WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological sciences chem

  1. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700 000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30...... evaluation of environmental chemicals, natural products and approved drugs, as well as the selection of new compounds based on their activity profile against most known biological targets, including those related to adverse drug events. Results from the disease chemical biology database associate citalopram......, an antidepressant, with osteogenesis imperfect and leukemia and bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor, with certain types of cancer, respectively. The server can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt/....

  2. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine; Weinhold, Nils; Edsgärd, Daniel; Roque, Francisco S; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Bora, Alina; Curpan, Ramona; Jensen, Thomas Skøt; Brunak, Søren; Oprea, Tudor I

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emergent area that studies drug action across multiple scales of complexity, from molecular and cellular to tissue and organism levels. There is a critical need to develop network-based approaches to integrate the growing body of chemical biology knowledge with network biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700,000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30,578 proteins. We gathered over 2-million chemical-protein interactions, which were integrated in a quality scored human PPI network of 428,429 interactions. The PPI network layer allows for studying disease and tissue specificity through each protein complex. ChemProt can assist in the in silico evaluation of environmental chemicals, natural products and approved drugs, as well as the selection of new compounds based on their activity profile against most known biological targets, including those related to adverse drug events. Results from the disease chemical biology database associate citalopram, an antidepressant, with osteogenesis imperfect and leukemia and bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor, with certain types of cancer, respectively. The server can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt/.

  3. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  4. ChemProt: A disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of chemistry, biology, and informatics to study drug actions across multiple biological targets, pathways, and biological systems is an emerging paradigm in drug discovery. Rather than reducing a complex system to simplistic models, fields such as chemogenomics and translational...... chemical biology, drug repurposing, and off-target effects prediction....

  5. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian; Edsgärd, Daniel; Rigina, Olga; Gupta, Ramneek; Audouze, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical-protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein-protein interaction network, a protein-protein association network and a chemical-chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment. HExpoChem is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/HExpoChem-1.0/.

  6. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  7. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  8. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payre, Valerie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick J.; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-01-01

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was significantly over-estimated by the previous model, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. The uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  9. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  10. The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars science laboratory (MSL) rover: Science objectives and mast unit description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Baratoux, D.; Berger, G.; Cousin, A.; Cros, A.; Dupieux, M.; D'Uston, L.; Gharsa, T.; Lasue, J.; Meslin, P.Y.; Orttner, G.; Pares, L.; Parot, Y.; Pinet, P.; Salle, B.; Seran, H.; Thocaven, J.J.; Toplis, M.J.; Wiens, R.C.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Bernardin, J.; Clegg, S.; Dingler, B.; Lasue, J.; Stiglich, R.; Vaniman, D.; Saccoccio, M.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Michel, Y.; Paillet, A.; Perez, R.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouelic, S.; Sotin, C.; Berthe, M.; Langevin, Y.; Berthe, M.; Langevin, Y.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L.; Kan, E.; Limonadi, D.; Miller, E.; Sotin, C.; Simmonds, J.J.; Bouye, M.; Dubois, B.; Kouach, D.; Striebig, N.; Cais, P.; Quertier, B.; Clark, B.; Cremers, D.; Derycke, C.; Durand, E.; Dromart, G.; Fabre, C.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kirkland, L.; Lacour, J.L.; Mauchien, P.; Salle, B.; Sirven, J.B.; Lewin, E.; Lewin, E.; Manhes, G.; McKay, C.; Newsom, H.E.; Lescure, M.; Sautter, V.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the 'Curiosity' rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical de-multiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (≥ 1 GW/cm 2 ). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024*1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (∼ 90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications. (authors)

  11. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Barraclough, Bruce; Barkley, Walter C.; Bender, Steve; Bernardin, John; Bultman, Nathan; Clanton, Robert C.; Clegg, Samuel; Delapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Enemark, Don; Flores, Mike; Hale, Thomas; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Latino, Joseph; Little, Cynthia; Morrison, Leland; Nelson, Tony; Romero, Frank; Salazar, Steven; Stiglich, Ralph; Storms, Steven; Trujillo, Tanner; Ulibarri, Mike; Vaniman, David; Whitaker, Robert; Witt, James; Maurice, Sylvestre; Bouye, Marc; Cousin, Agnes; Cros, Alain; D'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Kouach, Driss; Lasue, Jeremie; Pares, Laurent; Poitrasson, Franck; Striebig, Nicolas; Thocaven, Jean-Jacques; Saccoccio, Muriel; Perez, Rene; Bell, James F. III; Hays, Charles; Blaney, Diana; DeFlores, Lauren; Elliott, Tom; Kan, Ed; Limonadi, Daniel; Lindensmith, Chris; Miller, Ed; Reiter, Joseph W.; Roberts, Tom; Simmonds, John J.; Warner, Noah; Blank, Jennifer; Bridges, Nathan; Cais, Phillippe; Clark, Benton; Cremers, David; Dyar, M. Darby; Fabre, Cecile; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kirkland, Laurel; Landis, David; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; LaRocca, Frank; Ott, Melanie; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gerard; Mauchien, Patrick; Blank, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Mooney, Joe; Provost, Cheryl; Morris, Richard V.; Sautter, Violaine; Sautter, Violaine; Waterbury, Rob; Wong-Swanson, Belinda; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Vaniman, David

    2012-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity provides remote compositional information using the first laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on a planetary mission, and provides sample texture and morphology data using a remote micro-imager (RMI). Overall, ChemCam supports MSL with five capabilities: remote classification of rock and soil characteristics; quantitative elemental compositions including light elements like hydrogen and some elements to which LIBS is uniquely sensitive (e.g., Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Ba); remote removal of surface dust and depth profiling through surface coatings; context imaging; and passive spectroscopy over the 240-905 nm range. ChemCam is built in two sections: The mast unit, consisting of a laser, telescope, RMI, and associated electronics, resides on the rover's mast, and is described in a companion paper. ChemCam's body unit, which is mounted in the body of the rover, comprises an optical de-multiplexer, three spectrometers, detectors, their coolers, and associated electronics and data handling logic. Additional instrument components include a 6 m optical fiber which transfers the LIBS light from the telescope to the body unit, and a set of onboard calibration targets. ChemCam was integrated and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory where it also underwent LIBS calibration with 69 geological standards prior to integration with the rover. Post-integration testing used coordinated mast and instrument commands, including LIBS line scans on rock targets during system-level thermal-vacuum tests. In this paper we describe the body unit, optical fiber, and calibration targets, and the assembly, testing, and verification of the instrument prior to launch. (authors)

  12. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes

  13. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  14. Links to Other DBs (based on PubChem) - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PubChem substances, compounds and GlyTouCan ( https://glytoucan.org/ ) by using skos:exactMatch and skos:cl...data between Nikkaji substances, and PubChem substances, and compounds which were acquired using UniChem FTP service ( https:

  15. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  16. Education science and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This contribution states deficits and makes proposals in order to overcome them. First there is the question as to why the Biological Anthropology--despite all its diversifications--hardly ever deals with educational aspects of its subject. Second it is the question as to why Educational Science neglects or even ignores data of Biological Anthropology which are recognizably important for its subject. It is postulated that the stated deficits are caused by several adverse influences such as, the individual identity of each of the involved single sciences; aspects of the recent history of the German Anthropology; a lack of conceptual understanding of each other; methodological differences and, last but not least, the structure of the universities. The necessity to remedy this situation was deduced from two groups of facts. First, more recent data of the Biological Anthropology (e.g. brain functions and learning, sex specificity and education) are of substantial relevance for the Educational Science. Second, the epistemological requirements of complex subjects like education need interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a few suggestions of concrete topics are given which are related to both, Educational Science and Biological Anthropology.

  17. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Chem systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that world styrene demand, paced by a near doubling of combined requirements in East Asia and Oceania, could reach 19.3 million metric tons by 2000, an average growth rate of 3.7%/year. So concludes Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., in a study of world styrene markets through the end of the century. Pacific Rim styrene production and consumption throughout the 1990s are predicted to make up increasingly larger shares of world markets, while demand and production lag in the U.S. and western Europe. Demand and capacity in other parts of the world will grow in real terms, increasing combined market shares only slightly. Most of the increase will be driven by demand in East Asia and Oceania, where consumption by century's end is expected to increase 4.48 million metric tons from 2.25 million tons in 1991. Meantime, Japan's styrene demand in 2000 is projected at 2.64 million tons, a 500,000 ton increase from 1991 demand but a net market loss of 1.9%

  19. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    There is rising evidence of an inverse association between chronic diseases and diets characterized by rich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary components may act directly or indirectly on the human genome and modulate multiple processes involved in disease risk and disease progression. However, there is currently no exhaustive resource on the health benefits associated to specific dietary interventions, or a resource covering the broad molecular content of food. Here we present the first release of NutriChem, available at http://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts for information that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human disease phenotypes. NutriChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of 1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals, and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751 diseases. In addition, it includes predicted associations for 548 phytochemicals and 252 diseases. To the best of our knowledge this database is the only resource linking the chemical space of plant-based foods with human disease phenotypes and provides a foundation for understanding mechanistically the consequences of eating behaviors on health. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Biomaterial science meets computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Little, J Paige; Pettet, Graeme J; Loessner, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    There is a pressing need for a predictive tool capable of revealing a holistic understanding of fundamental elements in the normal and pathological cell physiology of organoids in order to decipher the mechanoresponse of cells. Therefore, the integration of a systems bioengineering approach into a validated mathematical model is necessary to develop a new simulation tool. This tool can only be innovative by combining biomaterials science with computational biology. Systems-level and multi-scale experimental data are incorporated into a single framework, thus representing both single cells and collective cell behaviour. Such a computational platform needs to be validated in order to discover key mechano-biological factors associated with cell-cell and cell-niche interactions.

  1. ChemSearch Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. ChemSearch Journal is a peer – reviewed journal that publishes original research work, scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure science, agriculture, environmental science, science education and related fields).

  2. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, pathology, health sciences, ...

  3. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG), and is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, molecular biology, physiology, pathology, health sciences, ...

  4. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    million MEDLINE abstracts for information thatlinks plant-based foods with their small moleculecomponents and human disease phenotypes. Nu-triChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals,and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751diseases. In addition......There is rising evidence of an inverse association be-tween chronic diseases and diets characterized byrich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary com-ponents may act directly or indirectly on the humangenome and modulate multiple processes involvedin disease risk and disease progression. However......, it includes predicted associa-tions for 548 phytochemicals and 252 diseases. Tothe best of our knowledge this database is the onlyresource linking the chemical space of plant-basedfoods with human disease phenotypes and providesa foundation for understanding mechanistically theconsequences of eating behaviors...

  5. Biology and the space sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.

    The intellectual content in the field of exobiology goes far beyond attempts to detect life on another planet. Thus, while exobiology has historically been narrowly viewed as the search for extraterrestrial life, in point of fact, the field today is better described as an interdisciplinary science devoted to the study of evolutionary biology. As such, it encompasses the origins and history of the major elements required for life; their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems; their incorporation into organic compounds on the primitive Earth and on other celestial objects; the interactions of an evolving planet with the evolution of complex organic compounds; the conditions under which chemical evolution resulted in replicating molecules; and the subsequent interactions between an evolving biota and further planetary evolution.

  6. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences publishes scholarly featured articels, short communications and review articles in the various basic and applied biological disciplines to biologists and other workers in related fields of study.

  7. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Biology: Orthodox to Modern. Information and Announcements Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 858-858 ...

  8. Links to Other DBs (based on UniChem) - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available h URL - Data acquisition method The data was created from the mapping data between Nikkaji substances, and c...List Contact us NBDC NikkajiRDF Links to Other DBs (based on UniChem) Data detail Data name Links to Other D...s and chemical substances registered in other databases* by using skos:closeMatch. This is based on a work a..., Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR), BindingDB, and KNApSAcK. Data file File name: NBDC_NikkajiRDF_link2Othe...p/archive/nikkaji/LATEST/NBDC_NikkajiRDF_link2OtherDBs_basedOnUniChem.tar.gz File size: 48.3 MB Simple searc

  9. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2012-10-28

    Oct 28, 2012 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Biology for college and university teachers will be organized at the. Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata at. Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal during 19–31 December 2012. The Course will consist of stimulating ...

  10. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain: A Proposal for BSc (Hons) in Integrated Biology. Kambadur Muralidhar. Classroom Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 272-276 ...

  11. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  12. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biology Classifieds Get Involved AIBS on Diversity Diversity Diversity Leadership Award Diversity Scholars Outreach Directory News Newsroom Peer ... Biology Classifieds Get Involved AIBS on Diversity Diversity Diversity Leadership Award Diversity Scholars Outreach Directory News Newsroom Contact ...

  13. ChemCam activities and discoveries during the nominal mission of the Mars Science Laboratory in Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, O.; Rapin, W.; Forni, O.; Cousin, Agnes; Sautter, V.; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, L.; Nachon, Marion; Anderson, Ryan; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Payre, Valerie; Lasue, Jeremie; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; LeVeille, Richard A.; Barraclough, Bruce; Beck, Pierre; Bender, Steven C.; Berger, Gilles; Bridges, John C.; Bridges, Nathan; Dromert, Gilles; Dyar, M. Darby; Francis, Raymond; Frydenvang, Jens; Gondet, B.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Langevin, Yves; Madsen Morten B.,; Melikechi, N.; Lacour, J.-L.; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Lewin, Eric; Newsom, Horton E.; Ollila, Ann M.; Pinet, Patrick; Schroder, S.; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Tokar, Robert L.; Toplis, M.J.; d'Uston, Claude; Vaniman, David; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-01-01

    At Gale crater, Mars, ChemCam acquired its first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) target on Sol 13 of the landed portion of the mission (a Sol is a Mars day). Up to Sol 800, more than 188000 LIBS spectra were acquired on more than 5800 points distributed over about 650 individual targets. We present a comprehensive review of ChemCam scientific accomplishments during that period, together with a focus on the lessons learned from the first use of LIBS in space. For data processing, we describe new tools that had to be developed to account for the uniqueness of Mars data. With regard to chemistry, we present a summary of the composition range measured on Mars for major-element oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O) based on various multivariate models, with associated precisions. ChemCam also observed H, and the non-metallic elements C, O, P, and S, which are usually difficult to quantify with LIBS. F and Cl are observed through their molecular lines. We discuss the most relevant LIBS lines for detection of minor and trace elements (Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn). These results were obtained thanks to comprehensive ground reference datasets, which are set to mimic the expected mineralogy and chemistry on Mars. With regard to the first use of LIBS in space, we analyze and quantify, often for the first time, each of the advantages of using stand-off LIBS in space: no sample preparation, analysis within its petrological context, dust removal, sub-millimeter scale investigation, multi-point analysis, the ability to carry out statistical surveys and whole-rock analyses, and rapid data acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of ChemCam performance to survey the geochemistry of Mars, and its valuable support of decisions about selecting where and whether to make observations with more time and resource-intensive tools in the rover's instrument suite. In the end, we present a bird's-eye view of the many scientific results: discovery of felsic

  14. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  15. Systems Biology and Livestock Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Woelders, H.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems Biology is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of life made possible through the explosion of molecular data made available through the genome revolution and the simultaneous development of computational technologies that allow us to interpret these large data sets. Systems Biology

  16. 77 FR 19740 - Biological Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Biological Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L., 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Biological Sciences Advisory Committee ( 1110). Date and...

  17. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 1. GENERAL a) The Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences (Ethiop. J. Biol. Sci.) publishes scholarly standard (full length) articles in the various basic and applied biological disciplines. b) It also publishes feature articles, short communications, review articles, book reviews and dissertation abstracts. 2.

  18. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Developmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Developmental Biology. Information and Announcements Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 756-756. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    advanced laboratory techniques in life sciences including cell and molecular biology. The resource persons will be eminent scientists working in these fields who are distinguished Fellows of the National Science Academies. The participants of the refresher course will have hands-on experience with all of the advanced ...

  20. Introducing systems biology for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, Sandra A

    2009-07-01

    Systems biology expands on general systems theory as the "omics'' era rapidly progresses. Although systems biology has been institutionalized as an interdisciplinary framework in the biosciences, it is not yet apparent in nursing. This article introduces systems biology for nursing science by presenting an overview of the theory. This framework for the study of organisms from molecular to environmental levels includes iterations of computational modeling, experimentation, and theory building. Synthesis of complex biological processes as whole systems rather than isolated parts is emphasized. Pros and cons of systems biology are discussed, and relevance of systems biology to nursing is described. Nursing research involving molecular, physiological, or biobehavioral questions may be guided by and contribute to the developing science of systems biology. Nurse scientists can proactively incorporate systems biology into their investigations as a framework for advancing the interdisciplinary science of human health care. Systems biology has the potential to advance the research and practice goals of the National Institute for Nursing Research in the National Institutes of Health Roadmap initiative.

  1. Science Ideals and Science Careers in a University Biology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David E.

    2014-01-01

    In an ethnographic study set within a biology department of a public university in the United States, incongruity between the ideals and practice of science education are investigated. Against the background of religious conservative students' complaints about evolution in the curriculum, biology faculty describe their political intents for…

  2. Online citizen science games: Opportunities for the biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Vickie

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in digital technologies and the rise of the Internet have created new opportunities for citizen science. One of these has been the development of online citizen science games where complex research problems have been re-imagined as online multiplayer computer games. Some of the most successful examples of these can be found within the biological sciences, for example, Foldit, Phylo and EteRNA. These games offer scientists the opportunity to crowdsource research problems, and to engage with those outside the research community. Games also enable those without a background in science to make a valid contribution to research, and may also offer opportunities for informal science learning.

  3. ChemDoodle Web Components: HTML5 toolkit for chemical graphics, interfaces, and informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Melanie C

    2015-01-01

    ChemDoodle Web Components (abbreviated CWC, iChemLabs, LLC) is a light-weight (~340 KB) JavaScript/HTML5 toolkit for chemical graphics, structure editing, interfaces, and informatics based on the proprietary ChemDoodle desktop software. The library uses and WebGL technologies and other HTML5 features to provide solutions for creating chemistry-related applications for the web on desktop and mobile platforms. CWC can serve a broad range of scientific disciplines including crystallography, materials science, organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry and chemical biology. CWC is freely available for in-house use and is open source (GPL v3) for all other uses.Graphical abstractAdd interactive 2D and 3D chemical sketchers, graphics, and spectra to websites and apps with ChemDoodle Web Components.

  4. Modeling of low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the ChemCam diagnostic tool on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, James

    2016-05-01

    We report on efforts to model the low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a minimally invasive technique that can quickly and efficiently determine the elemental composition of a target and is employed in an extremely wide range of applications due to its ease of use and fast turnaround. In particular, LIBS is the diagnostic tool used by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In this talk, we report on the use of the Los Alamos plasma modeling code ATOMIC to simulate LIBS plasmas, which are typically at temperatures of order 1 eV and electron densities of order 10 16 - 17 cm-3. At such conditions, these plasmas are usually in local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and normally contain neutral and singly ionized species only, which then requires that modeling must use accurate atomic structure data for the element under investigation. Since LIBS devices are often employed in a very wide range of applications, it is therefore desirable to have accurate data for most of the elements in the periodic table, ideally including actinides. Here, we discuss some recent applications of our modeling using ATOMIC that have explored the plasma physics aspects of LIBS generated plasmas, and in particular discuss the modeling of a plasma formed from a basalt sample used as a ChemCam standard1. We also highlight some of the more general atomic physics challenges that are encountered when attempting to model low-temperature plasmas. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396. Work performed in conjunction with D. P. Kilcrease, H. M. Johns, E. J. Judge, J. E. Barefield, R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg.

  5. New Biological Sciences, Sociology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Since the Human Genome Project mapped the gene sequence, new biological sciences have been generating a raft of new knowledges about the mechanisms and functions of the molecular body. One area of work that has particular potential to speak to sociology of education, is the emerging field of epigenetics. Epigenetics moves away from the mapped…

  6. How our biology constrains our science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlerick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning from a naturalistic perspective, viewing the mind as an evolved biological organ with a particular structure and function, a number of influential philosophers and cognitive scientists claim that science is constrained by human nature. How exactly our genetic constitution constrains

  7. Nanobiotechnology: synthetic biology meets materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C; Patolsky, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology, the area of science focused on the control of matter in the nanometer scale, allows ground-breaking changes of the fundamental properties of matter that are often radically different compared to those exhibited by the bulk counterparts. In view of the fact that dimensionality plays a key role in determining the qualities of matter, the realization of the great potential of nanotechnology has opened the door to other disciplines such as life sciences and medicine, where the merging between them offers exciting new applications, along with basic science research. The application of nanotechnology in life sciences, nanobiotechnology, is now having a profound impact on biological circuit design, bioproduction systems, synthetic biology, medical diagnostics, disease therapy and drug delivery. This special issue is dedicated to the overview of how we are learning to control biopolymers and biological machines at the molecular- and nanoscale. In addition, it covers far-reaching progress in the design and synthesis of nanoscale materials, thus enabling the construction of integrated systems in which the component blocks are comparable in size to the chemical and biological entities under investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ChemIDplus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chemical database is a dictionary of over 400,000 chemicals (names, synonyms, and structures). ChemIDplus includes links to NLM and other databases and resources,...

