state and dynamic interactions under feedback. We establish conditions under which bistability and oscillations exist for this important pathway. In particular, we show how the negative and positive feedback loops affect the dynamic characteristics that determine the cellular outcome.

  14. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. BLM promotes the activation of Fanconi Anemia signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Jayabal; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Che, Raymond; Yu, Herbert; Fei, Peiwen

    2016-05-31

    Mutations in the human RecQ helicase, BLM, causes Bloom Syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and characterized by genomic instability and an increased risk of cancer. Fanconi Anemia (FA), resulting from mutations in any of the 19 known FA genes and those yet to be known, is also characterized by chromosomal instability and a high incidence of cancer. BLM helicase and FA proteins, therefore, may work in a common tumor-suppressor signaling pathway. To date, it remains largely unclear as to how BLM and FA proteins work concurrently in the maintenance of genome stability. Here we report that BLM is involved in the early activation of FA group D2 protein (FANCD2). We found that FANCD2 activation is substantially delayed and attenuated in crosslinking agent-treated cells harboring deficient Blm compared to similarly treated control cells with sufficient BLM. We also identified that the domain VI of BLM plays an essential role in promoting FANCD2 activation in cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, especially ultraviolet B. The similar biological effects performed by ΔVI-BLM and inactivated FANCD2 further confirm the relationship between BLM and FANCD2. Mutations within the domain VI of BLM detected in human cancer samples demonstrate the functional importance of this domain, suggesting human tumorigenicity resulting from mtBLM may be at least partly attributed to mitigated FANCD2 activation. Collectively, our data show a previously unknown regulatory liaison in advancing our understanding of how the cancer susceptibility gene products act in concert to maintain genome stability.

  16. NK cell activation: distinct stimulatory pathways counterbalancing inhibitory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Wu, J; Phillips, J H; Lanier, L L

    2000-01-01

    A delicate balance between positive and negative signals regulates NK cell effector function. Activation of NK cells may be initiated by the triggering of multiple adhesion or costimulatory molecules, and can be counterbalanced by inhibitory signals induced by receptors for MHC class I. A common pathway of inhibitory signaling is provided by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic domains of these receptors which mediate the recruitment of SH2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphate-1 (SHP-1). In contrast to the extensive progress that has been made regarding the negative regulation of NK cell function, our knowledge of the signals that activate NK cells is still poor. Recent studies of the activating receptor complexes have shed new light on the induction of NK cell effector function. Several NK receptors using novel adaptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and with PI 3-kinase recruiting motifs have been implicated in NK cell stimulation.

  17. Emerging Role and Therapeutic Implication of Wnt Signaling Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juan; Chi, Shuhong; Xue, Jing; Yang, Jiali; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in many biological aspects, such as cellular proliferation, tissue regeneration, embryonic development, and other systemic effects. Under a physiological condition, it is tightly controlled at different layers and arrays, and a dysregulated activation of this signaling has been implicated into the pathogenesis of various human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that therapeutic interventions are available for ameliorating disease manifestations, there is no curative therapy currently available for autoimmune disorders. Increasing lines of evidence have suggested a crucial role of Wnt signaling during the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases; in addition, some of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of transcriptionally regulating gene expression, have also recently been demonstrated to possess both physiological and pathological roles in autoimmune diseases by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes currently our understanding of the pathogenic roles of Wnt signaling in several major autoimmune disorders and miRNAs, those targeting Wnt signaling in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on the implication of the Wnt signaling as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in immune diseases, as well as miRNA-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling activation in the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27110577

  18. Emerging Role and Therapeutic Implication of Wnt Signaling Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in many biological aspects, such as cellular proliferation, tissue regeneration, embryonic development, and other systemic effects. Under a physiological condition, it is tightly controlled at different layers and arrays, and a dysregulated activation of this signaling has been implicated into the pathogenesis of various human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that therapeutic interventions are available for ameliorating disease manifestations, there is no curative therapy currently available for autoimmune disorders. Increasing lines of evidence have suggested a crucial role of Wnt signaling during the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases; in addition, some of microRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of transcriptionally regulating gene expression, have also recently been demonstrated to possess both physiological and pathological roles in autoimmune diseases by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes currently our understanding of the pathogenic roles of Wnt signaling in several major autoimmune disorders and miRNAs, those targeting Wnt signaling in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on the implication of the Wnt signaling as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in immune diseases, as well as miRNA-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling activation in the development of autoimmune diseases.

  19. Signal transduction pathways involved in mechanotransduction in bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kaspar, Daniela; Blakytny, Robert; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies with different loading regimens showed that mechanical stimuli have an influence on proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. Prerequisite for this influence is the transduction of mechanical signals into the cell, a phenomenon that is termed mechanotransduction, which is essential for the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis in adults. Mechanoreceptors, such as the integrins, cadherins, and stretch-activated Ca 2+ channels, together with various signal transduction pathways, are involved in the mechanotransduction process that ultimately regulates gene expression in the nucleus. Mechanotransduction itself is considered to be regulated by hormones, the extracellular matrix of the osteoblastic cells and the mode of the mechanical stimulus

  20. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  1. Probing the canonicity of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Franz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.

  2. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Deborah; Saccomani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth. Notwithstanding, T-ALL patients are still treated with high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially exposing these patients to considerable acute and long-term side effects. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways relevant for the pathogenesis of T-ALL and the opportunities offered for targeted therapy. PMID:28872614

  3. GAS6/TAM Pathway Signaling in Hemostasis and Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Luke A; Graham, Douglas K; Di Paola, Jorge; Branchford, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    The GAS6/TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) signaling pathway is essential for full and sustained platelet activation, as well as thrombus stabilization. Inhibition of this pathway decreases platelet aggregation, shape change, clot retraction, aggregate formation under flow conditions, and surface expression of activation markers. Transgenic mice deficient in GAS6, or any of the TAM family of receptors that engage this ligand, exhibit in vivo protection against arterial and venous thrombosis but do not demonstrate either spontaneous or prolonged bleeding compared to their wild-type counterparts. Comparable results are observed in wild-type mice treated with pharmacological inhibitors of the GAS6-TAM pathway. Thus, GAS6/TAM inhibition offers an attractive novel therapeutic option that may allow for a moderate reduction in platelet activation and decreased thrombosis while still permitting the primary hemostatic function of platelet plug formation.

  4. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  5. Herpes simplex virus triggers activation of calcium-signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Del Rosario, Brian; Woda, Craig; Marcellino, Daniel; Satlin, Lisa M.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2003-01-01

    The cellular pathways required for herpes simplex virus (HSV) invasion have not been defined. To test the hypothesis that HSV entry triggers activation of Ca2+-signaling pathways, the effects on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) after exposure of cells to HSV were examined. Exposure to virus results in a rapid and transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Pretreatment of cells with pharmacological agents that block release of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)–sensitive endoplasmic reticulum stores abrogates the response. Moreover, treatment of cells with these pharmacological agents inhibits HSV infection and prevents focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which occurs within 5 min after viral infection. Viruses deleted in glycoprotein L or glycoprotein D, which bind but do not penetrate, fail to induce a [Ca2+]i response or trigger FAK phosphorylation. Together, these results support a model for HSV infection that requires activation of IP3-responsive Ca2+-signaling pathways and that is associated with FAK phosphorylation. Defining the pathway of viral invasion may lead to new targets for anti-viral therapy. PMID:14568989

  6. Efficient algorithms for extracting biological key pathways with global constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Friedrich, T.; Kötzing, T.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated analysis of data of different types and with various interdependencies is one of the major challenges in computational biology. Recently, we developed KeyPathwayMiner, a method that combines biological networks modeled as graphs with disease-specific genetic expression data gained....... Here we present an alternative approach that avoids a certain bias towards hub nodes: We now aim for extracting all maximal connected sub-networks where all but at most K nodes are expressed in all cases but in total (!) at most L, i.e. accumulated over all cases and all nodes in a solution. We call...... this strategy GLONE (global node exceptions); the previous problem we call INES (individual node exceptions). Since finding GLONE-components is computationally hard, we developed an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm and implemented it with the KeyPathwayMiner Cytoscape framework as an alternative to the INES...

  7. Emergence, development and diversification of the TGF-beta signalling pathway within the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huminiecki, Lukasz; Goldovsky, Leon; Freilich, Shiri; Moustakas, Aristidis; Ouzounis, Christos; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2009-02-03

    The question of how genomic processes, such as gene duplication, give rise to co-ordinated organismal properties, such as emergence of new body plans, organs and lifestyles, is of importance in developmental and evolutionary biology. Herein, we focus on the diversification of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) pathway -- one of the fundamental and versatile metazoan signal transduction engines. After an investigation of 33 genomes, we show that the emergence of the TGF-beta pathway coincided with appearance of the first known animal species. The primordial pathway repertoire consisted of four Smads and four receptors, similar to those observed in the extant genome of the early diverging tablet animal (Trichoplax adhaerens). We subsequently retrace duplications in ancestral genomes on the lineage leading to humans, as well as lineage-specific duplications, such as those which gave rise to novel Smads and receptors in teleost fishes. We conclude that the diversification of the TGF-beta pathway can be parsimoniously explained according to the 2R model, with additional rounds of duplications in teleost fishes. Finally, we investigate duplications followed by accelerated evolution which gave rise to an atypical TGF-beta pathway in free-living bacterial feeding nematodes of the genus Rhabditis. Our results challenge the view of well-conserved developmental pathways. The TGF-beta signal transduction engine has expanded through gene duplication, continually adopting new functions, as animals grew in anatomical complexity, colonized new environments, and developed an active immune system.

  8. Crossing frontiers in tackling pathways of biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Bacher, S.; Blackburn, T. M.; Booy, O.; Brundu, G.; Brunel, S.; Cardoso, A.-C.; Eschen, R.; Gallardo, B.; Galil, B.; García-Berthou, E.; Genovesi, P.; Groom, Q.; Harrower, C.; Hulme, P. E.; Katsanevakis, S.; Kenis, M.; Kühn, I.; Kumschick, S.; Martinou, A. F.; Nentwig, W.; O´Flynn, C.; Pagad, S.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, W.; Richardson, D. M.; Roques, A.; Roy, H. E.; Sclarea, R.; Schindler, S.; Seebens, H.; Vanderhoeven, S.; Vila, M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Zenetos, A.; Jeschke, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 8 (2015), s. 769-782 ISSN 0006-3568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * pathways * management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.294, year: 2015

  9. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. Unstable Modes and Order Parameters of Bistable Signaling Pathways at Saddle-Node Bifurcations: A Theoretical Study Based on Synergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling has become an indispensable part of systems biology which is a discipline that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In this context, our understanding of bistable signaling pathways in terms of mathematical modeling is of particular importance because such bistable components perform crucial functions in living cells. Bistable signaling pathways can act as switches or memory functions and can determine cell fate. In the present study, properties of mathematical models of bistable signaling pathways are examined from the perspective of synergetics, a theory of self-organization and pattern formation founded by Hermann Haken. At the heart of synergetics is the concept of so-called unstable modes or order parameters that determine the behavior of systems as a whole close to bifurcation points. How to determine these order parameters for bistable signaling pathways at saddle-node bifurcation points is shown. The procedure is outlined in general and an explicit example is worked out in detail.

  11. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Signaling Pathway: An Update on Molecular Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Tulalamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an uncommon cancer, which has a distinctive ethnic and geographic distribution. Etiology of NPC is considered to be related with a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors as well as Epstein-Barr virus infection. Since NPC is located in the silent painless area, the disease is usually therefore diagnosed at the advanced stages; hence early detection of NPC is difficult. Furthermore, understanding in molecular pathogenesis is still lacking, pondering the identification of effective prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Dysregulation of signaling molecules in intracellular signal transduction, which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion, underlines the basis of NPC pathogenesis. In this paper, the molecular signaling pathways in the NPC are discussed for the holistic view of NPC development and progression. The important insights toward NPC pathogenesis may offer strategies for identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

  12. Pentagone internalises glypicans to fine-tune multiple signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Mark; Vuilleumier, Robin; Springhorn, Alexander; Gawlik, Jennifer; Pyrowolakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of signalling activity is crucial for proper tissue patterning and growth. Here we investigate the function of Pentagone (Pent), a secreted protein that acts in a regulatory feedback during establishment and maintenance of BMP/Dpp morphogen signalling during Drosophila wing development. We show that Pent internalises the Dpp co-receptors, the glypicans Dally and Dally-like protein (Dlp), and propose that this internalisation is important in the establishment of a long range Dpp gradient. Pent-induced endocytosis and degradation of glypicans requires dynamin- and Rab5, but not clathrin or active BMP signalling. Thus, Pent modifies the ability of cells to trap and transduce BMP by fine-tuning the levels of the BMP reception system at the plasma membrane. In addition, and in accordance with the role of glypicans in multiple signalling pathways, we establish a requirement of Pent for Wg signalling. Our data propose a novel mechanism by which morphogen signalling is regulated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13301.001 PMID:27269283

  13. Signal Transduction Pathways of TNAP: Molecular Network Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Négyessy, László; Györffy, Balázs; Hanics, János; Bányai, Mihály; Fonta, Caroline; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence pointing on the involvement of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in brain function and diseases like epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, our understanding about the role of TNAP in the regulation of neurotransmission is severely limited. The aim of our study was to integrate the fragmented knowledge into a comprehensive view regarding neuronal functions of TNAP using objective tools. As a model we used the signal transduction molecular network of a pyramidal neuron after complementing with TNAP related data and performed the analysis using graph theoretic tools. The analyses show that TNAP is in the crossroad of numerous pathways and therefore is one of the key players of the neuronal signal transduction network. Through many of its connections, most notably with molecules of the purinergic system, TNAP serves as a controller by funnelling signal flow towards a subset of molecules. TNAP also appears as the source of signal to be spread via interactions with molecules involved among others in neurodegeneration. Cluster analyses identified TNAP as part of the second messenger signalling cascade. However, TNAP also forms connections with other functional groups involved in neuronal signal transduction. The results indicate the distinct ways of involvement of TNAP in multiple neuronal functions and diseases.

  14. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  15. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Phytohormone Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwu Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs are Ca2+-sensors that decode Ca2+ signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken. In this article, we reviewed the structure of CDPKs and the mechanism of their subcellular localization. Some CDPKs were elucidated to influence the intracellular localization of their substrates. Since little work has been done on the interaction between CDPKs and cytokinin signaling pathways, or on newly defined phytohormones such as brassinosteroids, strigolactones and salicylic acid, this paper mainly focused on discussing the integral associations between CDPKs and five plant hormones: auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonates, and abscisic acid. A perspective on future work is provided at the end.

  16. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A novel biologic electricity signal measurement based on neuron chip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yinsheng; Wang, Mingshi; Sun, Tongjing; Zhu, Qiang; Qin, Ran

    2006-06-01

    Neuron chip is a multiprocessor with three pipeline CPU; its communication protocol and control processor are integrated in effect to carry out the function of communication, control, attemper, I/O, etc. A novel biologic electronic signal measurement network system is composed of intelligent measurement nodes with neuron chip at the core. In this study, the electronic signals such as ECG, EEG, EMG and BOS can be synthetically measured by those intelligent nodes, and some valuable diagnostic messages are found. Wavelet transform is employed in this system to analyze various biologic electronic signals due to its strong time-frequency ability of decomposing signal local character. Better effect is gained. This paper introduces the hardware structure of network and intelligent measurement node, the measurement theory and the signal figure of data acquisition and processing.

  18. Semantic Mining based on graph theory and ontologies. Case Study: Cell Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use concepts from graph theory and cellular biology represented as ontologies, to carry out semantic mining tasks on signaling pathway networks. Specifically, the paper describes the semantic enrichment of signaling pathway networks. A cell signaling network describes the basic cellular activities and their interactions. The main contribution of this paper is in the signaling pathway research area, it proposes a new technique to analyze and understand how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information, which produce diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Our approach is based on three concepts from graph theory (modularity, clustering and centrality frequently used on social networks analysis. Our approach consists into two phases: the first uses the graph theory concepts to determine the cellular groups in the network, which we will call them communities; the second uses ontologies for the semantic enrichment of the cellular communities. The measures used from the graph theory allow us to determine the set of cells that are close (for example, in a disease, and the main cells in each community. We analyze our approach in two cases: TGF-ß and the Alzheimer Disease.

  19. Interleukin-2 signaling pathway analysis by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Moss, Helle; Arrizabalaga, Onetsine

    2011-01-01

    among which 79 were found with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, including several previously not reported IL-2 downstream effectors. Combinatorial site-specific phosphoproteomic analysis resulted in identification of 99 phosphorylated sites mapping to the identified proteins...... with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, of which 34 were not previously described. In addition, chemical inhibition of the identified IL-2-mediated JAK, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways, resulted in distinct alteration on the IL-2 dependent proliferation....

  20. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Oleo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity.

  1. A pedagogical walkthrough of computational modeling and simulation of Wnt signaling pathway using static causal models in MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Shriprakash

    2016-01-01

    Simulation study in systems biology involving computational experiments dealing with Wnt signaling pathways abound in literature but often lack a pedagogical perspective that might ease the understanding of beginner students and researchers in transition, who intend to work on the modeling of the pathway. This paucity might happen due to restrictive business policies which enforce an unwanted embargo on the sharing of important scientific knowledge. A tutorial introduction to computational mo...

  2. PathText: a text mining integrator for biological pathway visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Brian; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Kitano, Hiroaki; Ananiadou, Sophia; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Metabolic and signaling pathways are an increasingly important part of organizing knowledge in systems biology. They serve to integrate collective interpretations of facts scattered throughout literature. Biologists construct a pathway by reading a large number of articles and interpreting them as a consistent network, but most of the models constructed currently lack direct links to those articles. Biologists who want to check the original articles have to spend substantial amounts of time to collect relevant articles and identify the sections relevant to the pathway. Furthermore, with the scientific literature expanding by several thousand papers per week, keeping a model relevant requires a continuous curation effort. In this article, we present a system designed to integrate a pathway visualizer, text mining systems and annotation tools into a seamless environment. This will enable biologists to freely move between parts of a pathway and relevant sections of articles, as well as identify relevant papers from large text bases. The system, PathText, is developed by Systems Biology Institute, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, National Centre for Text Mining (University of Manchester) and the University of Tokyo, and is being used by groups of biologists from these locations. Contact: brian@monrovian.com. PMID:20529930

  3. Stress and DNA repair biology of the Fanconi anemia pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longerich, Simonne; Li, Jian; Xiong, Yong; Sung, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) represents a paradigm of rare genetic diseases, where the quest for cause and cure has led to seminal discoveries in cancer biology. Although a total of 16 FA genes have been identified thus far, the biochemical function of many of the FA proteins remains to be elucidated. FA is rare, yet the fact that 5 FA genes are in fact familial breast cancer genes and FA gene mutations are found frequently in sporadic cancers suggest wider applicability in hematopoiesis and oncology. Establishing the interaction network involving the FA proteins and their associated partners has revealed an intersection of FA with several DNA repair pathways, including homologous recombination, DNA mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, and translesion DNA synthesis. Importantly, recent studies have shown a major involvement of the FA pathway in the tolerance of reactive aldehydes. Moreover, despite improved outcomes in stem cell transplantation in the treatment of FA, many challenges remain in patient care. PMID:25237197

  4. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  5. Autonomous rexinoid death signaling is suppressed by converging signaling pathways in immature leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G R; Flexor, M; Besançon, F; Altucci, L; Rossin, A; Hillion, J; Balajthy, Z; Legres, L; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Gronemeyer, H; Lanotte, M

    2001-07-01

    On their own, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligands (rexinoids) are silent in retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers, and no selective rexinoid program has been described as yet in cellular systems. We report here on the rexinoid signaling capacity that triggers apoptosis of immature promyelocytic NB4 cells as a default pathway in the absence of survival factors. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis displays all features of bona fide programmed cell death and is inhibited by RXR, but not RAR antagonists. Several types of survival signals block rexinoid-induced apoptosis. RARalpha agonists switch the cellular response toward differentiation and induce the expression of antiapoptosis factors. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway in the presence of rexinoid agonists induces maturation and blocks immature cell apoptosis. Addition of nonretinoid serum factors also blocks cell death but does not induce cell differentiation. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis is linked to neither the presence nor stability of the promyelocytic leukemia-RARalpha fusion protein and operates also in non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Together our results support a model according to which rexinoids activate in certain leukemia cells a default death pathway onto which several other signaling paradigms converge. This pathway is entirely distinct from that triggered by RAR agonists, which control cell maturation and postmaturation apoptosis.

  6. Curcumin mediates anticancer effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin, a component of a spice native to India, was first isolated in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and, subsequently, the chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane was reported by Milobedzka et al. [(1910) 43., 2163-2170]. Since then, this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current review primarily focuses on the anticancer potential of curcumin through the modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Curcumin modulates diverse transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, kinases, growth factors, receptors, and various other proteins with an affinity ranging from the pM to the mM range. Furthermore, curcumin effectively regulates tumor cell growth via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways and potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation against cancer. Curcumin can interact with most of the targets that are modulated by FDA-approved drugs for cancer therapy. The focus of this review is to discuss the molecular basis for the anticancer activities of curcumin based on preclinical and clinical findings. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. A SNP uncoupling Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shang L; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Bix, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1-region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis-regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus-spanning 26-kilobase genomic interval. We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c-but not C57Bl/6 allele-abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modulation of neurotrophic signaling pathways by polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Moosavi,1,2 Razieh Hosseini,1,2 Luciano Saso,3 Omidreza Firuzi1 1Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Polyphenols are an important class of phytochemicals, and several lines of evidence have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In this report, we review the studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signaling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions. Several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation. Assessment of underlying mechanisms, especially in PC12 neuronal-like cells, reveals that direct agonistic effect on tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk receptors, the main receptors of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF explains the action of few polyphenols such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. However, several other polyphenolic compounds activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors in vitro and in vivo is the mechanism of neurotrophic action of flavonoids such as scutellarin, daidzein, genistein, and fisetin, while compounds like apigenin and ferulic acid increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate

  9. Using answer set programming to integrate RNA expression with signalling pathway information to infer how mutations affect ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Wieser, Daniela; Alic, Nazif; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    A challenge of systems biology is to integrate incomplete knowledge on pathways with existing experimental data sets and relate these to measured phenotypes. Research on ageing often generates such incomplete data, creating difficulties in integrating RNA expression with information about biological processes and the phenotypes of ageing, including longevity. Here, we develop a logic-based method that employs Answer Set Programming, and use it to infer signalling effects of genetic perturbations, based on a model of the insulin signalling pathway. We apply our method to RNA expression data from Drosophila mutants in the insulin pathway that alter lifespan, in a foxo dependent fashion. We use this information to deduce how the pathway influences lifespan in the mutant animals. We also develop a method for inferring the largest common sub-paths within each of our signalling predictions. Our comparisons reveal consistent homeostatic mechanisms across both long- and short-lived mutants. The transcriptional changes observed in each mutation usually provide negative feedback to signalling predicted for that mutation. We also identify an S6K-mediated feedback in two long-lived mutants that suggests a crosstalk between these pathways in mutants of the insulin pathway, in vivo. By formulating the problem as a logic-based theory in a qualitative fashion, we are able to use the efficient search facilities of Answer Set Programming, allowing us to explore larger pathways, combine molecular changes with pathways and phenotype and infer effects on signalling in in vivo, whole-organism, mutants, where direct signalling stimulation assays are difficult to perform. Our methods are available in the web-service NetEffects: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/software/NetEffects.

  10. Signaling Pathways Involved in Lunar Dust Induced Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.

  11. MicroRNA-gene signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Drakaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths and is characterized by early metastasis and pronounced resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Despite extensive esearch efforts, there is not any substantial progress regarding the identification of novel drugs against pancreatic cancer. Although the introduction of the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine improved clinical response, the prognosis of these patients remained extremely poor with a 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. Thus, the identification of the novel molecular pathways involved in pancreatic oncogenesis and the development of new and potent therapeutic options are highly desirable. Here, we describe how microRNAs control signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated during pancreatic oncogenesis. In addition, we provide evidence that microRNAs could be potentially used as novel pancreatic cancer therapeutics through reversal of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance or regulation of essential molecular pathways. Further studies should integrate the deregulated genes and microRNAs into molecular networks in order to identify the central regulators of pancreatic oncogenesis. Targeting these central regulators could lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer patients.

  12. PSFC: a Pathway Signal Flow Calculator App for Cytoscape [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Nersisyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling pathways are sequences of biochemical reactions that propagate an input signal, such as a hormone binding to a cell-surface receptor, into the cell to trigger a reactive process. Assessment of pathway activities is crucial for determining which pathways play roles in disease versus normal conditions. To date various pathway flow/perturbation assessment tools are available, however they are constrained to specific algorithms and specific data types. There are no accepted standards for evaluation of pathway activities or simulation of flow propagation events in pathways, and the results of different software are difficult to compare. Here we present Pathway Signal Flow Calculator (PSFC, a Cytoscape app for calculation of a pathway signal flow based on the pathway topology and node input data. The app provides a rich framework for customization of different signal flow algorithms to allow users to apply various approaches within a single computational framework.

  13. Neuronal apoptotic signaling pathways probed and intervened by synthetically and modularly modified (SMM) chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Tak; Kaul, Marcus; Kumar, Santosh; Wang, Jun; Kumar, I M Krishna; Dong, Chang-Zhi; An, Jing; Lipton, Stuart A; Huang, Ziwei

    2007-03-09

    As the main coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, CXCR4 and CCR5 play important roles in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 contributes to HAD by causing neuronal damage and death, either directly by triggering apoptotic pathways or indirectly by stimulating glial cells to release neurotoxins. Here, to understand the mechanism of CXCR4 or CCR5 signaling in neuronal apoptosis associated with HAD, we have applied synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokine analogs derived from natural stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha or viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II as chemical probes of the mechanism(s) whereby these SMM-chemokines prevent or promote neuronal apoptosis. We show that inherently neurotoxic natural ligands of CXCR4, such as stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha or viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II, can be modified to protect neurons from apoptosis induced by CXCR4-preferring gp120(IIIB), and that the inhibition of CCR5 by antagonist SMM-chemokines, unlike neuroprotective CCR5 natural ligands, leads to neurotoxicity by activating a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway. Furthermore, we discover distinct signaling pathways activated by different chemokine ligands that are either natural agonists or synthetic antagonists, thus demonstrating a chemical biology strategy of using chemically engineered inhibitors of chemokine receptors to study the signaling mechanism of neuronal apoptosis and survival.

  14. Large scale statistical inference of signaling pathways from RNAi and microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poustka Annemarie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of RNA interference techniques enables the selective silencing of biologically interesting genes in an efficient way. In combination with DNA microarray technology this enables researchers to gain insights into signaling pathways by observing downstream effects of individual knock-downs on gene expression. These secondary effects can be used to computationally reverse engineer features of the upstream signaling pathway. Results In this paper we address this challenging problem by extending previous work by Markowetz et al., who proposed a statistical framework to score networks hypotheses in a Bayesian manner. Our extensions go in three directions: First, we introduce a way to omit the data discretization step needed in the original framework via a calculation based on p-values instead. Second, we show how prior assumptions on the network structure can be incorporated into the scoring scheme using regularization techniques. Third and most important, we propose methods to scale up the original approach, which is limited to around 5 genes, to large scale networks. Conclusion Comparisons of these methods on artificial data are conducted. Our proposed module network is employed to infer the signaling network between 13 genes in the ER-α pathway in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Using a bootstrapping approach this reconstruction can be found with good statistical stability. The code for the module network inference method is available in the latest version of the R-package nem, which can be obtained from the Bioconductor homepage.

  15. Influence of arsenate and arsenite on signal transduction pathways: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druwe, Ingrid L.; Vaillancourt, Richard R. [The University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Arsenic has been a recognized contaminant and toxicant, as well as a medicinal compound throughout human history. Populations throughout the world are exposed to arsenic and these exposures have been associated with a number of human cancers. Not much is known about the role of arsenic as a human carcinogen and more recently its role in non-cancerous diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus have been uncovered. The health effects associated with arsenic are numerous and the association between arsenic exposure and human disease has intensified the search for molecular mechanisms that describe the biological activity of arsenic in humans and leads to the aforementioned disease states. Arsenic poses a human health risk due in part to the regulation of cellular signal transduction pathways and over the last few decades, some cellular mechanisms that account for arsenic toxicity, as well as, signal transduction pathways have been discovered. However, given the ubiquitous nature of arsenic in the environment, making sense of all the data remains a challenge. This review will focus on our knowledge of signal transduction pathways that are regulated by arsenic. (orig.)

  16. Identification of signaling pathways associated with cancer protection in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkina-Gendler, Lena; Rotem, Itai; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Gurwitz, David; Sarfstein, Rive; Laron, Zvi; Werner, Haim

    2016-05-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) pathway emerged in recent years as a critical player in cancer biology. Enhanced expression or activation of specific components of the GH-IGF1 axis, including the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), is consistently associated with a transformed phenotype. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that patients with Laron syndrome (LS), the best-characterized entity among the congenital IGF1 deficiencies, seem to be protected from cancer development. To identify IGF1-dependent genes and signaling pathways associated with cancer protection in LS, we conducted a genome-wide analysis using immortalized lymphoblastoid cells derived from LS patients and healthy controls of the same gender, age range, and ethnic origin. Our analyses identified a collection of genes that are either over- or under-represented in LS-derived lymphoblastoids. Gene differential expression occurs in several gene families, including cell cycle, metabolic control, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling, and PI3K-AKT signaling. Major differences between LS and healthy controls were also noticed in pathways associated with cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and autophagy. Our results highlight the key role of the GH-IGF1 axis in the initiation and progression of cancer. Furthermore, data are consistent with the concept that homozygous congenital IGF1 deficiency may confer protection against future tumor development. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kitagishi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Satoru, E-mail: smatsuda@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp; Kitagishi, Yasuko [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women’s University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2013-10-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer

  20. Elabela-apelin receptor signaling pathway is functional in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Yu, Daozhan; Wang, Mengqiao; Wang, Qilong; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Yang, Rongze; Qian, Kun; Wu, Wenjun; Shuldiner, Alan; Sztalryd, Carole; Zou, Minghui; Zheng, Wei; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-02-02

    Elabela (ELA) or Toddler is a recently discovered hormone which is required for normal development of heart and vasculature through activation of apelin receptor (APJ), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), in zebrafish. The present study explores whether the ELA-APJ signaling pathway is functional in the mammalian system. Using reverse-transcription PCR, we found that ELA is restrictedly expressed in human pluripotent stem cells and adult kidney whereas APJ is more widely expressed. We next studied ELA-APJ signaling pathway in reconstituted mammalian cell systems. Addition of ELA to HEK293 cells over-expressing GFP-AJP fusion protein resulted in rapid internalization of the fusion receptor. In Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells over-expressing human APJ, ELA suppresses cAMP production with EC50 of 11.1 nM, stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation with EC50 of 14.3 nM and weakly induces intracellular calcium mobilization. Finally, we tested ELA biological function in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and showed that ELA induces angiogenesis and relaxes mouse aortic blood vessel in a dose-dependent manner through a mechanism different from apelin. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELA-AJP signaling pathways are functional in mammalian systems, indicating that ELA likely serves as a hormone regulating the circulation system in adulthood as well as in embryonic development.