  9. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Joanne S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science.

  10. 77 FR 50174 - Biological Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Biological Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting In... Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Biological Sciences Advisory Committee ( 1110). Date and... Biological Sciences [call 703-292-8400 or send an email message to [email protected] ] at least 24 hours prior...

  11. Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) Spectroscopy of Altered Basalts with Application to the ChemCam Library for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadnott, B.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of Fe, Mg, and Al clays on Mars using VNIR spectroscopy from orbit indicates past low temperature/pressure hydrothermal and weathering environments. Laboratory analysis of Mars-analog rocks from these settings on Earth was used to build the ChemCam sample library for Mars Science Laboratory, permitting for more accurate compositional analysis of Martian samples, improved linkages between VNIR's mineralogic and ChemCam's elemental data, and improved recognition of different environmental settings for aqueous alteration. VNIR spectroscopy was used to analyze 4 suites of altered basaltic rocks—one from San Carlos, AZ and three from various locations in Iceland. Continuum shape and absorption features were found to vary, depending on the environment and extent of alteration. Relatively unaltered rocks had electronic absorptions related to ferrous iron. The strength of the 1.9- μm (μm = microns) H2O absorption correlated with the degree of aqueous alteration. Samples with strong 1.9- μm absorptions often exhibited absorption bands at 1.4, 2.2, and 2.3 μm indicating the presence of clay minerals and/or features at 0.5-0.8 μm indicative of ferric iron oxides. Diagnostic absorption features and continuum slopes have been used to identify a representative subset of rocks from each suite for further analysis for the ChemCam library. Noteworthy spectral features for all suites included variation of absorption bands from 2.0-2.5 μm. Most samples contained an absorption band near 2.21 μm, indicating the presence of Si-OH or Al-OH; a 2.3 μm band is also present in some samples, indicating the presence of Mg-OH and Fe-OH, with subtle shifts between 2.29 and 2.35 μm indicating the major cation and constituent phase (e.g. amorphous phase, smectite or chlorite). Overall continuum slope correlated with the degree of alteration. Flat slopes contained weak 1.9 μm bands (little alteration) and sometimes ferrous iron absorptions of primary minerals. Negative

  12. DATABASES DEVELOPED IN INDIA FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Yadav

    2017-09-01

    databases have also helped in development of novel data mining methods, prediction strategies and data driven application software or web servers. In this article, we give an overview of biological databases developed in India and their impact on data driven research in biology. We also provide some suggestions for planning training programs in biological data science for making transitions to big data revolution in biology by combining advanced techniques like Deep Learning with biological big data.

  13. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Archives: International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 61 ... Archives: International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. PubChemSR: A search and retrieval tool for PubChem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild David J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen an explosion in the amount of publicly available chemical and related biological information. A significant step has been the emergence of PubChem, which contains property information for millions of chemical structures, and acts as a repository of compounds and bioassay screening data for the NIH Roadmap. There is a strong need for tools designed for scientists that permit easy download and use of these data. We present one such tool, PubChemSR. Implementation PubChemSR (Search and Retrieve is a freely available desktop application written for Windows using Microsoft .NET that is designed to assist scientists in search, retrieval and organization of chemical and biological data from the PubChem database. It employs SOAP web services made available by NCBI for extraction of information from PubChem. Results and Discussion The program supports a wide range of searching techniques, including queries based on assay or compound keywords and chemical substructures. Results can be examined individually or downloaded and exported in batch for use in other programs such as Microsoft Excel. We believe that PubChemSR makes it straightforward for researchers to utilize the chemical, biological and screening data available in PubChem. We present several examples of how it can be used.

  17. PubChemSR: a search and retrieval tool for PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Wild, David J

    2008-05-15

    Recent years have seen an explosion in the amount of publicly available chemical and related biological information. A significant step has been the emergence of PubChem, which contains property information for millions of chemical structures, and acts as a repository of compounds and bioassay screening data for the NIH Roadmap. There is a strong need for tools designed for scientists that permit easy download and use of these data. We present one such tool, PubChemSR. PubChemSR (Search and Retrieve) is a freely available desktop application written for Windows using Microsoft .NET that is designed to assist scientists in search, retrieval and organization of chemical and biological data from the PubChem database. It employs SOAP web services made available by NCBI for extraction of information from PubChem. The program supports a wide range of searching techniques, including queries based on assay or compound keywords and chemical substructures. Results can be examined individually or downloaded and exported in batch for use in other programs such as Microsoft Excel. We believe that PubChemSR makes it straightforward for researchers to utilize the chemical, biological and screening data available in PubChem. We present several examples of how it can be used.

  18. How Our Biology Constrains Our Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlerick Michael

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning from a naturalistic perspective, viewing the mind as an evolved biological organ with a particular structure and function, a number of influential philosophers and cognitive scientists claim that science is constrained by human nature. How exactly our genetic constitution constrains scientific representations of the world remains unclear. This is problematic for two reasons. Firstly, it often leads to the unwarranted conclusion that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects or properties of the world. Secondly, it stands in the way of a nuanced account of the relationship between our cognitive and perceptual wiring and scientific theory. In response, I propose a typology or classification of the different kinds of biological constraints and their sources on science. Using Boden’s (1990 notion of a conceptual space, I distinguish between constraints relating to the ease with which we can reach representations within our conceptual space (which I call ‘biases’ and constraints causing possible representations to fall outside of our conceptual space. This last kind of constraints does not entail that some aspects or properties of the world cannot be represented by us – as argued by advocates of ‘cognitive closure’ – merely that some ways of representing the world are inaccessible to us. It relates to what Clark (1986 and Rescher (1990 have framed as ‘the alien scientist hypothesis’ (the possibility that alien scientists, endowed with radically different cognitive abilities, could produce representations of the world that are unintelligible to us. The purpose of this typology is to provide some much needed clarity and structure to the debate about biological constraints on science.

  19. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  20. Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2010-12-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design.

  1. Literature information in PubChem: associations between PubChem records and scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Cheng, Tiejun; Yu, Bo; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Bolton, Evan E; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    PubChem is an open archive consisting of a set of three primary public databases (BioAssay, Compound, and Substance). It contains information on a broad range of chemical entities, including small molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and (chemically modified) amino acid and nucleic acid sequences (including siRNA and miRNA). Currently (as of Nov. 2015), PubChem contains more than 150 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures, and 225 million biological activity test results provided from over 1 million biological assay records. Many PubChem records (substances, compounds, and assays) include depositor-provided cross-references to scientific articles in PubMed. Some PubChem contributors provide bioactivity data extracted from scientific articles. Literature-derived bioactivity data complement high-throughput screening (HTS) data from the concluded NIH Molecular Libraries Program and other HTS projects. Some journals provide PubChem with information on chemicals that appear in their newly published articles, enabling concurrent publication of scientific articles in journals and associated data in public databases. In addition, PubChem links records to PubMed articles indexed with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) controlled vocabulary thesaurus. Literature information, both provided by depositors and derived from MeSH annotations, can be accessed using PubChem's web interfaces, enabling users to explore information available in literature related to PubChem records beyond typical web search results. Graphical abstractLiterature information for PubChem records is derived from various sources.

  2. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 1, February 2015. 1 ... Department of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, South Africa ... Keywords: Biology textbooks; Life Sciences textbooks; nature of science; school science curriculum; science textbook analysis.

  3. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology ...

  4. Is Reintroduction Biology an Effective Applied Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; Canessa, Stefano; Clarke, Rohan H; Ingwersen, Dean; Armstrong, Doug P; Seddon, Philip J; Ewen, John G

    2017-11-01

    Reintroduction biology is a field of scientific research that aims to inform translocations of endangered species. We review two decades of published literature to evaluate whether reintroduction science is evolving in its decision-support role, as called for by advocates of evidence-based conservation. Reintroduction research increasingly addresses a priori hypotheses, but remains largely focused on short-term population establishment. Similarly, studies that directly assist decisions by explicitly comparing alternative management actions remain a minority. A small set of case studies demonstrate full integration of research in the reintroduction decision process. We encourage the use of tools that embed research in decision-making, particularly the explicit consideration of multiple management alternatives because this is the crux of any management decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimum Learning Essentials: Science. Chemistry, Earth Science, Biology, Physics, General Science. Experimental Edition 0/4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education, for science education in grades 9-12. Covered are: biology, physics, earth science, and chemistry. Work study skills for all subjects are given with content areas, performance objectives, and suggested classroom activities. (APM)

  6. Opportunities in Biological Sciences; [VGM Career Horizons Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Charles A.

    This book provides job descriptions and discusses career opportunities in various fields of the biological sciences. These fields include: (1) biotechnology, genetics, biomedical engineering, microbiology, mycology, systematic biology, marine and aquatic biology, botany, plant physiology, plant pathology, ecology, and wildlife biology; (2) the…

  7. Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…

  8. Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present

  9. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain A Proposal for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain: A Proposal for BSc (Hons) in Integrated Biology. Kambadur Muralidhar. Classroom Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 272-276 ...

  10. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, ...

  11. 78 FR 33115 - Biological Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... education and CAREER programs, data management and access, and the draft NSF strategic plan for 2014-2018... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Biological Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L., 92- 463, as amended), the National Science...

  12. This is Biology: The Science of the Living World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 7. This is Biology: The Science of the Living World. S Mahadevan. Book Review ... Author Affiliations. S Mahadevan1. Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  13. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages...

  14. ChemSearch Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Journal Homepage Image. Chemsearch Journal is a peer – reviewed journal that publishes original research work, scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure science, agriculture, environmental science, ...

  15. Network biology methods integrating biological data for translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebek, Gurkan; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Price, Nathan D; Chance, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    The explosion of biomedical data, both on the genomic and proteomic side as well as clinical data, will require complex integration and analysis to provide new molecular variables to better understand the molecular basis of phenotype. Currently, much data exist in silos and is not analyzed in frameworks where all data are brought to bear in the development of biomarkers and novel functional targets. This is beginning to change. Network biology approaches, which emphasize the interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites provide a framework for data integration such that genome, proteome, metabolome and other -omics data can be jointly analyzed to understand and predict disease phenotypes. In this review, recent advances in network biology approaches and results are identified. A common theme is the potential for network analysis to provide multiplexed and functionally connected biomarkers for analyzing the molecular basis of disease, thus changing our approaches to analyzing and modeling genome- and proteome-wide data.

  16. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.; Chavez B, A.

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest

  17. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C

    2013-01-01

    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  19. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

    2010-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

  20. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  1. 77 FR 40090 - Proposed Collection of Information; Comment Request: Biological Sciences Proposal Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposed Collection of Information; Comment Request: Biological Sciences Proposal Classification Form AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Biological Sciences has a continuing commitment to monitor its information collection in order to preserve...

  2. A Bioethics Course for Biology and Science Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)

  3. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences: Chemistry Nobel Prize – 2013. Saraswathi Vishveshwara. General Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 347-367 ...

  4. Saving our science from ourselves: the plight of biological classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving our science from ourselves: the plight of biological classification. Biological classification ( nomenclature, taxonomy, and systematics is being sold short. The desire for new technologies, faster and cheaper taxonomic descriptions, identifications, and revisions is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation and understanding of classification. The problem of gadget-driven science, a lack of best practice and the inability to accept classification as a descriptive and empirical science are discussed. The worst cases scenario is a future in which classifications are purely artificial and uninformative.

  5. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This two-week refresher course on environmental biology will cover recent advances in fields such as RNAi technology, soil and rhizosphere health, biogeochemistry, environmental pollution, functional genomics, plant genomics and biochemis- try, and molecular medicine. All resource persons will be eminent scientists ...

  6. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A refresher course on 'Experimental Biology: Orthodox to Modern' will be held at PG and Research Department of Botany, St.Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli , Tamil Nadu for two weeks from 07 November to 19 November. 2016. The objective of this course is to improvise on teaching methodologies and also get familiar ...

  7. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GCMS, Gradient PCR and RT-PCR machines, Automatic karyotyping workstation and so on. The UGC has notified (F-3/1-2009) that teachers in Universities and Colleges attending two-week. Refresher Courses are entitled to be considered for promotion. This two-week refresher course on environmental biology will cover ...

  8. Toward an integration of evolutionary biology and ecosystem science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Blake; Narwani, Anita; Hausch, Stephen; Nonaka, Etsuko; Peter, Hannes; Yamamichi, Masato; Sullam, Karen E; Bird, Kali C; Thomas, Mridul K; Hanley, Torrance C; Turner, Caroline B

    2011-07-01

    At present, the disciplines of evolutionary biology and ecosystem science are weakly integrated. As a result, we have a poor understanding of how the ecological and evolutionary processes that create, maintain, and change biological diversity affect the flux of energy and materials in global biogeochemical cycles. The goal of this article was to review several research fields at the interfaces between ecosystem science, community ecology and evolutionary biology, and suggest new ways to integrate evolutionary biology and ecosystem science. In particular, we focus on how phenotypic evolution by natural selection can influence ecosystem functions by affecting processes at the environmental, population and community scale of ecosystem organization. We develop an eco-evolutionary model to illustrate linkages between evolutionary change (e.g. phenotypic evolution of producer), ecological interactions (e.g. consumer grazing) and ecosystem processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). We conclude by proposing experiments to test the ecosystem consequences of evolutionary changes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. African Journals Online: Biology & Life Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. AJPHES publishes research papers that contribute to knowledge and practice, and also develops theory either as new information, reviews, confirmation of previous findings, application of new teaching/coaching techniques and research notes.

  10. Biology Grade 10, Science Curriculum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Samuel W.

    This teaching guide and syllabus outline is intended for use with pupils whose primary interests are in non-science fields, or who do not intend to enter college. The guide contains suggested activities, both laboratory and discussion, for a course containing the following sections: Introduction to Cells and Life; Animal Physiology; Plant…

  11. Interdisciplinary Team Science in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rick

    2016-11-01

    The cell is complex. With its multitude of components, spatial-temporal character, and gene expression diversity, it is challenging to comprehend the cell as an integrated system and to develop models that predict its behaviors. I suggest an approach to address this issue, involving system level data analysis, large scale team science, and philanthropy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Network biology: Describing biological systems by complex networks. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by M. Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    I enjoyed reading Gosak et al. review on analysing biological systems from network science perspective [1]. Network science, first started within Physics community, is now a mature multidisciplinary field of science with many applications ranging from Ecology to biology, medicine, social sciences, engineering and computer science. Gosak et al. discussed how biological systems can be modelled and described by complex network theory which is an important application of network science. Although there has been considerable progress in network biology over the past two decades, this is just the beginning and network science has a great deal to offer to biology and medical sciences.

  13. Reconstruction of biological networks based on life science data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormeier Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of the virtual cell, the fundamental question is how to model and simulate complex biological networks. Therefore, based on relevant molecular database and information systems, biological data integration is an essential step in constructing biological networks. In this paper, we will motivate the applications BioDWH - an integration toolkit for building life science data warehouses, CardioVINEdb - a information system for biological data in cardiovascular-disease and VANESA- a network editor for modeling and simulation of biological networks. Based on this integration process, the system supports the generation of biological network models. A case study of a cardiovascular-disease related gene-regulated biological network is also presented.

  14. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Science Grade 7, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology. Curriculum Bulletin, 1968-69 Series, No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a teacher's guide for teaching seventh grade science in New York City Schools. Activities for four areas -- physics, chemistry, earth science, and biology -- are included. This particular edition is a reprint of Science: Grade 7, Curriculum Bulletin Nos 9a--9d, 1962-1963 Series, which were originally produced in four separate…

  16. The fusion of biology, computer science, and engineering: towards efficient and successful synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Goldberg, Alex; Konry, Tania; Hillson, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a nascent field that emerged in earnest only around the turn of the millennium. It aims to engineer new biological systems and impart new biological functionality, often through genetic modifications. The design and construction of new biological systems is a complex, multistep process, requiring multidisciplinary collaborative efforts from "fusion" scientists who have formal training in computer science or engineering, as well as hands-on biological expertise. The public has high expectations for synthetic biology and eagerly anticipates the development of solutions to the major challenges facing humanity. This article discusses laboratory practices and the conduct of research in synthetic biology. It argues that the fusion science approach, which integrates biology with computer science and engineering best practices, including standardization, process optimization, computer-aided design and laboratory automation, miniaturization, and systematic management, will increase the predictability and reproducibility of experiments and lead to breakthroughs in the construction of new biological systems. The article also discusses several successful fusion projects, including the development of software tools for DNA construction design automation, recursive DNA construction, and the development of integrated microfluidics systems.

  17. ChemPreview: an augmented reality-based molecular interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-01

    Human computer interfaces make computational science more comprehensible and impactful. Complex 3D structures such as proteins or DNA are magnified by digital representations and displayed on two-dimensional monitors. Augmented reality has recently opened another door to access the virtual three-dimensional world. Herein, we present an augmented reality application called ChemPreview with the potential to manipulate bio-molecular structures at an atomistic level. ChemPreview is available at https://github.com/wallerlab/chem-preview/releases, and is built on top of the Meta 1 platform https://www.metavision.com/. ChemPreview can be used to interact with a protein in an intuitive way using natural hand gestures, thereby making it appealing to computational chemists or structural biologists. The ability to manipulate atoms in real world could eventually provide new and more efficient ways of extracting structural knowledge, or designing new molecules in silico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  19. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  20. Challenges of medical and biological engineering and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magjarevic, R.

    2004-01-01

    All aspects of biomedical engineering and science, from research and development, education and training, implementation in health care systems, internationalisation and globalisation, and other, new issues are present in the strategy and in action plans of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) which, with help of a large number of highly motivated volunteers, will stay in leading position in biomedical engineering and science

  1. POULTRY SCIENCEBIOLOGICAL AND ZOOTECHNICAL PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Poultry Breeding – Biological and Zootechnical Principles presents up-to-date trends and knowledge on selection, breeding, nutrition and production technology in intensive exploitation of different types of poultry, i.e. hens, turkeys, geese and ducks. A special emphasis is put on presentation of poultry meat and egg quality indicators, as well as on modification of their nutritive composition for the purpose of production of functional food. In order to make advantage of the poultry genetic potential, it is necessary to understand anatomy and functioning of the animal organ system. With this respect, this handbook presents the poultry skeleton in detail, as it differs from skeleton of other vertebrates. Furthermore, the following organ systems: respiratory, circulatory and lymphatic, digestive, excretory, reproductive and endocrine, as well as sensory system, are elaborated in the handbook. Along with metabolic processes that all vertebrates have in common, additional attention has been given to specific metabolic adjustments of vertebrates that have the ability to fly, like poultry. This handbook also presents modern technology that is applied in poultry production. Modern poultry production is completely automated process that requires minimum physical engagement of zootechnicians. At the same time, it is also a very complex process that demands professional and scientific knowledge of breeders, as zootechnical conditions need to be adjusted to genetic potential of contemporary poultry breeds and hybrids, as well as to attain high standards of environment protection.

  2. Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

    2012-11-01

    Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences.

  3. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  4. Gross's Anatomy: Textual Politics in Science/Biology Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    In approaching how the grotesque is--or should be--situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies…

  5. Use of Lecture Capture in Undergraduate Biological Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Candace; Newton, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of lecture capture in students in a large 3rd year undergraduate biological science course at the University of Guelph. Data regarding viewing behaviour, academic performance, and attendance were analyzed in relation to student learning approach (as assessed by the R-SPQ-2F), gender, and year of post-secondary…

  6. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  7. Infusing Quantitative Approaches throughout the Biological Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katerina V.; Cooke, Todd J.; Fagan, William F.; Gulick, Denny; Levy, Doron; Nelson, Kären C.; Redish, Edward F.; Smith, Robert F.; Presson, Joelle

    2013-01-01

    A major curriculum redesign effort at the University of Maryland is infusing all levels of our undergraduate biological sciences curriculum with increased emphasis on interdisciplinary connections and quantitative approaches. The curriculum development efforts have largely been guided by recommendations in the National Research Council's "Bio…

  8. Finding the key - cell biology and science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth R

    2010-12-01

    No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Women are underrepresented in computational biology: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Kevin S; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-10-01

    While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in the interdisciplinary field of computational/quantitative biology. To this end, we examined the proportion of female authors in publications from the PubMed and arXiv databases. There are fewer female authors on research papers in computational biology, as compared to biology in general. This is true across authorship position, year, and journal impact factor. A comparison with arXiv shows that quantitative biology papers have a higher ratio of female authors than computer science papers, placing computational biology in between its two parent fields in terms of gender representation. Both in biology and in computational biology, a female last author increases the probability of other authors on the paper being female, pointing to a potential role of female PIs in influencing the gender balance.

  10. The genesis of craniofacial biology as a health science discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, G H; Sperber, S M

    2014-06-01

    The craniofacial complex encapsulates the brain and contains the organs for key functions of the body, including sight, hearing and balance, smell, taste, respiration and mastication. All these systems are intimately integrated within the head. The combination of these diverse systems into a new field was dictated by the dental profession's desire for a research branch of basic science devoted and attuned to its specific needs. The traditional subjects of genetics, embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, dental materials, odontology, molecular biology and palaeoanthropology pertaining to dentistry have been drawn together by many newly emerging technologies. These new technologies include gene sequencing, CAT scanning, MRI imaging, laser scanning, image analysis, ultrasonography, spectroscopy and visualosonics. A vibrant unitary discipline of investigation, craniofacial biology, has emerged that builds on the original concept of 'oral biology' that began in the 1960s. This paper reviews some of the developments that have led to the genesis of craniofacial biology as a fully-fledged health science discipline of significance in the advancement of clinical dental practice. Some of the key figures and milestones in craniofacial biology are identified. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Exploring Connections Between Earth Science and Biology - Interdisciplinary Science Activities for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.

    2009-05-01

    To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers

  12. ChemSpell Web Service API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ChemSpell Web Service API provides chemical name spell checking and chemical name synonym look-up. ChemSpell contains more than 1.3 million chemical names...

  13. Sustaining biological welfare for our future through consistent science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimomura Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physiological anthropology presently covers a very broad range of human knowledge and engineering technologies. This study reviews scientific inconsistencies within a variety of areas: sitting posture; negative air ions; oxygen inhalation; alpha brain waves induced by music and ultrasound; 1/f fluctuations; the evaluation of feelings using surface electroencephalography; Kansei; universal design; and anti-stress issues. We found that the inconsistencies within these areas indicate the importance of integrative thinking and the need to maintain the perspective on the biological benefit to humanity. Analytical science divides human physiological functions into discrete details, although individuals comprise a unified collection of whole-body functions. Such disparate considerations contribute to the misunderstanding of physiological functions and the misevaluation of positive and negative values for humankind. Research related to human health will, in future, depend on the concept of maintaining physiological functions based on consistent science and on sustaining human health to maintain biological welfare in future generations.

  14. Introduction to nonparametric statistics for the biological sciences using R

    CERN Document Server

    MacFarland, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a rich set of tools for nonparametric analyses, and the purpose of this supplemental text is to provide guidance to students and professional researchers on how R is used for nonparametric data analysis in the biological sciences: To introduce when nonparametric approaches to data analysis are appropriate To introduce the leading nonparametric tests commonly used in biostatistics and how R is used to generate appropriate statistics for each test To introduce common figures typically associated with nonparametric data analysis and how R is used to generate appropriate figures in support of each data set The book focuses on how R is used to distinguish between data that could be classified as nonparametric as opposed to data that could be classified as parametric, with both approaches to data classification covered extensively. Following an introductory lesson on nonparametric statistics for the biological sciences, the book is organized into eight self-contained lessons on various analyses a...

  15. Scanning probe microscopy in material science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cricenti, A; Colonna, S; Girasole, M; Gori, P; Ronci, F; Longo, G; Dinarelli, S; Luce, M; Rinaldi, M; Ortenzi, M

    2011-01-01

    A review of the activity of scanning probe microscopy at our Institute is presented, going from instrumentation to software development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Some of the most important experiments in material science and biology performed by our group through the years with these SPM techniques will be presented. Finally, infrared applications by coupling a SNOM with a free electron laser will also be presented.

  16. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  17. Competency-based reforms of the undergraduate biology curriculum: integrating the physical and biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katerina V; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S; Hrycyna, Christine A; LaCourse, William R

    2013-06-01

    The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units that require students to use higher-order cognitive skills and reason across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Purdue University; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; and the University of Miami are each developing modules and case studies that integrate the biological, chemical, physical, and mathematical sciences. The University of Maryland, College Park, is leading the effort to create an introductory physics for life sciences course that is reformed in both content and pedagogy. This course has prerequisites of biology, chemistry, and calculus, allowing students to apply strategies from the physical sciences to solving authentic biological problems. A comprehensive assessment plan is examining students' conceptual knowledge of physics, their attitudes toward interdisciplinary approaches, and the development of specific scientific competencies. Teaching modules developed during this initial phase will be tested on multiple partner campuses in preparation for eventual broad dissemination.

  18. Broad Collaboration to Improve Biological Sciences Students' Writing and Research Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Lisa; Chan, Tina; Contento, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    At the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego), a faculty member and advisement coordinator, both of the biological sciences department, and the biological sciences librarian have worked together since 2013 to present a workshop called Writing for the Biological Sciences. Offered once per semester, the workshop is sponsored by the…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology Textbooks for Inclusion of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Padayachee, Keshni

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology textbooks that were written…

  20. The Human Genome Project: big science transforms biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy; Rowen, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human genome sequence along with the complete sequences of key model organisms. The project exemplifies the power, necessity and success of large, integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts - so-called 'big science' - directed towards complex major objectives. In this article, we discuss the ways in which this ambitious endeavor led to the development of novel technologies and analytical tools, and how it brought the expertise of engineers, computer scientists and mathematicians together with biologists. It established an open approach to data sharing and open-source software, thereby making the data resulting from the project accessible to all. The genome sequences of microbes, plants and animals have revolutionized many fields of science, including microbiology, virology, infectious disease and plant biology. Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. The Human Genome Project has inspired subsequent large-scale data acquisition initiatives such as the International HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project.

  1. 75 FR 10507 - Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences (1110). Date/Time: March...

  2. 77 FR 21812 - Biological Science Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Biological Science Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting: Correction Summary: The National Science Foundation (NSF) published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2012, a notice of an open meeting for the Biological Sciences Advisory Committee, 1110. This notice is to correct...

  3. 76 FR 12996 - Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L., 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Biological Sciences Advisory Committee ( 1110). Date and...

  4. 75 FR 55617 - Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Biological Sciences ( 1110). Date...

  5. B. F. Skinner and G. H. Mead: on biological science and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, D E

    1991-01-01

    Skinner's contributions to psychology provide a unique bridge between psychology conceptualized as a biological science and psychology conceptualized as a social science. Skinner focused on behavior as a naturally occurring biological phenomenon of interest in its own right, functionally related to surrounding events and, in particular (like phylogenesis), subject to selection by its consequences. This essentially biological orientation was further enhanced by Skinner's emphasis on the empirical foundations provided by laboratory-based experimental analyses of behavior, often with nonhuman subjects. Skinner's theoretical writings, however, also have affinity with the traditions of constructionist social science. The verbal behavior of humans is said to be subject, like other behavior, to functional analyses in terms of its environment, in this case its social context. Verbal behavior in turn makes it possible for us to relate to private events, a process that ultimately allows for the development of consciousness, which is thus said to be a social product. Such ideas make contact with aspects of G. H. Mead's social behaviorism and, perhaps of more contemporary impact in psychology, L. Vygotsky's general genetic law of cultural development. Failure to articulate both the biological and the social science aspects of Skinner's theoretical approach to psychology does a disservice to his unique contribution to a discipline that remains fragmented between two intellectual traditions. PMID:2037828

  6. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    2012-01-01

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called…

  7. Multicultural science education in Lesotho high school biology classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthathakane, Malefu Christina

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how Basotho high school biology students responded to a multicultural science education (MCSE) approach. Students' home language---Sesotho---and cultural experiences were integrated into the teaching of a unit on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse. The focus was on students whose cultural background is African and who are English second language users. The study was conducted in three high school biology classrooms in Lesotho where the ATOD unit was taught using MCSE. A fourth biology classroom was observed for comparison purposes. In this classroom the regular biology teacher taught ATOD using typical instructional strategies. The study was framed by the general question: How does a multicultural science education approach affect Basotho high school biology students? More specifically: How does the use of Sesotho (or code-switching between Sesotho and English) and integration of Basotho students' cultural knowledge and experiences with respect to ATOD affect students' learning? In particular how does the approach affect students' participation and academic performance? A qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were drawn from a number of different sources and analyzed inductively. The data sources included field-notes, transcripts of ATOD lessons, research assistant lesson observation notes and interviews, regular biology teachers' interviews and notes from observing a few of their lessons, students' interviews and pre and posttest scripts, and other school documents that recorded students' performance throughout the year. Using the students' home language---Sesotho---was beneficial in that it enabled them to share ideas, communicate better and understand each other, the teacher and the material that was taught. Integrating students' cultural and everyday experiences was beneficial because it enabled students to anchor the new ATOD ideas in what was familiar and helped them find the relevance of the unit by

  8. An Examination of Science High School Students' Motivation towards Learning Biology and Their Attitude towards Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisoglu, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine motivation of science high school students towards learning biology and their attitude towards biology lessons. The sample of the study consists of 564 high school students (308 females, 256 males) studying at two science high schools in Aksaray, Turkey. In the study, the relational scanning method, which is…

  9. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  10. PubChem atom environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Atom environments and fragments find wide-spread use in chemical information and cheminformatics. They are the basis of prediction models, an integral part in similarity searching, and employed in structure search techniques. Most of these methods were developed and evaluated on the relatively small sets of chemical structures available at the time. An analysis of fragment distributions representative of most known chemical structures was published in the 1970s using the Chemical Abstracts Service data system. More recently, advances in automated synthesis of chemicals allow millions of chemicals to be synthesized by a single organization. In addition, open chemical databases are readily available containing tens of millions of chemical structures from a multitude of data sources, including chemical vendors, patents, and the scientific literature, making it possible for scientists to readily access most known chemical structures. With this availability of information, one can now address interesting questions, such as: what chemical fragments are known today? How do these fragments compare to earlier studies? How unique are chemical fragments found in chemical structures? For our analysis, after hydrogen suppression, atoms were characterized by atomic number, formal charge, implicit hydrogen count, explicit degree (number of neighbors), valence (bond order sum), and aromaticity. Bonds were differentiated as single, double, triple or aromatic bonds. Atom environments were created in a circular manner focused on a central atom with radii from 0 (atom types) up to 3 (representative of ECFP_6 fragments). In total, combining atom types and atom environments that include up to three spheres of nearest neighbors, our investigation identified 28,462,319 unique fragments in the 46 million structures found in the PubChem Compound database as of January 2013. We could identify several factors inflating the number of environments involving transition metals, with many

  11. Use of Lecture Capture in Undergraduate Biological Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Wiese

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the use of lecture capture in students in a large 3rd year undergraduate biological science course at the University of Guelph. Data regarding viewing behaviour, academic performance, and attendance were analyzed in relation to student learning approach (as assessed by the R-SPQ-2F, gender, and year of post-secondary education. It was found that relative to historic controls, students provided lecture capture videos increased their final exam grade by approximately 5%. It was also found that learning approach was significantly related to video viewing behaviour, final exam performance, and attendance, with a deep learning approach being associated with more video views, better performance, and a greater tendency to watch videos to master and review material. A surface approach showed contrasting associations. Moreover, a higher deep approach score was related to fewer absences, while a higher surface approach score was related to more absences and increased the likelihood of a student missing a class. Gender also influenced viewing behaviour, with females being more likely than males to watch videos to generate notes and to review material. This research demonstrates that learning approach and gender are significant predictors of lecture capture behaviour, performance, and/or attendance in biological science education, and provides support for the use of lecture capture as a tool to improve academic performance.

  12. Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, Nicole

    Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and

  13. An Annotated List of Disciplines and Sub-Disciplines in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brandon

    2008-01-01

    Biology has become a large and diversified science. Current biological research areas transgress academic and professional boundaries to such a degree that the biological sciences could arguably be referred to as "all encompassing." In this article, the author describes how he compiled information on currently recognised disciplines and…

  14. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  15. Mathematical and Computational Challenges in Population Biology and Ecosystems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Simon A.; Grenfell, Bryan; Hastings, Alan; Perelson, Alan S.

    1997-01-01

    Mathematical and computational approaches provide powerful tools in the study of problems in population biology and ecosystems science. The subject has a rich history intertwined with the development of statistics and dynamical systems theory, but recent analytical advances, coupled with the enhanced potential of high-speed computation, have opened up new vistas and presented new challenges. Key challenges involve ways to deal with the collective dynamics of heterogeneous ensembles of individuals, and to scale from small spatial regions to large ones. The central issues-understanding how detail at one scale makes its signature felt at other scales, and how to relate phenomena across scales-cut across scientific disciplines and go to the heart of algorithmic development of approaches to high-speed computation. Examples are given from ecology, genetics, epidemiology, and immunology.

  16. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  17. Evolution, Science and Society: Evolutionary Biology and the National Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futuyma, Douglas J.; Meagher, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways of advancing understanding of evolutionary biology which seeks to explain all the characteristics of organisms. Describes the goals of evolutionary biology, why it is important, and how it contributes to society and basic science. (ASK)

  18. Extended Abstracts from BioGeo99: Applications of Geospatial Technology to Biological Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    ... of Global Positioning System (GPS), aquatic and terrestrial telemetry, national classification systems, remote sensing, metadata, and other geospatial technologies used in biological science applications...

  19. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  20. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  1. Update in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: providing alternative for Sciences and Biology Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the Coordination of Education and Dissemination of CBME is to contribute for the dissemination and the learning in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology in  all the educational levels. Thus, composing one of our actions in 2007, a course of update in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology directed to 21 teachers of Sciences and Biology of São Carlos (SP, Brazil was carried through, totalizing 24 hours. In one of the meetings, we presented the techniques involving restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis and its applications, followed of an experimental activity. Also we constructed and  considered the use, for the teachers, of a macroscopic model of a gel box that would represent the displacement of DNA fragments. After that a written questionnaire was used to evaluate the importance attributed for the teachers to the subject, the possibilities of didactic transposition, as well as their interests for other activities that would deal this thematic at great length. From this,  we registered that the 93% of the teachers showed interest in the subject, considering it important and also, 79% of them affirmed to have possibility of didactic transposition of this subject after they have experienced the course. On the other hand, 86% of the teachers did not work the subject in their classes , amongst which 50% for the lack of time or not enough preparation. Therefore, the data suggest that the course had an impact on the vision of the teachers concerning the alternatives to include the subject Molecular Biology and Biotechnology in their curricular planning.

  2. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (planet and contributes to the local geology analyzed by MSL. Its composition can also be retrieved on the ChemCam Calibration Targets (CCCT) by subtraction of the well characterized CCCT spectra. The CCCT include eight glasses and ceramics that have been generated to simulate Martian rocks of interest and two targets of a single element (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  3. The marine biological week as an approach to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdorf, Angela; Satzinger, Viktoria

    2017-04-01

    The "Wiedner Gymnasium" is an academic high school with two branches: one focusses on languages and the other one on science. In the language branch the students learn at least three languages; one of which is Latin, whereas the students of the scientific branch can learn geometrical drawing and have to attend a scientific laboratory throughout the last four upper classes. As incentive highlights the language classes have a one week's school trip to France, Italy or Spain at the beginning of their 7th form in order to attend a language school and to practice their language skills. As a counterbalance, there was introduced the "marine biological week" several years ago, in which the students of the scientific branch take part whilst their colleagues have their language trips. The marine biological week takes place in Rovinj, Croatia. A team of biologists and divers leads through a programme, by which the students get an overview of different habitats, their conditions and the different ways of adaptation organisms find. Thus, they also become acquainted with several species of animals and plants which are characteristic for this area. They become familiar with some methods of scientific work and also get to know some of the problems marine ecosystems are confronted with. They also learn a little bit if the Mediterranean history and culture. Back in school all the findings are reviewed and brought into an ecological context. The insights can be used for many other topics, too, such as e.g. evolution. This week has proved to be a good start as well for the topic of ecology as for learning to think scientifically in general. So, you can call it a pivot for the scientific branch of our school.

  4. How do the high school biology textbooks introduce the nature of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young H.

    2007-05-01

    Although helping students to achieve an adequate understanding of the nature of science has been a consistent goal for science education for over half a century, current research reveals that the majority of students and teachers have naive views of the nature of science (Abd-El-khalick & Akerson, 2004; Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). This problem could be attributed not only to the complex nature of science, but also to the way the nature of science is presented to students during instruction. Thus, research must be conducted to examine how the science is taught, especially in science textbooks, which are a major instructional resource for teaching science. The aim of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the first chapter of four high school biology textbooks, which typically discusses "What is science?" and "What is biology?" This research used a content analysis technique to analyze the four high school biology textbooks, using a conceptual framework that has been used often for science textbook analysis. This conceptual framework consists of four themes of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of thinking, (c) science as a way of investigating, and (d) the interaction of science, technology, and society. For this study, the four-theme-framework was modified to incorporate descriptors from national-level documents, such as Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as science education research reports. A scoring procedure was used that resulted in good to excellent intercoder agreement with Cohen's kappa (k) ranging from .63 to .96. The findings show that the patterns of presentation of the four themes of the nature of science in the four high school biology textbooks are similar across the different locations of data, text, figures, and assessments. On the other hand, the pattern of presentation of the four

  5. Computing Technologies for Oriented Education: Applications in Biological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Jaime Reyes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience developing modern digital programs with highly qualified profesoors with several years of teaching postgraduate biological sciences matters is described. A small group of selected professors with a minimum knowledged or basic domain in computer software were invited to develop digital programs in the items of their interest,the purpose is to establish the bases for construction of an available digital library. The products to develop are a series of CD-ROM with program source in HTML format. The didactic strategy responds to a personal tutorship, step by step workshop, to build its own project (without programming languages. The workshop begins generating trust in very simple activities. It is designed to learn building and to advance evaluating the progress. It is fulfilled the necessity to put up-to-date the available material that regularly uses to impart the classes (video, slides, pictures, articles, examples etc. The information and computing technologies ICT are a indispensable tool to diffuse the knowledge to a coarser and more diverse public in the topics of their speciality. The obtained products are 8 CD ROM with didactic programs designed with scientific and technological bases.

  6. Gross's anatomy: textual politics in science/biology education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano

    2009-12-01

    In approaching how the grotesque is—or should be—situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies how the textual structure of a research article can be such as to "tip-off" readers about how it is supposed to be understood. In this way, what one learns from reading the manuscript is grounded on the way the authors examine the data presented. That is, the findings are not intrinsic to the materials collected, but constructed within the analyses that precede/follow the account of each one of the four "specimens" reported. Therefore, the present commentary seeks to re-consider the original study from an alternative perspective, one that challenges its seemingly objective (re)construction of facts by placing emphasis on how the text contains instructions for its own interpretation and validation. Ultimately, the purpose here is to describe and discuss the interpretive and validation work that is done by this discursive mechanism of self-appraisal rather than discredit the two authors' initiative.

  7. PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PUG provides access to PubChem services via a programmatic interface. Users may download data, initiate chemical structure searches, standardize chemical structures...

  8. Test of Science Process Skills of Biology Students towards Developing of Learning Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. Rabacal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the academic achievement on science process skills of the BS Biology Students of Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Philippines with the end view of developing learning exercises which will enhance their academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills. The data in this study were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Mean was the statistical tool used to determine the academic achievement on the above mentioned science process skills; t-test for independent means was used to determine significant difference on the academic achievement of science process skills of BS Biology students while Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. A 0.05 level of significance was used to determine whether the hypothesis set in the study will be rejected or accepted. Findings revealed that the academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students was average. Findings revealed that there are no significant differences on the academic performance of the BS Biology students when grouped according to year level and gender. Findings also revealed that there is a significant difference on the academic achievement between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement on the basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students.

  9. Infusion of Climate Change and Geospatial Science Concepts into Environmental and Biological Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Shishodia, S.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our activity is to improve the students understanding and interpretation of geospatial science and climate change concepts and its applications in the field of Environmental and Biological Sciences in the College of Science Engineering and Technology (COEST) at Texas Southern University (TSU) in Houston, TX. The courses of GIS for Environment, Ecology and Microbiology were selected for the curriculum infusion. A total of ten GIS hands-on lab modules, along with two NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) lab modules on climate change were implemented in the "GIS for Environment" course. GIS and Google Earth Labs along with climate change lectures were infused into Microbiology and Ecology courses. Critical thinking and empirical skills of the students were assessed in all the courses. The student learning outcomes of these courses includes the ability of students to interpret the geospatial maps and the student demonstration of knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and climate change. At the end of the courses, students developed a comprehensive understanding of the geospatial data, its applications in understanding climate change and its interpretation at the local and regional scales during multiple years.