  1. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  2. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  3. Creating and analyzing pathway and protein interaction compendia for modelling signal transduction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirouac Daniel C

    2012-05-01

    components through myriad alternate paths. Many of these paths are inconsistent with well-established mechanistic features of signalling networks, such as a requirement for a transmembrane receptor in sensing extracellular ligands. Conclusions Wide inconsistencies among interaction databases, pathway annotations, and the numbers and identities of nodes associated with a given pathway pose a major challenge for deriving causal and mechanistic insight from network graphs. We speculate that these inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to cell, and context-specificity of cellular signal transduction, which is largely unaccounted for in available databases, but the absence of standardized vocabularies is an additional confounding factor. As a result of discrepant annotations, it is very difficult to identify biologically meaningful pathways from interactome networks a priori. However, by incorporating prior knowledge, it is possible to successively build out network complexity with high confidence from a simple linear signal transduction scaffold. Such reduced complexity networks appear suitable for use in mechanistic models while being richer and better justified than the simple linear pathways usually depicted in diagrams of signal transduction.

  4. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rodrigues, Americo; Rubio, Silvia; Antoni, Regina; Park, Sang-Youl; Cutler, Sean R.; Sheen, Jen; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2009-11-18

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA expression, target genes, and signaling pathways in infants with a ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hui; Yan, Zhaoyuan; Huang, Ke; Jiang, Yuanqing; Zhang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate the relationship between miRNA expression and the occurrence of ventricular septal defect (VSD), and characterize the miRNA target genes and pathways that can lead to VSD. The miRNAs that were differentially expressed in blood samples from VSD and normal infants were screened and validated by implementing miRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using three target gene databases. The functions and signaling pathways of the target genes were enriched using the GO database and KEGG database, respectively. The transcription and protein expression of specific target genes in critical pathways were compared in the VSD and normal control groups using qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Compared with the normal control group, the VSD group had 22 differentially expressed miRNAs; 19 were downregulated and three were upregulated. The 10,677 predicted target genes participated in many biological functions related to cardiac development and morphogenesis. Four target genes (mGLUR, Gq, PLC, and PKC) were involved in the PKC pathway and four (ECM, FAK, PI3 K, and PDK1) were involved in the PI3 K-Akt pathway. The transcription and protein expression of these eight target genes were significantly upregulated in the VSD group. The 22 miRNAs that were dysregulated in the VSD group were mainly downregulated, which may result in the dysregulation of several key genes and biological functions related to cardiac development. These effects could also be exerted via the upregulation of eight specific target genes, the subsequent over-activation of the PKC and PI3 K-Akt pathways, and the eventual abnormal cardiac development and VSD.

  7. Emergence, development and diversification of the TGF-β signalling pathway within the animal kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustakas Aristidis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how genomic processes, such as gene duplication, give rise to co-ordinated organismal properties, such as emergence of new body plans, organs and lifestyles, is of importance in developmental and evolutionary biology. Herein, we focus on the diversification of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β pathway – one of the fundamental and versatile metazoan signal transduction engines. Results After an investigation of 33 genomes, we show that the emergence of the TGF-β pathway coincided with appearance of the first known animal species. The primordial pathway repertoire consisted of four Smads and four receptors, similar to those observed in the extant genome of the early diverging tablet animal (Trichoplax adhaerens. We subsequently retrace duplications in ancestral genomes on the lineage leading to humans, as well as lineage-specific duplications, such as those which gave rise to novel Smads and receptors in teleost fishes. We conclude that the diversification of the TGF-β pathway can be parsimoniously explained according to the 2R model, with additional rounds of duplications in teleost fishes. Finally, we investigate duplications followed by accelerated evolution which gave rise to an atypical TGF-β pathway in free-living bacterial feeding nematodes of the genus Rhabditis. Conclusion Our results challenge the view of well-conserved developmental pathways. The TGF-β signal transduction engine has expanded through gene duplication, continually adopting new functions, as animals grew in anatomical complexity, colonized new environments, and developed an active immune system.

  8. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488

  9. Use of glycolytic pathways for inhibiting or measuring oncogenic signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina

    2017-06-27

    Disclosed are methods in which glucose metabolism is correlated to oncogenesis through certain specific pathways; inhibition of certain enzymes is shown to interfere with oncogenic signaling, and measurement of certain enzyme levels is correlated with patient survival. The present methods comprise measuring level of expression of at least one of the enzymes involved in glucose uptake or metabolism, wherein increased expression of the at least one of the enzymes relative to expression in a normal cell correlates with poor prognosis of disease in a patient. Preferably the genes whose expression level is measured include GLUT3, PFKP, GAPDH, ALDOC, LDHA and GFPT2. Also disclosed are embodiments directed towards downregulating the expression of some genes in glucose uptake and metabolism.

  10. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  11. Thematic minireview series: cell biology of G protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Henrik G

    2015-03-13

    This thematic series is on the topic of cell signaling from a cell biology perspective, with a particular focus on G proteins. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also known as seven-transmembrane receptors) are typically found at the cell surface. Upon agonist binding, these receptors will activate a GTP-binding G protein at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Additionally, there is growing evidence that G proteins can also be activated by non-receptor binding partners, and they can signal from non-plasma membrane compartments. The production of second messengers at multiple, spatially distinct locations represents a type of signal encoding that has been largely neglected. The first minireview in the series describes biosensors that are being used to monitor G protein signaling events in live cells. The second describes the implementation of antibody-based biosensors to dissect endosome signaling by G proteins and their receptors. The third describes the function of a non-receptor, cytoplasmic activator of G protein signaling, called GIV (Girdin). Collectively, the advances described in these articles provide a deeper understanding and emerging opportunities for new pharmacology. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-04-01

    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  13. Functions and Signaling Pathways of Amino Acids in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestinal inflammation. Amino acids, including essential amino acids (EAAs, conditionally essential amino acids (CEAAs, and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs, improve the functions of intestinal barrier and expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins but decrease oxidative stress and the apoptosis of enterocytes as well as the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the intestinal inflammation. The functions of amino acids are associated with various signaling pathways, including mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2, general controlled nonrepressed kinase 2 (GCN2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2.

  14. Illuminating cell signaling: Using Vibrio harveyi in an introductory biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrizo, Stacy L; Kaufmann, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Cell signaling is an essential cellular process that is performed by all living organisms. Bacteria communicate with each other using a chemical language in a signaling pathway that allows bacteria to evaluate the size of their population, determine when they have reached a critical mass (quorum sensing), and then change their behavior in unison to carry out processes that require many cells acting together to be effective. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise in which the students observe the induction of bioluminescence or light production as an output of the quorum sensing pathway in Vibrio harveyi. Using both wildtype and mutant bacterial strains they explore the induction of community behavior via cell-cell communication by determining whether there is a correlation between the density of the bacterial population and the production of light by the bacterial culture. Using data from a cross-feeding assay the students make predictions about the identity of their strains and directly test these predictions using conditioned media from various liquid cultures. This two part exercise is designed for an introductory biology course to begin familiarizing students with collecting data, making predictions based upon the data and directly testing their hypotheses using a model organism with a cell signaling pathway that has a simple visual output: light production. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans as Model System in Pharmacology and Toxicology: Effects of Flavonoids on Redox-Sensitive Signalling Pathways and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karoline; Havermann, Susannah; Büchter, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant compounds that mediate diverse biological activities, for example, by scavenging free radicals and modulating intracellular signalling pathways. It has been shown in various studies that distinct flavonoid compounds enhance stress resistance and even prolong the life span of organisms. In the last years the model organism C. elegans has gained increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological sciences due to the availability of various genetically modified nematode strains, the simplicity of modulating genes by RNAi, and the relatively short life span. Several studies have been performed demonstrating that secondary plant compounds influence ageing, stress resistance, and distinct signalling pathways in the nematode. Here we present an overview of the modulating effects of different flavonoids on oxidative stress, redox-sensitive signalling pathways, and life span in C. elegans introducing the usability of this model system for pharmacological and toxicological research. PMID:24895670

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans as Model System in Pharmacology and Toxicology: Effects of Flavonoids on Redox-Sensitive Signalling Pathways and Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary plant compounds that mediate diverse biological activities, for example, by scavenging free radicals and modulating intracellular signalling pathways. It has been shown in various studies that distinct flavonoid compounds enhance stress resistance and even prolong the life span of organisms. In the last years the model organism C. elegans has gained increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological sciences due to the availability of various genetically modified nematode strains, the simplicity of modulating genes by RNAi, and the relatively short life span. Several studies have been performed demonstrating that secondary plant compounds influence ageing, stress resistance, and distinct signalling pathways in the nematode. Here we present an overview of the modulating effects of different flavonoids on oxidative stress, redox-sensitive signalling pathways, and life span in C. elegans introducing the usability of this model system for pharmacological and toxicological research.

  17. Possible involvement of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in N-acetylcysteine-mediated antidepressant-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samhari, Marwa M; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rejaie, Salim; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Dzimiri, Nduna

    2016-03-01

    Advances in depression research have targeted inflammation and oxidative stress to develop novel types of treatment. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in immune and inflammatory responses. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine, a putative precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, in an animal model of depression, with an emphasis on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Fluoxetine, a classical antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming test and given N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine immediately after the pre-test session, 5 h later and 1 h before the test session of the forced swimming test. N-acetylcysteine decreased immobility time (P acetylcysteine produced significant (P acetylcysteine significantly (P acetylcysteine. Therefore, depression research may target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to provide a novel effective therapy. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Tofacitinib Represses the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription Signalling Pathway in Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Ståhle, Mona; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enikö

    2018-05-08

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, which has shown efficacy in treating psoriasis. The mode of action of tofacitinib is not completely understood but it has been thought to be mediated by the inhibition of CD4+ T-cell activation. Here, we investigated whether the molecular targets of tofacitinib are expressed in keratinocytes, and whether tofacitinib can modulate the activity of the JAK/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription (STAT)-pathway in keratinocytes. Transcriptomic profiling of human keratinocytes treated with IL-22 in combination with tofacitinib revealed that tofacitinib could prevent the majority of IL-22-mediated gene expression changes. Pathway analysis of tofacitinib-regulated genes in keratinocytes revealed enrichment of genes involved in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Quantitative real-time-PCR confirmed the upregulation of S100A7 and downregulation of EGR1 expression by IL-22, which was prevented by tofacitinib pre-treatment. These results indicate a direct effect of tofacinitib on keratinocytes, which can have relevance for systemic as well as for topical treatment of psoriasis with tofacitinib.

  19. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hamid Reza Mozhgani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN. To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  20. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  1. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  2. Tongue and Taste Organ Biology and Function: Homeostasis Maintained by Hedgehog Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Charlotte M; Kumari, Archana

    2017-02-10

    The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function. Activating or suppressing Hh signaling, with genetic models or pharmacological agents used in cancer treatments, disrupts taste papilla and taste bud integrity and can eliminate responses from taste nerves to chemical stimuli but not to touch or temperature. Understanding Hh regulation of taste organ homeostasis contributes knowledge about the basic biology underlying taste disruptions in patients treated with Hh pathway inhibitors.

  3. Biological pathways and genetic mechanisms involved in social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cella, David; Mosing, Miriam; Oliveira, Joao R; Patrick, Donald L; Veenhoven, Ruut; Wagner, Gert G; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2013-08-01

    To describe the major findings in the literature regarding associations between biological and genetic factors and social functioning, paying special attention to: (1) heritability studies on social functioning and related concepts; (2) hypothesized biological pathways and genetic variants that could be involved in social functioning, and (3) the implications of these results for quality-of-life research. A search of Web of Science and PubMed databases was conducted using combinations of the following keywords: genetics, twins, heritability, social functioning, social adjustment, social interaction, and social dysfunction. Variability in the definitions and measures of social functioning was extensive. Moderate to high heritability was reported for social functioning and related concepts, including prosocial behavior, loneliness, and extraversion. Disorders characterized by impairments in social functioning also show substantial heritability. Genetic variants hypothesized to be involved in social functioning are related to the network of brain structures and processes that are known to affect social cognition and behavior. Better knowledge and understanding about the impact of genetic factors on social functioning is needed to help us to attain a more comprehensive view of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and will ultimately enhance our ability to identify those patients who are vulnerable to poor social functioning.

  4. Wearable System for Acquisition and Monitoring of Biological Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, D. J.; Andino, N. B.; Ponce, S. D.; Roberti, MA; López, y. N.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a modular, wearable system for acquisition and wireless transmission of biological signals. Configurable slaves for different signals (such as ECG, EMG, inertial sensors, and temperature) based in the ADS1294 Medical Analog Front End are connected to a Master, based in the CC3200 microcontroller, both from Texas Instruments. The slaves are configurable according to the specific application, providing versatility to the wearable system. The battery consumption is reduced, through a couple of Li-ion batteries and the circuit has also a battery charger. A custom made box was designed and fabricated in a 3D printer, preserving the requirements of low cost, low weight and safety recommendations.

  5. THE ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY (AOP) FRAMEWORK: A FRAMEWORK FOR ORGANIZING BIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE LEADING TO HEALTH RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) represents the organization of current and newly acquired knowledge of biological pathways. These pathways contain a series of nodes (Key Events, KEs) that when sufficiently altered influence the next node on the pathway, beginning from an Molecul...

  6. Failure of signal transduction pathway of DNA damage in hereditary microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Matsuura, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the brain size determination are considered from an aspect of DNA-damage signaling recently revealed by studies on hereditary microcephaly (M), in relation to the radiation-induced M. International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) assesses the risk of M by in utero exposure as 40%/Sv, the threshold dose is about 0.2 Gy (deterministic effect), A-bomb M is conceived to be due to the exposure at 8-5 weeks of gestation, and M is induced by radiation at 10 days after fertilization in the mouse. Recent studies on causing genes of M have revealed its particular connection with signaling pathways: in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT), genes of ATM; in Seckel syndrome, of ATR (AT and Rad3-related) and pericentrin (PCNT); Nijmegen syndrome (NBS), of NBS1; NBS-like disease, of Rad50 and Mre11; AT-like disease, of Mre11; Lig4 syndrome, of Lig4; immunodeficiency combined with M, of XLF; primary M, of MCPH1, ASPM, CdkRap2, CENP-J and STIL. Single and double strand breaks of DNA respectively activate the signaling pathway of ATR where PCNT and MCPH1 participate, and pathway of ATM where NBS1, Mre11 and Rad50 do. PCNT is a major protein, pericentrin, composing the centrosome, of which defect results in the Seckel disease with spindle dysfunction. At present, M can be thus said to be of the cellular common features of failure of ATM/ATR signaling and of dysfunction of centrosome. As well, ASPM gene expression is recently reported to be suppressed by radiation. Thus future studies on M will spread to wider biological field of cell and development as well as radiation and inheritance. (K.T.)

  7. Use of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to Monitor Compound Effects on Cardiac Myocyte Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Eldridge, Sandy; Furniss, Mike; Mussio, Jodie; Davis, Myrtle

    2015-09-01

    There is a need to develop mechanism-based assays to better inform risk of cardiotoxicity. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are rapidly gaining acceptance as a biologically relevant in vitro model for use in drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screens. Utilization of hiPSC-CMs for mechanistic investigations would benefit from confirmation of the expression and activity of cellular pathways that are known to regulate cardiac myocyte viability and function. This unit describes an approach to demonstrate the presence and function of signaling pathways in hiPSC-CMs and the effects of treatments on these pathways. We present a workflow that employs protocols to demonstrate protein expression and functional integrity of signaling pathway(s) of interest and to characterize biological consequences of signaling modulation. These protocols utilize a unique combination of structural, functional, and biochemical endpoints to interrogate compound effects on cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. A pedagogical walkthrough of computational modeling and simulation of Wnt signaling pathway using static causal models in MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shriprakash

    2016-12-01

    Simulation study in systems biology involving computational experiments dealing with Wnt signaling pathways abound in literature but often lack a pedagogical perspective that might ease the understanding of beginner students and researchers in transition, who intend to work on the modeling of the pathway. This paucity might happen due to restrictive business policies which enforce an unwanted embargo on the sharing of important scientific knowledge. A tutorial introduction to computational modeling of Wnt signaling pathway in a human colorectal cancer dataset using static Bayesian network models is provided. The walkthrough might aid biologists/informaticians in understanding the design of computational experiments that is interleaved with exposition of the Matlab code and causal models from Bayesian network toolbox. The manuscript elucidates the coding contents of the advance article by Sinha (Integr. Biol. 6:1034-1048, 2014) and takes the reader in a step-by-step process of how (a) the collection and the transformation of the available biological information from literature is done, (b) the integration of the heterogeneous data and prior biological knowledge in the network is achieved, (c) the simulation study is designed, (d) the hypothesis regarding a biological phenomena is transformed into computational framework, and (e) results and inferences drawn using d -connectivity/separability are reported. The manuscript finally ends with a programming assignment to help the readers get hands-on experience of a perturbation project. Description of Matlab files is made available under GNU GPL v3 license at the Google code project on https://code.google.com/p/static-bn-for-wnt-signaling-pathway and https: //sites.google.com/site/shriprakashsinha/shriprakashsinha/projects/static-bn-for-wnt-signaling-pathway. Latest updates can be found in the latter website.

  9. Identification of potential pathway mediation targets in Toll-like receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in reconstruction and analytical methods for signaling networks have spurred the development of large-scale models that incorporate fully functional and biologically relevant features. An extended reconstruction of the human Toll-like receptor signaling network is presented herein. This reconstruction contains an extensive complement of kinases, phosphatases, and other associated proteins that mediate the signaling cascade along with a delineation of their associated chemical reactions. A computational framework based on the methods of large-scale convex analysis was developed and applied to this network to characterize input-output relationships. The input-output relationships enabled significant modularization of the network into ten pathways. The analysis identified potential candidates for inhibitory mediation of TLR signaling with respect to their specificity and potency. Subsequently, we were able to identify eight novel inhibition targets through constraint-based modeling methods. The results of this study are expected to yield meaningful avenues for further research in the task of mediating the Toll-like receptor signaling network and its effects.

  10. In Vivo Characterization of Intracellular Signaling Pathways Activated by the Nerve Agent Sarin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Tsung-Ming A; Snyder, Gretchen L; Hendrick, Joseph P; Fienberg, Allen A; McDonough, John H

    2004-01-01

    ..., an excessive stimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Preliminary evidence using diverse OPs indicates that the DARPP-32/PP-1 signaling pathway is activated by nicotinic receptor stimulation...

  11. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  12. Intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways mediating ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Hara, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence indicates that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells that have received signals from adjacent or distant irradiated cells. This phenomenon, which has been termed the ionizing radiation-induced bystander effect, challenges the long-standing paradigm that radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is a prerequisite to elicit genetic damage or a biological response. Bystander effects have been observed in a number of experimental systems, and cells whose nucleus or cytoplasm is irradiated exert bystander responses. Bystander cells manifest a multitude of biological consequences, such as genetic and epigenetic changes, alterations in gene expression, activation of signal transduction pathways, and delayed effects in their progeny. Several mediating mechanisms have been proposed. These involve gap junction-mediated intercellular communication, secreted soluble factors, oxidative metabolism, plasma membrane-bound lipid rafts, and calcium fluxes. This paper reviews briefly the current knowledge of the bystander effect with a focus on proposed mechanisms. The potential benefit of bystander effects to cancer radiotherapy will also be discussed. (author)

  13. Signaling pathway deregulation and molecular alterations across pediatric medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermitte, B; Blandin, A F; Coca, A; Guerin, E; Durand, A; Entz-Werlé, N

    2018-05-15

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) account for 15% of brain tumors in children under the age of 15. To date, the overall 5-year survival rate for all children is only around 60%. Recent advances in cancer genomics have led to a fundamental change in medulloblastoma classification and is evolving along with the genomic discoveries, allowing to regularly reclassify this disease. The previous molecular classification defined 4 groups (WNT-activated MB, SHH-activated MB and the groups 3 and 4 characterized partially by NMYC and MYC driven MBs). This stratification moved forward recently to better define these groups and their correlation to outcome. This new stratification into 7 novel subgroups was helpful to lay foundations and complementary data on the understanding regarding molecular pathways and gene mutations underlying medulloblastoma biology. This review was aimed at answering the recent key questions on MB genomics and go further in the relevance of those genes in MB development as well as in their targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis and logical modeling of biological signaling transduction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongyao

    The study of network theory and its application span across a multitude of seemingly disparate fields of science and technology: computer science, biology, social science, linguistics, etc. It is the intrinsic similarities embedded in the entities and the way they interact with one another in these systems that link them together. In this dissertation, I present from both the aspect of theoretical analysis and the aspect of application three projects, which primarily focus on signal transduction networks in biology. In these projects, I assembled a network model through extensively perusing literature, performed model-based simulations and validation, analyzed network topology, and proposed a novel network measure. The application of network modeling to the system of stomatal opening in plants revealed a fundamental question about the process that has been left unanswered in decades. The novel measure of the redundancy of signal transduction networks with Boolean dynamics by calculating its maximum node-independent elementary signaling mode set accurately predicts the effect of single node knockout in such signaling processes. The three projects as an organic whole advance the understanding of a real system as well as the behavior of such network models, giving me an opportunity to take a glimpse at the dazzling facets of the immense world of network science.

  15. Significant Deregulated Pathways in Diabetes Type II Complications Identified through Expression Based Network Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukil, Sanchaita; Sinha, Meenakshee; Varshney, Lavneesh; Agrawal, Shipra

    Type 2 Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disease, which alters several signaling cascades giving rise to serious complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The present research work describes an integrated functional network biology approach to identify pathways that get transcriptionally altered and lead to complex complications thereby amplifying the phenotypic effect of the impaired disease state. We have identified two sub-network modules, which could be activated under abnormal circumstances in diabetes. Present work describes key proteins such as P85A and SRC serving as important nodes to mediate alternate signaling routes during diseased condition. P85A has been shown to be an important link between stress responsive MAPK and CVD markers involved in fibrosis. MAPK8 has been shown to interact with P85A and further activate CTGF through VEGF signaling. We have traced a novel and unique route correlating inflammation and fibrosis by considering P85A as a key mediator of signals. The next sub-network module shows SRC as a junction for various signaling processes, which results in interaction between NF-kB and beta catenin to cause cell death. The powerful interaction between these important genes in response to transcriptionally altered lipid metabolism and impaired inflammatory response via SRC causes apoptosis of cells. The crosstalk between inflammation, lipid homeostasis and stress, and their serious effects downstream have been explained in the present analyses.

  16. Functional comparison of innate immune signaling pathways in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Barreiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans respond differently than other primates to a large number of infections. Differences in susceptibility to infectious agents between humans and other primates are probably due to inter-species differences in immune response to infection. Consistent with that notion, genes involved in immunity-related processes are strongly enriched among recent targets of positive selection in primates, suggesting that immune responses evolve rapidly, yet providing only indirect evidence for possible inter-species functional differences. To directly compare immune responses among primates, we stimulated primary monocytes from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and studied the ensuing time-course regulatory responses. We find that, while the universal Toll-like receptor response is mostly conserved across primates, the regulatory response associated with viral infections is often lineage-specific, probably reflecting rapid host-virus mutual adaptation cycles. Additionally, human-specific immune responses are enriched for genes involved in apoptosis, as well as for genes associated with cancer and with susceptibility to infectious diseases or immune-related disorders. Finally, we find that chimpanzee-specific immune signaling pathways are enriched for HIV-interacting genes. Put together, our observations lend strong support to the notion that lineage-specific immune responses may help explain known inter-species differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  17. Erythrocyte signal transduction pathways, their oxygenation dependence and functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvitenko, Nadezhda N; Adragna, Norma C; Weber, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocytes play a key role in human and vertebrate metabolism. Tissue O2 supply is regulated by both hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity and erythrocyte rheology, a key determinant of tissue perfusion. Oxygenation-deoxygenation transitions of Hb may lead to re-organization of the cytoskeleton and signalling pathways activation/deactivation in an O2-dependent manner. Deoxygenated Hb binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the anion exchanger band 3, which is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and is considered a major mechanism underlying the oxygenation-dependence of several erythrocyte functions. This work discusses the multiple modes of Hb-cytoskeleton interactions. In addition, it reviews the effects of Mg2+, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, NO, shear stress and Ca2+, all factors accompanying the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle in circulating red cells. Due to the extensive literature on the subject, the data discussed here, pertain mainly to human erythrocytes whose O2 affinity is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ectothermic vertebrate erythrocytes that use ATP, and to bird erythrocytes that use inositol pentaphosphate. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Urotensin II inhibits skeletal muscle glucose transport signaling pathways via the NADPH oxidase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM.

  19. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  20. Wnt and Notch signaling pathway involved in wound healing by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Shu, Bin; Yang, Ronghua; Xu, Yingbin; Xing, Bangrong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Lei; Qi, Shaohai; Liu, Xusheng; Wang, Peng; Tang, Jinming; Xie, Julin

    2015-06-16

    Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are critically involved in relative cell fate decisions within the development of cutaneous tissues. Moreover, several studies identified the above two pathways as having a significant role during wound healing. However, their biological effects during cutaneous tissues repair are unclear. We employed a self-controlled model (Sprague-Dawley rats with full-thickness skin wounds) to observe the action and effect of Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signalings in vivo. The quality of wound repair relevant to the gain/loss-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation was estimated by hematoxylin-and-eosin and Masson staining. Immunofluorescence analysis and Western blot analysis were used to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the regulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in wound healing. Meanwhile, epidermal stem cells (ESCs) were cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium with Jaggedl or in DAPT (N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenyl]glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl) to investigate whether the interruption of Notch signaling contributes to the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The results showed that in vivo the gain-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation extended the ability to promote wound closure. We further determined that activation or inhibition of Wnt signaling and Notch signaling can affect the proliferation of ESCs, the differentiation and migration of keratinocytes, and follicle regeneration by targeting c-Myc and Hes1, which ultimately lead to enhanced or delayed wound healing. Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggested that the two pathways might interact in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Wnt and Notch signalings play important roles in cutaneous repair by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately. What's more, interaction between the above two pathways might act as a vital role in regulation of wound healing.

  1. Biologic consequences of Stat1-independent IFN signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M. Pilar; Bohn, Erwin; O'Guin, Andrew K.; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Levine, Beth; Stark, George R.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Although Stat1 is required for many IFN-dependent responses, recent work has shown that IFNγ functions independently of Stat1 to affect the growth of tumor cells or immortalized fibroblasts. We now demonstrate that both IFNγ and IFNα/β regulate proliferative responses in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage derived from Stat1-null mice. Using both representational difference analysis and gene arrays, we show that IFNγ exerts its Stat1-independent actions on mononuclear phagocytes by regulating the expression of many genes. This result was confirmed by monitoring changes in expression and function of the corresponding gene products. Regulation of the expression of these genes requires the IFNγ receptor and Jak1. The physiologic relevance of IFN-dependent, Stat1-independent signaling was demonstrated by monitoring antiviral responses in Stat1-null mice. Thus, the IFN receptors engage alternative Stat1-independent signaling pathways that have important physiological consequences. PMID:11390995

  2. MICROSLEEPS AND THEIR DETECTION FROM THE BIOLOGICAL SIGNALS

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    Martin Holub

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsleeps (MS are a frequently discussed topic due to their fatal consequences. Their detection is necessary for the purpose of sleep laboratories, where they provide an option for the quantifying rate of sleep deprivation level and objective evaluation of subjective sleepiness. Many studies are dealing with this topic for automotive usage to design a fatigue countermeasure device. We made a research of recent attitude to the development of the automated MS detection methods. We created an overview of several MS detection approaches based on the measurement of biological signals. We also summarized the changes in EEG, EOG and ECG signals, which have been published over the last few years. The reproducible changes in the entire EEG spectrum, primarily with the increased activity of delta and theta, were noticed during a transition to fatigue. There were observed changes of blinking rate and reduction of eye movements during the fatigue tasks. MS correspond with variations in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular function, which can be quantified by HRV parameters. The decrease in HR, VLF, and LF/HF before falling asleep was revealed. EEG signal, especially its slow wave activity, considered to be the most predictive and reliable for the level of alertness. In spite of the detection from EEG signal is the most common method, EOG based approaches can also be very efficient and more driver-friendly. Besides, the signal processing in the time domain can improve the detection accuracy of the short events like MS.

  3. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, Laura M.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Talcott, Carolyn L.; Laderoute, Keith R.; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L.; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Wooster, Richard F.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.

    2009-03-31

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EGFR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EGFR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EGFR-MEK signaling. This model was comprised of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype specific subnetworks, including one that suggested PAK1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that PAK1 overexpressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three MEK inhibitors. We found that PAK1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to MEK inhibition as compared to those that express PAK1 at low levels. This indicates that PAK1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to MEK inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  4. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Laura M; Wang, Nicholas J; Talcott, Carolyn L; Laderoute, Keith R; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R; Wooster, Richard F; Kuo, Wen Lin; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EgfR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EgfR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EgfR-MAPK signaling. This model was composed of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype-specific subnetworks, including one that suggested Pak1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that Pak1 over-expressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to Mek inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three Mek inhibitors. We found that Pak1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to Mek inhibition compared to those that express Pak1 at low levels. This indicates that Pak1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to Mek inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  5. Fluid shear promotes chondrosarcoma cell invasion by activating matrix metalloproteinase 12 via IGF-2 and VEGF signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Chen, S-H; Hung, W-C; Paul, C; Zhu, F; Guan, P-P; Huso, DL; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A; Konstantopoulos, K

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow in and around the tumor tissue is a physiologically relevant mechanical signal that regulates intracellular signaling pathways throughout the tumor. Yet, the effects of interstitial flow and associated fluid shear stress on the tumor cell function have been largely overlooked. Using in vitro bioengineering models in conjunction with molecular cell biology tools, we found that fluid shear (2 dyn/cm2) markedly upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) expression and its activity in human chondrosarcoma cells. MMP-12 expression is induced in human chondrocytes during malignant transformation. However, the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 expression and its potential role in human chondrosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. We discovered that fluid shear stress induces the synthesis of insulin growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B and D, which in turn transactivate MMP-12 via PI3-K, p38 and JNK signaling pathways. IGF-2-, VEGF-B- or VEGF-D-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells display markedly higher migratory and invasive potentials in vitro, which are blocked by inhibiting MMP-12, PI3-K, p38 or JNK activity. Moreover, recombinant human MMP-12 or MMP-12 overexpression can potentiate chondrosarcoma cell invasion in vitro and the lung colonization in vivo. By reconstructing and delineating the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 activation, potential therapeutic strategies that interfere with chondrosarcoma cell invasion may be identified. PMID:25435370

  6. Signaling Pathways in Exosomes Biogenesis, Secretion and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Emiliani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (30–100 nm derived from the endosomal system, which have raised considerable interest in the last decade. Several studies have shown that they mediate cell-to-cell communication in a variety of biological processes. Thus, in addition to cell-to-cell direct interaction or secretion of active molecules, they are now considered another class of signal mediators. Exosomes can be secreted by several cell types and retrieved in many body fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to proteins and lipids, they also contain nucleic acids, namely mRNA and miRNA. These features have prompted extensive research to exploit them as a source of biomarkers for several pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, exosomes also appear attractive as gene delivery vehicles. Furthermore, exosome immunomodulatory and regenerative properties are also encouraging their application for further therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be addressed: exosome biogenesis and secretion mechanisms have not been clearly understood, and physiological functions, as well as pathological roles, are far from being satisfactorily elucidated.

  7. Targeting Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer. A Review in the Theme: Cell Signaling: Proteins, Pathways and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Antas, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt signaling pathway plays essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Notably, comprehensive genetic studies in Drosophila and mice in the past decades have demonstrated the crucial role of Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cell maintenance by regulating proliferation, differentiation, and cell-fate decisions. Wnt signaling has also been implicated in a variety of cancers and other diseases. Loss of the Wnt pathway negative regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is the hallmark of human colorectal cancers (CRC). Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing further reveal many novel recurrent Wnt pathway mutations in addition to the well-characterized APC and β-catenin mutations in CRC. Despite attractive strategies to develop drugs for Wnt signaling, major hurdles in therapeutic intervention of the pathway persist. Here we discuss the Wnt-activating mechanisms in CRC and review the current advances and challenges in drug discovery. PMID:26289750

  8. A Discrete Dynamical System Approach to Pathway Activation Profiles of Signaling Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catozzi, S; Sepulchre, J-A

    2017-08-01

    In living organisms, cascades of covalent modification cycles are one of the major intracellular signaling mechanisms, allowing to transduce physical or chemical stimuli of the external world into variations of activated biochemical species within the cell. In this paper, we develop a novel method to study the stimulus-response of signaling cascades and overall the concept of pathway activation profile which is, for a given stimulus, the sequence of activated proteins at each tier of the cascade. Our approach is based on a correspondence that we establish between the stationary states of a cascade and pieces of orbits of a 2D discrete dynamical system. The study of its possible phase portraits in function of the biochemical parameters, and in particular of the contraction/expansion properties around the fixed points of this discrete map, as well as their bifurcations, yields a classification of the cascade tiers into three main types, whose biological impact within a signaling network is examined. In particular, our approach enables to discuss quantitatively the notion of cascade amplification/attenuation from this new perspective. The method allows also to study the interplay between forward and "retroactive" signaling, i.e., the upstream influence of an inhibiting drug bound to the last tier of the cascade.

  9. Informatics approaches in the Biological Characterization of Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are a conceptual framework to characterize toxicity pathways by a series of mechanistic steps from a molecular initiating event to population outcomes. This framework helps to direct risk assessment research, for example by aiding in computational ...

  10. MicroRNA-200a suppresses the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by interacting with β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Juan; Zhang, Anling; Shi, Zhendong; Ma, Feifei; Pu, Peiyu; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Jie; Kang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Qingyu

    2012-04-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for human organ development and is involved in tumor progression of many cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that the expression of β-catenin is, in part, regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of a recently identified epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-200a, in cancer cells. We also aimed to identify specific miR-200a target genes and to investigate the antitumor effects of miR-200a on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We employed TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays to identify the effect of miR-200a on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and we confirmed our observations using fluorescence microscopy. To determine target genes of miR-200a, a 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) luciferase assay was performed. Cell viability, invasion and wound healing assays were carried out for functional analysis after miRNA transfection. We further investigated the role of miR-200a in EMT by Western blot analysis. We found fluctuation in the expression of miR-200a that was accompanied by changes in the expression of members of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We also determined that miR-200a can directly interact with the 3' UTR of CTNNB1 (the gene that encodes β-catenin) to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MiR-200a could also influence the biological activities of SGC790 and U251 cells. Our results demonstrate that miR-200a is a new tumor suppressor that can regulate the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via two mechanisms. MiR-200a is a candidate target for tumor treatment via its regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  11. Wnt and the Wnt signaling pathway in bone development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Yi-Ping; Paulson, Christie; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling affects both bone modeling, which occurs during development, and bone remodeling, which is a lifelong process involving tissue renewal. Wnt signals are especially known to affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, which is divided into two major branches: the canonical pathway and the noncanonical pathway. The canonical pathway is also called the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. There are two major noncanonical pathways: the Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt-PCP pathway) and the Wnt-calcium pathway (Wnt-Ca2+ pathway). This review also discusses how Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists affect both the bone modeling and bone remodeling processes. We also review the role of Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists in bone as demonstrated in mouse models. Disrupted Wnt signaling is linked to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis, van Buchem disease, and sclerosteosis. Studying the mechanism of Wnt signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in bone will provide potential therapeutic targets to treat these bone diseases. PMID:24389191

  12. Oncogenic signalling pathways in benign odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Xavier, Guilherme Machado; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The first step towards the prevention of cancer is to develop an in-depth understanding of tumourigenesis and the molecular basis of malignant transformation. What drives tumour initiation? Why do most benign tumours fail to metastasize? Oncogenic mutations, previously considered to be the hallmark drivers of cancers, are reported in benign cysts and tumours, including those that have an odontogenic origin. Despite the presence of such alterations, the vast majority of odontogenic lesions are benign and never progress to the stage of malignant transformation. As these lesions are likely to develop due to developmental defects, it is possible that they harbour quiet genomes. Now the question arises - do they result from DNA replication errors? Specific candidate genes have been sequenced in odontogenic lesions, revealing recurrent BRAF mutation in the case of ameloblastoma, KRAS mutation in adenomatoid odontogenic tumours, PTCH1 mutation in odontogenic keratocysts, and CTNNB1 (Beta-catenin) mutation in calcifying odontogenic cysts. Studies on these benign and rare entities might reveal important information about the tumorigenic process and the mechanisms that hinder/halt neoplastic progression. This is because the role of relatively common oncogenic mutations seems to be context dependent. In this review, each mutation signature of the odontogenic lesion and the affected signalling pathways are discussed in the context of tooth development and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, behavioural differences between different types of odontogenic lesions are explored and discussed based on the molecular alteration described. This review also includes the employment of molecular results for guiding therapeutic approaches towards odontogenic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From tyrosine to melanin: Signaling pathways and factors regulating melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Rzepka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are natural pigments of skin, hair and eyes and can be classified into two main types: brown to black eumelanin and yellow to reddish-brown pheomelanin. Biosynthesis of melanins takes place in melanosomes, which are specialized cytoplasmic organelles of melanocytes - dendritic cells located in the basal layer of the epidermis, uveal tract of the eye, hair follicles, as well as in the inner ear, central nervous system and heart. Melanogenesis is a multistep process and begins with the conversion of amino acid L-tyrosine to DOPAquinone. The addition of cysteine or glutathione to DOPAquinone leads to the intermediates formation, followed by subsequent transformations and polymerization to the final product, pheomelanin. In the absence of thiol compounds DOPAquinone undergoes an intramolecular cyclization and oxidation to form DOPAchrome, which is then converted to 5,6-dihydroksyindole (DHI or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA. Eumelanin is formed by polymerization of DHI and DHICA and their quinones. Regulation of melanogenesis is achieved by physical and biochemical factors. The article presents the intracellular signaling pathways: cAMP/PKA/CREB/MITF cascade, MAP kinases cascade, PLC/DAG/PKCβ cascade and NO/cGMP/PKG cascade, which are involved in the regulation of expression and activity of the melanogenesis-related proteins by ultraviolet radiation and endogenous agents (cytokines, hormones. Activity of the key melanogenic enzyme, tyrosinase, is also affected by pH and temperature. Many pharmacologically active substances are able to inhibit or stimulate melanin biosynthesis, as evidenced by in vitro studies on cultured pigment cells.

  14. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  15. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  16. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  17. EDF-1 downregulates the CaM/Cn/NFAT signaling pathway during adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Victorio, Carlos J.; Velez-delValle, Cristina; Beltrán-Langarica, Alicia; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► EDF-1 participates early adipogenesis in 3T3F442A cells induced with Staurosporine/Dexamethasone. ► EDF-1 associates with CaM and Cn, most likely inactivating Cn. ► EDF-1/CaM complex seems to prevent NFATc1 activation by Cn. ► EDF-1 regulates the Cn/CaM/NFATc1 pathway during adipogenesis. ► EDF-1 may regulate the activation of Cn through a complex formation with CaM. - Abstract: The endothelial differentiation factor-1 (EDF-1) is a calmodulin binding protein that regulates calmodulin-dependent enzymes. In endothelial cells, this factor can form a protein complex with calmodulin. We analyzed the relationship between this factor and the members of calmodulin/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling pathway during adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A cells. We found that the expression of edf1 is upregulated during early adipogenesis, whereas that of calcineurin gene is lowered, suggesting that this pathway should be downregulated to allow for adipogenesis to occur. We also found that EDF-1 associates with calmodulin and calcineurin, most likely inactivating calcineurin. Our results showed that EDF-1 inactivates the calmodulin/calcineurin/NFAT pathway via sequestration of calmodulin, during early adipogenesis, and we propose a mechanism that negatively regulates the activation of calcineurin through a complex formation between EDF-1 and calmodulin. This finding raises the possibility that modulating this pathway might offer some alternatives to regulate adipose biology

  18. The TOR signaling pathway regulates vegetative development and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangwei; Gu, Qin; Yun, Yingzi; Yin, Yanni; Xu, Jin-Rong; Shim, Won-Bo; Ma, Zhonghua

    2014-07-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway plays critical roles in controlling cell growth in a variety of eukaryotes. However, the contribution of this pathway in regulating virulence of plant pathogenic fungi is unknown. We identified and characterized nine genes encoding components of the TOR pathway in Fusarium graminearum. Biological, genetic and biochemical functions of each component were investigated. The FgFkbp12-rapamycin complex binds to the FgTor kinase. The type 2A phosphatases FgPp2A, FgSit4 and FgPpg1 were found to interact with FgTap42, a downstream component of FgTor. Among these, we determined that FgPp2A is likely to be essential for F. graminearum survival, and FgSit4 and FgPpg1 play important roles in cell wall integrity by positively regulating the phosphorylation of FgMgv1, a key MAP kinase in the cell wall integrity pathway. In addition, the FgPpg1 interacting protein, FgTip41, is involved in regulating mycelial growth and virulence. Notably, FgTip41 does not interact with FgTap42 but with FgPpg1, suggesting the existence of FgTap42:FgPpg1:FgTip41 heterotrimer in F. graminearum, a complex not observed in the yeast model. Collectively, we defined a genetic regulatory framework that elucidates how the TOR pathway regulates virulence and vegetative development in F. graminearum. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. EDF-1 downregulates the CaM/Cn/NFAT signaling pathway during adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Victorio, Carlos J.; Velez-delValle, Cristina; Beltrán-Langarica, Alicia [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, México City 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, México City 07000 (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► EDF-1 participates early adipogenesis in 3T3F442A cells induced with Staurosporine/Dexamethasone. ► EDF-1 associates with CaM and Cn, most likely inactivating Cn. ► EDF-1/CaM complex seems to prevent NFATc1 activation by Cn. ► EDF-1 regulates the Cn/CaM/NFATc1 pathway during adipogenesis. ► EDF-1 may regulate the activation of Cn through a complex formation with CaM. - Abstract: The endothelial differentiation factor-1 (EDF-1) is a calmodulin binding protein that regulates calmodulin-dependent enzymes. In endothelial cells, this factor can form a protein complex with calmodulin. We analyzed the relationship between this factor and the members of calmodulin/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling pathway during adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A cells. We found that the expression of edf1 is upregulated during early adipogenesis, whereas that of calcineurin gene is lowered, suggesting that this pathway should be downregulated to allow for adipogenesis to occur. We also found that EDF-1 associates with calmodulin and calcineurin, most likely inactivating calcineurin. Our results showed that EDF-1 inactivates the calmodulin/calcineurin/NFAT pathway via sequestration of calmodulin, during early adipogenesis, and we propose a mechanism that negatively regulates the activation of calcineurin through a complex formation between EDF-1 and calmodulin. This finding raises the possibility that modulating this pathway might offer some alternatives to regulate adipose biology.

  20. Inhibition of the adrenomedullin/nitric oxide signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jan J; Giove, Thomas J; Favazza, Tara L; Akula, James D; Eldred, William D

    2011-06-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway is integrally involved in visual processing and changes in the NO pathway are measurable in eyes of diabetic patients. The small peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) can activate a signaling pathway to increase the enzyme activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). ADM levels are elevated in eyes of diabetic patients and therefore, ADM may play a role in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. The goal of this research was to test the effects of inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy. Inhibition of this pathway decreased NO production in high-glucose retinal cultures. Treating diabetic mice with the PKC β inhibitor ruboxistaurin for 5 weeks lowered ADM mRNA levels and ADM-like immunoreactivity and preserved retinal function as assessed by electroretinography. The results of this study indicate that inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway prevents neuronal pathology and functional losses in early diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Regulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway by Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Omar Muñoz Bello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling pathways are the mechanisms by which cells transduce external stimuli, which control the transcription of genes, to regulate diverse biological effects. In cancer, distinct signaling pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, have been implicated in the deregulation of critical molecular processes that affect cell proliferation and differentiation. For example, changes in β-catenin localization have been identified in Human Papillomavirus (HPV-related cancers as the lesion progresses. Specifically, β-catenin relocates from the membrane/cytoplasm to the nucleus, suggesting that this transcription regulator participates in cervical carcinogenesis. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are responsible for the transforming activity of HPV, and some studies have implicated these viral oncoproteins in the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Nevertheless, new interactions of HPV oncoproteins with cellular proteins are emerging, and the study of the biological effects of such interactions will help to understand HPV-related carcinogenesis. Viruses 2015, 7 4735 This review addresses the accumulated evidence of the involvement of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  2. Mathematical and Statistical Techniques for Systems Medicine: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-12-16

    The last decade has seen an explosion in models that describe phenomena in systems medicine. Such models are especially useful for studying signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway. In this chapter we use the Wnt pathway to showcase current mathematical and statistical techniques that enable modelers to gain insight into (models of) gene regulation and generate testable predictions. We introduce a range of modeling frameworks, but focus on ordinary differential equation (ODE) models since they remain the most widely used approach in systems biology and medicine and continue to offer great potential. We present methods for the analysis of a single model, comprising applications of standard dynamical systems approaches such as nondimensionalization, steady state, asymptotic and sensitivity analysis, and more recent statistical and algebraic approaches to compare models with data. We present parameter estimation and model comparison techniques, focusing on Bayesian analysis and coplanarity via algebraic geometry. Our intention is that this (non-exhaustive) review may serve as a useful starting point for the analysis of models in systems medicine.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways in ovarian cancer by integrated bioinformatics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Yang,1 Shaoming Zhu,2 Li Li,3 Li Zhang,1 Shu Xian,1 Yanqing Wang,1 Yanxiang Cheng1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University Health Science Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Background: The mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer ranks the highest among gynecological malignancies. However, the cause and underlying molecular events of ovarian cancer are not clear. Here, we applied integrated bioinformatics to identify key pathogenic genes involved in ovarian cancer and reveal potential molecular mechanisms. Results: The expression profiles of GDS3592, GSE54388, and GSE66957 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database, which contained 115 samples, including 85 cases of ovarian cancer samples and 30 cases of normal ovarian samples. The three microarray datasets were integrated to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs and were deeply analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichments of DEGs were performed by DAVID and KOBAS online analyses, respectively. The protein–protein interaction (PPI networks of the DEGs were constructed from the STRING database. A total of 190 DEGs were identified in the three GEO datasets, of which 99 genes were upregulated and 91 genes were downregulated. GO analysis showed that the biological functions of DEGs focused primarily on regulating cell proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation and intracellular signal cascades. The main cellular components include cell membranes, exosomes, the cytoskeleton, and the extracellular matrix. The molecular functions include growth factor activity, protein kinase regulation, DNA binding, and oxygen transport activity. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, amino acid metabolism, and the

  4. Signaling pathways activation profiles make better markers of cancer than expression of individual genes

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Nikolay M.; Terekhanova, Nadezhda V.; Aliper, Alexander M.; Venkova, Larisa S.; Smirnov, Philip Yu; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Zhavoronkov, Alex A.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of reliable and accurate molecular markers remains one of the major challenges of contemporary biomedicine. We developed a new bioinformatic technique termed OncoFinder that for the first time enables to quantatively measure activation of intracellular signaling pathways basing on transcriptomic data. Signaling pathways regulate all major cellular events in health and disease. Here, we showed that the Pathway Activation Strength (PAS) value itself may serve as the biomarker for...

  5. DMPD: Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14751759 Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withTo...;16(1):17-22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of... CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. PubmedID 14751759 Title Signal transduction pathways media

  6. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beildeck, Marcy E. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Gelmann, Edward P. [Columbia University, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Byers, Stephen W., E-mail: byerss@georgetown.edu [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  7. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beildeck, Marcy E.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Byers, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  8. Training signaling pathway maps to biochemical data with constrained fuzzy logic: quantitative analysis of liver cell responses to inflammatory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody K Morris

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of cell signaling network operation based on general prior knowledge but consistent with empirical data in a specific environmental context is a current challenge in computational biology. Recent work has demonstrated that Boolean logic can be used to create context-specific network models by training proteomic pathway maps to dedicated biochemical data; however, the Boolean formalism is restricted to characterizing protein species as either fully active or inactive. To advance beyond this limitation, we propose a novel form of fuzzy logic sufficiently flexible to model quantitative data but also sufficiently simple to efficiently construct models by training pathway maps on dedicated experimental measurements. Our new approach, termed constrained fuzzy logic (cFL, converts a prior knowledge network (obtained from literature or interactome databases into a computable model that describes graded values of protein activation across multiple pathways. We train a cFL-converted network to experimental data describing hepatocytic protein activation by inflammatory cytokines and demonstrate the application of the resultant trained models for three important purposes: (a generating experimentally testable biological hypotheses concerning pathway crosstalk, (b establishing capability for quantitative prediction of protein activity, and (c prediction and understanding of the cytokine release phenotypic response. Our methodology systematically and quantitatively trains a protein pathway map summarizing curated literature to context-specific biochemical data. This process generates a computable model yielding successful prediction of new test data and offering biological insight into complex datasets that are difficult to fully analyze by intuition alone.

  9. Identification of a novel Gnao-mediated alternate olfactory signaling pathway in murine OSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eScholz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl- efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII, the recruitment of Ca2+ from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.

  10. The effect of neutral-surface iron oxide nanoparticles on cellular uptake and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eunjoo Kim,1 Joon Mee Kim,2 Lucia Kim,2 Suk Jin Choi,2 In Suh Park,2 Jee Young Han,2 Young Chae Chu,2 Eun Sook Choi,1 Kun Na,3 Soon-Sun Hong4 1Division of Nano and Energy Convergence Research, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST, Daegu, 2Department of Pathology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Biotechnology, Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea Abstract: In recent years, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs have been applied widely to biomedical fields. However, the relationship between the physicochemical properties of IONPs and their biological behavior is not fully understood yet. We prepared 3-methacryloxypropyl­trimethoxysilane (MPS-coated IONPs, which have a neutral hydrophobic surface, and compared their biological behavior to that of Resovist (ferucarbotran, a commercialized IONP formulation modified with carboxymethyl dextran. The rate of MPS-IONP uptake by human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs was higher than ferucarbotran uptake, indicating that the neutral hydrophobic nature of MPS-IONPs allowed them to be absorbed more readily through the plasma membrane. However, the signaling pathways activated by MPS-IONPs and ferucarbotran were comparable, suggesting that surface charge is not a key factor for inducing changes in HAoECs. In vivo fate analysis showed that MPS-IONPs accumulated for longer periods in tissues than hydrophilic ferucarbotran. These findings could enlarge our understanding of NP behavior for advanced applications in the biomedical field. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, neutral hydrophobic surface, signaling pathway, uptake, accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS

  11. Interactions among oscillatory pathways in NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently

  12. Lung cancer, intracellular signaling pathways, and preclinical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordant, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) can induce cellular immortalization, proliferation, and resistance to anticancer therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or chemotherapy. This study assessed the consequences of inhibiting these two pathways in tumor cells with activation of KRAS, PI3K-AKT, or both. We investigated whether the combination of a novel RAF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, RAF265, with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), could lead to enhanced anti-tumoral effects in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, we used cell lines with different status regarding KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations, using immunoblotting to evaluate the inhibitors, and MTT and clonogenic assays for effects on cell viability and proliferation. Subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the activity of the combination in vivo. RAD001 inhibited mTOR downstream signaling in all cell lines, whereas RAF265 inhibited RAF downstream signaling only in BRAF mutant cells. In vitro, addition of RAF265 to RAD001 led to decreased AKT, S6, and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In vitro and in vivo, RAD001 addition enhanced the anti-tumoral effect of RAF265 in HCT116 and H460 cells (both KRAS mut, PIK3CA mut); in contrast, the combination of RAF265 and RAD001 yielded no additional activity in A549 and MDAMB231 cells. The combination of RAF and mTOR inhibitors is effective for enhancing anti-tumoral effects in cells with deregulation of both RAS-RAF and PI3K, possibly through the cross-inhibition of 4E binding protein 1 and S6 protein. We then focus on animal models. Preclinical models of NSCLC require better clinical relevance to study disease mechanisms and innovative

  13. Aberrant Wnt signaling pathway in medial temporal lobe structures of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise, Jesper; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    alterations of the intracellular Wnt pathway signaling components β-catenin, Gsk3β and Tcf7l1/Tcf3 and the phosphorylation state of β-catenin and Gsk3β in the hippocampus suggestive of a link between AD and aberrant canonical activity. Alterations in Gsk3β co-appeared with hippocampal kinase...... on isolated Wnt pathway components. Here, we provide the first comprehensive pathway-focused evaluation of the Wnt pathway in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. Our data demonstrate altered Wnt pathway gene expression at all levels of the pathway in both medial temporal lobe regions...

  14. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  15. The node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify elements of cancer-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman

    2017-12-28

    Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.

  16. Escher: A Web Application for Building, Sharing, and Embedding Data-Rich Visualizations of Biological Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Draeger, Andreas; Ebrahim, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Escher is a web application for visualizing data on biological pathways. Three key features make Escher a uniquely effective tool for pathway visualization. First, users can rapidly design new pathway maps. Escher provides pathway suggestions based on user data and genome-scale models, so users c...... of these features and explains how the development approach used for Escher can be used to guide the development of future visualization tools....

  17. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  18. Modeling the intra- and extracellular cytokine signaling pathway under heat stroke in the liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rodriguez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available Heat stroke (HS is a life-threatening illness induced by prolonged exposure to a hot environment that causes central nervous system abnormalities and severe hyperthermia. Current data suggest that the pathophysiological responses to heat stroke may not only be due to the immediate effects of heat exposure per se but also the result of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The observation that pro- (e.g., IL-1 and anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-10 cytokines are elevated concomitantly during recovery suggests a complex network of interactions involved in the manifestation of heat-induced SIRS. In this study, we measured a set of circulating cytokine/soluble cytokine receptor proteins and liver cytokine and receptor mRNA accumulation in wild-type and tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor knockout mice to assess the effect of neutralization of TNF signaling on the SIRS following HS. Using a systems approach, we developed a computational model describing dynamic changes (intra- and extracellular events in the cytokine signaling pathways in response to HS that was fitted to novel genomic (liver mRNA accumulation and proteomic (circulating cytokines and receptors data using global optimization. The model allows integration of relevant biological knowledge and formulation of new hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms behind the complex etiology of HS that may serve as future therapeutic targets. Moreover, using our unique modeling framework, we explored cytokine signaling pathways with three in silico experiments (e.g. by simulating different heat insult scenarios and responses in cytokine knockout strains in silico.

  19. Regulation of Early Steps of GPVI Signal Transduction by Phosphatases: A Systems Biology Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L Dunster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a data-driven mathematical model of a key initiating step in platelet activation, a central process in the prevention of bleeding following Injury. In vascular disease, this process is activated inappropriately and causes thrombosis, heart attacks and stroke. The collagen receptor GPVI is the primary trigger for platelet activation at sites of injury. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms initiated by this receptor is important for development of more effective antithrombotic medicines. In this work we developed a series of nonlinear ordinary differential equation models that are direct representations of biological hypotheses surrounding the initial steps in GPVI-stimulated signal transduction. At each stage model simulations were compared to our own quantitative, high-temporal experimental data that guides further experimental design, data collection and model refinement. Much is known about the linear forward reactions within platelet signalling pathways but knowledge of the roles of putative reverse reactions are poorly understood. An initial model, that includes a simple constitutively active phosphatase, was unable to explain experimental data. Model revisions, incorporating a complex pathway of interactions (and specifically the phosphatase TULA-2, provided a good description of the experimental data both based on observations of phosphorylation in samples from one donor and in those of a wider population. Our model was used to investigate the levels of proteins involved in regulating the pathway and the effect of low GPVI levels that have been associated with disease. Results indicate a clear separation in healthy and GPVI deficient states in respect of the signalling cascade dynamics associated with Syk tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. Our approach reveals the central importance of this negative feedback pathway that results in the temporal regulation of a specific class of protein tyrosine phosphatases in

  20. Optimal structural inference of signaling pathways from unordered and overlapping gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Lipi R; Judeh, Thair; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Dongxiao

    2012-02-15

    A plethora of bioinformatics analysis has led to the discovery of numerous gene sets, which can be interpreted as discrete measurements emitted from latent signaling pathways. Their potential to infer signaling pathway structures, however, has not been sufficiently exploited. Existing methods accommodating discrete data do not explicitly consider signal cascading mechanisms that characterize a signaling pathway. Novel computational methods are thus needed to fully utilize gene sets and broaden the scope from focusing only on pairwise interactions to the more general cascading events in the inference of signaling pathway structures. We propose a gene set based simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for the reconstruction of signaling pathway structures. A signaling pathway structure is a directed graph containing up to a few hundred nodes and many overlapping signal cascades, where each cascade represents a chain of molecular interactions from the cell surface to the nucleus. Gene sets in our context refer to discrete sets of genes participating in signal cascades, the basic building blocks of a signaling pathway, with no prior information about gene orderings in the cascades. From a compendium of gene sets related to a pathway, SA aims to search for signal cascades that characterize the optimal signaling pathway structure. In the search process, the extent of overlap among signal cascades is used to measure the optimality of a structure. Throughout, we treat gene sets as random samples from a first-order Markov chain model. We evaluated the performance of SA in three case studies. In the first study conducted on 83 KEGG pathways, SA demonstrated a significantly better performance than Bayesian network methods. Since both SA and Bayesian network methods accommodate discrete data, use a 'search and score' network learning strategy and output a directed network, they can be compared in terms of performance and computational time. In the second study, we compared SA and

  1. TC-1 (c8orf4) enhances aggressive biologic behavior in lung cancer through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Huang, Lijun; Li, Wenhai; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhipei; Jin, Faguang; Lei, Jie; Ba, Guangzhen; Liu, Boya; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1) or c8orf4 gene encodes a 106-residue naturally disordered protein that has been found to be associated with thyroid, gastric, and breast cancer. A recent study has indicated that the protein functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human breast cancer. However, no research has been done in the area of lung cancer. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to confirm the relationship among TC-1, lung cancer, and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The expression of TC-1 was immunohistochemically examined in 147 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. TC-1-overexpressed and silenced A549 cells were infected using lentivirus and MTT cell proliferation analysis, and Matrigel invasion assays and scratch-wound assays were performed to confirm the biologic behavioral changes in different A549 cell subsets. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, key gene β-catenin, target genes of vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-7, c-myc, and survivin were tested at the mRNA and protein level. TC-1 was detected in 97 of the 147 non-small-cell lung cancer primary tumor specimens, and its expression correlated with the TNM stage and regional lymph node metastasis (P cell line. Furthermore, expression of TC-1 protein affected the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway's downstream genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-7, at the mRNA and protein level. TC-1 expression is associated with aggressive biologic behavior in lung cancer and might coordinate with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a positive upstream regulator that induces these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic Signal Processing: Predicting Basic Molecular Biological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Orly

    2005-03-01

    Advances in high-throughput technologies enable acquisition of different types of molecular biological data, monitoring the flow of biological information as DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to proteins, on a genomic scale. Future discovery in biology and medicine will come from the mathematical modeling of these data, which hold the key to fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, as well as answers to questions regarding diagnosis, treatment and drug development. Recently we described data-driven models for genome-scale molecular biological data, which use singular value decomposition (SVD) and the comparative generalized SVD (GSVD). Now we describe an integrative data-driven model, which uses pseudoinverse projection (1). We also demonstrate the predictive power of these matrix algebra models (2). The integrative pseudoinverse projection model formulates any number of genome-scale molecular biological data sets in terms of one chosen set of data samples, or of profiles extracted mathematically from data samples, designated the ``basis'' set. The mathematical variables of this integrative model, the pseudoinverse correlation patterns that are uncovered in the data, represent independent processes and corresponding cellular states (such as observed genome-wide effects of known regulators or transcription factors, the biological components of the cellular machinery that generate the genomic signals, and measured samples in which these regulators or transcription factors are over- or underactive). Reconstruction of the data in the basis simulates experimental observation of only the cellular states manifest in the data that correspond to those of the basis. Classification of the data samples according to their reconstruction in the basis, rather than their overall measured profiles, maps the cellular states of the data onto those of the basis, and gives a global picture of the correlations and possibly also causal coordination of

  3. Sensitivity analysis of intracellular signaling pathway kinetics predicts targets for stem cell fate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Mahdavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Directing stem cell fate requires knowledge of how signaling networks integrate temporally and spatially segregated stimuli. We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC self-renewal. Our analysis identified novel pathway responses; for example, overexpression of the receptor glycoprotein-130 results in reduced pathway activation and increased ESC differentiation. We used a systematic in silico screen to identify novel targets and protein interactions involved in Stat3 activation. Our analysis demonstrates that signaling activation and desensitization (the inability to respond to ligand restimulation is regulated by balancing the activation state of a distributed set of parameters including nuclear export of Stat3, nuclear phosphatase activity, inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling, and receptor trafficking. This knowledge was used to devise a temporally modulated ligand delivery strategy that maximizes signaling activation and leads to enhanced ESC self-renewal.

  4. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  5. A comparative study of the molecular evolution of signalling pathway ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... formed using DnaSP ver. 5 (Librado and Rozas 2009) from ... a context of global divergence within each phylum we exam- ined genomewide ... suggests that the overall conserved sensory signalling cas- cade members are ...

  6. β2-Adrenergic receptor activation mobilizes intracellular calcium via a non-canonical cAMP-independent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz-Montoya, Monica; Wright, Sara J; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Lichtarge, Olivier; Wensel, Theodore G

    2017-06-16

    Beta adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors essential for physiological responses to the hormones/neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine which are found in the nervous system and throughout the body. They are the targets of numerous widely used drugs, especially in the case of the most extensively studied βAR, β 2 AR, whose ligands are used for asthma and cardiovascular disease. βARs signal through Gα s G-proteins and via activation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but some alternative downstream pathways have also been proposed that could be important for understanding normal physiological functioning of βAR signaling and its disruption in disease. Using fluorescence-based Ca 2+ flux assays combined with pharmacology and gene knock-out methods, we discovered a previously unrecognized endogenous pathway in HEK-293 cells whereby β 2 AR activation leads to robust Ca 2+ mobilization from intracellular stores via activation of phospholipase C and opening of inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) receptors. This pathway did not involve cAMP, Gα s , or Gα i or the participation of the other members of the canonical β 2 AR signaling cascade and, therefore, constitutes a novel signaling mechanism for this receptor. This newly uncovered mechanism for Ca 2+ mobilization by β 2 AR has broad implications for adrenergic signaling, cross-talk with other signaling pathways, and the effects of βAR-directed drugs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. MO-DE-207B-03: Improved Cancer Classification Using Patient-Specific Biological Pathway Information Via Gene Expression Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M; Craft, D [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an efficient, pathway-based classification system using network biology statistics to assist in patient-specific response predictions to radiation and drug therapies across multiple cancer types. Methods: We developed PICS (Pathway Informed Classification System), a novel two-step cancer classification algorithm. In PICS, a matrix m of mRNA expression values for a patient cohort is collapsed into a matrix p of biological pathways. The entries of p, which we term pathway scores, are obtained from either principal component analysis (PCA), normal tissue centroid (NTC), or gene expression deviation (GED). The pathway score matrix is clustered using both k-means and hierarchical clustering, and a clustering is judged by how well it groups patients into distinct survival classes. The most effective pathway scoring/clustering combination, per clustering p-value, thus generates various ‘signatures’ for conventional and functional cancer classification. Results: PICS successfully regularized large dimension gene data, separated normal and cancerous tissues, and clustered a large patient cohort spanning six cancer types. Furthermore, PICS clustered patient cohorts into distinct, statistically-significant survival groups. For a suboptimally-debulked ovarian cancer set, the pathway-classified Kaplan-Meier survival curve (p = .00127) showed significant improvement over that of a prior gene expression-classified study (p = .0179). For a pancreatic cancer set, the pathway-classified Kaplan-Meier survival curve (p = .00141) showed significant improvement over that of a prior gene expression-classified study (p = .04). Pathway-based classification confirmed biomarkers for the pyrimidine, WNT-signaling, glycerophosphoglycerol, beta-alanine, and panthothenic acid pathways for ovarian cancer. Despite its robust nature, PICS requires significantly less run time than current pathway scoring methods. Conclusion: This work validates the PICS method to improve

  8. Correlated cone noise decreases rod signal contributions to the post-receptoral pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated how invisible extrinsic temporal white noise that correlates with the activity of one of the three [magnocellular (MC), parvocellular (PC), or koniocellular (KC)] post-receptoral pathways alters mesopic rod signaling. A four-primary photostimulator provided independent control of the rod and three cone photoreceptor excitations. The rod contributions to the three post-receptoral pathways were estimated by perceptually matching a 20% contrast rod pulse by independently varying the LMS (MC pathway), +L-M (PC pathway), and S-cone (KC pathway) excitations. We show that extrinsic cone noise caused a predominant decrease in the overall magnitude and ratio of the rod contributions to each pathway. Thus, the relative cone activity in the post-receptoral pathways determines the relative mesopic rod inputs to each pathway.