  10. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  11. The Next Generation of Science Standards: Implications for Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…

  12. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  13. A Thai pre-service teacher's understanding of nature of science in biology teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawat, Akkarawat; Aiemsum-ang, Napapan; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted on the effect of understanding and instruction of the nature of science of Ms. Wanida, a pre-service student under science education program in biology, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University. Wanida was a teaching practicum student majoring in biology at Khon Kaen University Demonstration School (Modindaeng). She was teaching biology for 38 Grade 10 students. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The study aimed to examine 1) Wanida's understanding of the nature of science, 2) Wanida's instruction of the nature of science, 3 students' understanding of the nature of science from Wanida's instruction, and 4) the effects of Wanida's understanding and instruction of the nature of science on students' understanding of the nature of science from Wanida's instruction. Tools of interpretation included teaching observation, a semi-structured interview, open-ended questionnaire, and an observation record form for the instruction of the nature of science. The data obtained was interpreted, encoded, and classified, using the descriptive statistics. The findings indicated that Wanida held good understanding of the nature of science. She could apply the deficient nature of science approach mostly, followed by the implicit nature of science approach. Unfortunately, she could not show her teaching as explicit nature of science. However, her students' the understanding of the nature of science was good.

  14. Self-assembly and Self-organization in Computer Science and Biology (Dagstuhl Seminar 15402)

    OpenAIRE

    Danos, Vincent; Koeppl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 15402 "Self-assembly and Self-organization in Computer Science and Biology". With the trend of technological systems to become more distributed they tend to resemble closer biological systems. Biological systems on all scale are distributed and most often operate without central coordination. Taking the morphogenesis as an example, it is clear that the complexity and precision of distributed mechanisms in biology supersede...

  15. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called "the modern synthesis of evolution." Building primarily on the work of historians Vassiliki Smocovitis and John L. Rudolph, I used the archival papers and published writings of the four architects of the modern synthesis and the four most influential leaders of the BSCS in regards to evolution to investigate how the modern synthetic theory of evolution shaped the BSCS curriculum. The central question was "Why was evolution so important to the BSCS to make it the central theme of the texts?" Important answers to this question had already been offered in the historiography, but it was still not clear why every citizen in the world needed to understand evolution. I found that the emphasis on natural selection in the modern synthesis shifted the focus away from humans as passive participants to the recognition that humans are active agents in their own cultural and biological evolution. This required re-education of the world citizenry, which was accomplished in part by the BSCS textbooks. I also found that BSCS leaders Grobman, Glass, and Muller had serious concerns regarding the effects of nuclear radiation on the human gene pool, and were actively involved in informing th public. Lastly, I found that concerns of 1950s reform eugenicists were addressed in the BSCS textbooks, without mentioning eugenics by name. I suggest that the leaders of the BSCS, especially Bentley Glass and Hermann J. Muller, thought that students needed to understand genetics and evolution to be able to make some of the tough choices they might be called on to make as the dominant species on earth and the next reproductive generation in the nuclear age. This

  16. ChemSession'08 - 5. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madura, I.

    2008-01-01

    Book of Abstracts consists of short descriptions of presentations: 5 lectures and 127 posters presented during ChemSession'08 - 5 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry. Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also found

  17. ChemSession'09 - 6. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Book of Abstracts contains short descriptions of presentations 3 lectures and 105 posters presented during ChemSession'09 - 6 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry. Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also found

  18. A review on biological adaptation: with applications in engineering science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological adaptation refers to that organisms change themselves at morphological, physiological, behavioral and molecular level to better survive in a changing environment. It includes phenotype adaptation and molecular adaptation. Biological adaptation is a driving force of evolution. Biological adaptation was described from Darwinian theory of evolution to the theory of molecular evolution in present paper. Adaptive control and adaptive filtering were briefly described also.

  19. The Impact of Agricultural Science Education on Performance in a Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Byron L.

    The lack of student achievement in science is often cited in U.S. educational reports. At the study site, low student achievement in science has been an ongoing concern for administrators. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate the impact of agricultural science education on student performance in a Biology course. Vygotsky's constructivist theory and Gardner's multiple intelligences theory provided the framework for the study. The quantitative research question examined the relationship between the completion of Fundamentals of Agriculture Science and Business course and student performance in Biology I. Teacher perceptions and experiences regarding the integration of science and agricultural curriculum and traditional science curriculum were examined qualitatively. A sequential explanatory design was employed using 3 years of data collected from 486 high school students and interviews with 10 teachers. Point-biserial correlation and chi square tests revealed statistically significant relationships between whether or not students completed Fundamentals of Agriculture Science and Business and Biology I course performance, as measured by the end of course assessment and the course grade. In the qualitative sequence, typological and inductive data analyses were applied to the interview data, and themes of student impact and teacher experience emerged. Social change implications may be possible through improved science education for students in this program. Agriculture science courses may be used to facilitate learning of complex science concepts, designing teacher collaboration and professional development for teaching science in a relevant context, and resultant improved student performance in science.

  20. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: Current status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology. (ASGSB). Founded in 1984 it publishes an excellent multidisciplinary journal Gravitational and Space Biology, a newsletter released 3 times a year and periodical fact sheets, white papers. Also supplies useful slide sets. The special 25th anniversary issue contains ...

  1. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    molecular dynamics simulations and graph theory as applied to biological systems. Her group has developed network approaches to investigate functionally important amino acids in protein structures. Keywords. Quantum Chemistry, molecular mechanics, force fields, QM/MM hybrid method, systems biology, molecular ...

  2. Mentoring Women in the Biological Sciences: Is Informatics Leading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positions, which require not only supe- rior scientific skills but also highly ana- lytic modeling and computer science skills? The answer is twofold: mentor- ing and education. On the education side of the equa- tion, the number of women pursuing baccalaureates in mathematics, engi- neering, and science is rising steadily,.

  3. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  4. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Vermeulen

    Full Text Available With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  5. The impact of an introductory college-level biology class on biology self-efficacy and attitude towards science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan Elizabeth

    Self-efficacy theory was first introduced in a seminal article by Albert Bandura in 1977 entitled "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change". Since its original introduction, self-efficacy has been a major focus of academic performance, anxiety, career development, and teacher retention research. Self-efficacy can be defined as the belief an individual possesses about their ability to perform a given task. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy should be measured at the highest level of specificity due to the fact that different people are efficacious in different areas. Interested in students' efficacy toward biology, Ebert-May, Baldwin, & Allred (1997) created and validated a survey to measure students' biology self-efficacy. Their survey was modeled after the guidelines for science literacy, and loaded to three sub-factors; methods of biology, generalization to other science courses, and application of the concepts. As self-efficacy theory has been related to effort expenditure and persistence (Bandura, 1977; 1997), one might think it would have some effect on students' attitudes toward the topic at hand. The current research investigated what changes in biology self-efficacy occurred after an introductory biology course with an inquiry based laboratory learning environment. In addition, changes in students' attitudes towards science were explored and how self-efficacy might affect them.

  6. Proceedings of Twentieth Forum for Biological Sciences : The Fifth congress of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This is a book of abstracts of the oral presentations and posters that were presented during Twentieth Forum for Biological Sciences : The fifth congress of biotechnology that was held in Hammamet from 22 to 25 mars 2009

  7. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  8. 76 FR 72724 - Advisory Committee For Biological Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Type of Meeting: Open. Contact Person: Chuck... research that is the basis for the 21st century bio-economy and the undergraduate and graduate biology...

  9. Excel 2016 for biological and life sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical biological and life science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in biological and life sciences courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Biological and Life Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand biological and life science problems. Practice problems are provided...

  10. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: Current status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gravitational and space biology organizations and journals. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics .... information on: International Cooperation, Living &. Working, Building & Assembly, Ground Facilities, ... specialists, general public and school children. There are many useful links included in this website.

  11. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  12. A History of ChemMatters Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnesand, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    ChemMatters, the chemistry magazine published since 1983, has always provided interesting topics for chemistry students. The American Chemical Society publishes the magazine and many well-known authors like Isaac Asimov, Glen Seaborg and Derek Davenport have contributed to the magazine and the magazine has succeeded in its goal of demystifying…

  13. "CHEM"opera for Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong Hee

    2013-01-01

    "CHEM"opera is an opera blended with demonstrations of chemical reactions. It has been produced and performed twice by chemistry undergraduate students at Hallym University in South Korea. It aims to demonstrate interesting chemical reactions to chemistry students, children and the public and to facilitate their understanding of the role…

  14. PubChem promiscuity: a web resource for gathering compound promiscuity data from PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canny, Stephanie A; Cruz, Yasel; Southern, Mark R; Griffin, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Promiscuity counts allow for a better understanding of a compound's assay activity profile and drug potential. Although PubChem contains a vast amount of compound and assay data, it currently does not have a convenient or efficient method to obtain in-depth promiscuity counts for compounds. PubChem promiscuity fills this gap. It is a Java servlet that uses NCBI Entrez (eUtils) web services to interact with PubChem and provide promiscuity counts in a variety of categories along with compound descriptors, including PAINS-based functional group detection. http://chemutils.florida.scripps.edu/pcpromiscuity southern@scripps.edu

  15. PubChem promiscuity: a web resource for gathering compound promiscuity data from PubChem

    OpenAIRE

    Canny, Stephanie A.; Cruz, Yasel; Southern, Mark R.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Promiscuity counts allow for a better understanding of a compound's assay activity profile and drug potential. Although PubChem contains a vast amount of compound and assay data, it currently does not have a convenient or efficient method to obtain in-depth promiscuity counts for compounds. PubChem promiscuity fills this gap. It is a Java servlet that uses NCBI Entrez (eUtils) web services to interact with PubChem and provide promiscuity counts in a variety of categories along with c...

  16. Development of a Biological Science Quantitative Reasoning Exam (BioSQuaRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Liz; Ziegler, Laura; Haque, Tabassum; Le, Laura; Vinces, Marcelo; Davis, Gregory K.; Zieffler, Andrew; Brodfuehrer, Peter; Preest, Marion; Belitsky, Jason M.; Umbanhowar, Charles, Jr.; Overvoorde, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple reports highlight the increasingly quantitative nature of biological research and the need to innovate means to ensure that students acquire quantitative skills. We present a tool to support such innovation. The Biological Science Quantitative Reasoning Exam (BioSQuaRE) is an assessment instrument designed to measure the quantitative…

  17. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  18. Taiwan High School Biology Teachers' Acceptance and Understanding of Evolution and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…

  19. Genomic science provides new insights into the biology of forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Groover

    2015-01-01

    Forest biology is undergoing a fundamental change fostered by the application of genomic science to longstanding questions surrounding the evolution, adaptive traits, development, and environmental interactions of tree species. Genomic science has made major technical leaps in recent years, most notably with the advent of 'next generation sequencing' but...

  20. Interdisciplinary research and education at the biology-engineering-computer science interface: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Brigitta; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    Progress in the life sciences, including genome sequencing and high-throughput experimentation, offers an opportunity for understanding biology and medicine from a systems perspective. This 'new view', which complements the more traditional component-based approach, involves the integration of biological research with approaches from engineering disciplines and computer science. The result is more than a new set of technologies. Rather, it promises a fundamental reconceptualization of the life sciences based on the development of quantitative and predictive models to describe crucial processes. To achieve this change, learning communities are being formed at the interface of the life sciences, engineering and computer science. Through these communities, research and education will be integrated across disciplines and the challenges associated with multidisciplinary team-based science will be addressed.

  1. The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

  2. An Unprecedented Revolution in Medicinal Chemistry Driven by the Progress of Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    The eternal or ultimate goal of medicinal chemistry is to find most effective ways to treat various diseases and extend human beings' life as long as possible. Human being is a biological entity. To realize such an ultimate goal, the inputs or breakthroughs from the advances in biological science are no doubt most important that may even drive medicinal science into a revolution. In this review article, we are to address this from several different angles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Biological Evolution and the History of the Earth Are Foundations of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    AGU affirms the central importance of including scientific theories of Earth history and biological evolution in science education. Within the scientific community, the theory of biological evolution is not controversial, nor have ``alternative explanations'' been found. This is why no competing theories are required by the U.S. National Science Education Standards. Explanations of natural phenomena that appeal to the supernatural or are based on religious doctrine-and therefore cannot be tested through scientific inquiry-are not scientific, and have no place in the science classroom.

  4. Writing-to-Learn in First-Year Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowski, Cynthia; Haag, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    In 2006-2007, we established a writing exercise in two large first-year biology courses. Overall, our exercise, which consisted of multiple drafts of a 500-word essay, offered students a good introduction to how editorial feedback can improve content and style in scientific writing. We discuss our goals, procedures, outcome, and students'…

  5. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of biology of Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae) recently introduced in Lake Toho (Benin, West Africa). S A Montcho, F A Laleye. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v2i1.39729 ...

  6. Mentoring Women in the Biological Sciences: Is Informatics Leading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Across the landscape of informat- ics, particularly biological and eco- logical informatics, are quite a few women in leadership positions at im- portant organizations, such as the Na- tional Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, the National Evolution- ary Synthesis Center, and the National. Ecological Observatory ...

  7. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Developmental Biology 16 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The objectives of this Refresher Course are to update the participants about the advances in the field of Developmental Biology; various small animal models used and give hands-on training on some modern biotechnological practices. A variety of teaching methods like lectures, discussion and laboratory work shall ...

  8. Filling the gap between biology and computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Ruiz, Jesús S; Moore, Jason H; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2008-07-17

    This editorial introduces BioData Mining, a new journal which publishes research articles related to advances in computational methods and techniques for the extraction of useful knowledge from heterogeneous biological data. We outline the aims and scope of the journal, introduce the publishing model and describe the open peer review policy, which fosters interaction within the research community.

  9. The role of analytical sciences in medical systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der; Stroobant, P.; Heijden, R. van der

    2004-01-01

    Medical systems biology has generated widespread interest because of its bold conception and exciting potential, but the field is still in its infancy. Although there has been tremendous progress achieved recently in generating, integrating and analysing data in the medical and pharmaceutical field,

  10. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Developmental Biology 16 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A variety of teaching methods like lectures, discussion and laboratory work shall facilitate the learning process. The course will consist of lectures along with hands-on training/demonstration. This would enhance their knowledge in the area of Developmental. Biology and sharpen their skills in the current technologies ...

  11. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences - Vol 4, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitability of Chilo partellus, sesamia calamistis andbusseola fusca for the development of cotesia flavipes in Ethiopia: Implication for biological control · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E Getu, 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbs.v4i2.39018 ...

  12. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: science for enhancement and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred M. Post; James E. Amonette; Richard Birdsey; Charles T. Jr. Garten; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Philip Jardine; Julie Jastrow; Rattan Lal; Gregg. Marland

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can...

  14. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  15. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: Current status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress ...

  16. Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that tackling the overweight/obesity problem solely from nutrition and health perspective may not be adequate. A holistic interdisciplinary strategy involving nutrition, health, social and behavioural science is needed to develop culturally-sensitive interventions against the emerging obesity problem.

  17. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  18. National Centre for Biological Sciences Tata Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 2. February 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  19. Scientific perspectivism: A philosopher of science's response to the challenge of big data biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callebaut, Werner

    2012-03-01

    Big data biology-bioinformatics, computational biology, systems biology (including 'omics'), and synthetic biology-raises a number of issues for the philosophy of science. This article deals with several such: Is data-intensive biology a new kind of science, presumably post-reductionistic? To what extent is big data biology data-driven? Can data 'speak for themselves?' I discuss these issues by way of a reflection on Carl Woese's worry that "a society that permits biology to become an engineering discipline, that allows that science to slip into the role of changing the living world without trying to understand it, is a danger to itself." And I argue that scientific perspectivism, a philosophical stance represented prominently by Giere, Van Fraassen, and Wimsatt, according to which science cannot as a matter of principle transcend our human perspective, provides the best resources currently at our disposal to tackle many of the philosophical issues implied in the modeling of complex, multilevel/multiscale phenomena. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  1. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  2. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  3. Thai in-service teacher understanding of nature of science in biology teaching: Case of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemsum-ang, Napapan; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the existing ideas of nature of science (NOS) teaching in Thailand biology classroom. The study reported the existing ideas of nature of science (NOS) teaching of one biology teacher Mrs. Mali who had been teaching for 6 years at in a school in Khon Kaen city. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Tools of interpretation included 2 months of classroom observation, interviewing, and questionnaire of NOS. The findings revealed Mali held good understanding of the nature of science in the aspect of the use of evidence, the aspect of knowledge inquiry through different observation and deduction, the aspect of creativity and imagination influencing science knowledge inquiry, and the aspect of changeable scientific knowledge. Her biology teaching indicated that she used both the deficient nature of science approach and the implicit nature of science approach. The implicit nature of science approach was applied mostly in 7 periods and only 2 periods were arranged using the deficient nature of science approach. The paper has implication for professional development and pre-service program on NOS teaching in Thailand.

  4. Controversy in Biology Classrooms-Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoho, Rachel A; Vanmali, Binaben H

    2016-03-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to "hot topics" of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  5. Life Sciences Conference ’From Enzymology to Cellular Biology’.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-15

    Brussels, Belgium. "Virus Multiplication and Polyamine Synthesis in Protoplasts of Chinese Cabbage," S. Cohen, Department of Pharmacological Sciences...the 1-16 NH2 terminal segment tial precursor was a preprorenin form of pig pepsinogen inhibits pepsin activ- which is converted to prorenin. Upon ity...comprises pepsin , chymosin, quence of human angiotensinogen which penicillopsin, and cathepsin D. These differs markedly from that of rat and pig proteins all

  6. Symptom Science: Omics Supports Common Biological Underpinnings Across Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Maura K; Stanfill, Ansley Grimes; Skrovanek, Elizabeth; Pforr, Jessica Renee; Wesmiller, Susan W; Conley, Yvette P

    2018-03-01

    For precision health care to be successful, an in-depth understanding of the biological mechanisms for symptom development and severity is essential. Omics-based research approaches facilitate identification of the biological underpinnings of symptoms. We reviewed literature for omics-based approaches and exemplar symptoms (sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, fatigue, gastrointestinal [GI] distress, and pain) to identify genes associated with the symptom or symptoms across disease processes. The review yielded 27 genes associated with more than one symptom. ABCB1 (MDR1), APOE, BDNF, CNR1, COMT, DAT1 (SLC6A3), DRD4, ESR1, HLA-DRB1, IL10, IL1B, IL6, LTA, PTGS2 (COX-2), SLC6A4, and TNF were associated with cognitive impairment and pain, which had the most genes in common. COMT and TNF were related to all symptoms except sleep disruption. IL1B was associated with all symptoms except cognitive impairment. IL10, IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, and IL8 (CXCL8) were linked with all the exemplar symptoms in various combinations. ABCB1 (MDR1) and SLC6A4 were associated with cognitive impairment, GI distress, and pain. IL10 and IL6 were linked to cognitive impairment, fatigue, and pain. APOE and BDNF were associated with sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, and pain. The 27 genes were associated with canonical pathways including immune, inflammatory, and cell signaling. The pathway analysis generated a 15-gene model from the 27 as well as 3 networks, which incorporated new candidate genes. The findings support the hypothesis of overlapping biological underpinnings across the exemplar symptoms. Candidate genes may be targeted in future omics research to identify mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms for potential precision treatments.

  7. Science literacy about biological influence of the radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, people needed to learn the scientific knowledge including technical terms and the numerical value about radioactive material and the radioactivity. Most of us learn them from the media such as TV, newspaper or weekly magazine and so on. However, scientifically wrong stories have been spread by magazines. We think that it is one of the reasons why risk communication does not go well and some people believe such false information. In this talk, I introduce false information about health or biological influences found in the Internet and a magazine, and discuss the need of the scientific literacy. (author)

  8. Guide for Teaching Chemistry-Physics Combined 1-2, 3-4 (PSSC - CHEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, H. George

    This guide is written for a combined physics-chemistry course taught over a two-year period. The subject matter contains the major ideas in Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) Chemistry and Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) Physics. The guide includes discussion of text references, laboratory experiments, films, testing and evaluation…

  9. Qualities of effective secondary science teachers: Perspectives of university biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Madelon J.

    This research was an attempt to hear the student voice concerning secondary science teacher effectiveness and to share that voice with those who impact the educational process. It was a snapshot of university freshmen biology students' opinions of the qualities of effective secondary science teachers based on their high school science experiences. The purpose of this study was to compile a list of effective secondary science teacher qualities as determined through a purposeful sampling of university second semester biology students and determine the role of the secondary science teacher in promoting interest and achievement in science, as well as the teacher's influence on a students' choice of a science career. The research was a mixed methods design using both quantitative and qualitative data obtained through the use of a 24 question electronic survey. There were 125 participants who provided information concerning their high school science teachers. Respondents provided information concerning the qualities of effective secondary science teachers and influences on the students' present career choice. The quantitative data was used to construct a hierarchy of qualities of effective secondary science teachers, divided into personal, professional, and classroom management qualities. The qualitative data was used to examine individual student responses to questions concerning secondary science teacher effectiveness and student career choice. The results of the research indicated that students highly value teachers who are both passionate about the subject taught and passionate about their students. High school science students prefer teachers who teach science in a way that is both interesting and relevant to the student. It was determined that the greatest influence on a secondary student's career choice came from family members and not from teachers. The secondary teacher's role was to recognize the student's interest in the career and provide encouragement

  10. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  11. Science Café Course: An Innovative Means of Improving Communication Skills of Undergraduate Biology Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goldina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course, called Science Café. In this course undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Cafe course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level and empowers students to use their science knowledge in every day interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field.

  12. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  13. Biological mechanisms beyond network analysis via mathematical modeling. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Marko Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2018-03-01

    Methods from network theory are increasingly used in research spanning from engineering and computer science to psychology and the social sciences. In this issue, Gosak et al. [1] provide a thorough review of network science applications to biological systems ranging from the subcellular world via neuroscience to ecosystems, with special attention to the insulin-secreting beta-cells in pancreatic islets.

  14. Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    stratification (i.e., caste system ) that characterizes both and leads to some actors in the groups being more susceptible to disease and other risks. The RFID...Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System " The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...reviewed journals: Final Report: "Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System " Report Title The

  15. Controversy in Biology Classrooms—Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Yoho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to “hot topics” of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors.

  16. Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge in The Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) by using open-ended questions. Data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis. The results indicated that some PCTs have sufficient infor...

  17. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  18. Engineered Ribosomes for Basic Science and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquino, Anne E; Kim, Do Soon; Jewett, Michael C

    2018-03-28

    The ribosome is the cell's factory for protein synthesis. With protein synthesis rates of up to 20 amino acids per second and at an accuracy of 99.99%, the extraordinary catalytic capacity of the bacterial translation machinery has attracted extensive efforts to engineer, reconstruct, and repurpose it for biochemical studies and novel functions. Despite these efforts, the potential for harnessing the translation apparatus to manufacture bio-based products beyond natural limits remains underexploited, and fundamental constraints on the chemistry that the ribosome's RNA-based active site can carry out are unknown. This review aims to cover the past and present advances in ribosome design and engineering to understand the fundamental biology of the ribosome to facilitate the construction of synthetic manufacturing machines. The prospects for the development of engineered, or designer, ribosomes for novel polymer synthesis are reviewed, future challenges are considered, and promising advances in a variety of applications are discusse Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 9 is June 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  19. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Ross; Verhoeven, Stefan; Vass, Márton; Vriend, Gerrit; de Esch, Iwan J P; Lusher, Scott J; Leurs, Rob; Ridder, Lars; Kooistra, Albert J; Ritschel, Tina; de Graaf, Chris

    2017-02-27

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools that can analyze and combine small molecule and protein structural information in a graphical programming environment. New chemical and biological data analytics tools and workflows have been developed for the efficient exploitation of structural and pharmacological protein-ligand interaction data from proteomewide databases (e.g., ChEMBLdb and PDB), as well as customized information systems focused on, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRdb) and protein kinases (KLIFS). The integrated structural cheminformatics research infrastructure compiled in the 3D-e-Chem-VM enables the design of new approaches in virtual ligand screening (Chemdb4VS), ligand-based metabolism prediction (SyGMa), and structure-based protein binding site comparison and bioisosteric replacement for ligand design (KRIPOdb).

  20. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  1. Modelling, abstraction, and computation in systems biology: A view from computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melham, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Systems biology is centrally engaged with computational modelling across multiple scales and at many levels of abstraction. Formal modelling, precise and formalised abstraction relationships, and computation also lie at the heart of computer science--and over the past decade a growing number of computer scientists have been bringing their discipline's core intellectual and computational tools to bear on biology in fascinating new ways. This paper explores some of the apparent points of contact between the two fields, in the context of a multi-disciplinary discussion on conceptual foundations of systems biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calculus, Biology and Medicine: A Case Study in Quantitative Literacy for Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Rheinlander

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a course designed to enhance the numeracy of biology and pre-medical students. The course introduces students with the background of one semester of calculus to systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations as they appear in the mathematical biology literature. Evaluation of the course showed increased enjoyment and confidence in doing mathematics, and an increased appreciation of the utility of mathematics to science. Students who complete this course are better able to read the research literature in mathematical biology and carry out research problems of their own.

  3. ChemSession'11 - 8. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madura, I.

    2011-01-01

    Book of Abstracts contains short descriptions of presentations: 4 lectures, 1 communication and 149 posters presented during ChemSession'11 - 8 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry (Warsaw, 13.05.2011). Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry, application of the radionuclides and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also mentioned.

  4. Learning developmental biology has priority in the life sciences curriculum in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tit-Meng

    2003-01-01

    Singapore has embraced the life sciences as an important discipline to be emphasized in schools and universities. This is part of the nation's strategic move towards a knowledge-based economy, with the life sciences poised as a new engine for economic growth. In the life sciences, the area of developmental biology is of prime interest, since it is not just intriguing for students to know how a single cell can give rise to a complex, coordinated, functional life that is multicellular and multifaceted, but more importantly, there is much in developmental biology that can have biomedical implications. At different levels in the Singapore educational system, students are exposed to various aspects of developmental biology. The author has given many guest lectures to secondary (ages 12-16) and high school (ages 17-18) students to enthuse them about topics such as embryo cloning and stem cell biology. At the university level, some selected topics in developmental biology are part of a broader course which caters for students not majoring in the life sciences, so that they will learn to comprehend how development takes place and the significance of the knowledge and impacts of the technologies derived in the field. For students majoring in the life sciences, the subject is taught progressively in years two and three, so that students will gain specialist knowledge in developmental biology. As they learn, students are exposed to concepts, principles and mechanisms that underlie development. Different model organisms are studied to demonstrate the rapid advances in this field and to show the interconnectivity of developmental themes among living things. The course inevitably touches on life and death matters, and the social and ethical implications of recent technologies which enable scientists to manipulate life are discussed accordingly, either in class, in a discussion forum, or through essay writing.

  5. The PubChem chemical structure sketcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihlenfeldt Wolf D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PubChem is an important public, Web-based information source for chemical and bioactivity information. In order to provide convenient structure search methods on compounds stored in this database, one mandatory component is a Web-based drawing tool for interactive sketching of chemical query structures. Web-enabled chemical structure sketchers are not new, being in existence for years; however, solutions available rely on complex technology like Java applets or platform-dependent plug-ins. Due to general policy and support incident rate considerations, Java-based or platform-specific sketchers cannot be deployed as a part of public NCBI Web services. Our solution: a chemical structure sketching tool based exclusively on CGI server processing, client-side JavaScript functions, and image sequence streaming. The PubChem structure editor does not require the presence of any specific runtime support libraries or browser configurations on the client. It is completely platform-independent and verified to work on all major Web browsers, including older ones without support for Web2.0 JavaScript objects.

  6. Education Catching up with Science: Preparing Students for Three-Dimensional Literacy in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, IJsbrand M.; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students…

  7. Building Consensus in Science: Resources for Intertextual Dialog in Biology Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iliana A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the way article writers bring prior texts into biology research articles. It studies the functional moves in which citations occur and their formal features, providing a better understanding of the linguistic resources that are used to construct intertextuality in science. The results show the functions of citations were…

  8. Advancing the science of forest hydrology A challenge to agricultural and biological engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Wayne Skaggs; Carl Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has originated largely from forested lands, which have experienced dramatic declines over the...

  9. Learning Achievement Packages in Sciences-Biology: Cell Theory, Mitosis, Magnification, Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Juan D.

    This publication presents four science curriculum units designed to meet the learning problems of students with special language handicaps. The materials are written in both English and Spanish, and deal with topics in biology suitable for students in grades 7 through 11. All four units were classroom tested during 1970-1972 in the Calexico…

  10. Convergent Inquiry in Science & Engineering: The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy in a Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a teaching method suitable for science high school students using atomic force microscopy. During their scientific inquiry procedure, high school students observed a micro-nanostructure of a biological sample, which is unobservable via an optical microscope. The developed teaching method enhanced students'…

  11. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  12. Tutorials for Enhancing Skills Development in First Year Students Taking Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Nicola J.; Barker, Martin; Dennis, Catherine; Dalrymple, Sarah; McPherson, Lindsay R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase engagement and to consolidate skills, a tutorial-based skills course (module) was introduced as a compulsory component of first-year in the School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen. We evaluated whether students had attained certain "graduate attributes" during the course, comprising: transferable and…

  13. Understanding the Information Needs of Academic Scholars in Agricultural and Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Pali U.; Gruber, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the information needs of faculty and graduate students in agricultural and biological sciences. Qualitative research methods, interviews and focus groups, were used to examine what types of information these scholars need for their research, teaching and learning, how they seek that information, and perceptions. The…

  14. What Disengages Doctoral Students in the Biological and Environmental Sciences from Their Doctoral Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, V.; Taina, J.; Pyhältö, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the causes of student disengagement from their doctoral studies in the biological and environmental sciences. The data came from interviews of 40 doctoral students (male = 15, female = 25) and underwent qualitative analysis for content. Our results showed that doctoral studies provide multiple contexts for disengagement, such…

  15. Big Biology: Supersizing Science During the Emergence of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Ist Biologie das jüngste Mitglied in der Familie von Big Science? Die vermehrte Zusammenarbeit in der biologischen Forschung wurde in der Folge des Human Genome Project zwar zum Gegenstand hitziger Diskussionen, aber Debatten und Reflexionen blieben meist im Polemischen verhaftet und zeigten eine begrenzte Wertschätzung für die Vielfalt und Erklärungskraft des Konzepts von Big Science. Zur gleichen Zeit haben Wissenschafts- und Technikforscher/innen in ihren Beschreibungen des Wandels der Forschungslandschaft die Verwendung des Begriffs Big Science gemieden. Dieser interdisziplinäre Artikel kombiniert eine begriffliche Analyse des Konzepts von Big Science mit unterschiedlichen Daten und Ideen aus einer Multimethodenuntersuchung mehrerer großer Forschungsprojekte in der Biologie. Ziel ist es, ein empirisch fundiertes, nuanciertes und analytisch nützliches Verständnis von Big Biology zu entwickeln und die normativen Debatten mit ihren einfachen Dichotomien und rhetorischen Positionen hinter sich zu lassen. Zwar kann das Konzept von Big Science als eine Mode in der Wissenschaftspolitik gesehen werden – inzwischen vielleicht sogar als ein altmodisches Konzept –, doch lautet meine innovative Argumentation, dass dessen analytische Verwendung unsere Aufmerksamkeit auf die Ausweitung der Zusammenarbeit in den Biowissenschaften lenkt. Die Analyse von Big Biology zeigt Unterschiede zu Big Physics und anderen Formen von Big Science, namentlich in den Mustern der Forschungsorganisation, der verwendeten Technologien und der gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhänge, in denen sie tätig ist. So können Reflexionen über Big Science, Big Biology und ihre Beziehungen zur Wissensproduktion die jüngsten Behauptungen über grundlegende Veränderungen in der Life Science-Forschung in einen historischen Kontext stellen. PMID:27215209

  16. The biological universe: the twentieth-century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does `biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts toanswer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and The Biological Universe is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a `biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  17. Systems biology for molecular life sciences and its impact in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Modern systems biology is already contributing to a radical transformation of molecular life sciences and biomedicine, and it is expected to have a real impact in the clinical setting in the next years. In this review, the emergence of systems biology is contextualized with a historic overview, and its present state is depicted. The present and expected future contribution of systems biology to the development of molecular medicine is underscored. Concerning the present situation, this review includes a reflection on the "inflation" of biological data and the urgent need for tools and procedures to make hidden information emerge. Descriptions of the impact of networks and models and the available resources and tools for applying them in systems biology approaches to molecular medicine are provided as well. The actual current impact of systems biology in molecular medicine is illustrated, reviewing two cases, namely, those of systems pharmacology and cancer systems biology. Finally, some of the expected contributions of systems biology to the immediate future of molecular medicine are commented.

  18. The Use of Internet-Based Social Media as a Tool in Enhancing Student's Learning Experiences in Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Cruz, Maribel; Cruz, Shannen Belle B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the use of social media as a tool in enhancing student's learning experiences, by using online instruction as a supplement to a face-to-face general education course, such as biological sciences. Survey data were collected from 186 students who were enrolled in a Biological Sciences course. The course was taught in a blended…

  19. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ethical and philosophical consideration of the dual-use dilemma in the biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Seumas; Selgelid, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The dual-use dilemma arises in the context of research in the biological and other sciences as a consequence of the fact that one and the same piece of scientific research sometimes has the potential to be used for bad as well as good purposes. It is an ethical dilemma since it is about promoting good in the context of the potential for also causing harm, e.g., the promotion of health in the context of providing the wherewithal for the killing of innocents. It is an ethical dilemma for the researcher because of the potential actions of others, e.g., malevolent non-researchers who might steal dangerous biological agents, or make use of the original researcher's work. And it is a dilemma for governments concerned with the security of their citizens, as well as their health. In this article we construct a taxonomy of types of "experiments of concern" in the biological sciences, and thereby map the terrain of ethical risk. We then provide a series of analyses of the ethical problems and considerations at issue in the dual-use dilemma, including the impermissibility of certain kinds of research and possible restrictions on dissemination of research results given the risks to health and security. Finally, we explore the main available institutional responses to some of the specific ethical problems posed by the dual-use dilemma in the biological sciences.

  1. Evolutionary biology in biodiversity science, conservation, and policy: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Lohmann, Lúcia G; Conti, Elena; Cracraft, Joel; Crandall, Keith A; Faith, Daniel P; Häuser, Christoph; Joly, Carlos A; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Larigauderie, Anne; Magallón, Susana; Moritz, Craig; Tillier, Simon; Zardoya, Rafael; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Walther, Bruno A; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Donoghue, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long endeavored to document how many species exist on Earth, to understand the processes by which biodiversity waxes and wanes, to document and interpret spatial patterns of biodiversity, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Despite the great potential of this knowledge to improve biodiversity science, conservation, and policy, evolutionary biologists have generally devoted limited attention to these broader implications. Likewise, many workers in biodiversity science have underappreciated the fundamental relevance of evolutionary biology. The aim of this article is to summarize and illustrate some ways in which evolutionary biology is directly relevant. We do so in the context of four broad areas: (1) discovering and documenting biodiversity, (2) understanding the causes of diversification, (3) evaluating evolutionary responses to human disturbances, and (4) implications for ecological communities, ecosystems, and humans. We also introduce bioGENESIS, a new project within DIVERSITAS launched to explore the potential practical contributions of evolutionary biology. In addition to fostering the integration of evolutionary thinking into biodiversity science, bioGENESIS provides practical recommendations to policy makers for incorporating evolutionary perspectives into biodiversity agendas and conservation. We solicit your involvement in developing innovative ways of using evolutionary biology to better comprehend and stem the loss of biodiversity.

  2. Life at the Common Denominator: Mechanistic and Quantitative Biology for the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable challenges and possibilities of the coming few decades will compel the biogeochemical and astrobiological sciences to characterize the interactions between biology and its environment in a fundamental, mechanistic, and quantitative fashion. The clear need for integrative and scalable biology-environment models is exemplified in the Earth sciences by the challenge of effectively addressing anthropogenic global change, and in the space sciences by the challenge of mounting a well-constrained yet sufficiently adaptive and inclusive search for life beyond Earth. Our understanding of the life-planet interaction is still, however, largely empirical. A variety of approaches seek to move from empirical to mechanistic descriptions. One approach focuses on the relationship between biology and energy, which is at once universal (all life requires energy), unique (life manages energy flow in a fashion not seen in abiotic systems), and amenable to characterization and quantification in thermodynamic terms. Simultaneously, a focus on energy flow addresses a critical point of interface between life and its geological, chemical, and physical environment. Characterizing and quantifying this relationship for life on Earth will support the development of integrative and predictive models for biology-environment dynamics. Understanding this relationship at its most fundamental level holds potential for developing concepts of habitability and biosignatures that can optimize astrobiological exploration strategies and are extensible to all life.

  3. Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors' Emotions about Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Lucas P; Runyon, Christopher R; Drake, John M; Dolan, Erin L

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students' emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non-life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students' responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students' responses, while students' race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups-students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates' emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors' attitudes toward math. © 2017 L.P. Wachsmuth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Comparison of Career Concerns among College Women and Men Enrolled in Biological and Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Maria

    The underrepresentation of women enrolled in the physical sciences continues to challenge academic leaders despite over 40 years of programming to promote gender equity within these curricula. This study employed a quantitative, causal comparative method to explore if and to what extent career concerns differed among female and male undergraduate physical and biological science students. The theory of planned behavior and life-span, life-space theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Quantitative survey data were collected from 43 students at four institutions across the United States. The findings indicated that undergraduate women in physical science programs of study had a significantly different level of concern about the Innovating sub-category of the third stage of career development, Maintenance, as compared to undergraduate women in biological science curricula [F(1,33) = 6.244, p = 0.018]. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between female undergraduate physical science students and undergraduate male science students in the sub-categories of Implementation [F(1,19) = 7.228, p = 0.015], Advancing [F(1,19) = 11.877, p = 0.003], and Innovating [F(1,19) = 11.782, p = 0.003] within the first three stages of career development (Exploration, Establishment, and Maintenance). The comparative differences among the study groups offers new information about undergraduate career concerns that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women enrolled in the physical sciences. Suggestions for future research and programs within higher education targeted at reducing the career concerns of current and prospective female students in physical science curricula are discussed.

  5. Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Elizabeth

    As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models

  6. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for Use in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsar, Katharine; Knight, Jennifer K.; Birol, Gülnur; Smith, Michelle K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a newly adapted instrument for measuring novice-to-expert-like perceptions about biology: the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology (CLASS-Bio). Consisting of 31 Likert-scale statements, CLASS-Bio probes a range of perceptions that vary between experts and novices, including enjoyment of the discipline, propensity to make connections to the real world, recognition of conceptual connections underlying knowledge, and problem-solving strategies. CLASS-Bio has been tested for response validity with both undergraduate students and experts (biology PhDs), allowing student responses to be directly compared with a consensus expert response. Use of CLASS-Bio to date suggests that introductory biology courses have the same challenges as introductory physics and chemistry courses: namely, students shift toward more novice-like perceptions following instruction. However, students in upper-division biology courses do not show the same novice-like shifts. CLASS-Bio can also be paired with other assessments to: 1) examine how student perceptions impact learning and conceptual understanding of biology, and 2) assess and evaluate how pedagogical techniques help students develop both expertise in problem solving and an expert-like appreciation of the nature of biology. PMID:21885823

  7. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsar, Katharine; Knight, Jennifer K; Birol, Gülnur; Smith, Michelle K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a newly adapted instrument for measuring novice-to-expert-like perceptions about biology: the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology (CLASS-Bio). Consisting of 31 Likert-scale statements, CLASS-Bio probes a range of perceptions that vary between experts and novices, including enjoyment of the discipline, propensity to make connections to the real world, recognition of conceptual connections underlying knowledge, and problem-solving strategies. CLASS-Bio has been tested for response validity with both undergraduate students and experts (biology PhDs), allowing student responses to be directly compared with a consensus expert response. Use of CLASS-Bio to date suggests that introductory biology courses have the same challenges as introductory physics and chemistry courses: namely, students shift toward more novice-like perceptions following instruction. However, students in upper-division biology courses do not show the same novice-like shifts. CLASS-Bio can also be paired with other assessments to: 1) examine how student perceptions impact learning and conceptual understanding of biology, and 2) assess and evaluate how pedagogical techniques help students develop both expertise in problem solving and an expert-like appreciation of the nature of biology.

  8. [Undergraduate and postgraduate studies in the biological sciences in Chile (1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, H

    1986-01-01

    A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in

  9. Developing "Green" Business Plans: Using Entrepreneurship to Teach Science to Business Administration Majors and Business to Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.

    2011-01-01

    Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…

  10. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  11. Venomous snakes accidents: a study about conceptual mistakes in Science and Biology Brazilian textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Neves Sandrin; Giuseppe Puorto; Roberto Nardi

    2005-01-01

    The subject venomous snakes is pointed out as a problem in science education textbooks in Brazil, due to the high rate of conceptual mistakes. Aiming to help teachers in that subject, we analyzed a total of 27 textbooks published in the period 1982 to 1999. The criteria used in the conceptual analysis were based scientific correction and the presence of non-scientific classification. In relation to the conceptual analysis, data collected showed predominance of problems related to the biology ...