  9. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  10. Characterization of Heregulin-Stimulated Signal Transduction Pathways to the Nucleus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    ... 40% of breast cancers and correlates with a poor prognosis for women with breast cancer. Mapping the molecular determinants of the heregulin/ErbB2 signaling pathway will be important in determining viable cellular targets for therapeutic intervention...

  11. TMEPAI regulates EMT in lung cancer cells by modulating the ROS and IRS-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; He, Kai; Wang, Dongmei; Yuan, Xinwang; Liu, Yi; Ji, Hongbin; Song, Jianguo

    2013-08-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in various pathophysiological processes, including cancer cell migration and distal metastasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) are important in cancer progression and regulation of EMT. To explore the biological significance and regulatory mechanism of EMT, we determined the expression, the biological function and the signaling pathway of prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced-1 (TMEPAI), during the induction of EMT and cell migration. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 significantly upregulated the expression of TMEPAI during EMT in human lung adenocarcinoma. Depletion of TMEPAI abolished TGF-β1-induced downregulation of ferritin heavy chain and the subsequent generation of ROS, thus suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. In addition, increased ROS production and overexpression of TMEPAI downregulated the level of IRS-1. Both the addition of H2O2 and IRS-1 small interfering RNA rescued the ability of TGF-β1 to induce EMT in TMEPAI-depleted cells. Remarkably, the levels of TMEPAI in lung tumor tissues are very high, whereas its expression in normal lung epithelium is very low. Moreover, TMEPAI expression was positively correlated with the cell mesenchymal phenotype and migration potential. Our work reveals that TMEPAI contributes to TGF-β1-induced EMT through ROS production and IRS-1 downregulation in lung cancer cells.

  12. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lemur tyrosine kinase (LMTK-3 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. Abnormal expression of LMTK-3 exists in various types of cancers, especially in endocrine-resistant breast cancers; however, the precise level of expression and the biological function in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we determined the expression of LMTK-3 in prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We infected PC3 and LNCaP cells with lentivirus-LMTK-3 and observed the biologic characteristics of the PC3 and LNCaP cells in vitro with TUNEL, and migration and invasion assays, respectively. We also established a transplant tumor model of human prostate cancer with infected cells in 15 BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. Results: LMTK-3 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells. There was a significant decline in the level of LMTK-3 expression in prostate cancers compared to normal tissues. LMTK-3 inhibited PC3 and LNCaP cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We also observed that LMTK-3 induced PC3 cell apoptosis in vivo. Further study showed that LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK. Conclusion: Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of LMTK-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. AKT and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to the process.

  13. Investigation of radiation-induced multilayered signalling response of the inflammatory pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babini, G.; Ugolini, M.; Morini, J.; Baiocco, G.; Ottolenghi, A.; Mariotti, L.; Tabarelli de Fatis, P.; Liotta, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ionising radiation exposure of cells might induce the perturbation of cell functions and, in particular, the activation or inhibition of several important pathways. This perturbation can cause the deregulation of both intra- and extra-cellular signalling cascades (such as the inflammatory pathway) and alter not only the behaviour of directly exposed cells but also the neighbouring nonirradiated ones, through the so-called bystander effect. The aim of the present work was to investigate the complex nonlinear interactions between the inflammatory pathway and other strictly interlaced signalling pathways, such as Erk1/2 and Akt/PKB, focusing on the radiation-induced perturbation of such pathways in the dose range of 0 -2 Gy. The results show how radiation affects these interconnected pathways and how confounding factors, such as the change of culture medium, can hide radiation-induced perturbations. (authors)

  14. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ruben L.; Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; He, Xuehui; Vink, Paul M.; Wijnands, Frank; Gorecka, Monika; Klop, Henri; Bauerschmidt, Sussane; Garritsen, Anja; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Alkema, Wynand

    2012-01-01

    Background: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  15. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.L.; Fleuren, W.W.M.; He, X.; Vink, P.M.; Wijnands, F.; Gorecka, M.; Klop, H.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Garritsen, A.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Joosten, I.; Boots, A.M.H.; Alkema, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  16. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the ...

  17. Regulation of Schistosoma mansoni development and reproduction by the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza Freire de; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Geraldo, Juliana Assis; Coelho, Fernanda Sales; Silva, Larissa Lopes; Neves, Renata Heisler; Volpini, Angela; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Araujo, Neusa; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Caffrey, Conor R; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2014-06-01

    Protein kinases are proven targets for drug development with an increasing number of eukaryotic Protein Kinase (ePK) inhibitors now approved as drugs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members connect cell-surface receptors to regulatory targets within cells and influence a number of tissue-specific biological activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. However, the contributions of members of the MAPK pathway to schistosome development and survival are unclear. We employed RNA interference (RNAi) to elucidate the functional roles of five S. mansoni genes (SmCaMK2, SmJNK, SmERK1, SmERK2 and SmRas) involved in MAPK signaling pathway. Mice were injected with post-infective larvae (schistosomula) subsequent to RNAi and the development of adult worms observed. The data demonstrate that SmJNK participates in parasite maturation and survival of the parasites, whereas SmERK are involved in egg production as infected mice had significantly lower egg burdens with female worms presenting underdeveloped ovaries. Furthermore, it was shown that the c-fos transcription factor was overexpressed in parasites submitted to RNAi of SmERK1, SmJNK and SmCaMK2 indicating its putative involvement in gene regulation in this parasite's MAPK signaling cascade. We conclude that MAPKs proteins play important roles in the parasite in vivo survival, being essential for normal development and successful survival and reproduction of the schistosome parasite. Moreover SmERK and SmJNK are potential targets for drug development.

  18. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  19. Intercellular signaling pathways active during and after growth and differentiation of the lumbar vertebral growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2011-06-15

    Vertebral growth plates at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the major signaling pathways active in the postnatal mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. The growth of all long bones is known to occur by cartilaginous growth plates. The growth plate is composed of layers of chondrocyets that actively proliferate, differentiate, die and, are replaced by bone. The role of major cell signaling pathways has been suggested for regulation of the fetal long bones. But not much is known about the molecular or cellular signals that control the postnatal vertebral growth plate and hence postnatal vertebral bone growth. Understanding such molecular mechanisms will help design therapeutic treatments for vertebral growth disorders such as scoliosis. Antibodies against activated downstream intermediates were used to identify cells in the growth plate responding to BMP, TGFβ, and FGF in cryosections of lumbar vertebrae from different postnatal age mice to identify the zones that were responding to these signals. Reporter mice were used to identify the chondrocytes responding to hedgehog (Ihh), and Wnt signaling. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, and differentiation of the mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. During growth and differentiation of the vertebral growth plate, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Response to most of these signals is dramatically downregulated at the end of vertebral growth.

  20. Evolution and Design Governing Signal Precision and Amplification in a Bacterial Chemosensory Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Guzzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles underlying the plasticity of signal transduction networks is fundamental to decipher the functioning of living cells. In Myxococcus xanthus, a particular chemosensory system (Frz coordinates the activity of two separate motility systems (the A- and S-motility systems, promoting multicellular development. This unusual structure asks how signal is transduced in a branched signal transduction pathway. Using combined evolution-guided and single cell approaches, we successfully uncoupled the regulations and showed that the A-motility regulation system branched-off an existing signaling system that initially only controlled S-motility. Pathway branching emerged in part following a gene duplication event and changes in the circuit structure increasing the signaling efficiency. In the evolved pathway, the Frz histidine kinase generates a steep biphasic response to increasing external stimulations, which is essential for signal partitioning to the motility systems. We further show that this behavior results from the action of two accessory response regulator proteins that act independently to filter and amplify signals from the upstream kinase. Thus, signal amplification loops may underlie the emergence of new connectivity in signal transduction pathways.

  1. Dietary influence on MAPK-signaling pathways and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Associations between genes in the DUSP, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways and dietary factors associated with growth factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress and risk of colon and rectal cancer were evaluated. Data include colon cases (n = 1555) and controls (n = 1956) and rectal cases (n = 754) and controls (n = 959). Statistically significant interactions were observed for the MAPK-signaling pathways after adjustment for multiple comparisons. DUSP genes interacted with carbohydrates, mutagen index, calories, calcium, vitamin D, lycopene, dietary fats, folic acid, and selenium. MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK1, and RAF1 within the ERK1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway interacted with dietary fats and cruciferous vegetables. Within the JNK MAPK-signaling pathway, interactions between MAP3K7 and protein, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, carbohydrates, and cruciferous vegetables; MAP3K10 and folic acid; MAP3K9 and lutein/zeaxanthin; MAPK8 and calcium; MAP3K3 and calcium and lutein; MAP3K1 and cruciferous vegetables. Interaction within the p38-signaling pathway included MAPK14 with calories, carbohydrates saturated fat, selenium, vitamin C; MAP3K2 and carbohydrates, and folic acid. These data suggest that dietary factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress interact with MAPK-signaling genes to alter risk of colorectal cancer.

  2. Knockdown of Heparanase Suppresses Invasion of Human Trophoblasts by Activating p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglu Che

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disease with increasing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Defective trophoblast invasion is considered to be a major factor in the pathophysiological mechanism of preeclampsia. Heparanase, the only endo-β-glucuronidase in mammalian cells, has been shown to be abnormally expressed in the placenta of preeclampsia patients in our previous study. The biological role and potential mechanism of heparanase in trophoblasts remain unclear. In the present study, stably transfected HTR8/SVneo cell lines with heparanase overexpression or knockdown were constructed. The effect of heparanase on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, tube formation, and potential pathways in trophoblasts was explored. Our results showed that overexpression of heparanase promoted proliferation and invasion. Knockdown of heparanase suppressed proliferation, invasion, and tube formation but induced apoptosis. These findings reveal that downregulation of heparanase may contribute to defective placentation and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Furthermore, increased activation of p38 MAPK in heparanase-knockdown HTR8/SVneo cell was shown by MAPK pathway phosphorylation array and Western blotting assay. After pretreatment with 3 specific p38 MAPK inhibitors (BMS582949, SB203580, or BIRB796, inadequate invasion in heparanase-knockdown HTR8/SVneo cell was rescued. That indicates that knockdown of heparanase decreases HTR8/SVneo cell invasion through excessive activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Our study suggests that heparanase can be a potential predictive biomarker for preeclampsia at an early stage of pregnancy and represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of preeclampsia.

  3. Regulation of PCP by the Fat signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, Maja; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelia, orthogonal to the apical–basal axis, is essential for numerous developmental events and physiological functions. Drosophila model systems have been at the forefront of studies revealing insights into mechanisms regulating PCP and have revealed distinct signaling modules. One of these, involving the atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous and the ectokinase Four-jointed, appears to link the direction of cell polarization to the tissue axes. We discuss models for the function of this signaling module as well as several unanswered questions that may guide future investigations. PMID:24142873

  4. Biological pathways and genetic variables involved in pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Qiuling; Cleeland, Charles S.; Klepstad, Pål; Miaskowski, Christine; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Baas, Frank; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Chauhan, Cynthia; Dueck, Amylou C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Hall, Per; Halyard, Michele Y.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Patrick, Donald L.; Ropka, Mary E.; Shinozaki, Gen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Veenhoven, Ruut; Yang, Ping; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This paper summarizes current knowledge of pain-related and analgesic-related pathways as well as genetic variations involved in pain perception and management. Methods The pain group of the GENEQOL Consortium was given the task of summarizing the current status of research on genetic

  5. Protein signaling pathways in differentiation of neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalníková, Helena; Vodička, Petr; Pelech, S.; Motlík, Jan; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 4547-4559 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : antibody microarray * differentiation * neural stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.586, year: 2008

  6. [The function of transcription factor P63 and its signaling pathway during limb development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Tian, Wen

    2014-08-01

    The development of human limb is controlled by several transcription factors and signaling pathways, which are organized in precise time- and space-restricted manners. Recent studies showed that P63 and its signaling pathway play important roles in this process. Transcription factor P63, one member of the P53 family, is characterized by a similar amino acid domain, plays a crucial role in the development of limb and ectoderm differentiation, especially with its DNA binding domain, and sterile alpha motif domains. Mutated P63 gene may produce abnormal transcription factor P63 which can affect the signaling pathway. Furthermore, defective signaling protein in structure and/or quantity is synthesized though the pathway. Eventually, members of the signaling protein family are involved in the regulation of differentiation and development of stem cell, which causes deformity of limbs. In brief, three signaling pathways are related to the digit formation along three axes, including SHH-ZPA, FGFs-AER and Lmx1B-Wnt7a-En1. Each contains numerous signaling molecules which are integrated in self-regulatory modules that assure the acquisition or the correct digit complements. These finding has brought new clues for deciphering the etiology of congenital limb malformation and may provide alternatives for both prevention and treatment.

  7. Intercellular signaling pathways active during intervertebral disc growth, differentiation, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral discs at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the signaling pathways active in the postnatal intervertebral disc (IVD). The postnatal IVD is a complex structure, consisting of 3 histologically distinct components, the nucleus pulposus, fibrous anulus fibrosus, and endplate. These differentiate and grow during the first 9 weeks of age in the mouse. Identification of the major signaling pathways active during and after the growth and differentiation period will allow functional analysis using mouse genetics and identify targets for therapy for individual components of the disc. Antibodies specific for individual cell signaling pathways were used on cryostat sections of IVD at different postnatal ages to identify which components of the IVD were responding to major classes of intercellular signal, including sonic hedgehog, Wnt, TGFbeta, FGF, and BMPs. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, differentiation, and aging of the disc. During growth and differentiation of the disc, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Most of these are dramatically downregulated at the end of disc growth.

  8. Pathways to smoking behaviours : biological insights from the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minicã, C C; Mbarek, H; Pool, R; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I; Vink, J M

    By running gene and pathway analyses for several smoking behaviours in the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (TAG) sample of 74 053 individuals, 21 genes and several chains of biological pathways were implicated. Analyses were carried out using the HYbrid Set-based Test (HYST) as implemented in the

  9. Mass spectrometry based proteomics in cell biology and signaling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.; Andersen, J.; Ishihama, Y.; Rappsilber, J.; Ong, S.; Foster, L.; Blagoev, B.; Kratchmarova, I.; Lasonder, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Proteomics is one of the most powerful post-genomics technologies. Recently accomplishments include large scale protein-protein interaction mapping, large scale mapping of phosphorylation sites and the cloning of key signaling molecules. In this talk, current state of the art of the technology will be reviewed. Applications of proteomics to the mapping of multiprotein complexes will be illustrated with recent work on the spliceosome and the nucleolus. More than 300 proteins have been mapped to each of these complexes. Quantitative techniques are becoming more and more essential in proteomics. They are usually performed by the incorporation of stable isotopes - a light form in cell state 'A' and a heavy form in cell state 'E' - and subsequent comparison of mass spectrometric peak heights. A new technique called, SILAC for Stable isotope Incorporation by Amino acids in Cell culture, has been applied to studying cell differentiation and mapping secreted proteins from adipocytes. A number of known and novel proteins important in adipocyte differentiation have been identified by this technique. Some of these proved to be upregulated at the 1 mRNA level, too, whereas others appear to be regulated post-translationally. We have also applied the SILAC method to protein-protein interaction mapping. For example, we compared immunoprecipitates from stimulated and non-stimulated cells to find binding partners recruited to the bait due to the stimulus. Several novel substrates in the EGF pathway were found in this way. An important application of proteomics in the signaling field is the mapping of post-translational modifications. In particular, there are a number of techniques for phosphotyrosine phosphorylation mapping which have proven very useful. Making use of the mass deficiency of the phosphogroup, 'parent ion scans' con be performed, which selectively reveal phosphotyrosine peptides from complex peptides mixtures. This technique has been used to clone several

  10. Signaling pathways and stem cells in uterus and fallopian tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yongqian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring her fertile years, the endometrium of fertile women undergoes regular cycles of regeneration, differentiation and shedding, driven by changing concentrations of the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone. In the present study, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in relation

  11. Signaling pathways regulated by Brassicaceae extract inhibit the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of this study was identification signaling molecules mediated the formation of AGEs in brain of rats injected with CdCl2 and the role of camel whey proteins and Brassicaceae extract on formation of AGEs in brain. Methods: Ninety male rats were randomly grouped into five groups; Normal control (GpI) ...

  12. cGMP signalling : different ways to create a pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Smith, Janet L.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    Recently, a novel cGMP signalling cascade was uncovered in Dictyostelium, a eukaryote that diverged from the lineage leading to metazoa after plants and before yeast. In both Dictyostelium and metazoa, the ancient cAMP-binding (cNB) motif of bacterial CAP has been modified and assembled with other

  13. Elucidation of the Signal Transduction Pathways Activated by the Plant Natriuretic Peptide AtPNP-A

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    identify and relatively quantify proteins that are differentially expressed upon the treatment with nano- and picomolar concentrations of the biologically active AtPNP-A peptide at different time-points post-treatment. Characterization of both the AtPNP-A interactome and AtPNP-A dependent proteome afforded novel insights into the signal transduction pathways altered by PNPs and shed new light on the mechanisms by which these candidate interactants operate. Taken together, indications are that PNP dependent mechanisms can be harnessed for possible biotechnological applications.

  14. Responses of the insulin signaling pathways in the brown adipose tissue of rats following cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wahl, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The insulin signaling pathway is critical for the control of blood glucose levels. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been implicated as important in glucose homeostasis. The effect of short-term cold exposure on this pathway in BAT has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of 4 hours of cold exposure on the insulin pathway in the BAT of rats. Whole genomic microarray chips were used to examine the transcripts of the pathway in BAT of rats exposed to 4°C and 22°C for 4 hours. The 4 most significantly altered pathways following 4 hours of cold exposure were the insulin signaling pathway, protein kinase A, PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK signaling. The insulin signaling pathway was the most affected. In the documented 142 genes of the insulin pathway, 42 transcripts (29.6%) responded significantly to this cold exposure with the least false discovery rate (Benjamini-Hochberg Multiple Testing: -log10 (p-value)  = 7.18). Twenty-seven genes (64%) were up-regulated, including the insulin receptor (Insr), insulin substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1 and Irs2). Fifteen transcripts (36%) were down-regulated. Multiple transcripts of the primary target and secondary effector targets for the insulin signaling were also up-regulated, including those for carbohydrate metabolism. Using western blotting, we demonstrated that the cold induced higher Irs2, Irs1, and Akt-p protein levels in the BAT than in the BAT of controls maintained at room temperature, and higher Akt-p protein level in the muscle. this study demonstrated that 4 hours of cold exposure stimulated the insulin signaling pathway in the BAT and muscle of overnight fasted rats. This raises the possibility that acute cold stimulation may have potential to improve glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity.

  15. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chandrakant Thacker

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  16. Pan-cancer analysis of TCGA data reveals notable signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neapolitan, Richard; Horvath, Curt M.; Jiang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    A signal transduction pathway (STP) is a network of intercellular information flow initiated when extracellular signaling molecules bind to cell-surface receptors. Many aberrant STPs have been associated with various cancers. To develop optimal treatments for cancer patients, it is important to discover which STPs are implicated in a cancer or cancer-subtype. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) makes available gene expression level data on cases and controls in ten different types of cancer including breast cancer, colon adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, low grade glioma, lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, rectum adenocarcinoma, and uterine corpus endometriod carcinoma. Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis (SPIA) is a software package that analyzes gene expression data to identify whether a pathway is relevant in a given condition. We present the results of a study that uses SPIA to investigate all 157 signaling pathways in the KEGG PATHWAY database. We analyzed each of the ten cancer types mentioned above separately, and we perform a pan-cancer analysis by grouping the data for all the cancer types. In each analysis several pathways were found to be markedly more significant than all the other pathways. We call them notable. Research has already established a connection between many of these pathways and the corresponding cancer type. However, some of our discovered pathways appear to be new findings. Altogether there were 37 notable findings in the separate analyses, 26 of them occurred in 7 pathways. These 7 pathways included the 4 notable pathways discovered in the pan-cancer analysis. So, our results suggest that these 7 pathways account for much of the mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, by looking at the overlap among pathways, we identified possible regions on the pathways where the aberrant activity is occurring. We obtained 37 notable findings concerning 18 pathways. Some of them appear to be

  17. The cAMP Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways in Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to

  18. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  19. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  20. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    breast cancer cells, I tested whether ErbB2 overexpression will cooperate with Notch in HMLE cells. While overexpression of activated Notch1 failed to...tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers , also failed to transform HMLE cells. These observations suggested...cooperation between Notch1IC and ErbB2 signaling in transforming HMLE cells. Breast cancers typically do not harbor oncogenic Ras mutations; nevertheless

  1. Ethylene Receptors Signal via a Noncanonical Pathway to Regulate Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Arkadipta; Fernandez, Jessica C.

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone perceived by a family of receptors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) including ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1) and ETR2. Previously we showed that etr1-6 loss-of-function plants germinate better and etr2-3 loss-of-function plants germinate worse than wild-type under NaCl stress and in response to abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we expanded these results by showing that ETR1 and ETR2 have contrasting roles in the control of germination under a variety of inhibitory conditions for seed germination such as treatment with KCl, CuSO4, ZnSO4, and ethanol. Pharmacological and molecular biology results support a model where ETR1 and ETR2 are indirectly affecting the expression of genes encoding ABA signaling proteins to affect ABA sensitivity. The receiver domain of ETR1 is involved in this function in germination under these conditions and controlling the expression of genes encoding ABA signaling proteins. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that these contrasting roles of ETR1 and ETR2 do not require the canonical ethylene signaling pathway. To explore the importance of receptor-protein interactions, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screens using the cytosolic domains of ETR1 and ETR2 as bait. Unique interacting partners with either ETR1 or ETR2 were identified. We focused on three of these proteins and confirmed the interactions with receptors. Loss of these proteins led to faster germination in response to ABA, showing that they are involved in ABA responses. Thus, ETR1 and ETR2 have both ethylene-dependent and -independent roles in plant cells that affect responses to ABA. PMID:29158332

  2. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  3. Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mitsos

    Full Text Available Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i excessive CPU time requirements and ii loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  4. The Signaling Pathways Involved in Chondrocyte Differentiation and Hypertrophic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrocytes communicate with each other mainly via diffusible signals rather than direct cell-to-cell contact. The chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is well regulated by the interactions of varieties of growth factors, cytokines, and signaling molecules. A number of critical signaling molecules have been identified to regulate the differentiation of chondrocyte from mesenchymal progenitor cells to their terminal maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, SRY-related high-mobility group-box gene 9 (Sox9, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, Indian hedgehog (Ihh, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3, and β-catenin. Except for these molecules, other factors such as adenosine, O2 tension, and reactive oxygen species (ROS also have a vital role in cartilage formation and chondrocyte maturation. Here, we outlined the complex transcriptional network and the function of key factors in this network that determine and regulate the genetic program of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation.

  5. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora

    2018-01-01

    during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor......Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling...... signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e.g. selenium metabolism, Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, ketone body metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and catalytic cycle of mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs). On the other hand...

  6. Improving the Timed Automata Approach to Biological Pathway Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, R.; Pol, Jaco van de; Post, Janine N.; Schivo, Stefano; Aceto, Luca; Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Ingólfsdóttir, Anna; Legay, Axel; Mardare, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems such as regulatory or gene networks can be seen as a particular type of distributed systems, and for this reason they can be modeled within the Timed Automata paradigm, which was developed in the computer science context. However, tools designed to model distributed systems often

  7. Construction of large signaling pathways using an adaptive perturbation approach with phosphoproteomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melas, Ioannis N; Mitsos, Alexander; Messinis, Dimitris E; Weiss, Thomas S; Rodriguez, Julio-Saez; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-04-01

    Construction of large and cell-specific signaling pathways is essential to understand information processing under normal and pathological conditions. On this front, gene-based approaches offer the advantage of large pathway exploration whereas phosphoproteomic approaches offer a more reliable view of pathway activities but are applicable to small pathway sizes. In this paper, we demonstrate an experimentally adaptive approach to construct large signaling pathways from phosphoproteomic data within a 3-day time frame. Our approach--taking advantage of the fast turnaround time of the xMAP technology--is carried out in four steps: (i) screen optimal pathway inducers, (ii) select the responsive ones, (iii) combine them in a combinatorial fashion to construct a phosphoproteomic dataset, and (iv) optimize a reduced generic pathway via an Integer Linear Programming formulation. As a case study, we uncover novel players and their corresponding pathways in primary human hepatocytes by interrogating the signal transduction downstream of 81 receptors of interest and constructing a detailed model for the responsive part of the network comprising 177 species (of which 14 are measured) and 365 interactions.

  8. The octadecanoid signalling pathway in plants mediates a response to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conconi, A.; Smerdon, M.J.; Howe, G.A.; Ryan, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Many plant genes that respond to environmental and developmental changes are regulated by jasmonic acid, which is derived from linolenic acid via the octadecanoid pathway. Linolenic acid is an important fatty-acid constituent of membranes in most plant species and its intracellular levels increase in response to certain signals. Here we report that irradiation of tomato leaves with ultraviolet light induces the expression of several plant defensive genes that are normally activated through the octadecanoid pathway after wounding. The response to ultraviolet light is blocked by an inhibitor of the octadecanoid pathway and it does not occur in a tomato mutant defective in this pathway. The ultraviolet irradiation maximally induces the defence genes at levels where cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation, an indicator of DNA damage, is less than 0.2 dimers per gene. Our evidence indicates that this plant defence response to certain wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation requires the activation of the octadecanoid defence signalling pathway. (author)

  9. UTP-induced ATP release is a fine-tuned signalling pathway in osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelbach, Tina M.; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as a cellular network throughout the mineralised matrix of bone and are considered the primary mechanosensors of this tissue. They sense mechanical stimulation such as fluid flow and are able to regulate osteoblast and osteoclast functions on the bone surface. Previously, we fou...... signals may be propagated by P2 receptor activation and further ATP release in the osteocyte network and implicate purinergic signalling as a central signalling pathway in osteocyte mechanotransduction....

  10. Discovery and characterization of a potent Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways dual inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haikuo; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Fang; Zheng, Jiyue; Li, Jiajun; Zhang, Hongjian; Chen, Shuaishuai; Xing, Haimei; Luo, Lusong; Zheng, Long Tai; He, Sudan; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2018-04-10

    Embryonic stem cell pathways such as hedgehog and Wnt pathways are central to the tumorigenic properties of cancer stem cells (CSC). Since CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew, form differentiated progeny, and develop resistance to anticancer therapies, targeting the Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways has been an important strategy for cancer treatment. Although molecules targeting either Wnt or hedgehog are common, to the best of our knowledge, those targeting both pathways have not been documented. Here we report a small molecule (compound 1) that inhibits both Wnt (IC 50  = 0.5 nM) and hedgehog (IC 50  = 71 nM) pathways based on reporter gene assays. We further identified that the molecular target of 1 for Wnt pathway inhibition was porcupine (a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase family of proteins), a post-translational modification node in Wnt signaling; while the target of 1 mitigating hedgehog pathway was Smoothened, a key G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating hedgehog signal transduction. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity-relationship identified key functional elements for hedgehog/Wnt inhibition. In in vivo studies, compound 1 demonstrated good oral exposure and bioavailability while eliciting no overt toxicity in mice. An important consideration in cancer treatment is the potential therapeutic escape through compensatory activation of an interconnected pathway when only one signaling pathway is inhibited. Toward this end, compound 1 may not only lead to the development of new therapeutics for Wnt and hedgehog related cancers, but may also help to develop potential cancer treatment which needs to target Wnt and hedgehog signaling simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Encoding of temporal signals by the TGF-β pathway and implications for embryonic patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorre, Benoit; Warmflash, Aryeh; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Siggia, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetics and biochemistry have defined the components and wiring of the signaling pathways that pattern the embryo. Among them, the TGF-β pathway has the potential to behave as a morphogen: invitro experiments have clearly established that it can dictate cell fate in a concentration dependent manner. How morphogens convey positional information in a developing embryo, where signal levels are changing with time, is less understood. Using integrated microfluidic cell culture and time-lapse microscopy, we demonstrate here that the speed of ligand presentation has a key and previously unexpected influence on TGF-β signaling outcomes. The response to a TGF-β concentration step is transient and adaptive, slowly increasing the ligand concentration diminishes the response and well-spaced pulses of ligand combine additively resulting in greater pathway output than with constant stimulation. Our results suggest that in an embryonic context, the speed of change of ligand concentration is an instructive signal for patterning. PMID:25065773

  12. Targeting activator protein 1 signaling pathway by bioactive natural agents: Possible therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Devesh; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sureda, Antoni; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Atanasov, Atanas G; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2018-02-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a key transcription factor in the control of several cellular processes responsible for cell survival proliferation and differentiation. Dysfunctional AP-1 expression and activity are involved in several severe diseases, especially inflammatory disorders and cancer. Therefore, targeting AP-1 has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This review summarizes our current understanding of AP-1 biology and function as well as explores and discusses several natural bioactive compounds modulating AP-1-associated signaling pathways for cancer prevention and intervention. Current limitations, challenges, and future directions of research are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyphae-specific genes HGC1, ALS3, HWP1, and ECE1 and relevant signaling pathways in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; He, Hong; Dong, Yan; Pan, Hengbiao

    2013-12-01

    Fungal virulence mechanisms include adhesion to epithelia, morphogenesis, production of secretory hydrolytic enzymes, and phenotype switching, all of which contribute to the process of pathogenesis. A striking feature of the biology of Candida albicans is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal forms. The hyphal form plays an important role in causing disease, by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. In this review, we illustrate some of the main hyphae-specific genes, namely HGC1, UME6, ALS3, HWP1, and ECE1, and their relevant and reversed signal transduction pathways in reactions stimulated by environmental factors, including pH, CO2, and serum.

  14. Quantitative phosphoproteomics applied to the yeast pheromone signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruhler, Albrecht; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2005-01-01

    of a detailed molecular view of complex biological processes. We present a quantitative modification-specific proteomic approach that combines stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for quantitation with IMAC for phosphopeptide enrichment and three stages of mass spectrometry (MS....... Phosphopeptide fractions were analyzed by LC-MS using a linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. MS/MS and neutral loss-directed MS/MS/MS analysis allowed detection and sequencing of phosphopeptides with exceptional accuracy and specificity. Of more than 700 identified...

  15. Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Thomas; Alwine, James C

    2014-11-01

    Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.