  12. International Institute for Collaborative Cell Biology and Biochemistry—History and Memoirs from an International Network for Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    I was invited to write this essay on the occasion of my selection as the recipient of the 2012 Bruce Alberts Award for Excellence in Science Education from the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB). Receiving this award is an enormous honor. When I read the email announcement for the first time, it was more than a surprise to me, it was unbelievable. I joined ASCB in 1996, when I presented a poster and received a travel award. Since then, I have attended almost every ASCB meeting. I will try to use this essay to share with readers one of the best experiences in my life. Because this is an essay, I take the liberty of mixing some of my thoughts with data in a way that it not usual in scientific writing. I hope that this sacrifice of the format will achieve the goal of conveying what I have learned over the past 20 yr, during which time a group of colleagues and friends created a nexus of knowledge and wisdom. We have worked together to build a network capable of sharing and inspiring science all over the world. PMID:24006381

  13. The Use of Didactic Resources as a Strategy in Sciences and Biology Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcos Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Science and Biology at school is recent, and has been practiced according to the different educational proposals, that have been developed along the last decades. The LDB (Lei nº 9.394, December, 20, 1996 proposes a pedagogical project that goes beyond the blackboard, chalk and teacher's talk in order to better prepare the students for the challenges of the labor market. Thus, this paper aims at contributing to the discussion on the teaching practice and teaching resources that can help the teaching and learning process, especially in the disciplines of Science and Biology. Based on a qualitative approach, this research aims at contributing to the construction of new knowledge that can be generated from a careful and critical look at the documentary sources. Finally, the great challenge of the educator is to make the teaching of Science and Biology pleasurable and exciting, being able to develop in students the scientific knowledge and the taste for these school subjects.

  14. Local Ecological Knowledge and Biological Conservation: Post-normal Science as an Intercultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorje Ignacio Zalles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.

  15. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H

    2013-10-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access to the chemical biology data for small molecules including natural products. Thus, it is imperative for scientists in related fields to exploit these resources in order to expedite their researches on natural products as drug leads/candidates for disease treatment. PubChem, as a public database, contains large amounts of natural products associated with bioactivity data. In this review, we introduce the information system provided at PubChem, and systematically describe the applications for a set of PubChem web services for rapid data retrieval, analysis, and downloading of natural products. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the researchers to perform data mining on natural products using PubChem.

  17. Modeling biological problems in computer science: a case study in genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Paul

    2018-01-30

    As computer scientists working in bioinformatics/computational biology, we often face the challenge of coming up with an algorithm to answer a biological question. This occurs in many areas, such as variant calling, alignment and assembly. In this tutorial, we use the example of the genome assembly problem to demonstrate how to go from a question in the biological realm to a solution in the computer science realm. We show the modeling process step-by-step, including all the intermediate failed attempts. Please note this is not an introduction to how genome assembly algorithms work and, if treated as such, would be incomplete and unnecessarily long-winded. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Math–Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors’ Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students’ personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math–Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self-­report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students’ interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student’s value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math–biology values and understand how math–biology values are related to students’ achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. PMID:28747355

  19. The biological universe. The twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does 'biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts to answer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and this is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, the author shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a 'biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  20. Practicing the triad teaching-research- extension in supervised internship of licentiateship in biological sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliane Miranda Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report an educational experience based on the triad teaching-research-extension occurred in the supervised internship in licentiateship in Biological Sciences. In this experiment, the students made a transposition of the scientific knowledge produced in their course conclusion work to the knowledge of basic education curriculum. We analyze in this article the impressions of undergraduates after completion of pedagogical actions. We discuss, based on the reports, how the knowledge that is constructed and reconstructed in academic research can contribute directly to the improvement of the science education quality through science literacy and also in teacher training of undergraduates, through the reflection on their own practice. Therefore, we consider that, with the practice of the inseparability of teaching-research-extension, there will be more return for academic research and also for the school community, generating significant changes in educational practices in schools

  1. ChemOkey: A Game to Reinforce Nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Nusret

    2012-01-01

    Learning the symbolic language of chemistry is a difficult task that can be frustrating for students. This article introduces a game, ChemOkey, that can help students learn the names and symbols of common ions and their compounds in a fun environment. ChemOkey, a game similar to Rummikub, is played with a set of 106 plastic or wooden tiles. The…

  2. The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math-Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self--report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students' interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student's value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math-biology values and understand how math-biology values are related to students' achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. © 2017 S. E. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Tagged Ozone Mechanisms for WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, A.; Coates, J.; Mar, K. A.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Surface ozone is a secondary air pollutant that affects human health and vegetation, and is a key ingredient of smog. It has been shown that the background O3 concentrations have increased during the last several decades due to the increase of overall global anthropogenic emissions of O3 precursors (NOx and VOCs). Cities are facing serious challenges in surface ozone pollution due to increased urbanization and vehicle use. Attribution of ozone concentration to local, regional, and remote sources is an important component of the design of mitigation strategies. These strategies rely on accurate predictions of O3 and the impact of source emissions of NOx and VOC from surface anthropogenic sources, fires, soil, lightning, and the stratosphere on total O3 production. Thus, a chemical model in which emissions of NO or VOCs and corresponding resulting products are "tagged" and followed to the production of ozone could be very helpful for these strategies. Here we present a system for attribution of surface ozone separately to each of these precursors, as well as transport from the lateral boundary and the stratosphere in WRF-Chem. This technique adds tracers to the chemical mechanism, with the possibility of specifying an arbitrary number of tags per model run.

  4. What are the Effects of Implementing Learning-Focused Strategies in Biology and Physical Science Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robin

    The objective of this study was to determine if Learning-Focused Strategies (LFS) implemented in high school science courses would affect student achievement and the pass rate of biology and physical science Common District Assessments (CDAs). The LFS, specific teaching strategies contained in the Learning-Focused Strategies Model (LFSM) Program were researched in this study. The LFSM Program provided a framework for comprehensive school improvement to those schools that implemented the program. The LFSM Program provided schools with consistent training in the utilization of exemplary practices and instruction. A high school located in the suburbs of Atlanta, Georgia was the focus of this investigation. Twelve high school science classrooms participated in the study: six biology and six physical science classes. Up-to-date research discovered that the strategies contained in the LFSM Program were research-based and highly effective for elementary and middle school instruction. Research on its effectiveness in high school instruction was the main focus of this study. This investigation utilized a mixed methods approach, in which data were examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Common District Assessment (CDA) quantitative data were collected and compared between those science classrooms that utilized LFS and those using traditional instructional strategies. Qualitative data were generated through classroom observations, student surveys, and teacher interviews. Individual data points were triangulated to determine trends of information reflecting the effects of implementing LFS. Based on the data collected in the research study, classrooms utilizing LFS were more successful academically than the classrooms using traditional instructional methods. Derived from the quantitative data, students in LFS classrooms were more proficient on both the biology and physical science Unit 1 CDAs, illustrating the effectiveness of LFS in the science classroom. Key terms

  5. Optimizing Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences: Placing Physics in Biological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Physics is a critical foundation for today's life sciences and medicine. However, the physics content and ways of thinking identified by life scientists as most important for their fields are often not taught, or underemphasized, in traditional introductory physics courses. Furthermore, such courses rarely give students practice using physics to understand living systems in a substantial way. Consequently, students are unlikely to recognize the value of physics to their chosen fields, or to develop facility in applying physics to biological systems. At Swarthmore, as at several other institutions engaged in reforming this course, we have reorganized the introductory course for life science students around touchstone biological examples, in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding biological phenomena or research techniques, in order to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. We have also focused on the physics topics and approaches most relevant to biology while seeking to develop rigorous qualitative reasoning and quantitative problem solving skills, using established pedagogical best practices. Each unit is motivated by and culminates with students analyzing one or more touchstone examples. For example, in the second semester we emphasize electric potential and potential difference more than electric field, and start from students' typically superficial understanding of the cell membrane potential and of electrical interactions in biochemistry to help them develop a more sophisticated understanding of electric forces, field, and potential, including in the salt water environment of life. Other second semester touchstones include optics of vision and microscopes, circuit models for neural signaling, and magnetotactic bacteria. When possible, we have adapted existing research-based curricular materials to support these examples. This talk will describe the design and development process for this course, give examples of

  6. Should We Add History of Science to Provide Nature of Science into Vietnamese Biology Textbook: A Case of Evolution and Genetics Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    History of science (HOS) plays a substantial role in the enhancement of rooted understanding in science teaching and learning. HOS of evolution and genetics has not been included in Vietnamese biology textbooks. This study aims to investigate the necessity of introducing evolution and genetics HOS into Vietnamese textbooks. A case study approach…

  7. Student-generated illustrations and written narratives of biological science concepts: The effect on community college life science students' achievement in and attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert Christopher

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two conceptually based instructional strategies on science achievement and attitudes of community college biological science students. The sample consisted of 277 students enrolled in General Biology 1, Microbiology, and Human Anatomy and Physiology 1. Control students were comprised of intact classes from the 2005 Spring semester; treatment students from the 2005 Fall semester were randomly assigned to one of two groups within each course: written narrative (WN) and illustration (IL). WN students prepared in-class written narratives related to cell theory and metabolism, which were taught in all three courses. IL students prepared in-class illustrations of the same concepts. Control students received traditional lecture/lab during the entire class period and neither wrote in-class descriptions nor prepared in-class illustrations of the targeted concepts. All groups were equivalent on age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, and number of college credits earned and were blinded to the study. All interventions occurred in class and no group received more attention or time to complete assignments. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) via multiple regression was the primary statistical strategy used to test the study's hypotheses. The model was valid and statistically significant. Independent follow-up univariate analyses relative to each dependent measure found that no research factor had a significant effect on attitude, but that course-teacher, group membership, and student academic characteristics had a significant effect (p < .05) on achievement: (1) Biology students scored significantly lower in achievement than A&P students; (2) Microbiology students scored significantly higher in achievement than Biology students; (3) Written Narrative students scored significantly higher in achievement than Control students; and (4) GPA had a significant effect on achievement. In addition, given p < .08: (1

  8. The BIOSCI electronic newsgroup network for the biological sciences. Final report, October 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, D.; Mack, D.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report for a DOE funded project on BIOSCI Electronic Newsgroup Network for the biological sciences. A usable network for scientific discussion, major announcements, problem solving, etc. has been created.

  9. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences; 5. Ciclo de conferencias. Las radiaciones y las Ciencias Biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M.; Chavez B, A

    1991-06-15

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest.

  10. The Benefits of the German Science Project ‘Biology Up Close’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Wegner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology have a huge impact on all areas of today’s society. Also, industrialised countries’ economies are highly dependent on scientific progress which in turn makes them rely on trained people. However, recent PISA studies show poor results for German students’ scientific literacy. Due to many pupils’ lack of interest in the field of science and the need for scientific knowledge in today’s society, it is crucial to find ways to motivate pupils to become scientists and increase their interest in this field. In order to achieve this, Claas Wegner initiated the project ‘Biology Up Close’ in 2009. During workshops at university, participating pupils aged between 10 and 18 years have the opportunity to ‘grasp’ scientific phenomena through conducting experiments in a motivating way. This article describes the project and also its beneficial aspects enabling pupils from regional schools to experience biology in a vivid way at university laboratories. The workshops are planned, organized and held by teacher students, which in turn helps them to improve and reflect on their teaching skills. Finally, the article presents how the project promotes the pupils’ interest in science in a conclusion.

  11. Loosening the shackles of scientific disciplines with network science. Reply to comments on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-03-01

    We would like to thank all the experts for their insightful and very interesting comments that have been submitted in response to our review "Network science of biological systems at different scales" [1]. We are delighted with the number of comments that have been written, and even more so with the positive opinions that these comments communicate to the wider audience [2-9]. Although methods of network science have long proven their value in relevantly addressing various challenges in the biological sciences, such interdisciplinary research often still struggles for funding and recognition at many academic levels.

  12. The role of automated feedback in training and retaining biological recorders for citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, René; Sharma, Nirwan; Mellish, Chris; Robinson, Annie; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2016-06-01

    correct identification without explanation. The value of NLG feedback in the live program, captured through questionnaires and evaluation of the online photo-based training tool, likewise showed that the automated generation of informative feedback fostered learning and volunteer engagement and thus paves the way for productive and long-lived citizen science projects. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. A strategy for space biology and medical science for the 1980s and 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A guideline is provided for developing NASA's long-term mission plans and a rational, coherent research program. Ten topical areas for research are addressed: developmental biology, gravitropism in plants, sensorimotor integration, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular/pulmonary function, muscle remodeling, nutrition, human reproduction, space anemia, and human behavior. Scientific goals, objectives, and required measurements and facilities for each of the major areas of space biology and medicine are identified and described along with primary goals and objectives for each of these disciplines. Proposals are made concerning the use of scientific panels to oversee the implementation of the strategy, life sciences' need for continuous access to spaceflight opportunities, the advantages of a focused mission strategy, certain design features that will enhance spaceflight experimentation, and general facilities. Other topics that are considered include mission planning, crew selection and training, and interagency and international cooperation.

  14. Bodies of science and law: forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Victor

    2012-01-01

    How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.

  15. A Framework for Improving the Quality of Research in the Biological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss problems in the biological sciences, with emphasis on identifying mechanisms to improve the quality of research. Participants from various disciplines made six recommendations: (i design rigorous and comprehensive evaluation criteria to recognize and reward high-quality scientific research; (ii require universal training in good scientific practices, appropriate statistical usage, and responsible research practices for scientists at all levels, with training content regularly updated and presented by qualified scientists; (iii establish open data at the timing of publication as the standard operating procedure throughout the scientific enterprise; (iv encourage scientific journals to publish negative data that meet methodologic standards of quality; (v agree upon common criteria among scientific journals for retraction of published papers, to provide consistency and transparency; and (vi strengthen research integrity oversight and training. These recommendations constitute an actionable framework that, in combination, could improve the quality of biological research.

  16. A sociocultural reading of reform in science teaching in a secondary biology class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barma, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    Adopting activity theory as a theoretical and methodological framework, this case study illustrates how a teaching and learning situation is planned and implemented over a series of nine 75-min biology classes by a high school science teacher in the context of pedagogical reform. The object of this study emerges within a favourable context of science education curricular reform in Quebec, Canada. By examining the interaction between the poles of an activity system sharing the same object, this case study illustrates how one teacher's teaching practice is redefined and how some aspects of her teaching personality orient the ways in which she contextually mobilizes new tools and members of her school community in order to implement an awareness campaign on the risks of tanning salons.

  17. Converging biology, economics and social science in fisheries research –lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Kulmala, Soile; Kuikka, Sakari

    2011-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that natural sciences cannot provide an adequate basis for the management of complex environmental problems. The scientific knowledge base has to be expanded towards a more holistic direction by incorporating social and economic issues. Besides this, the multifaceted...... knowledge has to be summarized in a form that can support science-based decision making. Interdisciplinary skills and methodologies are required that enable the integration of knowledge from conceptually different disciplines. We built an integrated decision support tool for the long term management...... of the Baltic salmon stocks, using the Bayesian networks. It enabled the analysis of the outcomes of different management measures from biological, social and economic perspectives. The synthesis was the final output of a learning process of eight years. We reflect how and what kind of interdisciplinarity...

  18. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  19. The need to connect: on the cell biology of synapses, behaviors, and networks in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    My laboratory is interested in the cell biology of the synapse. Synapses, which are points of cellular communication between neurons, were first described by Santiago Ramón y Cajal as "protoplasmic kisses that appear to constitute the final ecstasy of an epic love story." Who would not want to work on that?! My lab examines the biological mechanisms neurons use to find and connect to each other. How are synapses formed during development, maintained during growth, and modified during learning? In this essay, I reflect about my scientific journey to the synapse, the cell biological one, but also a metaphorical synapse-my role as a point of contact between the production of knowledge and its dissemination. In particular, I discuss how the architecture of scientific networks propels knowledge production but can also exclude certain groups in science. © 2016 Colón-Ramos This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Preventing biological weapon development through the governance of life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Gerald L

    2012-03-01

    The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed.

  1. A CNES remote operations center for the MSL ChemCam instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafaille, Vivian [CNES; Lorgny, Eric [CNES; Baroukh, Julien [CNES; Gaboriaud, Alain [CNES; Saccoccio, Muriel [CNES; Perez, Rene [CNES; Gasnault, Olivier [CNRS/CESR; Maurice, Sylvestre [CNRS/CESR; Blaney, Diana [JPL

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a CNES remote operations center in Toulouse will be involved in the tactical operations of a Martian rover in order to operate the ChemCam science instrument in the framework of the NASA MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) mission in 2012. CNES/CESR and LANL have developed and delivered to JPL the ChemCam (Chemistry Camera) instrument located on the top of mast and in the body of the rover. This instrument incorporates a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) for determining elemental compositions of rock targets or soil samples at remote distances from the rover (2-7 m). An agreement has been achieved for operating ChemCam, alternatively, from Toulouse (FR) and Los Alamos (NM, USA), through the JPL ground data system in Pasadena (CA, USA) for a complete Martian year (2 years on Earth). After a brief overview of the MSL mission, this paper presents the instrument, the mission operational system and JPL organization requirements for the scientific investigators (PI and Co-Is). This paper emphasizes innovations applied on the ground segment components and on the operational approach to satisfy the requirements and constraints due to these shared and distributed operations over the world.

  2. Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Signing Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science in Inquiry-Based Biology Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara

    2017-01-01

    For science learning to be successful, students must develop attitudes toward support future engagement with challenging social issues related to science. This is especially important for increasing participation of students from underrepresented populations. This study investigated how participation in inquiry-based biology laboratory classes…

  3. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  4. ChemEx: information extraction system for chemical data curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharatipyakul, Atima; Numnark, Somrak; Wichadakul, Duangdao; Ingsriswang, Supawadee

    2012-01-01

    Manual chemical data curation from publications is error-prone, time consuming, and hard to maintain up-to-date data sets. Automatic information extraction can be used as a tool to reduce these problems. Since chemical structures usually described in images, information extraction needs to combine structure image recognition and text mining together. We have developed ChemEx, a chemical information extraction system. ChemEx processes both text and images in publications. Text annotator is able to extract compound, organism, and assay entities from text content while structure image recognition enables translation of chemical raster images to machine readable format. A user can view annotated text along with summarized information of compounds, organism that produces those compounds, and assay tests. ChemEx facilitates and speeds up chemical data curation by extracting compounds, organisms, and assays from a large collection of publications. The software and corpus can be downloaded from http://www.biotec.or.th/isl/ChemEx.

  5. The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zorzetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5% (Pharmacology to 191% (Psychiatry, with a median growth rate of 47.2%. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7% of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.

  6. Venomous snakes accidents: a study about conceptual mistakes in Science and Biology Brazilian textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Neves Sandrin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject venomous snakes is pointed out as a problem in science education textbooks in Brazil, due to the high rate of conceptual mistakes. Aiming to help teachers in that subject, we analyzed a total of 27 textbooks published in the period 1982 to 1999. The criteria used in the conceptual analysis were based scientific correction and the presence of non-scientific classification. In relation to the conceptual analysis, data collected showed predominance of problems related to the biology of snakes, identification and differentiation among venomous and non-venomous ones, incorrect self-care instructions, inappropriate attendance care in case of venomous’ snakes accident, besides the use of anthropocentric concepts. Data collected showed also that in most of the textbooks problematization and contextualization are not considered in despite of the descriptive form, predominant citation of the animal’s anatomical data, nomenclature and definitions. Proportionally, it was found higher number of problems in science textbooks than in those destined to high school biology.

  7. Biological determinants of health: Genes, microbes, and metabolism exemplars of nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin P; Grossmann, Ruth; Starkweather, Angela; Heitkemper, Margaret

    Increasingly, nurse scientists are incorporating "omics" measures (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) in studies of biologic determinants of health and behavior. The role of omics in nursing science can be conceptualized in several ways: (a) as a portfolio of biological measures (biomarkers) to monitor individual risk, (b) as a set of combined data elements that can generate new knowledge based on large and complex patient data sets, (c) as baseline information that promotes health education and potentially personalized interventions, and (d) as a platform to understand how environmental parameters (e.g., diet) interact with the individual's physiology. In this article, we provide exemplars of nursing scientists who use omics to better understand specific health conditions. We highlight various ongoing nursing research investigations incorporating omics technologies to study chronic pain vulnerability, risk for a pain-related condition, cardiometabolic complications associated with pregnancy, and as biomarkers of response to a dietary intervention. Omics technologies add an important dimension to nursing science across many foci of investigation. However, there are also challenges and opportunities for nurse scientists who consider using omics in their research. The integration of omics holds promise for increasing the impact of nursing research and practice on population health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  9. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  10. Excel 2013 for biological and life sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach biological and life sciences statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical science problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand science problems.  Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapter with their solutions in an appendix.  Separately, there is a full Practice Test (with answers in an Appendix) that allows readers to test what they have learned.  Includes 164 illustrations in color Suitable for undergraduates or graduate student Prof. Tom Quirk is currently a Professor of Marketing at The Walker School of Business and Technology at Webster University in St....