  16. Hypoxia signaling pathways: modulators of oxygen-related organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberger, Miriam J.; Kovacs, Werner J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) is an essential substrate in cellular metabolism, bioenergetics, and signaling and as such linked to the survival and normal function of all metazoans. Low O2 tension (hypoxia) is a fundamental feature of physiological processes as well as pathophysiological conditions such as cancer and ischemic diseases. Central to the molecular mechanisms underlying O2 homeostasis are the hypoxia-inducible factors-1 and -2 alpha (HIF-1α and EPAS1/HIF-2α) that function as master regulators of the adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-induced genes promote characteristic tumor behaviors, including angiogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. The aim of this review is to critically explore current knowledge of how HIF-α signaling regulates the abundance and function of major O2-consuming organelles. Abundant evidence suggests key roles for HIF-1α in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. An essential adaptation to sustained hypoxia is repression of mitochondrial respiration and induction of glycolysis. HIF-1α activates several genes that trigger mitophagy and represses regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Several lines of evidence point to a strong relationship between hypoxia, the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and activation of the unfolded protein response. Surprisingly, although peroxisomes depend highly on molecular O2 for their function, there has been no evidence linking HIF signaling to peroxisomes. We discuss our recent findings that establish HIF-2α as a negative regulator of peroxisome abundance and suggest a mechanism by which cells attune peroxisomal function with O2 availability. HIF-2α activation augments peroxisome turnover by pexophagy and thereby changes lipid composition reminiscent of peroxisomal disorders. We discuss potential mechanisms by which HIF-2α might trigger pexophagy and place special emphasis on the potential pathological implications of HIF-2α-mediated pexophagy for human health. PMID:26258123

  17. PathJam: a new service for integrating biological pathway information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glez-Peña Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological pathways are crucial to much of the scientific research today including the study of specific biological processes related with human diseases. PathJam is a new comprehensive and freely accessible web-server application integrating scattered human pathway annotation from several public sources. The tool has been designed for both (i being intuitive for wet-lab users providing statistical enrichment analysis of pathway annotations and (ii giving support to the development of new integrative pathway applications. PathJam’s unique features and advantages include interactive graphs linking pathways and genes of interest, downloadable results in fully compatible formats, GSEA compatible output files and a standardized RESTful API.

  18. Xtalk: a path-based approach for identifying crosstalk between signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegge, Allison N.; Sharp, Nicholas; Murali, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Cells communicate with their environment via signal transduction pathways. On occasion, the activation of one pathway can produce an effect downstream of another pathway, a phenomenon known as crosstalk. Existing computational methods to discover such pathway pairs rely on simple overlap statistics. Results: We present Xtalk, a path-based approach for identifying pairs of pathways that may crosstalk. Xtalk computes the statistical significance of the average length of multiple short paths that connect receptors in one pathway to the transcription factors in another. By design, Xtalk reports the precise interactions and mechanisms that support the identified crosstalk. We applied Xtalk to signaling pathways in the KEGG and NCI-PID databases. We manually curated a gold standard set of 132 crosstalking pathway pairs and a set of 140 pairs that did not crosstalk, for which Xtalk achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.65, a 12% improvement over the closest competing approach. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve varied with the pathway, suggesting that crosstalk should be evaluated on a pathway-by-pathway level. We also analyzed an extended set of 658 pathway pairs in KEGG and to a set of more than 7000 pathway pairs in NCI-PID. For the top-ranking pairs, we found substantial support in the literature (81% for KEGG and 78% for NCI-PID). We provide examples of networks computed by Xtalk that accurately recovered known mechanisms of crosstalk. Availability and implementation: The XTALK software is available at http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/~murali/software. Crosstalk networks are available at http://graphspace.org/graphs?tags=2015-bioinformatics-xtalk. Contact: ategge@vt.edu, murali@cs.vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26400040

  19. Realization of Flight Control System in Virtual Reality Environment with Biological Signals

    OpenAIRE

    ALTIN, Cemil; ER, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, anunmanned aerial vehicle was flown on a virtual reality gaming platform with thehelp of commands processed by signal processing methods of biological signals. In thedeveloped application, Matlab signal processing environment and Unity 3Denvironment which is a virtual reality software platform are integrated witheach other and made to work. The biological signals obtained from the EEG ve EMGsensors are processed in Matlab environment and then converted to commands andtransferre...

  20. Signaling pathways and immune evasion mechanisms in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W Robert; Shipp, Margaret A

    2017-11-23

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is an unusual B-cell-derived malignancy in which rare malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells are surrounded by an extensive but ineffective inflammatory/immune cell infiltrate. This striking feature suggests that malignant HRS cells escape immunosurveillance and interact with immune cells in the cancer microenvironment for survival and growth. We previously found that cHLs have a genetic basis for immune evasion: near-uniform copy number alterations of chromosome 9p24.1 and the associated PD-1 ligand loci, CD274/PD-L1 and PDCD1LG2/PD-L2, and copy number-dependent increased expression of these ligands. HRS cells expressing PD-1 ligands are thought to engage PD-1 receptor-positive immune effectors in the tumor microenvironment and induce PD-1 signaling and associated immune evasion. The genetic bases of enhanced PD-1 signaling in cHL make these tumors uniquely sensitive to PD-1 blockade. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Nitric oxide signaling and the cross talk with prostanoids pathways in vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno R; Paula, Tiago D; Paulo, Michele; Bendhack, Lusiane M

    2016-12-28

    This review provides an overview of the cellular signaling of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in vascular cells and the possible cross talk between their pathways, mainly in hypertension, since the imbalance of these two systems has been attributed to development of some cardiovascular diseases. It also deals with the modulation of vasodilation induced by NO donors. NO is a well-known second messenger involved in many cellular functions. In the vascular system, the NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) or released by NO donors acts in vascular smooth muscle cells, the binding of NO to Fe2+-heme of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) activates sGC and the production of cyclic guanosine-3-5-monophosphate (cGMP). The second messenger (cGMP) activates protein kinase G and the signaling cascade, including K+ channels. Activation of K+ channels leads to cell membrane hyperpolarization and Ca2+ channels blockade, which induce vascular relaxation. Moreover, the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is also an important regulator of the vascular function by prostanoids production such as thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), which classically induce contraction and relaxation, respectively. Additionaly, studies indicate that the activity of both enzymes can be modulated by their products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The interaction of NO with cellular molecules, particularly the reaction of NO with ROS, determines the biological mechanisms of action and short half-life of NO. We have been working on the vascular effects of ruthenium-derived complexes that release NO. Our research group has published works on the vasodilating effects of ruthenium-derived NO donors and the mechanisms of vascular cells involved in the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle in health and hypertensive rats. In our previous studies, we have compared the new NO donors synthesized by our group to SNP. It shows the cellular signaling of NO

  2. Vitamin D and K signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Manal L; Fawzy, Ahmed M; Naiem, Abdelrahman M; Elseknedy, Mustafa F; Abdelhalim, Ahmed E; Abdelghany, Mohamed A

    2017-09-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy, and is now the six most common in between malignancies. Early diagnosis of HCC with prompt treatment increases the opportunity of patients to survive. With the advances in understanding the molecular biology of HCC, new therapeutic strategies to treat HCC have emerged. There is a growing consensus that vitamins are important for the control of various cancers. Biochemical evidence clearly indicates that HCC cells are responsive to the inhibitory effect of vitamin D, vitamin D analogues and vitamin K. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms used by vitamin D and K to influence the development of HCC and the latest development of vitamin analogues for potential HCC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Signalling pathways involved in adult heart formation revealed by gene expression profiling in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zeitouni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila provides a powerful system for defining the complex genetic programs that drive organogenesis. Under control of the steroid hormone ecdysone, the adult heart in Drosophila forms during metamorphosis by a remodelling of the larval cardiac organ. Here, we evaluated the extent to which transcriptional signatures revealed by genomic approaches can provide new insights into the molecular pathways that underlie heart organogenesis. Whole-genome expression profiling at eight successive time-points covering adult heart formation revealed a highly dynamic temporal map of gene expression through 13 transcript clusters with distinct expression kinetics. A functional atlas of the transcriptome profile strikingly points to the genomic transcriptional response of the ecdysone cascade, and a sharp regulation of key components belonging to a few evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways. A reverse genetic analysis provided evidence that these specific signalling pathways are involved in discrete steps of adult heart formation. In particular, the Wnt signalling pathway is shown to participate in inflow tract and cardiomyocyte differentiation, while activation of the PDGF-VEGF pathway is required for cardiac valve formation. Thus, a detailed temporal map of gene expression can reveal signalling pathways responsible for specific developmental programs and provides here substantial grasp into heart formation.

  4. Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-10-01

    Although adaptive immunity is unique to vertebrates, the innate immune response seems to have ancient origins. Common features of innate immunity in vertebrates, invertebrate animals and plants include defined receptors for microbe-associated molecules, conserved mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling cascades and the production of antimicrobial peptides. It is commonly reported that these similarities in innate immunity represent a process of divergent evolution from an ancient unicellular eukaryote that pre-dated the divergence of the plant and animal kingdoms. However, at present, data suggest that the seemingly analogous regulatory modules used in plant and animal innate immunity are a consequence of convergent evolution and reflect inherent constraints on how an innate immune system can be constructed.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  7. Necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Taha Abd El; Oirdi, Mohamed El; Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. The activation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathway. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. NPR1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of SA signaling. NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors, ultimately leading to the activation of SA-dependent responses. SA has been shown to promote disease development caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea through NPR1, by suppressing the expression of two JA-dependent defense genes, proteinase inhibitors I and II. We show here that the transcription factor TGA1.a contributes to disease development caused by B. cinerea in tomato by suppressing the expression of proteinase inhibitors I and II. Finally, we present evidence that the SA-signaling pathway contributes to disease development caused by another necrotrophic pathogen, Alternaria solani, in tomato. Disease development promoted by SA through NPR1 requires the TGA1.a transcription factor. These data highlight how necrotrophs manipulate the SAsignaling pathway to promote their disease in tomato.

  8. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP3–Ca2+ signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab; Kawai, Satoru; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca 2+ oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca 2+ - and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca 2+ ) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca 2+ imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca 2+ oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP 3 –Ca 2+ and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum

  9. Oral keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells: specific markers, molecular signaling pathways and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenic, Bogdan; Greabu, Maria; Caruntu, Constantin; Tanase, Cristiana; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Oral keratinocyte stem cells reside in the basal layers of the oral epithelium, representing a minor population of cells with a great potential to self-renew and proliferate over the course of their lifetime. As a result of the potential uses of oral keratinocyte stem cells in regenerative medicine and the key roles they play in tissue homeostasis, inflammatory conditions, wound healing and tumor initiation and progression, intense scientific efforts are currently being undertaken to identify, separate and reprogram these cells. Although currently there is no specific marker that can characterize and isolate oral keratinocyte stem cells, several suggestions have been made. Thus, different stem/progenitor-cell subpopulations have been categorized based on combinations of positive and/or negative membrane-surface markers, which include integrins, clusters of differentiation and cytokeratins. Important advances have also been made in understanding the molecular pathways that govern processes such as self-renewal, differentiation, proliferation, wound healing and programmed cell death. A thorough understanding of stem-cell biology and the molecular players that govern cellular fate is paramount in the quest for using stem-cell-derived therapies in the treatment of various oral pathologies. The current review focuses on recent advances in understanding the molecular signaling pathways coordinating the behavior of these cells and in identifying suitable markers used for their isolation and characterization. Special emphasis will also be placed on the roles played by oral keratinocyte stem and progenitor cells in normal and diseased oral tissues and on their potential uses in the fields of general medicine and dentistry. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Systems biology of adipose tissue metabolism: regulation of growth, signaling and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, Sara; Choi, Kyungoh; Jayaraman, Arul; Lee, Kyongbum

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) depots actively regulate whole body energy homeostasis by orchestrating complex communications with other physiological systems as well as within the tissue. Adipocytes readily respond to hormonal and nutritional inputs to store excess nutrients as intracellular lipids or mobilize the stored fat for utilization. Co-ordinated regulation of metabolic pathways balancing uptake, esterification, and hydrolysis of lipids is accomplished through positive and negative feedback interactions of regulatory hubs comprising several pleiotropic protein kinases and nuclear receptors. Metabolic regulation in adipocytes encompasses biogenesis and remodeling of uniquely large lipid droplets (LDs). The regulatory hubs also function as energy and nutrient sensors, and integrate metabolic regulation with intercellular signaling. Over-nutrition causes hypertrophic expansion of adipocytes, which, through incompletely understood mechanisms, initiates a cascade of metabolic and signaling events leading to tissue remodeling and immune cell recruitment. Macrophage activation and polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype drives a self-reinforcing cycle of pro-inflammatory signals in the AT, establishing an inflammatory state. Sustained inflammation accelerates lipolysis and elevates free fatty acids in circulation, which robustly correlates with development of obesity-related diseases. The adipose regulatory network coupling metabolism, growth, and signaling of multiple cell types is exceedingly complex. While components of the regulatory network have been individually studied in exquisite detail, systems approaches have rarely been utilized to comprehensively assess the relative engagements of the components. Thus, need and opportunity exist to develop quantitative models of metabolic and signaling networks to achieve a more complete understanding of AT biology in both health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. CD147 regulates extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes by modulating NFκB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoqun; Fok, Kin Lam; Cai, Zhiming; Chen, Hao; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2017-01-10

    CD147 null mutant male mice are infertile with arrested spermatogenesis and increased apoptotic germ cells. Our previous studies have shown that CD147 prevents apoptosis in mouse spermatocytes but not spermatogonia. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to determine the CD147-regulated apoptotic pathway in mouse spermatocytes. Our results showed that immunodepletion of CD147 triggered apoptosis through extrinsic apoptotic pathway in mouse testis and spermatocyte cell line (GC-2 cells), accompanied by activation of non-canonical NFκB signaling and suppression of canonical NFκB signaling. Furthermore, CD147 was found to interact with TRAF2, a factor known to regulate NFκB and extrinsic apoptotic signaling, and interfering CD147 led to the decrease of TRAF2. Consistently, depletion of CD147 by CRISPR/Cas9 technique in GC-2 cells down-regulated TRAF2 and resulted in cell death with suppressed canonical NFκB and activated non-canonical NFκB signaling. On the contrary, interfering of CD147 had no effect on NFκB signaling pathways as well as TRAF2 protein level in mouse spermatogonia cell line (GC-1 cells). Taken together, these results suggested that CD147 plays a key role in reducing extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, through modulating NFκB signaling pathway.

  12. Novel lipid signaling pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Joshi, Yash B; Praticò, Domenico

    2014-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With an increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. In addition to the presence of abundant intra- and extra-cellular neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which form the amyloid plaques, and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, consistent evidence indicates that the AD brain is characterized by extensive neuroinflammatory processes. The 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) is a pro-inflammatory enzymatic pathway widely distributed within the central nervous system and is up-regulated in AD. In the last five years our group has been involved in unraveling the neurobiology of this protein and investigating its relationship with cellular and molecular events of functional importance in AD pathogenesis. By using a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental tools and implementing genetic as well as pharmacological approaches today we know that 5LO is likely an endogenous regulator of Aβ formation via the modulation of the γ-secretase complex, and tau metabolism by modulating its phosphorylation state at specific epitopes via the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk-5). In addition, 5LO influences synaptic function and integrity and by doing so significantly affects learning and memory in the Tg2576 and 3xTg AD transgenic mouse models. Taken together our data establish this protein as a pleiotropic contributor to the development of the full spectrum of the AD-like phenotype in these mouse models of the disease, making it a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of AD in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oncogenic fusion proteins adopt the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Haim; Meisel-Sharon, Shilhav; Bruchim, Ilan

    2018-02-19

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) has been identified as a potent anti-apoptotic, pro-survival tyrosine kinase-containing receptor. Overexpression of the IGF1R gene constitutes a typical feature of most human cancers. Consistent with these biological roles, cells expressing high levels of IGF1R are expected not to die, a quintessential feature of cancer cells. Tumor specific chromosomal translocations that disrupt the architecture of transcription factors are a common theme in carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence gathered over the past fifteen years demonstrate that this type of genomic rearrangements is common not only among pediatric and hematological malignancies, as classically thought, but may also provide a molecular and cytogenetic foundation for an ever-increasing portion of adult epithelial tumors. In this review article we provide evidence that the mechanism of action of oncogenic fusion proteins associated with both pediatric and adult malignancies involves transactivation of the IGF1R gene, with ensuing increases in IGF1R levels and ligand-mediated receptor phosphorylation. Disrupted transcription factors adopt the IGF1R signaling pathway and elicit their oncogenic activities via activation of this critical regulatory network. Combined targeting of oncogenic fusion proteins along with the IGF1R may constitute a promising therapeutic approach.

  14. Resveratrol Protects PC12 Cell against 6-OHDA Damage via CXCR4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, herbal nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound naturally derived from grapes, has long been acknowledged to possess extensive biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we intended to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of PC12 cells and further explore the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, PC12 cells were exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of resveratrol (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM. The results showed that resveratrol increased cell viability, alleviated the MMP reduction, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells as measured by MTT assay, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst/PI double staining (all p<0.01. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that resveratrol averts 6-OHDA induced CXCR4 upregulation (p<0.01. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol could effectively protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  15. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Small leucine rich proteoglycan family regulates multiple signalling pathways in neural development and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellett, Margaret; Hu, Wanzhou; Papadaki, Vasiliki; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRPs) family of proteins currently consists of five classes, based on their structural composition and chromosomal location. As biologically active components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), SLRPs were known to bind to various collagens, having a role in regulating fibril assembly, organization and degradation. More recently, as a function of their diverse proteins cores and glycosaminoglycan side chains, SLRPs have been shown to be able to bind various cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and other ECM components resulting in the ability to influence various cellular functions. Their involvement in several signaling pathways such as Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor receptor also highlights their role as matricellular proteins. SLRP family members are expressed during neural development and in adult neural tissues, including ocular tissues. This review focuses on describing SLRP family members involvement in neural development with a brief summary of their role in non-neural ocular tissues and in response to neural injury. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Network Expansion and Pathway Enrichment Analysis towards Biologically Significant Findings from Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaogang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, crucial genes show relatively slight changes between groups of samples (e.g. normal vs. disease, and many genes selected from microarray differential analysis by measuring the expression level statistically are also poorly annotated and lack of biological significance. In this paper, we present an innovative approach - network expansion and pathway enrichment analysis (NEPEA for integrative microarray analysis. We assume that organized knowledge will help microarray data analysis in significant ways, and the organized knowledge could be represented as molecular interaction networks or biological pathways. Based on this hypothesis, we develop the NEPEA framework based on network expansion from the human annotated and predicted protein interaction (HAPPI database, and pathway enrichment from the human pathway database (HPD. We use a recently-published microarray dataset (GSE24215 related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D as case study, since this study provided a thorough experimental validation for both genes and pathways identified computationally from classical microarray analysis and pathway analysis. We perform our NEPEA analysis for this dataset based on the results from the classical microarray analysis to identify biologically significant genes and pathways. Our findings are not only consistent with the original findings mostly, but also obtained more supports from other literatures.

  18. [Exploration of common biological pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bo; Yu, Minglan; Liang, Xuemei; Lei, Wei; Huang, Chaohua; Chen, Jing; He, Wenying; Zhang, Tao; Li, Tao; Liu, Kezhi

    2017-12-10

    To explore common biological pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low birth weight (LBW). Thei-Gsea4GwasV2 software was used to analyze the result of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for LBW (pathways were derived from Reactome), and nominally significant (Ppathways were tested for replication in ADHD.Significant pathways were analyzed with DAPPLE and Reatome FI software to identify genes involved in such pathways, with each cluster enriched with the gene ontology (GO). The Centiscape2.0 software was used to calculate the degree of genetic networks and the betweenness value to explore the core node (gene). Weighed gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was then used to explore the co-expression of genes in these pathways.With gene expression data derived from BrainSpan, GO enrichment was carried out for each gene module. Eleven significant biological pathways was identified in association with LBW, among which two (Selenoamino acid metabolism and Diseases associated with glycosaminoglycan metabolism) were replicated during subsequent ADHD analysis. Network analysis of 130 genes in these pathways revealed that some of the sub-networksare related with morphology of cerebellum, development of hippocampus, and plasticity of synaptic structure. Upon co-expression network analysis, 120 genes passed the quality control and were found to express in 3 gene modules. These modules are mainly related to the regulation of synaptic structure and activity regulation. ADHD and LBW share some biological regulation processes. Anomalies of such proces sesmay predispose to ADHD.

  19. Implications of Green Tea and Its Constituents in the Prevention of Cancer via the Modulation of Cell Signalling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Al shabrmi, Fahad M.; Allemailem, Khaled S.; Aly, Salah M.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is commonly used as a beverage worldwide, especially in China, Japan, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia. Green tea and its constituents have been considered very effective in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. It contains a variety of catechins, which show a pivotal role in the modulation of biological activities and also act as chemopreventive agents. Earlier studies have confirmed that green tea and its chief constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have a potential role in the management of cancer through the modulation of cell signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the beneficial effects of green tea and its constituents in the cancer prevention and treatment and its impact on modulation of molecular pathways. PMID:25977926

  20. Downstream reporter gene imaging for signal transduction pathway of dopamine type 2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Uyenchi N.; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    The Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) signal pathway regulates gene expression by phosphorylation of proteins including cAMP reponse element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor. In this study, we developed a reporter strategy using the GAL4 fusion CREB to assess the phosphorylation of CREB, one of the targets of the D2R signal transduction pathway. We used three plasmids: GAL4 fusion transactivator (pCMV-CREB), firefly luciferase reporter with GAL4 binding sites (pG5-FLUC), and D2R plasmid (pCMV-D2R). Group 1 293T cells were transiently transfected with pCMV-CREB and pG5-FLUC, and group 2 cells were transfected with all three plasmids. Transfected cells were stimulated with different concentrations of dopamine (0-200 M). For animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells (1x10 6 ) were subcutaneously injected on the left and right thigh of six nude mice, respectively. Dopamine stimiulation was performed with intraperitoneal injection of L-DOPA incombination with carbidopa, a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor. Bioluminescence optical imaging studies were performed before and after L-DOPA injection. In cell culture studies, group 1 cells showed strong luciferase activity which implies direct activation of the signaling pathway due to growth factors contained in culture medium. Group 2 cells showed strong luciferase activity and a further increase after administration of dopamine. In animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells showed bioluminescence signal before L-DOPA injection, but signal from group 2 cells significantly increased 12 h after L-DOPA injection. The signal from group 1 cells disappeared thereafter, but group 2 cells continued to show signal until 36 h of L-DOPA injection. This study demonstrates imaging of the D2R signal transduction pathway and should be useful for noninvasive imaging of downstream effects of G-coupled protein pathways

  1. Differential and directional estrogenic signaling pathways induced by enterolignans and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhu

    Full Text Available Mammalian lignans or enterolignans are metabolites of plant lignans, an important category of phytochemicals. Although they are known to be associated with estrogenic activity, cell signaling pathways leading to specific cell functions, and especially the differences among lignans, have not been explored. We examined the estrogenic activity of enterolignans and their precursor plant lignans and cell signaling pathways for some cell functions, cell cycle and chemokine secretion. We used DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to examine the similarities, as well as the differences, among enterolignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, and their precursors, matairesinol, pinoresinol and sesamin. The profiles showed moderate to high levels of correlation (R values: 0.44 to 0.81 with that of estrogen (17β-estradiol or E2. Significant correlations were observed among lignans (R values: 0.77 to 0.97, and the correlations were higher for cell functions related to enzymes, signaling, proliferation and transport. All the enterolignans/precursors examined showed activation of the Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, indicating the involvement of rapid signaling through the non-genomic estrogen signaling pathway. However, when their effects on specific cell functions, cell cycle progression and chemokine (MCP-1 secretion were examined, positive effects were observed only for enterolactone, suggesting that signals are given in certain directions at a position closer to cell functions. We hypothesized that, while estrogen signaling is initiated by the enterolignans/precursors examined, their signals are differentially and directionally modulated later in the pathways, resulting in the differences at the cell function level.

  2. Ovarian Germline Stem Cells (OGSCs and the Hippo Signaling Pathway Association with Physiological and Pathological Ovarian Aging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Hippo signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in stem cell maintenance in a variety of tissues and has thus implications for stem cell biology. Key components of this recently discovered pathway have been shown to be associated with primordial follicle activation. However, whether the Hippo signaling pathway plays a role in the development of Ovarian Germline Stem Cells (OGSCs during physiological and pathological ovarian aging in mice is unknown. Methods: Mice at the age of 7 days (7D, or of 2, 10, or 20 months (2M, 10M, 20M and mice at 2M treated with TPT and CY/BUS drugs were selected as physiological and pathological ovarian aging models, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the development of follicles, and the co-localization of genes characteristic of OGSCs with MST1, LATS2 and YAP1 was assessed by immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time PCR methods. Results: The Hippo signal pathway and MVH/OCT4 genes were co-expressed in the mouse ovarian cortex. The level and co-localization of LATS2, MST1, MVH, and OCT4 were significantly decreased with increased age, but YAP1 was more prevalent in the mouse ovarian cortex of 2M mice than 7D mice and was not observed in 20M mice. Furthermore, YAP1, MVH, and OCT4 were gradually decreased after TPT and CY/BUS treatment, and LATS2 mRNA and protein up-regulation persisted in TPT- and CY/BUS-treated mice. However, the expression of MST1 was lower in the TPT and CY/BUS groups compared with the control group. In addition, pYAP1 protein showed the highest expression in the ovarian cortexes of 7D mice compared with 20M mice, and the value of pYAP1/YAP1 decreased from 7D to 20M. Moreover, pYAP1 decreased in the TPT- and CY/BUS-treated groups, but the value of pYAP1/YAP1 increased in these groups. Conclusion: Taken together, our results show that the Hippo signaling pathway is associated with the changes that take place in OGSCs during physiological and pathological

  3. Primary cilia and coordination of signaling pathways in heart development and tissue Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Christian Alexandro

    of primary cilia in coordinating Hh signaling in human pancreatic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. In cultures of human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and CFPAC-1, Ptc in addition to Gli2 and Smo localize to primary cilia. These findings are consistent with the idea...... that the primary cilium continues to coordinate Hh signaling in cells derived from the mature pancreas. The fact that the Hh signaling pathway is active in the CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines without Hh stimulation suggests that ciliary Hh signaling plays a potential role in tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this thesis...

  4. Network Analysis Tools: from biological networks to clusters and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohée, Sylvain; Faust, Karoline; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Vanderstocken, Gilles; van Helden, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Network Analysis Tools (NeAT) is a suite of computer tools that integrate various algorithms for the analysis of biological networks: comparison between graphs, between clusters, or between graphs and clusters; network randomization; analysis of degree distribution; network-based clustering and path finding. The tools are interconnected to enable a stepwise analysis of the network through a complete analytical workflow. In this protocol, we present a typical case of utilization, where the tasks above are combined to decipher a protein-protein interaction network retrieved from the STRING database. The results returned by NeAT are typically subnetworks, networks enriched with additional information (i.e., clusters or paths) or tables displaying statistics. Typical networks comprising several thousands of nodes and arcs can be analyzed within a few minutes. The complete protocol can be read and executed in approximately 1 h.

  5. Systems biology integration of proteomic data in rodent models of depression reveals involvement of the immune response and glutamatergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Lucia; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Caberlotto, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The pathophysiological basis of major depression is incompletely understood. Recently, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in rodent models of depression to investigate the molecular underpinnings of depressive-like behaviours with an unbiased approach. The objective of the study is to integrate the results of these proteomic studies in depression models to shed light on the most relevant molecular pathways involved in the disease. Network analysis is performed integrating preexisting proteomic data from rodent models of depression. The IntAct mouse and the HRPD are used as reference protein-protein interaction databases. The functionality analyses of the networks are then performed by testing overrepresented GO biological process terms and pathways. Functional enrichment analyses of the networks revealed an association with molecular processes related to depression in humans, such as those involved in the immune response. Pathways impacted by clinically effective antidepressants are modulated, including glutamatergic signaling and neurotrophic responses. Moreover, dysregulations of proteins regulating energy metabolism and circadian rhythms are implicated. The comparison with protein pathways modulated in depressive patients revealed significant overlapping. This systems biology study supports the notion that animal models can contribute to the research into the biology and therapeutics of depression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Identification of mechanosensitive genes during skeletal development: alteration of genes associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Rebecca A; Nowlan, Niamh C; Kenny, Elaine M; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Prendergast, Patrick J; Kelly, Daniel; Murphy, Paula

    2014-01-20

    Mechanical stimulation is necessary for regulating correct formation of the skeleton. Here we test the hypothesis that mechanical stimulation of the embryonic skeletal system impacts expression levels of genes implicated in developmentally important signalling pathways in a genome wide approach. We use a mutant mouse model with altered mechanical stimulation due to the absence of limb skeletal muscle (Splotch-delayed) where muscle-less embryos show specific defects in skeletal elements including delayed ossification, changes in the size and shape of cartilage rudiments and joint fusion. We used Microarray and RNA sequencing analysis tools to identify differentially expressed genes between muscle-less and control embryonic (TS23) humerus tissue. We found that 680 independent genes were down-regulated and 452 genes up-regulated in humeri from muscle-less Spd embryos compared to littermate controls (at least 2-fold; corrected p-value ≤0.05). We analysed the resulting differentially expressed gene sets using Gene Ontology annotations to identify significant enrichment of genes associated with particular biological processes, showing that removal of mechanical stimuli from muscle contractions affected genes associated with development and differentiation, cytoskeletal architecture and cell signalling. Among cell signalling pathways, the most strongly disturbed was Wnt signalling, with 34 genes including 19 pathway target genes affected. Spatial gene expression analysis showed that both a Wnt ligand encoding gene (Wnt4) and a pathway antagonist (Sfrp2) are up-regulated specifically in the developing joint line, while the expression of a Wnt target gene, Cd44, is no longer detectable in muscle-less embryos. The identification of 84 genes associated with the cytoskeleton that are down-regulated in the absence of muscle indicates a number of candidate genes that are both mechanoresponsive and potentially involved in mechanotransduction, converting a mechanical stimulus

  7. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  8. Phosphoproteomic Analysis Identifies Signaling Pathways Regulated by Curcumin in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Higuchi, Yutaka; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol of the spice turmeric, acts as a potent chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer types, including colon cancer. Although various proteins have been shown to be affected by curcumin, how curcumin exerts its anticancer activity is not fully understood. Phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells to identify curcumin-affected signaling pathways. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-nine curcumin-regulated phosphoproteins were identified, five of which are involved in cancer signaling pathways. Detailed analyses revealed that the mTORC1 and p53 signaling pathways are main targets of curcumin. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of curcumin and future molecular targets for its clinical application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Stem cell maintenance by manipulating signaling pathways: past, current and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ye, Shoudong; Ying, Qi-Long

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 668-676] PMID:26497581

  10. Genital Sensory Stimulation Shifts Estradiol Intraoviductal Signaling from Nongenomic to Genomic Pathways, Independently from Prolactin Surges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C PEÑARROJA-MATUTAN0

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 accelerates oviductal egg transport through nongenomic pathways involving oviductal protein phosphorylation in non-mated rats, and through genomic pathways in mated rats. Here we investigated the ability of cervico-vaginal stimulation (CVS to switch the mode of action of E2 in the absence of other male-associated components. Pro-estrous rats were subjected to CVS with a glass rod and 12 hours later were injected subcutaneously with E2 and intrabursally with the RNA synthesis inhibitor Actinomycin D or the protein phosphorylation inhibitor H-89. The number of eggs in the oviduct, assessed 24 h later, showed that Actinomycin D, but not H-89 blocked the E2-induced egg transport acceleration. This clearly indicates that CVS alone, without other mating-associated signals, is able to shift E2 signaling from nongenomic to genomic pathways. Since mating and CVS activate a neuroendocrine reflex that causes iterative prolactin (PRL surges, the involvement of PRL pathway in this phenomenon was evaluated. Prolactin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the rat oviduct was demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot, but their levels were not different on day 2 of the cycle (C2 or pregnancy (P2. Activated ST AT 5a/b (phosphorylated was detected by Western blot on P2 in the ovary, but not in the oviduct, showing that mating does not stimulate this PRL signalling pathway in the oviduct. Other rats subjected to CVS in the evening of pro-estrus were treated with bromoergocriptine to suppress PRL surges. In these rats, H-89 did not block the E2-induced acceleration of egg transport suggesting that PRL surges are not essential to shift E2 signaling pathways in the oviduct. We conclude that CVS is one of the components of mating that shifts E2 signaling in the oviduct from nongenomic to genomic pathways, and this effect is independent of PRL surges elicited by mating

  11. Modeling the Intra- and Extracellular Cytokine Signaling Pathway under Heat Stroke in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Army or the Department of Defense. Citations of commercial organizations and trade names...commercial organizations and trade names in this report do not constitute an official Department of the Army endorsement or approval of the products or...pathway. Nature Medicine 6: 422–428. 93. Murray PJ (2007) The jak-stat signaling pathway: Input and output intergration . Journal of Immunology 178

  12. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  13. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  14. The Notch Signaling Pathway Is Balancing Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Immune Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Perchet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is one of the canonical signaling pathways implicated in the development of various solid tumors. During carcinogenesis, the Notch pathway dysregulation induces tumor expression of Notch receptor ligands participating to escape the immune surveillance. The Notch pathway conditions both the development and the functional regulation of lymphoid subsets. Its importance on T cell subset polarization has been documented contrary to its action on innate lymphoid cells (ILC. We aim to analyze the effect of the Notch pathway on type 1 ILC polarization and functions after disruption of the RBPJk-dependent Notch signaling cascade. Indeed, type 1 ILC comprises conventional NK (cNK cells and type 1 helper innate lymphoid cells (ILC1 that share Notch-related functional characteristics such as the IFNg secretion downstream of T-bet expression. cNK cells have strong antitumor properties. However, data are controversial concerning ILC1 functions during carcinogenesis with models showing antitumoral capacities and others reporting ILC1 inability to control tumor growth. Using various mouse models of Notch signaling pathway depletion, we analyze the effects of its absence on type 1 ILC differentiation and cytotoxic functions. We also provide clues into its role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in tissues. We show that modulating the Notch pathway is not only acting on tumor-specific T cell activity but also on ILC immune subset functions. Hence, our study uncovers the intrinsic Notch signaling pathway in ILC1/cNK populations and their response in case of abnormal Notch ligand expression. This study help evaluating the possible side effects mediated by immune cells different from T cells, in case of multivalent forms of the Notch receptor ligand delta 1 treatments. In definitive, it should help determining the best novel combination of therapeutic strategies in case of solid tumors.

  15. Ties that bind: the integration of plastid signalling pathways in plant cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2018-04-13

    Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Several excellent recent reviews have provided broad perspectives on plastid signalling pathways. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of chloroplast signalling pathways. Our discussion focuses on new discoveries illuminating how chloroplasts determine life and death decisions in cells and on studies elucidating tetrapyrrole biosynthesis signal transduction networks. We will also examine the role of a plastid RNA helicase, ISE2, in chloroplast signalling, and scrutinize intriguing results investigating the potential role of stromules in conducting signals from the chloroplast to other cellular locations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  17. Aluminum stress and its role in the phospholipid signaling pathway in plants and possible biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot-Poot, Wilberth; Hernandez-Sotomayor, Soledad M Teresa

    2011-10-01

    An early response of plants to environmental signals or abiotic stress suggests that the phospholipid signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in these mechanisms. The phospholipid signaling cascade is one of the main systems of cellular transduction and is related to other signal transduction mechanisms. These other mechanisms include the generation of second messengers and their interactions with various proteins, such as ion channels. This phospholipid signaling cascade is activated by changes in the environment, such as phosphate starvation, water, metals, saline stres, and plant-pathogen interactions. One important factor that impacts agricultural crops is metal-induced stress. Because aluminum has been considered to be a major toxic factor for agriculture conducted in acidic soils, many researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in plants. We have contributed the last fifteen years in this field by studying the effects of aluminum on phospholipid signaling in coffee, one of the Mexico's primary crops. We have focused our research on aluminum toxicity mechanisms in Coffea arabica suspension cells as a model for developing future contributions to the biotechnological transformation of coffee crops such that they can be made resistant to aluminum toxicity. We conclude that aluminum is able to not only generate a signal cascade in plants but also modulate other signal cascades generated by other types of stress in plants. The aim of this review is to discuss possible involvement of the phospholipid signaling pathway in the aluminum toxicity response of plant cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Advances in cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway and therapies of polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying LIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is one of the monogenic inherited diseases. In PKD, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and disruption of the mechanisms controlling tubular diameter may all lead to cyst formation. Current evidence has demonstrated that intracellular calcium ion and cAMP imbalance drive both abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway. The present paper summarized the evidence implicating calcium ion and cAMP as central players in the signaling pathway of cell proliferation and apoptosis in PKD, and considered the potential therapeutic approaches targeted to slow cyst growth in PKD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.13

  19. New Insights into Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and Its Signaling Pathways in Glomerular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs have aroused an increasing attention recently. The proliferation of PECs is the main feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis; besides that, in the past decade, PEC activation has been identified in several types of noninflammatory glomerulonephropathies, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulopathy, and membranous nephropathy. The pathogenesis of PEC activation is poorly understood; however, a few studies delicately elucidate the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in these processes. In this review we will focus on the latest observations and concepts about PEC activation in glomerular diseases and the newest identified signaling pathways in PEC activation.

  20. The self-renewal signaling pathways utilized by gastric cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Li, Hui; Hao, Xishan

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells are the source of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Self-renewal is a marker of cancer stem cells and also the basis of long-lasting survival and tumor progression. Although the mechanism of gastric cancer stem cell self-renewal is not clear, there are several signaling pathways and environmental factors known to be involved. This mini review describes recent developments in the self-renewal signaling pathway of gastric cancer stem cell research. Advancements made in this field of research will likely support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  1. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. FREQUENT SUBGRAPH MINING OF PERSONALIZED SIGNALING PATHWAY NETWORKS GROUPS PATIENTS WITH FREQUENTLY DYSREGULATED DISEASE PATHWAYS AND PREDICTS PROGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Arda; Henderson, Tim A D; Brubaker, Douglas; Bebek, Gurkan

    2017-01-01

    Large scale genomics studies have generated comprehensive molecular characterization of numerous cancer types. Subtypes for many tumor types have been established; however, these classifications are based on molecular characteristics of a small gene sets with limited power to detect dysregulation at the patient level. We hypothesize that frequent graph mining of pathways to gather pathways functionally relevant to tumors can characterize tumor types and provide opportunities for personalized therapies. In this study we present an integrative omics approach to group patients based on their altered pathway characteristics and show prognostic differences within breast cancer (p network-based classifier algorithms and showed that our unsupervised approach generates more robust and biologically relevant clustering whereas previous approaches failed to report specific functions for similar patient groups or classify patients into prognostic groups. These results could serve as a means to improve prognosis for future cancer patients, and to provide opportunities for improved treatment options and personalized interventions. The proposed novel graph mining approach is able to integrate PPI networks with gene expression in a biologically sound approach and cluster patients in to clinically distinct groups. We have utilized breast cancer and glioblastoma multiforme datasets from microarray and RNA-Seq platforms and identified disease mechanisms differentiating samples. Supplementary methods, figures, tables and code are available at https://github.com/bebeklab/dysprog.

  3. Bipolar cell gap junctions serve major signaling pathways in the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Orsolya; Varga, Alexandra; Nitschke, Roland; Naumann, Angela; Énzsöly, Anna; Lukáts, Ákos; Szabó, Arnold; Németh, János; Völgyi, Béla

    2017-08-01

    Connexin36 (Cx36) constituent gap junctions (GJ) throughout the brain connect neurons into functional syncytia. In the retina they underlie the transmission, averaging and correlation of signals prior conveying visual information to the brain. This is the first study that describes retinal bipolar cell (BC) GJs in the human inner retina, whose function is enigmatic even in the examined animal models. Furthermore, a number of unique features (e.g. fovea, trichromacy, midget system) necessitate a reexamination of the animal model results in the human retina. Well-preserved postmortem human samples of this study are allowed to identify Cx36 expressing BCs neurochemically. Results reveal that both rod and cone pathway interneurons display strong Cx36 expression. Rod BC inputs to AII amacrine cells (AC) appear in juxtaposition to AII GJs, thus suggesting a strategic AII cell targeting by rod BCs. Cone BCs serving midget, parasol or koniocellular signaling pathways display a wealth of Cx36 expression to form homologously coupled arrays. In addition, they also establish heterologous GJ contacts to serve an exchange of information between parallel signaling streams. Interestingly, a prominent Cx36 expression was exhibited by midget system BCs that appear to maintain intimate contacts with bistratified BCs serving other pathways. These findings suggest that BC GJs in parallel signaling streams serve both an intra- and inter-pathway exchange of signals in the human retina.

  4. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  5. Identifying biological pathways in the MRI findings of people with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Jensen, Tue Secher; Kjaer, Per

    strategy to advance this area of investigation would be to recognise which MRI findings typically occur together and whether those clusters appear to reflect discrete biological pathways. Therefore, the objectives of this proof-of-concept study were to identify which vertebral MRI findings cluster together...... fitting clusters of MRI findings. The distribution of lumbar disc levels in each cluster was also reported. Based on known histological changes inherent in the degeneration process of the motion segment, the clusters were grouped into hypothetical biological pathways. Results Latent class analysis...

  6. Endothelial Mechanotransduction, Redox Signaling and the Regulation of Vascular Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Chatterjee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium that lines the interior of blood vessels is directly exposed to blood flow. The shear stress arising from blood flow is “sensed” by the endothelium and is “transduced” into biochemical signals that eventually control vascular tone and homeostasis. Sensing and transduction of physical forces occur via signaling processes whereby the forces associated with blood flow are “sensed” by a mechanotransduction machinery comprising of several endothelial cell elements. Endothelial “sensing” involves converting the physical cues into cellular signaling events such as altered membrane potential and activation of kinases, which are “transmission” signals that cause oxidant production. Oxidants produced are the “transducers” of the mechanical signals? What is the function of these oxidants/redox signals? Extensive data from various studies indicate that redox signals initiate inflammation signaling pathways which in turn can compromise vascular health. Thus, inflammation, a major response to infection or endotoxins, can also be initiated by the endothelium in response to various flow patterns ranging from aberrant flow to alteration of flow such as cessation or sudden increase in blood flow. Indeed, our work has shown that endothelial mechanotransduction signaling pathways participate in generation of redox signals that affect the oxidant and inflammation status of cells. Our goal in this review article is to summarize the endothelial mechanotransduction pathways that are activated with stop of blood flow and with aberrant flow patterns; in doing so we focus on the complex link between mechanical forces and inflammation on the endothelium. Since this “inflammation susceptible” phenotype is emerging as a trigger for pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to rejection post-organ transplant, an understanding of the endothelial machinery that triggers these processes is very crucial and timely.

  7. Cartography of Pathway Signal Perturbations Identifies Distinct Molecular Pathomechanisms in Malignant and Chronic Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Arsen; Nersisyan, Lilit; Petrek, Martin; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Binder, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases are described by a wide variety of developmental mechanisms and clinical manifestations. Accurate classification and diagnosis of lung diseases are the bases for development of effective treatments. While extensive studies are conducted toward characterization of various lung diseases at molecular level, no systematic approach has been developed so far. Here we have applied a methodology for pathway-centered mining of high throughput gene expression data to describe a wide range of lung diseases in the light of shared and specific pathway activity profiles. We have applied an algorithm combining a Pathway Signal Flow (PSF) algorithm for estimation of pathway activity deregulation states in lung diseases and malignancies, and a Self Organizing Maps algorithm for classification and clustering of the pathway activity profiles. The analysis results allowed clearly distinguish between cancer and non-cancer lung diseases. Lung cancers were characterized by pathways implicated in cell proliferation, metabolism, while non-malignant lung diseases were characterized by deregulations in pathways involved in immune/inflammatory response and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In contrast to lung malignancies, chronic lung diseases had relatively heterogeneous pathway deregulation profiles. We identified three groups of interstitial lung diseases and showed that the development of characteristic pathological processes, such as fibrosis, can be initiated by deregulations in different signaling pathways. In conclusion, this paper describes the pathobiology of lung diseases from systems viewpoint using pathway centered high-dimensional data mining approach. Our results contribute largely to current understanding of pathological events in lung cancers and non-malignant lung diseases. Moreover, this paper provides new insight into molecular mechanisms of a number of interstitial lung diseases that have been studied to a lesser extent. PMID:27200087

  8. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL ass...

  9. Pattern-recognition receptors: signaling pathways and dysregulation in canine chronic enteropathies-brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; Allenspach, Karin

    2017-11-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by innate immune cells and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. With a large potential for synergism or convergence between their signaling pathways, PRRs orchestrate a complex interplay of cellular mediators and transcription factors, and thus play a central role in homeostasis and host defense. Aberrant activation of PRR signaling, mutations of the receptors and/or their downstream signaling molecules, and/or DAMP/PAMP complex-mediated receptor signaling can potentially lead to chronic auto-inflammatory diseases or development of cancer. PRR signaling pathways appear to also present an interesting new avenue for the modulation of inflammatory responses and to serve as potential novel therapeutic targets. Evidence for a dysregulation of the PRR toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)2, and the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) exists in dogs with chronic enteropathies. We describe the TLR, NOD2, and RAGE signaling pathways and evaluate the current veterinary literature-in comparison to human medicine-to determine the role of TLRs, NOD2, and RAGE in canine chronic enteropathies.

  10. Lactation Biology Symposium: Lactocrine signaling and developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactocrine signaling is defined as transmission of bioactive factors from mother to offspring as a consequence of nursing. Lactocrine transmission of signaling molecules may be an evolutionarily conserved process through which bioactive factors necessary for support of neonatal development are deliv...

  11. Cell biology symposium: Membrane trafficking and signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, membrane trafficking is a broad group of processes where proteins and other large molecules are distributed throughout the cell as well as adjacent extracellular spaces. Whereas signal transduction is a process where signals are transmitted through a series of chemical or molecular event...

  12. Proteomic analysis of the signaling pathway mediated by the heterotrimeric G? protein Pga1 of Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Navarro, Ulises; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Z??iga-Le?n, Eduardo; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Fern?ndez, Francisco J.; Fierro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterotrimeric G? protein Pga1-mediated signaling pathway regulates the entire developmental program in Penicillium chrysogenum, from spore germination to the formation of conidia. In addition it participates in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis. We aimed to advance the understanding of this key signaling pathway using a proteomics approach, a powerful tool to identify effectors participating in signal transduction pathways. Results Penicillium chrysogenum mutants with ...

  13. DC-ATLAS: a systems biology resource to dissect receptor specific signal transduction in dendritic cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalieri, D.; Rivero, D.; Beltrame, L.; Buschow, S.I.; Calura, E.; Rizzetto, L.; Gessani, S.; Gauzzi, M.C.; Reith, W.; Baur, A.; Bonaiuti, R.; Brandizi, M.; Filippo, C. De; D'Oro, U.; Draghici, S.; Dunand-Sauthier, I.; Gatti, E.; Granucci, F.; Gundel, M.; Kramer, M.; Kuka, M.; Lanyi, A.; Melief, C.J.; Montfoort, N. van; Ostuni, R.; Pierre, P.; Popovici, R.; Rajnavolgyi, E.; Schierer, S.; Schuler, G.; Soumelis, V.; Splendiani, A.; Stefanini, I.; Torcia, M.G.; Zanoni, I.; Zollinger, R.; Figdor, C.G.; Austyn, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The advent of Systems Biology has been accompanied by the blooming of pathway databases. Currently pathways are defined generically with respect to the organ or cell type where a reaction takes place. The cell type specificity of the reactions is the foundation of immunological research,

  14. Autoimmunity and autoinflammation: A systems view on signaling pathway dysregulation profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen Arakelyan

    Full Text Available Autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders are characterized by aberrant changes in innate and adaptive immunity that may lead from an initial inflammatory state to an organ specific damage. These disorders possess heterogeneity in terms of affected organs and clinical phenotypes. However, despite the differences in etiology and phenotypic variations, they share genetic associations, treatment responses and clinical manifestations. The mechanisms involved in their initiation and development remain poorly understood, however the existence of some clear similarities between autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders indicates variable degrees of interaction between immune-related mechanisms.Our study aims at contributing to a holistic, pathway-centered view on the inflammatory condition of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. We have evaluated similarities and specificities of pathway activity changes in twelve autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders by performing meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using a bioinformatics pipeline that integrates Self Organizing Maps and Pathway Signal Flow algorithms along with KEGG pathway topologies.The results reveal that clinically divergent disease groups share common pathway perturbation profiles. We identified pathways, similarly perturbed in all the studied diseases, such as PI3K-Akt, Toll-like receptor, and NF-kappa B signaling, that serve as integrators of signals guiding immune cell polarization, migration, growth, survival and differentiation. Further, two clusters of diseases were identified based on specifically dysregulated pathways: one gathering mostly autoimmune and the other mainly autoinflammatory diseases. Cluster separation was driven not only by apparent involvement of pathways implicated in adaptive immunity in one case, and inflammation in the other, but also by processes not explicitly related to immune

  15. Interactions between Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon and two substrates from disparate signaling pathways reveal mechanisms for substrate-kinase specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lund Dahlberg

    Full Text Available Members of the Casein Kinase I (CKI family of serine/threonine kinases regulate diverse biological pathways. The seven mammalian CKI isoforms contain a highly conserved kinase domain and divergent amino- and carboxy-termini. Although they share a preferred target recognition sequence and have overlapping expression patterns, individual isoforms often have specific substrates. In an effort to determine how substrates recognize differences between CKI isoforms, we have examined the interaction between CKIepsilon and two substrates from different signaling pathways.CKIepsilon, but not CKIalpha, binds to and phosphorylates two proteins: Period, a transcriptional regulator of the circadian rhythms pathway, and Disheveled, an activator of the planar cell polarity pathway. We use GST-pull-down assays data to show that two key residues in CKIalpha's kinase domain prevent Disheveled and Period from binding. We also show that the unique C-terminus of CKIepsilon does not determine Dishevelled's and Period's preference for CKIepsilon nor is it essential for binding, but instead plays an auxillary role in stabilizing the interactions of CKIepsilon with its substrates. We demonstrate that autophosphorylation of CKIepsilon's C-terminal tail prevents substrate binding, and use mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking to reveal how a phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the C-terminal tail and the kinase domain prevents substrate phosphorylation and binding.The biochemical interactions between CKIepsilon and Disheveled, Period, and its own C-terminus lead to models that explain CKIepsilon's specificity and regulation.

  16. Ouabain rescues rat nephrogenesis during intrauterine growth restriction by regulating the complement and coagulation cascades and calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Yue, J; Han, X; Li, J; Hu, Y

    2016-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a reduction in the numbers of nephrons in neonates, which increases the risk of hypertension. Our previous study showed that ouabain protects the development of the embryonic kidney during IUGR. To explore this molecular mechanism, IUGR rats were induced by protein and calorie restriction throughout pregnancy, and ouabain was delivered using a mini osmotic pump. RNA sequencing technology was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the embryonic kidneys. DEGs were submitted to the Database for Annotation and Visualization and Integrated Discovery, and gene ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were conducted. Maternal malnutrition significantly reduced fetal weight, but ouabain treatment had no significant effect on body weight. A total of 322 (177 upregulated and 145 downregulated) DEGs were detected between control and the IUGR group. Meanwhile, 318 DEGs were found to be differentially expressed (180 increased and 138 decreased) between the IUGR group and the ouabain-treated group. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that maternal undernutrition mainly disrupts the complement and coagulation cascades and the calcium signaling pathway, which could be protected by ouabain treatment. Taken together, these two biological pathways may play an important role in nephrogenesis, indicating potential novel therapeutic targets against the unfavorable effects of IUGR.

  17. Systems Biology Genetic Approach Identifies Serotonin Pathway as a Possible Target for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Results from a Literature Search Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Jagannathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Overall validity of existing genetic biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA remains unclear. The objective of this systematic genetic study is to identify “novel” biomarkers for OSA using systems biology approach. Methods. Candidate genes for OSA were extracted from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase search engines and DisGeNET database. The gene ontology (GO analyses and candidate genes prioritization were performed using Enrichr tool. Genes pertaining to the top 10 pathways were extracted and used for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results. In total, we have identified 153 genes. The top 10 pathways associated with OSA include (i serotonin receptor interaction, (ii pathways in cancer, (iii AGE-RAGE signaling in diabetes, (iv infectious diseases, (v serotonergic synapse, (vi inflammatory bowel disease, (vii HIF-1 signaling pathway, (viii PI3-AKT signaling pathway, (ix regulation lipolysis in adipocytes, and (x rheumatoid arthritis. After removing the overlapping genes, we have identified 23 candidate genes, out of which >30% of the genes were related to the genes involved in the serotonin pathway. Among these 4 serotonin receptors SLC6A4, HTR2C, HTR2A, and HTR1B were strongly associated with OSA. Conclusions. This preliminary report identifies several potential candidate genes associated with OSA and also describes the possible regulatory mechanisms.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Downregulation of the Neurotrophin-MAPK Signaling Pathway in Female Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Cai, Jiang-Jia; Feng, Mei; Zhou, Mi; Hu, Su-Pei; Xu, Jin; Ji, Lin-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is not diagnosed or managed properly in the majority of patients because its pathogenesis remains controversial. In this study, human whole genome microarrays identified 2898 and 4493 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DM and DPN patients, respectively. A further KEGG pathway analysis indicated that DPN and DM share four pathways, including apoptosis, B cell receptor signaling pathway, endocytosis, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The DEGs identified through comparison of DPN and DM were significantly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and neurotrophin signaling pathway, while the "neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway" was notably downregulated. Seven DEGs from the neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway were validated in additional 78 samples, and the results confirmed the initial microarray findings. These findings demonstrated that downregulation of the neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway may be the major mechanism of DPN pathogenesis, thus providing a potential approach for DPN treatment.

  19. Biology of primate relaxin: A paracrine signal in early pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Eric S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Relaxin is a peptide hormone that exerts numerous effects in a variety of tissues across a broad range of species. Although first identified more than 75 years ago interest in relaxin biology has waxed and waned over the years consistent with peaks and troughs of new experimental data on its wide-ranging biological effects and advances in relaxin enabling technologies. Recent insights into species-dependent differences in relaxin biology during pregnancy have once again stimulated a relative surge of interest in the study of relaxin's reproductive biology. Identification and pharmacological characterization of orphaned relaxin receptors and exploration of its paracrine effects on pregnancy using genomic and proteomic technologies have succeeded in fueling current interest in relaxin research. Primates and non-primate vertebrates exhibit very disparate profiles of relaxin genomics, proteomics and functional biology. Non-human primates appear to exhibit a very close similarity to humans with respect to relaxin reproductive biology but the similarities and subtle differences are only just beginning to be understood. We, and others, have shown that relaxin produces significant changes to the non-human primate endometrium during the peri-implantation period that are consistent with relaxin's long perceived role as a paracrine modulator of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the reproductive biology of relaxin in non-human primates with a specific emphasis on the paracrine role of ovarian and endometrial relaxin during embryo implantation and early pregnancy.

  20. Revealing complex function, process and pathway interactions with high-throughput expression and biological annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitesh Kumar; Ernst, Mathias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-10-20

    The biological relationships both between and within the functions, processes and pathways that operate within complex biological systems are only poorly characterized, making the interpretation of large scale gene expression datasets extremely challenging. Here, we present an approach that integrates gene expression and biological annotation data to identify and describe the interactions between biological functions, processes and pathways that govern a phenotype of interest. The product is a global, interconnected network, not of genes but of functions, processes and pathways, that represents the biological relationships within the system. We validated our approach on two high-throughput expression datasets describing organismal and organ development. Our findings are well supported by the available literature, confirming that developmental processes and apoptosis play key roles in cell differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggest that processes related to pluripotency and lineage commitment, which are known to be critical for development, interact mainly indirectly, through genes implicated in more general biological processes. Moreover, we provide evidence that supports the relevance of cell spatial organization in the developing liver for proper liver function. Our strategy can be viewed as an abstraction that is useful to interpret high-throughput data and devise further experiments.

  1. Halobenzoquinone-Induced Alteration of Gene Expression Associated with Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Moe, Birget; Liu, Yanming; Li, Xing-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that effectively induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in vitro. However, the impacts of HBQs on oxidative-stress-related gene expression have not been investigated. In this study, we examined alterations in the expression of 44 genes related to oxidative-stress-induced signaling pathways in human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) upon exposure to six HBQs. The results show the structure-dependent effects of HBQs on the studied gene expression. After 2 h of exposure, the expression levels of 9 to 28 genes were altered, while after 8 h of exposure, the expression levels of 29 to 31 genes were altered. Four genes ( HMOX1, NQO1, PTGS2, and TXNRD1) were significantly upregulated by all six HBQs at both exposure time points. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the Nrf2 pathway was significantly responsive to HBQ exposure. Other canonical pathways responsive to HBQ exposure included GSH redox reductions, superoxide radical degradation, and xenobiotic metabolism signaling. This study has demonstrated that HBQs significantly alter the gene expression of oxidative-stress-related signaling pathways and contributes to the understanding of HBQ-DBP-associated toxicity.

  2. Genetic Variants in the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway as Indicators of Bladder Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzynski, Jeanne A; Hildebrandt, Michelle A; Kamat, Ashish M; Lin, Jie; Ye, Yuanqing; Dinney, Colin P N; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors that influence bladder cancer risk remain largely unknown. Previous research has suggested that there is a strong genetic component underlying the risk of bladder cancer. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a key modulator of cellular proliferation through its regulation of stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, variants in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway have been implicated in the development of other cancers, leading us to believe that this pathway may have a vital role in bladder cancer development. A total of 230 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 40 genes in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were genotyped in 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 healthy controls. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant for risk. Individuals with 2 variants of LRP6: rs10743980 were associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer in the recessive model in the initial analysis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99, p=0.039). This was validated using the bladder genome-wide association study chip (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-1.00, p=0.049 and for combined analysis p=0.007). Together these findings implicate variants in the Wnt/β-catenin stem cell pathway as having a role in bladder cancer etiology. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression of protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via the Notch signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lijie; Dong, Pingping; Liu, Longzi; Gao, Qiang; Duan, Meng; Zhang, Si; Chen, She; Xue, Ruyi; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Notch signaling frequently occurs in liver cancer, and is associated with liver malignancies. However, the mechanisms regulating pathologic Notch activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) catalyzes the addition of O-linked fucose to the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of Notch. In the present study, we detected the expression of Pofut1 in 8 HCC cell lines and 253 human HCC tissues. We reported that Pofut1 was overexpressed in HCC cell lines and clinical HCC tissues, and Pofut1 overexpression clinically correlated with the unfavorable survival and high disease recurrence in HCC. The in vitro assay demonstrated that Pofut1 overexpression accelerated the cell proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Furthermore, Pofut1 overexpression promoted the binding of Notch ligand Dll1 to Notch receptor, and hence activated Notch signaling pathway in HCC cells, indicating that Pofut1 overexpression could be a reason for the aberrant activation of Notch signaling in HCC. Taken together, our findings indicated that an aberrant activated Pofut1-Notch pathway was involved in HCC progression, and blockage of this pathway could be a promising strategy for the therapy of HCC. - Highlights: • Pofut1 overexpression in HCC was correlated with aggressive tumor behaviors. • Pofut1 overexpression in HCC was associated with poor prognosis. • Pofut1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in hepatoma cells. • Pofut1 activated Notch signaling pathway in hepatoma cells.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response of Acupuncture via PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huili; Zhang, Xuhui; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Jing; Yang, Xinjing; Zhao, Bingcong; Zhang, Chuntao; Yu, Miao; Xu, Mingmin; Yu, Qiuyun; Liang, Xingchen; Li, Xiang; Shi, Peng; Bao, Tuya

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway, contributing to impaired neurogenesis parallel to depressive-like behaviors, has been identified as the crucial factor involved in the antidepressant response of acupuncture. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with antidepressant response of acupuncture, neurogenesis, and depressive-like behaviors ameliorating remain unexplored. The objective was to identify the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response of acupuncture through PKA signaling pathway in depression rats by employing the PKA signaling pathway inhibitor H89 in in vivo experiments. Our results indicated that the expression of hippocampal PKA- α and p-CREB was significantly downregulated by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) procedures. Importantly, acupuncture reversed the downregulation of PKA- α and p-CREB. The expression of PKA- α was upregulated by fluoxetine, but not p-CREB. No significant difference was found between Acu and FLX groups on the expression of PKA- α and p-CREB. Interestingly, H89 inhibited the effects of acupuncture or fluoxetine on upregulating the expression of p-CREB, but not PKA- α . There was no significant difference in expression of CREB among the groups. Conclusively, our findings further support the hypothesis that acupuncture could ameliorate depressive-like behaviors by regulating PKA/CREB signaling pathway, which might be mainly mediated by regulating the phosphorylation level of CREB.

  5. Dual TORK/DNA-PK inhibition blocks critical signaling pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Rachel; ter Burg, Johanna; Garrick, Brett; van Bochove, Gregor G. W.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Fernandes, Stacey M.; Rodríguez, María Solé; Michot, Jean-Marie; Hallek, Michael; Eichhorst, Barbara; Reinhardt, Hans Christian; Bendell, Johanna; Derks, Ingrid A. M.; van Kampen, Roel J. W.; Hege, Kristen; Kersten, Marie José; Trowe, Torsten; Filvaroff, Ellen H.; Eldering, Eric; Kater, Arnon P.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) provides significant clinical benefit to patients, mainly by blocking adhesion of CLL cells in the lymph node microenvironment. The currently applied inhibitors ibrutinib and idelalisib have limited capacity

  6. Involvement of wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2012-03-20

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. © 2012 Wong et al.

  7. Effects of matrine on JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study aims to investigate the effects of matrine on the JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and to explore its action mechanism. A total of 72 male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into the control, model, and treatment groups. PF models were ...

  8. Eight paths of ERK1/2 signalling pathway regulating hepatocyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... This study aims at exploring which paths of ERK1/2 signalling pathway participate in the regulation of rat .... total RNA was used to synthesize the first strand of cDNA. ..... stem cells contribute to regeneration of injured liver.

  9. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors and the output (transcription factors layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types.

  10. Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: Investigation of the IL-10 signaling pathway in Iranian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemati, Shahram; Teimourian, Shahram; Tabrizi, Mina; Najafi, Mehri; Dara, Naghi; Imanzadeh, Farid; Ahmadi, Mitra; Aghdam, Maryam Kazemi; Tavassoli, Mohmoud; Rohani, Pejman; Madani, Seyyed Ramin; de Boer, Martin; Kuijpers, T. W.; Roos, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Background & aim: Comparing to adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), those with early onset manifestations have different features in terms of the underlying molecular pathology, the course of disease and the response to therapy. We investigated the IL-10 signaling pathway previously reported as

  11. Involvement of wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him; Wang, Hao; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. © 2012 Wong et al.