  11. The Acid Test for Biological Science: STAP Cells, Trust, and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Cheryl

    2016-02-01

    In January 2014, a letter and original research article were published in Nature describing a process whereby somatic mouse cells could be converted into stem cells by subjecting them to stress. These "stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency" (STAP) cells were shown to be capable of contributing to all cell types of a developing embryo, and extra-embryonic tissues. The lead author of the publications, Haruko Obokata, became an overnight celebrity in Japan, where she was dubbed the new face of Japanese science. However, in the weeks that followed publication of the research, issues arose. Other laboratories and researchers (including authors on the original papers) found that they were unable to replicate Obokata et al.'s work. Closer scrutiny of the papers by the scientific community also suggested that there was manipulation of images that had been published, and Obokata was accused of misconduct. Those who should have been supervising her work (also her co-authors on the publications) were also heavily criticised. The STAP cell saga of 2014 is used as an example to highlight the importance of trust and replication in twenty-first century biological science. The role of trust in the scientific community is highlighted, and the effects on interactions between science and the public examined. Similarly, this essay aims to highlight the importance of replication, and how this is understood by researchers, the media, and the public. The expected behaviour of scientists in the twenty-first century is now more closely scrutinised.

  12. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  13. Development of biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of

  14. Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Cracraft; Richard O' Grady

    2007-05-12

    The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

  15. Genomics, "Discovery Science," Systems Biology, and Causal Explanation: What Really Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    Diverse and non-coherent sets of epistemological principles currently inform research in the general area of functional genomics. Here, from the personal point of view of a scientist with over half a century of immersion in hypothesis driven scientific discovery, I compare and deconstruct the ideological bases of prominent recent alternatives, such as "discovery science," some productions of the ENCODE project, and aspects of large data set systems biology. The outputs of these types of scientific enterprise qualitatively reflect their radical definitions of scientific knowledge, and of its logical requirements. Their properties emerge in high relief when contrasted (as an example) to a recent, system-wide, predictive analysis of a developmental regulatory apparatus that was instead based directly on hypothesis-driven experimental tests of mechanism.

  16. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, R.; Verhoeven, S.; Vass, M.; Vriend, G.; Esch, I.J. de; Lusher, S.J.; Leurs, R.; Ridder, L.; Kooistra, A.J.; Ritschel, T.; Graaf, C. de

    2017-01-01

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools

  17. 3D-e-Chem-VM : Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, Ross; Verhoeven, Stefan; Vass, Márton; Vriend, Gerrit; De Esch, Iwan J P; Lusher, Scott J.; Leurs, Rob; Ridder, Lars; Kooistra, Albert J.; Ritschel, Tina; de Graaf, C.

    2017-01-01

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools

  18. Active matter at the interface between materials science and cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Daniel; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2017-09-01

    The remarkable processes that characterize living organisms, such as motility, self-healing and reproduction, are fuelled by a continuous injection of energy at the microscale. The field of active matter focuses on understanding how the collective behaviours of internally driven components can give rise to these biological phenomena, while also striving to produce synthetic materials composed of active energy-consuming components. The synergistic approach of studying active matter in both living cells and reconstituted systems assembled from biochemical building blocks has the potential to transform our understanding of both cell biology and materials science. This methodology can provide insight into the fundamental principles that govern the dynamical behaviours of self-organizing subcellular structures, and can lead to the design of artificial materials and machines that operate away from equilibrium and can thus attain life-like properties. In this Review, we focus on active materials made of cytoskeletal components, highlighting the role of active stresses and how they drive self-organization of both cellular structures and macroscale materials, which are machines powered by nanomachines.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT IN DISTRITO FEDERAL’S SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Carvalho Mota de Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is a limitation that occurs in the sensory part of the vision, and can be classified as blindness, low vision or subnormal vision. The people with visually impaired have guaranteed rights to study in regular schools or special education schools. Therefore, a differentiated teaching is necessary for the learning of visually impaired students to happen effectively and ensure educational inclusion within the school. The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze the teaching of Biological Sciences for the visually impaired in schools of the Distrito Federal, noting the institution, teachers and visually impaired students. The study was conducted using semi-structured interviews analyzed epistemologically. The results showed that: the institutions do not have adequate physical infrastructure; Biology teachers have no qualifications required; teachers of resource rooms are able to meet visually impaired students, even if resources are not sufficient, and the students do not understand all the benefits they could have. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt the teaching and learning materials to allow for a better education for visually impaired students and thus ensure appropriate learning for all students within the same educational institution.

  20. Anti-reductionism at the confluence of philosophy and science: Arthur Koestler and the biological periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian-born intellectual Arthur Koestler produced a wide-ranging corpus of written work throughout the mid twentieth century. Despite being the subject of two huge biographies in recent years, his long-standing engagement with numerous scientific disciplines remains unexplored. This paper situates Koestler's scientific philosophy within the context of mid-twentieth-century science and explores his relationship with key figures, including Dennis Gábor, C. H. Waddington, Ludwig von Bertalanffy and J. R. Smythies. The argument presented is threefold. First, surprisingly, serious scientists, particularly in the biological sciences, took Koestler's scientific work seriously; second, despite Koestler's best efforts, his allies could not agree on a single articulation of anti-reductionism; and third, the reductionist/anti-reductionist debates of the mid twentieth century constituted a battle for the authority to speak on behalf of ‘science’ that led Koestler into direct conflict with figures including Peter Medawar. By exploring the community associated with Koestler, the paper sheds new light on the status of scientific authority and the relationship between scientists’ metaphysical beliefs and their practices.

  1. The "contemporary synthesis": when politically inclusive genomic science relies on biological notions of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwiley, Duana

    2014-12-01

    This essay outlines the emergence of a contemporary synthesis regarding racial thinking in genetic science and in society more broadly. A departure from what Julian Huxley in 1942 termed the "modern synthesis," the contemporary version does not purport to leave race thinking behind in favor of evolution, population genetics, and population-based accounts of natural selection and human diversity. Specifically, the contemporary synthesis blends old concepts (such as that of pure human "types," located within continental land masses) with new attitudes (democratic inclusion, multicultural diversity, and anti-racism). Through various examples, the essay shows how this new synthesis combines ideas about human biological difference that draw on measures of physical characteristics and human genetic material that are both race and population based, yet conflated. This specific amalgam allows old notions of racial types to thrive through conceptual framings that comprise ideas that were once imagined to have the potential to liberate society from racial thinking--and that today remain attached to ideas of progress. As an emergent dynamic, the contemporary synthesis holds the possibility of reinvigorating racism, while simultaneously possessing the potential to promote antiracist science education, disease awareness, and social justice efforts.

  2. Conceptual design of a biological specimen holding facility. [Life Science Laboratory for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    An all-important first step in the development of the Spacelab Life Science Laboratory is the design of the Biological Specimen Holding Facility (BSHF) which will provide accommodation for living specimens for life science research in orbit. As a useful tool in the understanding of physiological and biomedical changes produced in the weightless environment, the BSHF will enable biomedical researchers to conduct in-orbit investigations utilizing techniques that may be impossible to perform on human subjects. The results of a comprehensive study for defining the BSHF, description of its experiment support capabilities, and the planning required for its development are presented. Conceptual designs of the facility, its subsystems and interfaces with the Orbiter and Spacelab are included. Environmental control, life support and data management systems are provided. Interface and support equipment required for specimen transfer, surgical research, and food, water and waste storage is defined. New and optimized concepts are presented for waste collection, feces and urine separation and sampling, environmental control, feeding and watering, lighting, data management and other support subsystems.

  3. ADAPTATION OF THE STUDENTS' MOTIVATION TOWARDS SCIENCE LEARNING QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE GREEK STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION TOWARDS BIOLOGY LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa, Helen; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Dermitzaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ motivation towards biology learning and to determine the factors that are related to it: students’ gender and their parents’ occupation (relevant with biology or not) were investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 360 Greek high school students of the 10th grade (178 boys and 182 girls). The data were collected through Students’ Motivation Toward Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire. It was found that it was a valid and reliabl...

  4. Maximising Students' Progress and Engagement in Science through the Use of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model (often referred to as the 5Es) consists of five phases. Each phase has a specific function and contributes both to teachers' coherent instruction and to students' formulation of a better understanding of scientific knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence indicates that the…

  5. SR ( Science and Religion SEBAGAI PENDEKATAN PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI PADA KURIKULUM 2013 UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KARAKTER SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khasanah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThe learning activities is a process of discovery and experience so that the knowledge can improve students' understanding and the character. Science is often identified with the West. The Islamic education is often oriented to the future life tend to be defensive. Approach of Science and Religion (SR is a combination of approaches concepts, process skills, inquiry, and discovery and approaches to religious values. The philosophy underlying the approach is a constructivist approach behavioristik SR, learners formulate their own concepts in cognitive structure based on their knowledge then implement the values that exist in the community surrounding and religious values. Subject of this research was a 45 students of MAN 1 Semarang academic year 2015-2016 Research was conducted in odd semester of 2015, include: 1 planning, 2 implementation, 3 observation,   and4 evaluation. The results showed a good indicator of student activity in the learning lab and discussions has been reached on the completeness of classical study on lab activities amounted to 82.44% with an average value of 81.48 liveliness, and discussions 81.86% with an average value of 82, 10 (criteria very well. Indicators student's character visits of religious attitudes, responsibility, honesty, respect, discipline, and self-contained. The conclusion were a. SR approach seeks to provide an understanding of How teach science by providing a vision of Islam in the classroom. b. SR approach applied to the learning process Biology can apply knowledge and improve the character of the students.

  6. SR ( Science and Religion SEBAGAI PENDEKATAN PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI PADA KURIKULUM 2013 UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KARAKTER SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khasanah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThe learning activities is a process of discovery and experience so that the knowledge can improve students' understanding and the character. Science is often identified with the West. The Islamic education is often oriented to the future life tend to be defensive. Approach of Science and Religion (SR is a combination of approaches concepts, process skills, inquiry, and discovery and approaches to religious values. The philosophy underlying the approach is a constructivist approach behavioristik SR, learners formulate their own concepts in cognitive structure based on their knowledge then implement the values that exist in the community surrounding and religious values. Subject of this research was a 45 students of MAN 1 Semarang academic year 2015-2016 Research was conducted in odd semester of 2015, include: 1 planning, 2 implementation, 3 observation,   and4 evaluation. The results showed a good indicator of student activity in the learning lab and discussions has been reached on the completeness of classical study on lab activities amounted to 82.44% with an average value of 81.48 liveliness, and discussions 81.86% with an average value of 82, 10 (criteria very well. Indicators student's character visits of religious attitudes, responsibility, honesty, respect, discipline, and self-contained. The conclusion were a. SR approach seeks to provide an understanding of How teach science by providing a vision of Islam in the classroom. b. SR approach applied to the learning process Biology can apply knowledge and improve the character of the students.

  7. An Evaluation of Community College Student Perceptions of the Science Laboratory and Attitudes towards Science in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nakia Rae

    2012-01-01

    The science laboratory is an integral component of science education. However, the academic value of student participation in the laboratory is not clearly understood. One way to discern student perceptions of the science laboratory is by exploring their views of the classroom environment. The classroom environment is one determinant that can…

  8. Making way for molecular biology: institutionalizing and managing reform of biological science in a UK university during the 1980s and 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan; Lancelot, Gaël

    2008-03-01

    Historians agree that the second half of the twentieth century saw widespread changes in the structure of biological science in universities. This shift was, and continues to be, characterized by the de-differentiation of nineteenth and early twentieth century disciplines, with increasing emphasis on the methods and authority of molecular fields. Yet we currently lack appreciation of the dynamics that underpinned these changes, and of their tangible effects on the working practices of those involved. In this article we examine the wholesale reform of biological science at the University of Manchester, England, that occurred in two successive steps in 1986 and 1993. We examine how reform was enabled by economic and political factors, as staff seized upon national pressures; in so doing, we emphasize how this reform was shaped by a generational view of the biological sciences as a one field, unified by molecular techniques. We assess how the success of these reforms was tied to new management policies that rewarded research activity in molecular fields, and refigured teaching as a punishment for research inactivity. We close by showing how our analysis fits amongst, and can contribute to, 'big picture' debates in the history and sociology of knowledge.

  9. Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Signing Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science in Inquiry-Based Biology Laboratory Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara

    2017-01-01

    For science learning to be successful, students must develop attitudes toward support future engagement with challenging social issues related to science. This is especially important for increasing participation of students from underrepresented populations. This study investigated how participation in inquiry-based biology laboratory classes affected students' attitudes toward science, focusing on deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing signing students in bilingual learning environments (i.e., taught in American Sign Language and English). Analysis of reflection assignments and interviews revealed that the majority of students developed positive attitudes toward science and scientific attitudes after participating in inquiry-based biology laboratory classes. Attitudinal growth appears to be driven by student value of laboratory activities, repeated direct engagement with scientific inquiry, and peer collaboration. Students perceived that hands-on experimentation involving peer collaboration and a positive, welcoming learning environment were key features of inquiry-based laboratories, affording attitudinal growth. Students who did not perceive biology as useful for their majors, careers, or lives did not develop positive attitudes. Students highlighted the importance of the climate of the learning environment for encouraging student contribution and noted both the benefits and pitfalls of teamwork. Informed by students' characterizations of their learning experiences, recommendations are made for inquiry-based learning in college biology. © 2017 C. Gormally. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. The Effects of Case-Based Instruction on Undergraduate Biology Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Amy Lucinda

    Undergraduate science education is currently seeing a dramatic pedagogical push towards teaching the philosophies underpinning science as well as an increase in strategies that employ active learning. Many active learning strategies stem from constructivist ideals and have been shown to affect a student's understanding of how science operates and its impact on society- commonly referred to as the nature of science (NOS). One particular constructivist teaching strategy, case-based instruction (CBI), has been recommended by researchers and science education reformists as an effective instructional strategy for teaching NOS. Furthermore, when coupled with explicit-reflective instruction, CBI has been found to significantly increasing understanding of NOS in elementary and secondary students. However, few studies aimed their research on CBI and NOS towards higher education. Thus, this study uses a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent group design to study the effects of CBI on undergraduate science students understandings of NOS. Undergraduate biology student's understanding of NOS were assessed using the Views of Science Education (VOSE) instrument pre and post CBI intervention in Cellular and Molecular Biology and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Data analysis indicated statistically significant differences between students NOS scores in experimental versus control sections for both courses, with experimental groups obtaining higher posttest scores. The results of this study indicate that undergraduate male and female students have similarly poor understandings of NOS and the use of historical case based instruction can be used as a means to increase undergraduate understanding of NOS.

  11. Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Signing Undergraduates’ Attitudes toward Science in Inquiry-Based Biology Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara

    2017-01-01

    For science learning to be successful, students must develop attitudes toward support future engagement with challenging social issues related to science. This is especially important for increasing participation of students from underrepresented populations. This study investigated how participation in inquiry-based biology laboratory classes affected students’ attitudes toward science, focusing on deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing signing students in bilingual learning environments (i.e., taught in American Sign Language and English). Analysis of reflection assignments and interviews revealed that the majority of students developed positive attitudes toward science and scientific attitudes after participating in inquiry-based biology laboratory classes. Attitudinal growth appears to be driven by student value of laboratory activities, repeated direct engagement with scientific inquiry, and peer collaboration. Students perceived that hands-on experimentation involving peer collaboration and a positive, welcoming learning environment were key features of inquiry-based laboratories, affording attitudinal growth. Students who did not perceive biology as useful for their majors, careers, or lives did not develop positive attitudes. Students highlighted the importance of the climate of the learning environment for encouraging student contribution and noted both the benefits and pitfalls of teamwork. Informed by students’ characterizations of their learning experiences, recommendations are made for inquiry-based learning in college biology. PMID:28188279

  12. A Programme-Wide Training Framework to Facilitate Scientific Communication Skills Development amongst Biological Sciences Masters Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Mason, Sam

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe the effectiveness of a programme-wide communication skills training framework incorporated within a one-year biological sciences taught Masters course designed to enhance the competency of students in communicating scientific research principally to a scientific audience. In one class we analysed the numerical marks…

  13. Self-Expression Assignment as a Teaching Approach to Enhance the Interest of Kuwaiti Women in Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabban, Farouk

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating the interest of students in biological sciences necessitates the use of new teaching methods and motivating approaches. The idea of the self-expression assignment (SEA) has evolved from the prevalent environment at the College for Women of Kuwait University (Safat, State of Kuwait), a newly established college where the number of…

  14. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymoprhisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David. A Micklos

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms – which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nation’s oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human polymorphism

  15. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymorphisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklos, David A.

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms â which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationâÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human

  16. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  17. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  18. Education catching up with science: preparing students for three-dimensional literacy in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ijsbrand M; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students used a single text dealing with signal transduction, which was supplemented with images made in one of three iconographic styles. Typically, we employed realistic renderings, using computer-generated Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures; realistic-schematic renderings, using shapes inspired by PDB structures; or schematic renderings, using simple geometric shapes to represent cellular components. The control group received a list of keywords. When students were asked to draw and describe the process in their own style and to reply to multiple-choice questions, the three iconographic approaches equally improved the overall outcome of the tests (relative to keywords). Students found the three approaches equally useful but, when asked to select a preferred style, they largely favored a realistic-schematic style. When students were asked to annotate "raw" realistic images, both keywords and schematic representations failed to prepare them for this task. We conclude that supplementary images facilitate the comprehension process and despite their visual clutter, realistic representations do not hinder learning in an introductory course.

  19. Investigating the Role of an Inquiry-Based Biology Lab Course on Student Attitudes and Views toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Erica; Nomme, Kathy; Deane, Thomas; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    Students' academic experiences can influence their conceptualization of science. In contrast experts hold particular beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about science that are often absent in first-year undergraduate students. Shifts toward more expert-like attitudes and views have been linked to improved student engagement, critical-thinking ability, conceptual understanding, and academic performance. In this study, we investigate shifts in attitudes and views toward science by students in four biology classes with differences in student enrollment, academic support, and instruction. We observe significant, positive effects of enrollment in a guided-inquiry lab course and academic performance on the percentage of expert-like student attitudes and views at the end of term. We also identify variation in two aspects of student attitudes and views: 1) confidence and interest and 2) understanding and acceptance. In particular, enrollment in the lab course boosts student confidence and interest in scientific inquiry in the short term, even for students with low academic performance or little English-language experience. Our results suggest that low-performing students in particular may require additional opportunities for experiential learning or greater academic support to develop expert-like perceptions of biology as a science. © 2016 E. Jeffery et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  1. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  2. Giant Ants and Walking Plants: Using Science Fiction to Teach a Writing-Intensive, Lab-Based Biology Class for Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooznia, Fardad

    2006-01-01

    This writing-intensive, lab-based, nonmajor biology course explores scientific inquiry and biological concepts through specific topics illustrated or inaccurately depicted in works of science fiction. The laboratory emphasizes the scientific method and introduces several techniques used in biological research related to the works we study.…

  3. ChemCalc: a building block for tomorrow's chemical infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiny, Luc; Borel, Alain

    2013-05-24

    Web services, as an aspect of cloud computing, are becoming an important part of the general IT infrastructure, and scientific computing is no exception to this trend. We propose a simple approach to develop chemical Web services, through which servers could expose the essential data manipulation functionality that students and researchers need for chemical calculations. These services return their results as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) objects, which facilitates their use for Web applications. The ChemCalc project http://www.chemcalc.org demonstrates this approach: we present three Web services related with mass spectrometry, namely isotopic distribution simulation, peptide fragmentation simulation, and molecular formula determination. We also developed a complete Web application based on these three Web services, taking advantage of modern HTML5 and JavaScript libraries (ChemDoodle and jQuery).

  4. Atmospheric Halogen Chemistry of Volcanic Plumes in WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surl, Luke; Donohoue, Deanna; von Glasow, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are known to be a strong and concentrated source of reactive halogen species. The chemistry that these species are known to take part in include ozone-destruction cycles. Despite the potentially large perturbation to the chemistry of the troposphere that eruptions may cause, the magnitude of such impacts on global and regional scales is largely unknown. We used WRF-Chem to investigate the influence of Mount Etna on the tropospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean region. The chemistry of bromine, chlorine and mercury has been added to the chemical mechanism CBMZ and we have coupled WRF-Chem with the emissions program PrepChem. We developed a simple parameterisation of the key multiphase reaction cycles involving halogens. Comparison with published field data shows that the model is able to reproduce the bromine explosion phenomenon seen in spectroscopic investigations of volcanic plumes. From the model results we are able to determine a detailed picture of the chemistry of a volcanic plume; results are presented which show in detail how the character of the volcanic plume evolves as it is advected downwind and we identify which parts of the chemical cycle are most likely to be the limiting factors for the speed of the processing. Additionally, these modelled results are supplemented with, and compared against, measurements of ozone depletion that we made within the plume at the summit of Mount Etna.