  12. Overexpression of protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via the Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lijie [Liver Surgery Department, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China); Dong, Pingping [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shanghai Institute of Liver Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu, Longzi; Gao, Qiang; Duan, Meng [Liver Surgery Department, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Si; Chen, She [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugate Research Ministry of Public Health, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xue, Ruyi, E-mail: xue.ruyi@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shanghai Institute of Liver Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: xiaoyingwang@fudan.edu.cn [Liver Surgery Department, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-29

    Aberrant activation of Notch signaling frequently occurs in liver cancer, and is associated with liver malignancies. However, the mechanisms regulating pathologic Notch activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) catalyzes the addition of O-linked fucose to the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of Notch. In the present study, we detected the expression of Pofut1 in 8 HCC cell lines and 253 human HCC tissues. We reported that Pofut1 was overexpressed in HCC cell lines and clinical HCC tissues, and Pofut1 overexpression clinically correlated with the unfavorable survival and high disease recurrence in HCC. The in vitro assay demonstrated that Pofut1 overexpression accelerated the cell proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Furthermore, Pofut1 overexpression promoted the binding of Notch ligand Dll1 to Notch receptor, and hence activated Notch signaling pathway in HCC cells, indicating that Pofut1 overexpression could be a reason for the aberrant activation of Notch signaling in HCC. Taken together, our findings indicated that an aberrant activated Pofut1-Notch pathway was involved in HCC progression, and blockage of this pathway could be a promising strategy for the therapy of HCC. - Highlights: • Pofut1 overexpression in HCC was correlated with aggressive tumor behaviors. • Pofut1 overexpression in HCC was associated with poor prognosis. • Pofut1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in hepatoma cells. • Pofut1 activated Notch signaling pathway in hepatoma cells.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the signaling pathway mediated by the heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1 of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Navarro, Ulises; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Zúñiga-León, Eduardo; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Fernández, Francisco J; Fierro, Francisco

    2016-10-06

    The heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1-mediated signaling pathway regulates the entire developmental program in Penicillium chrysogenum, from spore germination to the formation of conidia. In addition it participates in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis. We aimed to advance the understanding of this key signaling pathway using a proteomics approach, a powerful tool to identify effectors participating in signal transduction pathways. Penicillium chrysogenum mutants with different levels of activity of the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were used to perform comparative proteomic analyses by 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. Thirty proteins were identified which showed differences in abundance dependent on Pga1 activity level. By modifying the intracellular levels of cAMP we could establish cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent pathways in Pga1-mediated signaling. Pga1 was shown to regulate abundance of enzymes in primary metabolic pathways involved in ATP, NADPH and cysteine biosynthesis, compounds that are needed for high levels of penicillin production. An in vivo phosphorylated protein containing a pleckstrin homology domain was identified; this protein is a candidate for signal transduction activity. Proteins with possible roles in purine metabolism, protein folding, stress response and morphogenesis were also identified whose abundance was regulated by Pga1 signaling. Thirty proteins whose abundance was regulated by the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were identified. These proteins are involved in primary metabolism, stress response, development and signal transduction. A model describing the pathways through which Pga1 signaling regulates different cellular processes is proposed.

  14. Wnt3a regulates proliferation and migration of HUVEC via canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarzija, Ivana; Sini, Patrizia; Schlange, Thomas; MacDonald, Gwen; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Untangling the signaling pathways involved in endothelial cell biology is of central interest for the development of antiangiogenesis based therapies. Here we report that Wnt3a induces the proliferation and migration of HUVECs, but does not affect their survival. Wnt3a-induced proliferation was VEGFR signaling independent, but reduced upon CamKII inhibition. In a search for the downstream mediators of Wnt3a's effects on HUVEC biology, we found that Wnt3a treatment leads to phosphorylation of DVL3 and stabilization of β-catenin. Moreover, under the same conditions we observed an upregulation in c-MYC, TIE-2 and GJA1 mRNA transcripts. Although treatment of HUVECs with Wnt5a induced DVL3 phosphorylation, we did not observe any of the other effects seen upon Wnt3a stimulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Wnt3a induces canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in HUVECs, and stimulates their proliferation and migration.

  15. High-frequency deregulated expression of Wnt signaling pathway members in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahid; Arafah, Maha; Shaik, Jilani Purusottapatnam; Mahale, Alka; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud

    2018-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide including Saudi Arabia. Breast cancer in Saudi women develops at a much early age with median age of onset of 49 years compared to 62 years observed in patients from USA. Aberrations in wingless and integration site growth factor (Wnt) signaling pathway have been pathologically implicated in development of breast cancers and hence its role was examined in Saudi patients. We immunohistochemically examined various components of Wnt signaling pathway including β-catenin, tumor suppressor proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and Axin, expression of naturally occurring pathway antagonists such as Dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3), FRP2, and WIF1, as well as Wnt target cyclin D1 and c-Myc to establish if the pathway is constitutively activated in breast cancers arising in Saudi women. Cytoplasmic β-catenin, indicative of activation of the pathway, was observed in 24% of cases. Expression of APC and Axin, which are components of β-catenin destruction complex, was lost in 5% and 10% of tumors, respectively. Additionally, Wnt signaling inhibitors DKK3, FRP2, and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) were not expressed in 8%, 14%, and 5% breast tumors, respectively. Overall, accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin and downregulation of other Wnt pathway proteins (APC/Axin/DKK3/FRP2/WIF1) were found in approximately half of the breast cancers (47%) in our cohort. Consistent with this, analysis of Wnt target genes demonstrated moderate-to-strong expression of c-Myc in 58% and cyclin D1 in 50% of breast cancers. Deregulation of Wnt pathway was not associated with age of onset of the disease, tumor grade, and triple-negative status of breast cancers. High level of deregulated expression of Wnt pathway proteins suggests its important role in pathogenesis of breast cancers arising in Saudi women who may benefit from development of therapeutic drugs

  16. A shortcut to wide-ranging biological actions of dietary polyphenols: modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Nunes, Carla; Pereira, Cassilda; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2014-08-01

    Dietary polyphenols are complex, natural compounds with recognized health benefits. Initially attractive to the biomedical area due to their in vitro antioxidant properties, the biological implications of polyphenols are now known to be far from their acute ability to scavenge free radicals but rather to modulate redox signaling pathways. Actually, it is now recognized that dietary polyphenols are extensively metabolized in vivo and that the chemical, biophysical and biological properties of their metabolites are, in most cases, quite different from the ones of the parent molecules. Hence, the study of the metabolic, absorptive and signaling pathways of both phenolics and derivatives has become a major issue. In this paper we propose a short-cut for the systemic effects of polyphenols in connection with nitric oxide (˙NO) biology. This free radical is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with pivotal functions in vivo. It is produced through an enzymatic pathway and also through the reduction of dietary nitrate and nitrite in the human stomach. At acidic gastric pH, dietary polyphenols, in the form they are conveyed in foods and at high concentration, not only promote nitrite reduction to ˙NO but also embark in a complex network of chemical reactions to produce higher nitrogen oxides with signaling functions, namely by inducing post-translational modifications. Modified endogenous molecules, such as nitrated proteins and lipids, acquire important physiological functions. Thus, local and systemic effects of ˙NO such as modulation of vascular tone, mucus production in the gut and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury are, in this sense, triggered by dietary polyphenols. Evidence to support the signaling and biological effects of polyphenols by modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway will be herein provided and discussed. General actions of polyphenols encompassing absorption and metabolism in the intestine/liver are short-cut via the production of

  17. Directed random walks and constraint programming reveal active pathways in hepatocyte growth factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittas, Aristotelis; Delobelle, Aurélien; Schmitt, Sabrina; Breuhahn, Kai; Guziolowski, Carito; Grabe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to analyze mRNA expression data is to take advantage of established knowledge from pathway databases, using methods such as pathway-enrichment analyses. However, pathway databases are not case-specific and expression data could be used to infer gene-regulation patterns in the context of specific pathways. In addition, canonical pathways may not always describe the signaling mechanisms properly, because interactions can frequently occur between genes in different pathways. Relatively few methods have been proposed to date for generating and analyzing such networks, preserving the causality between gene interactions and reasoning over the qualitative logic of regulatory effects. We present an algorithm (MCWalk) integrated with a logic programming approach, to discover subgraphs in large-scale signaling networks by random walks in a fully automated pipeline. As an exemplary application, we uncover the signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray and RT-qPCR using in-house perturbation experiments in a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. The resulting subgraphs illustrate possible associations of hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met nodes, differentially expressed genes and cellular states. Using perturbation experiments and Answer Set programming, we are able to select those which are more consistent with the experimental data. We discover key regulator nodes by measuring the frequency with which they are traversed when connecting signaling between receptors and significantly regulated genes and predict their expression-shift consistently with the measured data. The Java implementation of MCWalk is publicly available under the MIT license at: https://bitbucket.org/akittas/biosubg. © 2015 FEBS.

  18. Role of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human papillomavirus-associated nasal and sinonasal inverted papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongliang; Duan, Lihua; Tian, Jie; Song, Daoliang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Shenlin; Yin, Zhaofu; Xiang, Xinxin; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-12-01

    Nasal and sinonasal inverted papilloma (NSIP) is a benign tumor in which surface epithelial cells grow downward into the underlying supportive tissue with varying degrees of metaplasia. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as the causal agent in the pathogenesis of this disease. Many studies have shown that HPV can activate the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, but the role of this pathway in HPV-associated NSIP is largely unknown. In this study, we enrolled 40 control tissue samples and 80 NSIP tissue samples. HPV genotyping showed that 47 of the 80 examined cases of NSIP were HPV-positive (58.8%), and the most common subtype was HPV11 (20/53, 37.7%). The immunohistochemistry showed statistically significant differences in phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein staining among control samples, HPV-positive NSIP and HPV-negative NSIP. The HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid increased the proliferation of normal human nasopharyngeal epithelial NP69-SV40T cells and human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE1 cells. Meanwhile, rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reversed the increased cell proliferation induced by the HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid. Western blot analysis showed that Akt/mTOR/S6 were overexpressed in NP69-SV40T cells and CNE1 cells infected with the HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid. These data demonstrate that HPV promotes cell proliferation through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in NSIP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 75 FR 61497 - Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Products; Public Hearing; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCI Act) that amends the Public Health Service Act (PHS... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0477] Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Products; Public Hearing; Request for...

  20. Altered Expression of Wnt Signaling Pathway Components in Osteogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero-Esteban, Pilar; Peralta-Sastre, Ascensión; Herranz, Eva; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Mucientes, Arkaitz; Abásolo, Lydia; Marco, Fernando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Lamas, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by altered homeostasis of joint cartilage and bone, whose functional properties rely on chondrocytes and osteoblasts, belonging to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). WNT signaling acts as a hub integrating and crosstalking with other signaling pathways leading to the regulation of MSC functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of a differential signaling between Healthy and OA-MSCs during osteogenesis. MSCs of seven OA patients and six healthy controls were isolated, characterised and expanded. During in vitro osteogenesis, cells were recovered at days 1, 10 and 21. RNA and protein content was obtained. Expression of WNT pathway genes was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Functional studies were also performed to study the MSC osteogenic commitment and functional and post-traslational status of β-catenin and several receptor tyrosine kinases. Several genes were downregulated in OA-MSCs during osteogenesis in vitro. These included soluble Wnts, inhibitors, receptors, co-receptors, several kinases and transcription factors. Basal levels of β-catenin were higher in OA-MSCs, but calcium deposition and expression of osteogenic genes was similar between Healthy and OA-MSCs. Interestingly an increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling node was present in OA-MSCs. Our results point to the existence in OA-MSCs of alterations in expression of Wnt pathway components during in vitro osteogenesis that are partially compensated by post-translational mechanisms modulating the function of other pathways. We also point the relevance of other signaling pathways in OA pathophysiology suggesting their role in the maintenance of joint homeostasis through modulation of MSC osteogenic potential.

  1. The Hedgehog Signalling Pathway in Cell Migration and Guidance: What We Have Learned from Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia J. Araújo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration and guidance are complex processes required for morphogenesis, the formation of tumor metastases, and the progression of human cancer. During migration, guidance molecules induce cell directionality and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. Expression of these molecules has to be tightly regulated and their signals properly interpreted by the receiving cells so as to ensure correct navigation. This molecular control is fundamental for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and known to be crucial for normal cellular growth and differentiation throughout the animal kingdom. The relevance of Hh signaling for human disease is emphasized by its activation in many cancers. Here, I review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of the Hh pathway in cell migration and guidance during Drosophila development and discuss its implications for human cancer origin and progression.

  2. The EBI2 signalling pathway plays a role in cellular crosstalk between astrocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; O'Sullivan, Sinead A; Christen, Isabelle; Zhang, Juan; Sailer, Andreas W; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2016-05-11

    EBI2 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by oxysterol 7α, 25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α25HC) and regulates T cell-dependant antibody response and B cell migration. We recently found EBI2 is expressed in human astrocytes, regulates intracellular signalling and modulates astrocyte migration. Here, we report that LPS treatment of mouse astrocytes alters mRNA levels of EBI2 and oxysterols suggesting that the EBI2 signalling pathway is sensitive to LPS-mediated immune challenge. We also find that conditioned media obtained from LPS-stimulated mouse astrocytes induces macrophage migration, which is inhibited by the EBI2 antagonist NIBR189. These results demonstrate a role for the EBI2 signalling pathway in astrocytes as a sensor for immune challenge and for communication with innate immune cells such as macrophages.

  3. Partial promoter substitutions generating transcriptional sentinels of diverse signaling pathways in embryonic stem cells and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Palle; Gustavsen, Carsten; Klein, Tino; Potter, Leah A.; Lin, Robert; Mullapudi, Nandita; Wandzioch, Ewa; Hines, Angela; Davis, Ashley; Bruun, Christine; Engberg, Nina; Petersen, Dorthe R.; Peterslund, Janny M. L.; MacDonald, Raymond J.; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Magnuson, Mark A.; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Extracellular signals in development, physiology, homeostasis and disease often act by regulating transcription. Herein we describe a general method and specific resources for determining where and when such signaling occurs in live animals and for systematically comparing the timing and extent of different signals in different cellular contexts. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to test the effect of successively deleting conserved genomic regions of the ubiquitously active Rosa26 promoter and substituting the deleted regions for regulatory sequences that respond to diverse extracellular signals. We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can be adapted to any pathway that acts via DNA elements. PMID:22888097

  4. Partial promoter substitutions generating transcriptional sentinels of diverse signaling pathways in embryonic stem cells and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Serup

    2012-11-01

    Extracellular signals in development, physiology, homeostasis and disease often act by regulating transcription. Herein we describe a general method and specific resources for determining where and when such signaling occurs in live animals and for systematically comparing the timing and extent of different signals in different cellular contexts. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE to test the effect of successively deleting conserved genomic regions of the ubiquitously active Rosa26 promoter and substituting the deleted regions for regulatory sequences that respond to diverse extracellular signals. We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can be adapted to any pathway that acts via DNA elements.

  5. Illuminating Cell Signaling: Using "Vibrio harveyi" in an Introductory Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrizo, Stacy L.; Kaufmann, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Cell signaling is an essential cellular process that is performed by all living organisms. Bacteria communicate with each other using a chemical language in a signaling pathway that allows bacteria to evaluate the size of their population, determine when they have reached a critical mass (quorum sensing), and then change their behavior in unison…

  6. Development of steroid signaling pathways during primordial follicle formation in the human fetal ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Anderson, Richard A; Saunders, Philippa T; Kinnell, Hazel; Mason, J Ian; Evans, Dean B; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Flannigan, Samantha; Franks, Stephen; Monteiro, Ana; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Ovarian primordial follicle formation is critical for subsequent human female fertility. It is likely that steroid, and especially estrogen, signaling is required for this process, but details of the pathways involved are currently lacking. The aim was to identify and characterize key members of the steroid-signaling pathway expressed in the second trimester human fetal ovary. We conducted an observational study of the female fetus, quantifying and localizing steroid-signaling pathway members. The study was conducted at the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. Ovaries were collected from 43 morphologically normal human female fetuses from women undergoing elective termination of second trimester pregnancies. We measured mRNA transcript levels and immunolocalized key steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors, including those encoded by ESR2, AR, and CYP19A1. Levels of mRNA encoding the steroidogenic apparatus and steroid receptors increased across the second trimester. CYP19A1 transcript increased 4.7-fold during this period with intense immunostaining for CYP19A detected in pregranulosa cells around primordial follicles and somatic cells around oocyte nests. ESR2 was localized primarily to germ cells, but androgen receptor was exclusively expressed in somatic cells. CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 were also localized to oocytes, whereas CYP11A1 was detected in oocytes and some pregranulosa cells. The human fetal ovary expresses the machinery to produce and detect multiple steroid signaling pathways, including estrogenic signaling, with the oocyte acting as a key component. This study provides a step-change in our understanding of local dynamics of steroid hormone signaling during the key period of human primordial follicle formation.

  7. Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis via modulating RANKL signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi; Zhang, Qing; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Dan, E-mail: xyeypd@163.com

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Schisantherin A impairs RANKL signaling pathway. • Schisantherin A suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Schisantherin A may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays critical role in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been a promising strategy for treating osteoclast related bone diseases such as osteoporosis and aseptic prosthetic loosening. Schisantherin A (SA), a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra sphenanthera, has been used as an antitussive, tonic, and sedative agent, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SA was found to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, SA inhibited OSCAR, cathepsin K and TRAP in a dose dependent manner. Further signal transduction studies revealed that SA down-regulate RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling activation by suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, SA also decreased the RANKL-induced MAPKs signaling pathway, including JNK and ERK1/2 posphorylation while had no obvious effects on p38 activation. Finally, SA suppressed the NF-κB and MAPKs subsequent gene expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos. In vivo studies, SA inhibited osteoclast function and exhibited bone protection effect in wear-particle-induced bone erosion model. Taken together, SA could attenuate osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis by mediating RANKL signaling pathways. These data indicated that SA is a promising therapeutic natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related prosthesis loosening.

  8. An alternative mode of CD43 signal transduction activates pro-survival pathways of T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Adame, Maria Elena; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Martínez-Campos, Cecilia; Flores-Alcantar, Angel; Ocelotl-Oviedo, Jose Pablo; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    CD43 is one of the most abundant co-stimulatory molecules on a T-cell surface; it transduces activation signals through its cytoplasmic domain, contributing to modulation of the outcome of T-cell responses. The aim of this study was to uncover new signalling pathways regulated by this sialomucin. Analysis of changes in protein abundance allowed us to identify pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2), an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, as an element potentially participating in the signalling cascade resulting from the engagement of CD43 and the T-cell receptor (TCR). We found that the glycolytic activity of this enzyme was not significantly increased in response to TCR+CD43 co-stimulation, but that PKM2 was tyrosine phosphorylated, suggesting that it was performing moonlight functions. We report that phosphorylation of both Y 105 of PKM2 and of Y 705 of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was induced in response to TCR+CD43 co-stimulation, resulting in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5/ERK5) pathway. ERK5 and the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were activated, and c-Myc and nuclear factor-κB (p65) nuclear localization, as well as Bad phosphorylation, were augmented. Consistent with this, expression of human CD43 in a murine T-cell hybridoma favoured cell survival. Altogether, our data highlight novel signalling pathways for the CD43 molecule in T lymphocytes, and underscore a role for CD43 in promoting cell survival through non-glycolytic functions of metabolic enzymes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Strategies for Imaging Androgen Receptor Signaling Pathway in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Hormonal Manipulation and Radiation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Giovanni Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (Pca is a heterogeneous disease; its etiology appears to be related to genetic and epigenetic factors. Radiotherapy and hormone manipulation are effective treatments, but many tumors will progress despite these treatments. Molecular imaging provides novel opportunities for image-guided optimization and management of these treatment modalities. Here we reviewed the advances in targeted imaging of key biomarkers of androgen receptor signaling pathways. A computerized search was performed to identify all relevant studies in Medline up to 2013. There are well-known limitations and inaccuracies of current imaging approaches for monitoring biological changes governing tumor progression. The close integration of molecular biology and clinical imaging could ease the development of new molecular imaging agents providing novel tools to monitor a number of biological events that, until a few years ago, were studied by conventional molecular assays. Advances in translational research may represent the next step in improving the oncological outcome of men with Pca who remain at high risk for systemic failure. This aim may be obtained by combining the anatomical properties of conventional imaging modalities with biological information to better predict tumor response to conventional treatments.

  10. Fisetin-treatment alleviates airway inflammation through inhbition of MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Ming-Li; Xia, Ming-Yue; Shao, Jian-Ying

    2018-07-01

    Asthma is a common chronic airway inflammation disease and is considered as a major public health problem. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavonoid abundantly found in different vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been reported to exhibit various positive biological effects, including anti-proliferative, anticancer, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. We evaluated the effects of fisetin on allergic asthma regulation in mice. Mice were first sensitized, then airway-challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Whether fisetin treatment attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation was examined via inflammation inhibition through MyD88-related NF-κB (p65) signaling pathway. Mice were divided into the control (Con), OVA-induced asthma (Mod), 40 (FL) and 50 (FH) mg/kg fisetin-treated OVA-induced asthma groups. Our results found that OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice caused a significant inflammatory response via the activation of MyD88 and NF-κB signaling pathways, leading to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, fisetin-treated mice after OVA induction inhibited activation of MyD88 and NF-κB signaling pathways, resulting in downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Further, fisetin significantly ameliorated the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) towards methacholine (Mch). In addition, fisetin reduced the number of eosinophil, monocyte, neutrophil and total white blood cell in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-induced mice. The serum and BALF samples obtained from the OVA-induced mice with fisetin showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results of our study illustrated that fisetin may be a new promising candidate to inhibit airway inflammation response induced by OVA.

  11. Modeling of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effect within signaling pathways and miRNA-regulation pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available To date, it is widely recognized that Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs can exert considerable anti-tumor effects regarding many types of cancers. The prolonged use of NSAIDs is highly associated with diverse side effects. Therefore, tailoring down the NSAID application onto individual patients has become a necessary and relevant step towards personalized medicine. This study conducts the systemsbiological approach to construct a molecular model (NSAID model containing a cyclooxygenase (COX-pathway and its related signaling pathways. Four cancer hallmarks are integrated into the model to reflect different developmental aspects of tumorigenesis. In addition, a Flux-Comparative-Analysis (FCA based on Petri net is developed to transfer the dynamic properties (including drug responsiveness of individual cellular system into the model. The gene expression profiles of different tumor-types with available drug-response information are applied to validate the predictive ability of the NSAID model. Moreover, two therapeutic developmental strategies, synthetic lethality and microRNA (miRNA biomarker discovery, are investigated based on the COX-pathway. In conclusion, the result of this study demonstrates that the NSAID model involving gene expression, gene regulation, signal transduction, protein interaction and other cellular processes, is able to predict the individual cellular responses for different therapeutic interventions (such as NS-398 and COX-2 specific siRNA inhibition. This strongly indicates that this type of model is able to reflect the physiological, developmental and pathological processes of an individual. The approach of miRNA biomarker discovery is demonstrated for identifying miRNAs with oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions for individual cell lines of breast-, colon- and lung-tumor. The achieved results are in line with different independent studies that investigated miRNA biomarker related to diagnostics of cancer

  12. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ruben L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli and pathway inhibitors. Results from these experiments were validated in a human experimental setting using whole blood and purified CD4+ Tcells. Results Calcium-dependent activation of T cells using CD3/CD28 and PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a Th1 expression profile reflected by increased expression of T-bet, RUNX3, IL-2, and IFNγ, whereas calcium-independent activation via PMA/CD28 induced a Th2 expression profile which included GATA3, RXRA, CCL1 and Itk. Knock down with siRNA and gene expression profiling in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors showed that proximal kinases Lck and PKCθ are crucial signaling hubs during T helper cell activation, revealing a clear role for Lck in Th1 development and for PKCθ in both Th1 and Th2 development. Medial signaling via MAPkinases appeared to be less important in these pathways, since specific inhibitors of these kinases displayed a minor effect on gene expression. Translation towards a primary, whole blood setting and purified human CD4+ T cells revealed that PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a more pronounced Th1 specific, Lck and PKCθ dependent IFNγ production, whereas PMA/CD28 induced Th2 specific IL-5 and IL-13 production, independent of Lck activation. PMA/CD3-mediated skewing towards a Th1 phenotype was also reflected in mRNA expression of the master transcription factor Tbet, whereas PMA/CD28-mediated stimulation enhanced GATA3 mRNA expression in primary human CD4+ Tcells. Conclusions This study identifies stimulatory pathways and gene expression profiles for in vitro skewing of T helper cell

  13. Beta-arrestins - scaffolds and signalling elements essential for WNT/Frizzled signalling pathways?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schulte, G.; Schambony, A.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 5 (2010), s. 1051-1058 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC204/09/J030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/0498; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : beta-arrestin * Wnt signaling * dishevelled Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.925, year: 2010

  14. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  15. Integration of Signaling Pathways with the Epigenetic Machinery in the Maintenance of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fagnocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells balance their self-renewal and differentiation potential by integrating environmental signals with the transcriptional regulatory network. The maintenance of cell identity and/or cell lineage commitment relies on the interplay of multiple factors including signaling pathways, transcription factors, and the epigenetic machinery. These regulatory modules are strongly interconnected and they influence the pattern of gene expression of stem cells, thus guiding their cellular fate. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs represent an invaluable tool to study this interplay, being able to indefinitely self-renew and to differentiate towards all three embryonic germ layers in response to developmental cues. In this review, we highlight those mechanisms of signaling to chromatin, which regulate chromatin modifying enzymes, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy. In addition, we report the molecular mechanisms through which signaling pathways affect both the epigenetic and the transcriptional state of ESCs, thereby influencing their cell identity. We propose that the dynamic nature of oscillating signaling and the different regulatory network topologies through which those signals are encoded determine specific gene expression programs, leading to the fluctuation of ESCs among multiple pluripotent states or to the establishment of the necessary conditions to exit pluripotency.

  16. Disorders of dysregulated signal traffic through the RAS-MAPK pathway: phenotypic spectrum and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2010-12-01

    RAS GTPases control a major signaling network implicated in several cellular functions, including cell fate determination, proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and senescence. Within this network, signal flow through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway-the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade-mediates early and late developmental processes controlling morphology determination, organogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and growth. Signaling through the RAS-MAPK cascade is tightly controlled; and its enhanced activation represents a well-known event in oncogenesis. Unexpectedly, in the past few years, inherited dysregulation of this pathway has been recognized as the cause underlying a group of clinically related disorders sharing facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, ectodermal anomalies, variable cognitive deficits, and susceptibility to certain malignancies as major features. These disorders are caused by heterozygosity for mutations in genes encoding RAS proteins, regulators of RAS function, modulators of RAS interaction with effectors, or downstream signal transducers. Here, we provide an overview of the phenotypic spectrum associated with germline mutations perturbing RAS-MAPK signaling, the unpredicted molecular mechanisms converging toward the dysregulation of this signaling cascade, and major genotype-phenotype correlations. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Molecular Pathways for Immune Recognition of Preproinsulin Signal Peptide in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg-Versteeg, Deborah; Eichmann, Martin; Russell, Mark A; de Ru, Arnoud; Hehn, Beate; Yusuf, Norkhairin; van Veelen, Peter A; Richardson, Sarah J; Morgan, Noel G; Lemberg, Marius K; Peakman, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The signal peptide region of preproinsulin (PPI) contains epitopes targeted by HLA-A-restricted (HLA-A0201, A2402) cytotoxic T cells as part of the pathogenesis of β-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We extended the discovery of the PPI epitope to disease-associated HLA-B*1801 and HLA-B*3906 (risk) and HLA-A*1101 and HLA-B*3801 (protective) alleles, revealing that four of six alleles present epitopes derived from the signal peptide region. During cotranslational translocation of PPI, its signal peptide is cleaved and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, implying it is processed for immune recognition outside of the canonical proteasome-directed pathway. Using in vitro translocation assays with specific inhibitors and gene knockout in PPI-expressing target cells, we show that PPI signal peptide antigen processing requires signal peptide peptidase (SPP). The intramembrane protease SPP generates cytoplasm-proximal epitopes, which are transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), ER-luminal epitopes, which are TAP independent, each presented by different HLA class I molecules and N-terminal trimmed by ER aminopeptidase 1 for optimal presentation. In vivo, TAP expression is significantly upregulated and correlated with HLA class I hyperexpression in insulin-containing islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. Thus, PPI signal peptide epitopes are processed by SPP and loaded for HLA-guided immune recognition via pathways that are enhanced during disease pathogenesis. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Dioscorin isolated from Dioscorea alata activates TLR4-signaling pathways and induces cytokine expression in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shu-Ling; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Lee, Pei-Yeh; Hou, Wen-Chi; Hung, Ling-Chien; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Chen, Chiu-Ming; Huang, Yu-Jing

    2006-01-06

    The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-signaling pathway is crucial for activating both innate and adaptive immunity. TLR4 is a promising molecular target for immune-modulating drugs, and TLR4 agonists are of therapeutic potential for treating immune diseases and cancers. Several medicinal herb-derived components have recently been reported to act via TLR4-dependent pathways, suggesting that medicinal plants are potential resources for identifying TLR4 activators. We have applied a screening procedure to systematically identify herbal constituents that activate TLR4. To exclude possible LPS contamination in these plant-derived components, a LPS inhibitor, polymyxin B, was added during screening. One of the plant components we identified from the screening was dioscorin, the glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea alata. It induced TLR4-downstream cytokine expression in bone marrow cells isolated from TLR4-functional C3H/HeN mice but not from TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. Dioscorin also stimulated multiple signaling molecules (NF-kappaB, ERK, JNK, and p38) and induced the expression of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the ERK, p38, JNK, and NF-kappaB-mediated pathways are all involved in dioscorin-mediated TNF-alpha production. In summary, our results demonstrate that dioscorin is a novel TLR4 activator and induces macrophage activation via typical TLR4-signaling pathways.

  19. NF-kappaB signaling: a tale of two pathways in skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Nadine; Guttridge, Denis C

    2010-04-01

    NF-kappaB is a ubiquitiously expressed transcription factor that plays vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by an IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that can direct either canonical (classical) NF-kappaB signaling by degrading the IkappaB inhibitor and releasing p65/p50 dimers to the nucleus, or causes p100 processing and nuclear translocation of RelB/p52 via a noncanonical (alternative) pathway. Under physiological conditions, NF-kappaB activity is transiently regulated, whereas constitutive activation of this transcription factor typically in the classical pathway is associated with a multitude of disease conditions, including those related to skeletal muscle. How NF-kappaB functions in muscle diseases is currently under intense investigation. Insight into this role of NF-kappaB may be gained by understanding at a more basic level how this transcription factor contributes to skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Recent data from knockout mice support that the classical NF-kappaB pathway functions as an inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis and muscle regeneration acting through multiple mechanisms. In contrast, alternative NF-kappaB signaling does not appear to be required for myofiber conversion, but instead functions in myotube homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Additional knowledge of these signaling pathways in skeletal myogenesis should aid in the development of specific inhibitors that may be useful in treatments of muscle disorders.

  20. The hippo pathway promotes Notch signaling in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and oocyte polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Yu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Specification of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila oocytes requires proper communication between the germ-line cells and the somatically derived follicular epithelial cells. Multiple signaling pathways, including Notch, contribute to oocyte polarity formation by controlling the temporal and spatial pattern of follicle cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we show that the newly identified Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway plays a crucial role in the posterior follicle cells in the regulation of oocyte polarity. Disruption of the Hippo pathway, including major components Hippo, Salvador, and Warts, results in aberrant follicle-cell differentiation and proliferation and dramatic disruption of the oocyte anterior-posterior axis. These phenotypes are related to defective Notch signaling in follicle cells, because misexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch alleviates the oocyte polarity defects. We also find that follicle cells defective in Hippo signaling accumulate the Notch receptor and display defects in endocytosis markers. Our findings suggest that the interaction between Hippo and classic developmental pathways such as Notch is critical to spatial and temporal regulation of differentiation and proliferation and is essential for development of the body axes in Drosophila.

  1. The signaling pathways by which the Fas/FasL system accelerates oocyte aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Fei-Hu; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Juan; Li, Hong; Li, You-Wei; Tan, Xiu-Wen; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-02-01

    In spite of great efforts, the mechanisms for postovulatory oocyte aging are not fully understood. Although our previous work showed that the FasL/Fas signaling facilitated oocyte aging, the intra-oocyte signaling pathways are unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which oxidative stress facilitates oocyte aging and the causal relationship between Ca2+ rises and caspase-3 activation and between the cell cycle and apoptosis during oocyte aging need detailed investigations. Our aim was to address these issues by studying the intra-oocyte signaling pathways for Fas/FasL to accelerate oocyte aging. The results indicated that sFasL released by cumulus cells activated Fas on the oocyte by increasing reactive oxygen species via activating NADPH oxidase. The activated Fas triggered Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum by activating phospholipase C-γ pathway and cytochrome c pathway. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ rises activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and caspase-3. While activated CaMKII increased oocyte susceptibility to activation by inactivating maturation-promoting factor (MPF) through cyclin B degradation, the activated caspase-3 facilitated further Ca2+releasing that activates more caspase-3 leading to oocyte fragmentation. Furthermore, caspase-3 activation and fragmentation were prevented in oocytes with a high MPF activity, suggesting that an oocyte must be in interphase to undergo apoptosis.

  2. Isoprenoid-derived plant signaling molecules: biosynthesis and biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 247, č. 5 (2018), s. 1051-1066 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Dimethylallyl diphosphate * Isopentenyl diphosphate * Isoprenoids * Phytoecdysteroids * Plant hormones * Terpenoids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  3. Utilizing ras signaling pathway to direct selective replication of herpes simplex virus-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Pan

    Full Text Available Re-engineering the tropism of viruses is an attractive translational strategy for targeting cancer cells. The Ras signal transduction pathway is a central hub for a variety of pro-oncogenic events with a fundamental role in normal and neoplastic physiology. In this work we were interested in linking Ras activation to HSV-1 replication in a direct manner in order to generate a novel oncolytic herpes virus which can target cancer cells. To establish such link, we developed a mutant HSV-1 in which the expression of ICP4 (infected cell protein-4, a viral protein necessary for replication is controlled by activation of ELK, a transcription factor down-stream of the Ras pathway and mainly activated by ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an important Ras effector pathway. This mutant HSV-1 was named as Signal-Smart 1 (SS1. A series of prostate cells were infected with the SS1 virus. Cells with elevated levels of ELK activation were preferentially infected by the SS1 virus, as demonstrated by increased levels of viral progeny, herpetic glycoprotein C and overall SS1 viral protein production. Upon exposure to SS1, the proliferation, invasiveness and colony formation capabilities of prostate cancer cells with increased ELK activation were significantly decreased (p<0.05, while the rate of apoptosis/necrosis in these cells was increased. Additionally, high Ras signaling cells infected with SS1 showed a prominent arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle as compared to cells exposed to parental HSV-1. The results of this study reveal the potential for re-modeling the host-herpes interaction to specifically interfere with the life of cancer cells with increased Ras signaling. SS1 also serves as a "prototype" for development of a family of signal-smart viruses which can target cancer cells on the basis of their signaling portfolio.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide induces activation of insulin signaling pathway via AMP-dependent kinase in podocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Rogacka, Dorota; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► H 2 O 2 activates the insulin signaling pathway and glucose uptake in podocytes. ► H 2 O 2 induces time-dependent changes in AMPK phosphorylation. ► H 2 O 2 enhances insulin signaling pathways via AMPK activation. ► H 2 O 2 stimulation of glucose uptake is AMPK-dependent. -- Abstract: Podocytes are cells that form the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. Insulin signaling in podocytes is critical for normal kidney function. Insulin signaling is regulated by oxidative stress and intracellular energy levels. We cultured rat podocytes to investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the phosphorylation of proximal and distal elements of insulin signaling. We also investigated H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular changes in the distribution of protein kinase B (Akt). Western blots showed that H 2 O 2 (100 μM) induced rapid, transient phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrate-1 (IRS1), and Akt with peak activities at 5 min (Δ 183%, P 2 O 2 >. Furthermore, H 2 O 2 inhibited phosphorylation of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN; peak activity at 10 min; Δ −32%, P 2 O 2 on IR phosphorylation by about 40% (from 2.07 ± 0.28 to 1.28 ± 0.12, P 2 O 2 increased glucose uptake in podocytes (from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 1.29 ± 0.12 nmol/min/mg protein, P 2 O 2 activated the insulin signaling pathway and glucose uptake via AMPK in cultured rat podocytes. This signaling may play a potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance under conditions associated with oxidative stress.

  5. Regulation of PGE2 signaling pathways and TNF-alpha signaling pathways on the function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and the effects of CP-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Sheng, Kangliang; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Yujing; Zhang, Feng; Chang, Yan; Wu, Huaxun; Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2015-12-15

    This study was to investigate PGE2 and TNF-alpha signaling pathway involving in the maturation and activation of bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) and the effect of CP-25. Bone marrow DCs were isolated and stimulated by PGE2 and TNF-alpha respectively. The markers of maturation and activation expressed on DCs, such as CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, MHC-II, and the ability of antigen uptake of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of T cells co-cultured with DCs, the signaling pathways of PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB in DCs were analyzed. The results showed that both PGE2 and TNF-alpha up-regulated the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC-II, decreased the antigen uptake of DCs, and DCs stimulated by PGE2 or TNF-alpha could increase T cell proliferation. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased significantly the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC-II, increased the antigen uptake of DCs, and suppressed T cell proliferation induced by DCs. PGE2 increased the expressions of EP4, NF-κB and down-regulated cAMP level of DCs. TNF-alpha could also up-regulate TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression of DCs. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased the expressions of EP4 and NF-κB, increased cAMP level in DCs stimulated by PGE2. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) also could down-regulate significantly TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression in DCs stimulated by TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that PGE2 and TNF-alpha could enhance DCs functions by mediating PGE2-EP4-cAMP pathway, TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathway respectively. CP-25 might inhibit the function of DCs through regulating PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying novel glioma associated pathways based on systems biology level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangfan; Li, Jinquan; Yan, Wenying; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Yin; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2013-01-01

    With recent advances in microarray technology, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, it brings a great challenge for integrating this "-omics" data to analysis complex disease. Glioma is an extremely aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor, and thus the study of the molecule mechanism underlying glioma remains very important. To date, most studies focus on detecting the differentially expressed genes in glioma. However, the meta-analysis for pathway analysis based on multiple microarray datasets has not been systematically pursued. In this study, we therefore developed a systems biology based approach by integrating three types of omics data to identify common pathways in glioma. Firstly, the meta-analysis has been performed to study the overlapping of signatures at different levels based on the microarray gene expression data of glioma. Among these gene expression datasets, 12 pathways were found in GeneGO database that shared by four stages. Then, microRNA expression profiles and ChIP-seq data were integrated for the further pathway enrichment analysis. As a result, we suggest 5 of these pathways could be served as putative pathways in glioma. Among them, the pathway of TGF-beta-dependent induction of EMT via SMAD is of particular importance. Our results demonstrate that the meta-analysis based on systems biology level provide a more useful approach to study the molecule mechanism of complex disease. The integration of different types of omics data, including gene expression microarrays, microRNA and ChIP-seq data, suggest some common pathways correlated with glioma. These findings will offer useful potential candidates for targeted therapeutic intervention of glioma.

  7. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Fumiko; Kugimiya, Fumitaka; Ohba, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ogasawara, Toru; Ogata, Naoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Chung, Ung-il

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in cartilage development, we adenovirally expressed a constitutively active (Canada) or a dominant negative (dn) form of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), the main nuclear effector of the pathway, in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, chondrogenic cells, and primary chondrocytes, and examined the expression of markers for chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy. caLEF-1 and LiCl, an activator of the canonical pathway, promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy, whereas dnLEF-1 and the gene silencing of β-catenin suppressed LiCl-promoted effects. To investigate whether these effects were dependent on Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage development, we stimulated Sox9-deficient ES cells with the pathway. caLEF-1 and LiCl promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy in wild-type, but not in Sox9-deficient, cells. The response of Sox9-deficient cells was restored by the adenoviral expression of Sox9. Thus, the canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

  8. Domain altering SNPs in the human proteome and their impact on signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Liu

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs constitute an important mode of genetic variations observed in the human genome. A small fraction of SNPs, about four thousand out of the ten million, has been associated with genetic disorders and complex diseases. The present study focuses on SNPs that fall on protein domains, 3D structures that facilitate connectivity of proteins in cell signaling and metabolic pathways. We scanned the human proteome using the PROSITE web tool and identified proteins with SNP containing domains. We showed that SNPs that fall on protein domains are highly statistically enriched among SNPs linked to hereditary disorders and complex diseases. Proteins whose domains are dramatically altered by the presence of an SNP are even more likely to be present among proteins linked to hereditary disorders. Proteins with domain-altering SNPs comprise highly connected nodes in cellular pathways such as the focal adhesion, the axon guidance pathway and the autoimmune disease pathways. Statistical enrichment of domain/motif signatures in interacting protein pairs indicates extensive loss of connectivity of cell signaling pathways due to domain-altering SNPs, potentially leading to hereditary disorders.

  9. Differences in gene expression profiles and signaling pathways in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanda; Hong, Quan; Yang, Jurong; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a threatening syndrome because it causes the breakdown of skeletal muscle. Muscle destruction leads to the release of myoglobin, intracellular proteins, and electrolytes into the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression profiles and signaling pathways upon rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we used glycerol-induced renal injury as a model of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. We analyzed data and relevant information from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (No: GSE44925). The gene expression data for three untreated mice were compared to data for five mice with rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. The expression profiling of the three untreated mice and the five rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI mice was performed using microarray analysis. We examined the levels of Cyp3a13, Rela, Aldh7a1, Jun, CD14. And Cdkn1a using RT-PCR to determine the accuracy of the microarray results. The microarray analysis showed that there were 1050 downregulated and 659 upregulated genes in the rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI mice compared to the control group. The interactions of all differentially expressed genes in the Signal-Net were analyzed. Cyp3a13 and Rela had the most interactions with other genes. The data showed that Rela and Aldh7a1 were the key nodes and had important positions in the Signal-Net. The genes Jun, CD14, and Cdkn1a were also significantly upregulated. The pathway analysis classified the differentially expressed genes into 71 downregulated and 48 upregulated pathways including the PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. The results of this study indicate that the NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and apoptotic pathways are regulated in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

  10. C-Jun N-terminal kinase signalling pathway in response to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; An, GuangYu; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2016-11-01

    Cisplatin (cis diamminedichloroplatinum II, cDDP) is one of the most effective cancer chemotherapeutic agents and is used in the treatment of many types of human malignancies. However, inherent tumour resistance is a major barrier to effective cisplatin therapy. So far, the mechanism of cDDP resistance has not been well defined. In general, cisplatin is considered to be a cytotoxic drug, for damaging DNA and inhibiting DNA synthesis, resulting in apoptosis via the mitochondrial death pathway or plasma membrane disruption. cDDP-induced DNA damage triggers signalling pathways that will eventually decide between cell life and death. As a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases family, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a signalling pathway in response to extracellular stimuli, especially drug treatment, to modify the activity of numerous proteins locating in the mitochondria or the nucleus. Recent studies suggest that JNK signalling pathway plays a major role in deciding the fate of the cell and inducing resistance to cDDP-induced apoptosis in human tumours. c-Jun N-terminal kinase regulates several important cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis while activating and inhibiting substrates for phosphorylation transcription factors (c-Jun, ATF2: Activating transcription factor 2, p53 and so on), which subsequently induce pro-apoptosis and pro-survival factors expression. Therefore, it is suggested that JNK signal pathway is a double-edged sword in cDDP treatment, simultaneously being a significant pro-apoptosis factor but also being associated with increased resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review focuses on current knowledge concerning the role of JNK in cell response to cDDP, as well as their role in cisplatin resistance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  11. Human cytomegalovirus infection dysregulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Angelova

    Full Text Available Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that currently infects a large percentage of the world population. Although usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals, HCMV infection during pregnancy may cause spontaneous abortions, premature delivery, or permanent neurological disabilities in infants infected in utero. During infection, the virus exerts control over a multitude of host signaling pathways. Wnt/β-catenin signaling, an essential pathway involved in cell cycle control, differentiation, embryonic development, placentation and metastasis, is frequently dysregulated by viruses. How HCMV infection affects this critical pathway is not currently known. In this study, we demonstrate that HCMV dysregulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in dermal fibroblasts and human placental extravillous trophoblasts. Infection inhibits Wnt-induced transcriptional activity of β-catenin and expression of β-catenin target genes in these cells. HCMV infection leads to β-catenin protein accumulation in a discrete juxtanuclear region. Levels of β-catenin in membrane-associated and cytosolic pools, as well as nuclear β-catenin, are reduced after infection; while transcription of the β-catenin gene is unchanged, suggesting enhanced degradation. Given the critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cellular processes, these findings represent a novel and important mechanism whereby HCMV disrupts normal cellular function.

  12. Leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of female and male fructose-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović-Milutinović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of male and female rats subjected to a fructose-enriched diet were studied. The level of expression of the key components of the leptin signaling pathway (neuropeptide Y /NPY/ and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 /SOCS3/, and the glucocorticoid signaling pathway (glucocorticoid receptor /GR/, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 /11βHSD1/ and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase /H6PDH/ did not differ between fructose-fed rats and control animals of both genders. However, in females, a fructose-enriched diet provoked increases in the adiposity index, plasma leptin and triglyceride concentrations, and displayed a tendency to decrease the leptin receptor (ObRb protein and mRNA levels. In male rats, the fructose diet caused elevations in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as in both plasma and hypothalamic leptin concentrations. Our results suggest that a fructose-enriched diet can induce hyperleptinemia in both female and male rats, but with a more pronounced effect on hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in females, probably contributing to the observed development of visceral adiposity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41009

  13. Signaling pathway underlying the octopaminergic modulation of myogenic contraction in the cricket lateral oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    Octopamine (OA), a biogenic monoamine, is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in invertebrates. Here, we report the effect of OA on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) of the lateral oviduct of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the possible signaling pathway involved. Application of OA increased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of OA was inhibited by subsequent application of the OA receptor antagonist epinastine, indicating that the action of OA is mediated by OA receptor. To investigate the predominant signaling pathway underlying the action of OA, we first examined a possible involvement of the cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Application of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP had little effect on SRCs and the effect of OA was not influenced by subsequent application of the PKA inhibitor H89, indicating that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is not the predominant pathway in the action of OA. Next, we examined a possible involvement of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the action of OA. The effect of OA on SRCs was inhibited by subsequent application of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, indicating that the PLC pathway is involved in the action of OA. The OA-induced increase in the frequency of SRCs was inhibited by pretreatment of the cell with the ryanodine receptor antagonist tetracaine but was not significantly affected by the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). On the other hand, the OA-induced increase in the amplitude of SRCs was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with 2-APB but was not significantly affected by tetracaine. Taken together, these results suggest that the OA-induced excitatory effect on SRCs is mediated by the PLC signaling pathway: Ca2+ release from IP3 receptors may contribute to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs, whereas Ca2+ release from ryanodine

  14. The hedgehog-signaling pathway is repressed during the osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Reck, A; Beck, H C

    2017-01-01

    of repressors of the hedgehog-signaling pathway such as Patched 1 (PTCH1), Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), and Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP). Previous studies suggested that hedgehog proteins induce the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via a paracrine pathway. Indian hedgehog (IHH......) induced the expression of the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2. However, a supplementation of the BMP2-based osteogenic differentiation medium with IHH did not induce the expression of RUNX2. Moreover, IHH inhibited slightly the ALP activity and the mineralization of osteogenic-differentiated DFCs...

  15. MGAT1 is a novel transcriptional target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Izzet; Birgül Iyison, Necla

    2018-01-08

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway, which has important functions in vertebrate early development, axis formation, cellular proliferation and morphogenesis. Additionally, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most important intracellular pathways that controls cancer progression. To date most of the identified targets of this pathway are shown to harbor tumorigenic properties. We previously showed that Mannosyl glycoprotein acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (MGAT1) enzyme is among the Wnt/β-catenin signaling putative target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (Huh7). MGAT1 protein levels were determined by Western Blotting from Huh7 cell lines in which Wnt/β-catenin pathway was activated by means of different approaches such as LiCl treatment and mutant β-catenin overexpression. Luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the promoter activity of MGAT1. The mRNA levels of MGAT1 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR from Huh7 cells that were treated with either Wnt agonist or GSK-3β inhibitor. Wound healing and XTT cell proliferation assays were performed in order to determine the proliferation and migration capacities of MGAT1 overexpressing stable Huh7 cells. Finally, xenograft experiments were carried out to measure the tumor formation capacities in vivo. In this study we showed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway culminates in the upregulation of MGAT1 enzyme both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also showed that overexpression of the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) increased the promoter activity of MGAT1. We applied a set of complementary approaches to elucidate the functional importance of MGAT1 as a vital target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Huh7 cells. Our analyses related to cell proliferation and migration assays showed that in comparison to the control cells, MGAT1 expressing Huh7 cells have greater proliferative and invasive capabilities. Furthermore, the

  16. The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Alexandra M.; Piazza, Gary A. [Drug Discovery Research Center, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, 1660 Springhill Ave, Suite 3029, Mobile, AL 36604 (United States); Tinsley, Heather N., E-mail: htinsley@montevallo.edu [Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL 35115 (United States)

    2014-02-26

    For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers.

  17. Hyperin protects against LPS-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunzhi, Gong; Zunfeng, Li; Chengwei, Qin; Xiangmei, Bu; Jingui, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperin is a flavonoid compound derived from Ericaceae, Guttifera, and Celastraceae that has been shown to have various biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, there is no evidence to show the protective effects of hyperin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we investigated the protective effects and mechanism of hyperin on LPS-induced AKI in mice. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were tested by ELISA. The effects of hyperin on blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine were also detected. In addition, the expression of TLR4, NF-κB, and NLRP3 were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that hyperin significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production. The levels of BUN and creatinine were also suppressed by hyperin. Furthermore, LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation were also inhibited by hyperin. In addition, treatment of hyperin dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NLRP3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results showed that hyperin inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways. Hyperin has potential application prospects in the treatment of sepsis-induced AKI. PMID:27813491

  18. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis Of Purified Embryonic Neural Stem Cells From Zebrafish Embryos Reveals Signalling Pathways Involved In Glycine-dependent Neurogenesis

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    Eric eSAMARUT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available How is the initial set of neurons correctly established during the development of the vertebrate central nervous system? In the embryo, glycine and GABA are depolarizing due the immature chloride gradient, which is only reversed to become hyperpolarizing later in post-natal development. We previously showed that glycine regulates neurogenesis via paracrine signalling that promotes calcium transients in neural stem cells (NSCs and their differentiation into interneurons within the spinal cord of the zebrafish embryo. However, the subjacent molecular mechanisms are not yet understood. Our previous work suggests that early neuronal progenitors were not differentiating correctly in the developing spinal cord. As a result, we aimed at identifying the downstream molecular mechanisms involved specifically in NSCs during glycine-dependent embryonic neurogenesis. Using a gfap:GFP transgenic line, we successfully purified NSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS from whole zebrafish embryos and in embryos in which the glycine receptor was knocked down. The strength of this approach is that it focused on the NSC population while tackling the biological issue in an in vivo context in whole zebrafish embryos. After sequencing the transcriptome by RNA-sequencing, we analyzed the genes whose expression was changed upon disruption of glycine signalling and we confirmed the differential expression by independent RTqPCR assay. While over a thousand genes showed altered expression levels, through pathway analysis we identified 14 top candidate genes belonging to five different canonical signalling pathways (signalling by calcium, TGF-beta, sonic hedgehog, Wnt and p53-related apoptosis that are likely to mediate the promotion of neurogenesis by glycine.

  20. Sotos syndrome is associated with deregulation of the MAPK/ERK-signaling pathway.

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    Remco Visser

    Full Text Available Sotos syndrome (SoS is characterized by tall stature, characteristic craniofacial features and mental retardation. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. In this study, our objective was to identify downstream effectors of NSD1 and to map these effectors in signaling pathways associated with growth. Genome-wide expression studies were performed on dermal fibroblasts from SoS patients with a confirmed NSD1 abnormality. To substantiate those results, phosphorylation, siRNA and transfection experiments were performed. A significant association was demonstrated with the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathway. Members of the fibroblast growth factor family such as FGF4 and FGF13 contributed strongly to the differential expression in this pathway. In addition, a diminished activity state of the MAPK/ERK pathway was demonstrated in SoS. The Ras Interacting Protein 1 (RASIP1 was identified to exhibit upregulated expression in SoS. It was shown that RASIP1 dose-dependently potentiated bFGF induced expression of the MAPK responsive SBE reporter providing further support for a link between NSD1 and the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Additionally, we demonstrated NSD1 expression in the terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes of normal human epiphyseal growth plates. In short stature syndromes such as hypochondroplasia and Noonan syndrome, the activation level of the FGF-MAPK/ERK-pathway in epiphyseal growth plates is a determining factor for statural growth. In analogy, we propose that deregulation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in SoS results in altered hypertrophic differentiation of NSD1 expressing chondrocytes and may be a determining factor in statural overgrowth and accelerated skeletal maturation in SoS.

  1. Analysis of porcine granulosa cell death signaling pathways induced by vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knet, Malgorzata; Wartalski, Kamil; Hoja-Lukowicz, Dorota; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Slomczynska, Maria; Duda, Malgorzata

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that disturbing androgen-signaling pathways in porcine ovarian follicles may cause granulosa cell (GC) death. For this reason, we investigated which apoptotic pathway is initiated after GC exposure to an environmental antiandrogen, vinclozolin (Vnz), in vitro. Immunocytochemistry, Western blots, and fluorometric assays were used to quantify caspase-3 and -9 expression and activity. To elucidate the specific mechanism of Vnz action and toxicity, GCs were assessed for viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic activity using the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. To further determine the mechanism of GC death induced by Vnz, we used the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In response to Vnz stimulus, we found an increased level of caspase-3 protein expression (P ≤ 0.001) and an increase in caspase-3 proteolytic activity (P ≤ 0.001), confirming that Vnz is a potent proapoptotic factor. The strong immunoreaction of caspase-9 after Vnz treatment (P ≤ 0.001) suggests that intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated during GC death. On the other hand, caspase-8, being a part of the extrinsic receptor pathway, was also activated (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, it is possible that Vnz induces porcine granulosal apoptosis also through a parallel pathway. Activation of these two pathways was confirmed by the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In conclusion, it is possible that the intrinsic signaling pathway may not act as an initial trigger for GC apoptosis but might contribute to the amplification and propagation of apoptotic cell death in the granulosa layer after treatment with this antiandrogen. Moreover, Vnz disturbs the physiological process of programmed cell death. Consequently, this could explain why atretic follicles are rapidly removed and suggests that normal function of the ovarian follicle may be destroyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagmeester, Andra; Kutmon, Martina; Riutta, Anders; Miller, Ryan; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web.

  3. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Waagmeester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web.

  4. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagmeester, Andra; Pico, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web. PMID:27336457

  5. Downstream divergence of the ethylene signaling pathway for harpin-stimulated Arabidopsis growth and insect defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Ping; Peng, Jianling; Bao, Zhilong; Meng, Xiangdong; Bonasera, Jean M; Chen, Guangyong; Beer, Steven V; Dong, Hansong

    2004-11-01

    Ethylene (ET) signal transduction may regulate plant growth and defense, depending on which components are recruited into the pathway in response to different stimuli. We report here that the ET pathway controls both insect resistance (IR) and plant growth enhancement (PGE) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants responding to harpin, a protein produced by a plant pathogenic bacterium. PGE may result from spraying plant tops with harpin or by soaking seeds in harpin solution; the latter especially enhances root growth. Plants treated similarly develop resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). The salicylic acid pathway, although activated by harpin, does not lead to PGE and IR. By contrast, PGE and IR are induced in both wild-type plants and genotypes that have defects in salicylic acid signaling. In response to harpin, levels of jasmonic acid (JA) decrease, and the COI1 gene, which is indispensable for JA signal transduction, is not expressed in wild-type plants. However, PGE and IR are stimulated in the JA-resistant mutant jar1-1. In the wild type, PGE and IR develop coincidently with increases in ET levels and the expression of several genes essential for ET signaling. The ET receptor gene ETR1 is required because both phenotypes are arrested in the etr1-1 mutant. Consistently, inhibition of ET perception nullifies the induction of both PGE and IR. The signal transducer EIN2 is required for IR, and EIN5 is required for PGE because IR and PGE are impaired correspondingly in the ein2-1 and ein5-1 mutants. Therefore, harpin activates ET signaling while conscribing EIN2 and EIN5 to confer IR and PGE, respectively.

  6. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  7. Regulatory cross-talks and cascades in rice hormone biosynthesis pathways contribute to stress signaling

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    Arindam Deb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each other’s production directly. Thus multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones.

  8. Motor cortex stimulation and neuropathic pain: how does motor cortex stimulation affect pain-signaling pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyung; Ryu, Sang Baek; Lee, Sung Eun; Shin, Jaewoo; Jung, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sung June; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Chang, Jin Woo

    2016-03-01

    Neuropathic pain is often severe. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is used for alleviating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of action of MCS by investigating pain-signaling pathways, with the expectation that MCS would regulate both descending and ascending pathways. Neuropathic pain was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Surface electrodes for MCS were implanted in the rats. Tactile allodynia was measured by behavioral testing to determine the effect of MCS. For the pathway study, immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate changes in c-fos and serotonin expression; micro-positron emission tomography (mPET) scanning was performed to investigate changes of glucose uptake; and extracellular electrophysiological recordings were performed to demonstrate brain activity. MCS was found to modulate c-fos and serotonin expression. In the mPET study, altered brain activity was observed in the striatum, thalamic area, and cerebellum. In the electrophysiological study, neuronal activity was increased by mechanical stimulation and suppressed by MCS. After elimination of artifacts, neuronal activity was demonstrated in the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) during electrical stimulation. This neuronal activity was effectively suppressed by MCS. This study demonstrated that MCS effectively attenuated neuropathic pain. MCS modulated ascending and descending pain pathways. It regulated neuropathic pain by affecting the striatum, periaqueductal gray, cerebellum, and thalamic area, which are thought to regulate the descending pathway. MCS also appeared to suppress activation of the VPL, which is part of the ascending pathway.

  9. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  10. MicroRNA Roles in the NF-κB Signaling Pathway during Viral Infections

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    Zeqian Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB signaling network is a crucial component of innate immunity. miRNAs are a subtype of small noncoding RNAs, involved in regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Increasing evidence has emerged that miRNAs play an important role in regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway during viral infections. Both host and viral miRNAs are attributed to modulation of NF-κB activity, thus affecting viral infection and clearance. Understandings of the mechanisms of these miRNAs will open a direction for development of novel antivirus drugs.

  11. Method for increasing nuclear magnetic resonance signals in living biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongrad, A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of enhancing a magnetic resonance comprising the steps of administering a quantity of a selected magnetic isotope to a living biological tissue at a concentration greater than the naturally occurring concentration of such isotope and detecting magnetic resonance signal from the administered magnetic isotope in the living biological tissue. (author)

  12. Crosstalk between autophagy and inflammatory signalling pathways: balancing defence and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Autophagy has broad functions in immunity, ranging from cell-autonomous defence to coordination of complex multicellular immune responses. The successful resolution of infection and avoidance of autoimmunity necessitates efficient and timely communication between autophagy and pathways that sense the immune environment. The recent literature indicates that a variety of immune mediators induce or repress autophagy. It is also becoming increasingly clear that immune signalling cascades are subject to regulation by autophagy, and that a return to homeostasis following a robust immune response is critically dependent on this pathway. Importantly, examples of non-canonical forms of autophagy in mediating immunity are pervasive. In this article, the progress in elucidating mechanisms of crosstalk between autophagy and inflammatory signalling cascades is reviewed. Improved mechanistic understanding of the autophagy machinery offers hope for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Diet-induced obesity mediated by the JNK/DIO2 signal transduction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernia, Santiago; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Barrett, Tamera; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Davis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is a key mediator of metabolic stress responses caused by consuming a high-fat diet, including the development of obesity. To test the role of JNK, we examined diet-induced obesity in mice with targeted ablation of Jnk genes in the anterior pituitary gland. These mice exhibited an increase in the pituitary expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), an increase in the blood concentration of thyroid hormone (T4), increased energy expenditure, and markedly reduced obesity compared with control mice. The increased amount of pituitary TSH was caused by reduced expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2), a gene that is required for T4-mediated negative feedback regulation of TSH expression. These data establish a molecular mechanism that accounts for the regulation of energy expenditure and the development of obesity by the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:24186979

  14. Cardioprotection against Heart Failure by Shenfu Injection via TGF-β/Smads Signaling Pathway

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    Jingyu Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the potential cardioprotective mechanism of Shenfu injection (SFI against heart failure (HF by attenuating myocardial fibrosis and cardiac remodeling. Methods and Results. Four weeks after myocardial infarction (MI, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized for 4-week treatment with Valsartan, SFI, or vehicle. Echocardiography and hemodynamics were applied to evaluate cardiac functions. Myocardia of coronary artery ligated (CAD rats were observed to investigate changes in cardiac structure and function. Our findings suggest that treatment with SFI could inhibit progression of myocardial fibrosis and attenuate cardiac remodeling. In addition, SFI decreased expression of Smad2 and Smad3, while increasing the expression of Smad7 through regulation of TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway. Conclusion. Treatment with SFI in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular structure and function and reduces cardiac fibrosis by ameliorating TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway after ventricular remodeling.

  15. The effect of aquaporin 5 overexpression on the Ras signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Janghee; Lee, Juna; Kim, Myoung Sook; Jang, Se Jin; Sidransky, David; Moon, Chulso

    2008-01-01

    Human aquaporin 5 (AQP5) has been shown to be overexpressed in multiple cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. Furthermore, it has been reported that ectopic expression of AQP5 leads to many phenotypic changes characteristic of transformation. However, the biochemical mechanism leading to transformation in AQP5-overexpressing cells has not been clearly elucidated. In this report, the overexpression of AQP5 in NIH3T3 cells demonstrated a significant effect on Ras activity and, thus, cell proliferation. Furthermore, this influence was shown to be mediated by phosphorylation of the PKA consensus site of AQP5. This is the first evidence demonstrating an association between AQP5 and a signaling pathway, namely the Ras signal transduction pathway, which may be the basis of the oncogenic properties seen in AQP-overexpressing cells

  16. The TOR Signaling Pathway in Spatial and Temporal Control of Cell Size and Growth

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    Suam Gonzalez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell size is amenable by genetic and environmental factors. The highly conserved nutrient-responsive Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway regulates cellular metabolic status and growth in response to numerous inputs. Timing and duration of TOR pathway activity is pivotal for both cell mass built up as well as cell cycle progression and is controlled and fine-tuned by the abundance and quality of nutrients, hormonal signals, growth factors, stress, and oxygen. TOR kinases function within two functionally and structurally discrete multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, that are implicated in temporal and spatial control of cell size and growth respectively; however, recent data indicate that such functional distinctions are much more complex. Here, we briefly review roles of the two complexes in cellular growth and cytoarchitecture in various experimental model systems.

  17. Research advances in sorafenib-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in liver cancer cells

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    ZHANG Chaoya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sorafenib is the multi-target inhibitor for the treatment of advanced primary liver cancer, and can effectively prolong the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced primary liver cancer. The application of sorafenib in the targeted therapy for liver cancer has become a hot topic. Major targets or signaling pathways include Raf/Mek/Erk,