  5. Learning Science by Engaging Religion: A Novel Two-Course Approach for Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Arri; Huang, Junjian

    2014-01-01

    Many issues in science create individual and societal tensions with important implications outside the classroom. We describe one model that directly addresses such tensions by integrating science and religion in two parallel, integrated courses for science majors. Evaluation of the goals of the project--(1) providing students with strategies to…

  6. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states.…

  7. PubChem BioAssay: A Decade's Development toward Open High-Throughput Screening Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Cheng, Tiejun; Bryant, Stephen H

    2017-07-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is now routinely conducted for drug discovery by both pharmaceutical companies and screening centers at academic institutions and universities. Rapid advance in assay development, robot automation, and computer technology has led to the generation of terabytes of data in screening laboratories. Despite the technology development toward HTS productivity, fewer efforts were devoted to HTS data integration and sharing. As a result, the huge amount of HTS data was rarely made available to the public. To fill this gap, the PubChem BioAssay database ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pcassay/ ) was set up in 2004 to provide open access to the screening results tested on chemicals and RNAi reagents. With more than 10 years' development and contributions from the community, PubChem has now become the largest public repository for chemical structures and biological data, which provides an information platform to worldwide researchers supporting drug development, medicinal chemistry study, and chemical biology research. This work presents a review of the HTS data content in the PubChem BioAssay database and the progress of data deposition to stimulate knowledge discovery and data sharing. It also provides a description of the database's data standard and basic utilities facilitating information access and use for new users.

  8. Viral vectors for gene modification of plants as chem/bio sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manginell, Monica; Harper, Jason C.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Dolan, Patricia L.

    2006-11-01

    Chemical or biological sensors that are specific, sensitive, and robust allowing intelligence gathering for verification of nuclear non-proliferation treaty compliance and detouring production of weapons of mass destruction are sorely needed. Although much progress has been made in the area of biosensors, improvements in sensor lifetime, robustness, and device packaging are required before these devices become widely used. Current chemical and biological detection and identification techniques require less-than-covert sample collection followed by transport to a laboratory for analysis. In addition to being expensive and time consuming, results can often be inconclusive due to compromised sample integrity during collection and transport. We report here a demonstration of a plant based sensor technology which utilizes mature and seedling plants as chemical sensors. One can envision genetically modifying native plants at a site of interest that can report the presence of specific toxins or chemicals. In this one year project we used a developed inducible expression system to show the feasibility of plant sensors. The vector was designed as a safe, non-infectious vector which could be used to invade, replicate, and introduce foreign genes into mature host plants that then allow the plant to sense chem/bio agents. The genes introduced through the vector included a reporter gene that encodes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a gene that encodes for a mammalian receptor that recognizes a chemical agent. Specifically, GFP was induced by the presence of 17-{beta}-Estradiol (estrogen). Detection of fluorescence indicated the presence of the target chemical agent. Since the sensor is a plant, costly device packaging development or manufacturing of the sensor were not required. Additionally, the biological recognition and reporting elements are maintained in a living, natural environment and therefore do not suffer from lifetime disadvantages typical of most biosensing

  9. Engaging Organic Chemistry Students Using ChemDraw for iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, Layne A.; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drawing structures, mechanisms, and syntheses is a vital part of success in organic chemistry courses. ChemDraw for iPad has been used to increase classroom experiences in the preparation of high quality chemical drawings. The embedded Flick-to-Share allows for simple, real-time exchange of ChemDraw documents. ChemDraw for iPad also allows…

  10. When physics is not "just physics": complexity science invites new measurement frames for exploring the physics of cognitive and biological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Dixon, James A

    2012-01-01

    The neurobiological sciences have struggled to resolve the physical foundations for biological and cognitive phenomena with a suspicion that biological and cognitive systems, capable of exhibiting and contributing to structure within themselves and through their contexts, are fundamentally distinct or autonomous from purely physical systems. Complexity science offers new physics-based approaches to explaining biological and cognitive phenomena. In response to controversy over whether complexity science might seek to "explain away" biology and cognition as "just physics," we propose that complexity science serves as an application of recent advances in physics to phenomena in biology and cognition without reducing or undermining the integrity of the phenomena to be explained. We highlight that physics is, like the neurobiological sciences, an evolving field and that the threat of reduction is overstated. We propose that distinctions between biological and cognitive systems from physical systems are pretheoretical and thus optional. We review our own work applying insights from post-classical physics regarding turbulence and fractal fluctuations to the problems of developing cognitive structure. Far from hoping to reduce biology and cognition to "nothing but" physics, we present our view that complexity science offers new explanatory frameworks for considering physical foundations of biological and cognitive phenomena.

  11. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  12. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  13. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  15. Investigating the Role of an Inquiry-Based Biology Lab Course on Student Attitudes and Views toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Erica; Nomme, Kathy; Deane, Thomas; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    Students’ academic experiences can influence their conceptualization of science. In contrast experts hold particular beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about science that are often absent in first-year undergraduate students. Shifts toward more expert-like attitudes and views have been linked to improved student engagement, critical-thinking ability, conceptual understanding, and academic performance. In this study, we investigate shifts in attitudes and views toward science by students in four biology classes with differences in student enrollment, academic support, and instruction. We observe significant, positive effects of enrollment in a guided-inquiry lab course and academic performance on the percentage of expert-like student attitudes and views at the end of term. We also identify variation in two aspects of student attitudes and views: 1) confidence and interest and 2) understanding and acceptance. In particular, enrollment in the lab course boosts student confidence and interest in scientific inquiry in the short term, even for students with low academic performance or little English-language experience. Our results suggest that low-performing students in particular may require additional opportunities for experiential learning or greater academic support to develop expert-like perceptions of biology as a science. PMID:27856549

  16. Basic science through engineering? Synthetic modeling and the idea of biology-inspired engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is typically combined with experiments on model organisms as well as mathematical modeling and simulation. What is especially interesting about this combinational modeling practice is that, apart from greater integration between these different epistemic activities, it has also led to the questioning of some central assumptions and notions on which synthetic biology is based. As a result synthetic biology is in the process of becoming more "biology inspired." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intelligent biology and medicine in 2015: advancing interdisciplinary education, collaboration, and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Yunlong; Huang, Yufei; Li, Lang; Cooper, Lee; Ruan, Jianhua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2016-08-22

    We summarize the 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2015) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics. The supplement includes 20 research articles selected from the manuscripts submitted to ICIBM 2015. The conference was held on November 13-15, 2015 at Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. It included eight scientific sessions, three tutorials, four keynote presentations, three highlight talks, and a poster session that covered current research in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational biology, biotechnologies, and computational medicine.

  18. The Quantified Self: Fundamental Disruption in Big Data Science and Biological Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melanie

    2013-06-01

    A key contemporary trend emerging in big data science is the quantified self (QS)-individuals engaged in the self-tracking of any kind of biological, physical, behavioral, or environmental information as n=1 individuals or in groups. There are opportunities for big data scientists to develop new models to support QS data collection, integration, and analysis, and also to lead in defining open-access database resources and privacy standards for how personal data is used. Next-generation QS applications could include tools for rendering QS data meaningful in behavior change, establishing baselines and variability in objective metrics, applying new kinds of pattern recognition techniques, and aggregating multiple self-tracking data streams from wearable electronics, biosensors, mobile phones, genomic data, and cloud-based services. The long-term vision of QS activity is that of a systemic monitoring approach where an individual's continuous personal information climate provides real-time performance optimization suggestions. There are some potential limitations related to QS activity-barriers to widespread adoption and a critique regarding scientific soundness-but these may be overcome. One interesting aspect of QS activity is that it is fundamentally a quantitative and qualitative phenomenon since it includes both the collection of objective metrics data and the subjective experience of the impact of these data. Some of this dynamic is being explored as the quantified self is becoming the qualified self in two new ways: by applying QS methods to the tracking of qualitative phenomena such as mood, and by understanding that QS data collection is just the first step in creating qualitative feedback loops for behavior change. In the long-term future, the quantified self may become additionally transformed into the extended exoself as data quantification and self-tracking enable the development of new sense capabilities that are not possible with ordinary senses. The

  19. A 36 m SANS BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer) for materials science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edy Giri Rachman Putra

    2009-01-01

    structural investigations in the length scale of 1 - 100 nm in materials science and biology. (author)

  20. Student Perceptions of the Cell Biology Laboratory Learning Environment in Four Undergraduate Science Courses in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Juan, Joaquin; Pérez-Cañaveras, Rosa M.; Segovia, Yolanda; Girela, Jose Luis; Martínez-Ruiz, Noemi; Romero-Rameta, Alejandro; Gómez-Torres, Maria José; Vizcaya-Moreno, M. Flores

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology is an academic discipline that organises and coordinates the learning of the structure, function and molecular composition of cells in some undergraduate biomedical programs. Besides course content and teaching methodologies, the laboratory environment is considered a key element in the teaching of and learning of cell biology. The…

  1. Students’ experienced coherence between chemistry and biology in context-based secondary science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J.; Prins, Gjalt; Goedhart, M.J.; Boersma, Kerst

    2014-01-01

    In current biology and chemistry secondary school practice, coherence between the subjects chemistry and biology is underexposed or even ignored. This is incongruent with the current scientific practice, in which the emphasis is shifting towards inter- and multidisciplinarity. These problems have

  2. Applying science in practice: the optimization of biological therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Landewé, Robert B.; da Silva, José António P.

    2010-01-01

    Most authorities recommend starting biological agents upon failure of at least one disease-modifying agent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, owing to the absence of head-to-head studies, there is little guidance about which biological to select. Still, the practicing clinician has to

  3. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology at the interface of cell biology, materials science and medicine Nanotechnology at the interface of cell biology, materials science and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andreas; Miles, Mervyn

    2008-09-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) and related scanning probe microscopes have become resourceful tools to study cells, supramolecular assemblies and single biomolecules, because they allow investigations of such structures in native environments. Quantitative information has been gathered about the surface structure of membrane proteins to lateral and vertical resolutions of 0.5 nm and 0.1 nm, respectively, about the forces that keep protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid assemblies together as well as single proteins in their native conformation, and about the nanomechanical properties of cells in health and disease. Such progress has been achieved mainly because of constant development of AFM instrumentation and sample preparation methods. This special issue of Nanotechnology presents papers from leading laboratories in the field of nanobiology, covering a wide range of topics in the form of original and novel scientific contributions. It addresses achievements in instrumentation, sample preparation, automation and in biological applications. These papers document the creativity and persistence of researchers pursuing the goal to unravel the structure and dynamics of cells, supramolecuar structures and single biomolecules at work. Improved cantilever sensors, novel optical probes, and quantitative data on supports for electrochemical experiments open new avenues for characterizing biological nanomachines down to the single molecule. Comparative measurements of healthy and metastatic cells promise new methods for early detection of tumors, and possible assessments of drug efficacy. High-speed AFMs document possibilities to monitor crystal growth and to observe large structures at video rate. A wealth of information on amyloid-type fibers as well as on membrane proteins has been gathered by single molecule force spectroscopy—a technology now being automated for large-scale data collection. With the progress of basic research and a strong industry supporting

  4. The academic qualification of sexual education in biological science at IFRO Campus Colorado Do Oeste/RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Negrello Rossarolla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article gives evidence of results in an initial training offered to the students from the seventh semestre in Biological Sciences course at the Federal Institute in Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia - IFRO - CampusColoradodo Oeste. This activity was developed during the IX Environmental Week, an event that took place at Campus in June, 2016. During the activity, the academics in Biological Sciences course carried out mini-courses in which was approached the subject of human sexuality for four classes from the first year students in Agricultural Technical Course integrated to High School. After completing the activities of Sexual Education that dealt with some topics such as: early sexual initiation, STIs (sexually transmitted infections, homophobia, sexual harassment, media exposure, gender difference, contraceptive methods, among others and after all the data were collected. For that, the students answered a questionnaire about the subject on sexuality, the contributions of this practice is in order to discuss situations related to the subject. After the analysis, was checked a great relevance of the theme proposed for the initial qualification of academics in order to them approach the subject in a significant way to teenagers who attend the schools in which these academics will be able to develop their activities. It was checked out that students from the Agricultural Course integrated to High School who was developing the course have a very restricted index of information about the subject that was handled it. This can be a reality that reaches many young people who attend the Basic Education in many Brazilian schools. On the other hand, the information obtained gave the academics and teachers from the Biological Sciences Course moments of reflection about the inclusion of contents that contemplate this subject in the school curriculum of Basic Education and of the higher course that they attend, as well as the need of a

  5. Factors related to the retention of biology knowledge in non-science college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William Thomas

    The primary purpose of this study was the identification of factors that contribute to the long-term retention of biology knowledge. Long-term retention is defined here as knowledge retained one, two, or three years following the completion of a two-semester college biology course. The factors examined for their influence on retention were primarily learner-centered in that they compared the qualities of the students rather than the nature of the instruction used. The variables examined for their relationship to long-term retention were: the student's learning approach (meaningful or rote), the student's perception of the relevance of the course content to his or her life, the student's interest in biology, the student's biology course grade, and the time between the completion of instruction and the retention measure. This study also examined how the impact of these variables on retention was related to the factual or conceptual nature of the biology content learned. The results of the regression analysis have revealed several interesting interactions among the variables examined. A student's tendency to utilize either a rote or more meaningful approach to learning interacts with his or her perception of course relevance in predicting biology knowledge retention. When the retention of higher-level biology concepts was examined, an interaction was observed between students' approaches to learning and the time between the course and the retention measure. Students with higher performance in the biology course demonstrated greater retention after one or two years but showed the greatest relative loss of retention following a three-year interval. Students' interest in biology, as measured by the frequency of biology related behaviors, showed a small positive correlation to long-term retention.

  6. Assessing the Attitudes and Beliefs of Preservice Middle School Science Teachers toward Biologically Diverse Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between United States (US) preservice middle school science teacher characteristics, their attitude toward a specific animal and their belief concerning the likelihood of incorporating information about that specific animal into their future science classroom. The study participants…

  7. Nuclear analyses in biology and medical science. Measuring on nucleii in stead of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Goeij, J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the use of nuclear analyses in life sciences. Features of nuclear analytical methods (NAMs) are grouped into four categories: physical basis, isotopic analyses rather than elemental analyses, no interference of electronic and molecular structure, and penetrating character of nuclear radiation. Obstacles in applying NAMs in the life sciences are outlined. 1 tab

  8. Merton and Ziman's modes of science: the case of biological and similar material transfer agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a connection between recent studies on research materials exchange and its effect on the progress of science. Academia fears that scientific development could be hampered by the privatised practices of research material exchange. Since post-academic science represents a sufficient

  9. Students' Experienced Coherence Between Chemistry and Biology in Context-Based Secondary Science Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Hilde; Prins, Gjalt; Goedhart, M.J.; Boersma, Kerst

    2014-01-01

    Creating coherence between the content of science subjects has been a primary aim of certain reforms in science education and is often proposed in policy documents in various countries (Osborne and Dillon 2008 ; Schmidt et al. 2005 ; Osborne and Collins 2001 ). One of the problems that emerges from

  10. ChemANDTM - a system health monitor for plant chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Mitchel, G.R.; Balakrishnan, P.V.; Tosello, G.

    1999-07-01

    Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that the plant's system health be continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a System Health Monitor called ChemAND for CANDU plant chemistry. ChemAND, a Chemistry ANalysis and Diagnostic system, monitors key chemistry parameters in the heat transport system, moderator-cover gas, annulus gas, and the steam cycle during full-power operation and feeds these parameters to models that calculate the effect of current plant operating conditions on the present and future health of the system. Chemistry data from each of the systems are extracted on a regular basis from the plant's Historical Data Server and are sorted according to function, e.g., indicators for condenser in-leakage, air in-leakage, heavy water leakage into the annulus gas, fuel failure, etc. Each parameter is conveniently displayed and is trended along with its alarm limits. ChemAND currently has two analytical models developed for the balance-of-plant. CHEMSOLV calculates crevice chemistry conditions in the steam generator (SG) from either the SG blowdown chemistry conditions or from a simulated condenser leak. This information will be used by operations personnel to evaluate the potential for SG tube corrosion in the crevice region. CHEMSOLV also calculates chemistry conditions throughout the steam-cycle system, as determined by the transport of volatile species such as ammonia, hydrazine, morpholine, and oxygen. A second model, SLUDGE, calculates the deposit loading in the SG as a function of time, based on concentrations of corrosion product in the final feedwater and plant operating conditions. Operations personnel can use this information to predict where to inspect and when to clean. In a future development, SLUDGE will track deposit loading arising from start-up crud bursts and will be used in conjunction with the thermohydraulics code, THIRST, to predict

  11. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    for teachers includes instructions for three student activities that use enzymes. The resources below may help introduce students to the science behind some of these Nobel Prizes. Turning on the Light: Lessons from Luminescence. O'Hara, P. B.; Engelson, C.; St. Peter, W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 49 . (See especially the bioluminescence section on page 51 that concisely explains GFP.) JCE Classroom Activity #68: Turning on the Light. O'Hara, P. B.; Engelson, C.; St. Peter, W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 48A . JCE Classroom Activity #81: pHantastic Fluorescence. Muyskens, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A . Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein Isoforms: Exercises To Integrate Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry. Hicks, B. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 409 . C-SNARF-1 as a Fluorescent Probe for pH Measurements in Living Cells: Two-Wavelength-Ratio Method versus Whole-Spectral-Resolution Method. Ribou, A-C.; Vigo, J.; Salmon, J-M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1471 . An Attack on the AIDS Virus: Inhibition of the HIV-1 Protease: New Drug Development Based on the Structure and Activity of the Protease and Its Role in the Replication and Maturation of the Virus. Volker, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 3 . From Chemistry Comes Alive!, five video clips demonstrate properties and mechanisms involved in the chemistry of HIV. HIV-1 Protease: An Enzyme at Work . All articles from Volume 1 to the current issue are available in full-text PDF at JCE Online : Browse by year, month, and page , or choose title and author searching of all issues of JCE.

  12. Source Identification of Human Biological Materials and Its Prospect in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K N; Gui, C; Gao, Y; Yang, F; Zhou, H G

    2016-06-01

    Source identification of human biological materials in crime scene plays an important role in reconstructing the crime process. Searching specific genetic markers to identify the source of different human biological materials is the emphasis and difficulty of the research work of legal medical experts in recent years. This paper reviews the genetic markers which are used for identifying the source of human biological materials and studied widely, such as DNA methylation, mRNA, microRNA, microflora and protein, etc. By comparing the principles and methods of source identification of human biological materials using different kinds of genetic markers, different source of human biological material owns suitable marker types and can be identified by detecting single genetic marker or combined multiple genetic markers. Though there is no uniform standard and method for identifying the source of human biological materials in forensic laboratories at present, the research and development of a series of mature and reliable methods for distinguishing different human biological materials play the role as forensic evidence which will be the future development direction. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  13. Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors’ Emotions about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students’ emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non–life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students’ responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students’ responses, while students’ race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups—students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates’ emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors’ attitudes toward math. PMID:28798211

  14. Where mathematics, computer science, linguistics and biology meet essays in honour of Gheorghe Păun

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrana, Victor

    2001-01-01

    In the last years, it was observed an increasing interest of computer scientists in the structure of biological molecules and the way how they can be manipulated in vitro in order to define theoretical models of computation based on genetic engineering tools. Along the same lines, a parallel interest is growing regarding the process of evolution of living organisms. Much of the current data for genomes are expressed in the form of maps which are now becoming available and permit the study of the evolution of organisms at the scale of genome for the first time. On the other hand, there is an active trend nowadays throughout the field of computational biology toward abstracted, hierarchical views of biological sequences, which is very much in the spirit of computational linguistics. In the last decades, results and methods in the field of formal language theory that might be applied to the description of biological sequences were pointed out.

  15. The competing meanings of "biopolitics" in political science. Biological and postmodern approaches to politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesen, Laurette T; Walsh, Mary Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The term "biopolitics" carries multiple, sometimes competing, meanings in political science. When the term was first used in the United States in the late 1970s, it referred to an emerging subdiscipline that incorporated the theories and data of the life sciences into the study of political behavior and public policy. But by the mid-1990s, biopolitics was adopted by postmodernist scholars at the American Political Science Association's annual meeting who followed Foucault's work in examining the power of the state on individuals. Michel Foucault first used the term biopolitics in the 1970s to denote social and political power over life. Since then, two groups of political scientists have been using this term in very different ways. This paper examines the parallel developments of the term "biopolitics," how two subdisciplines gained (and one lost) control of the term, and what the future holds for its meaning in political science.

  16. Microfluidics' great promise for Biology - Microfluidics as a new engine for the molecular sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-06-04

    History of the Life Sciences Origins of life Discoveries and instrumentation The power of genetic variation Diagnostics based on DNA/ protein variation Genomic scanning providers DNA sequencing companies Microfluidics story Commercial products available P

  17. A Festival of Contemporary Science for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tim; Berry, Bryan; Shallcross, Dudley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the first Festival of Contemporary Science for Science Teachers which was held in January 2010. Focusing on a number of leading-edge science topics, this new festival was organised by Bristol ChemLabS, in collaboration with the Science Learning Centre South West, and involved academics from several departments…

  18. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25

    This report summarizes a 2011 workshop that addressed the potential role of rapid, time-resolved electron microscopy measurements in accelerating the solution of important scientific and technical problems. A series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Academy of Science workshops have highlighted the critical role advanced research tools play in addressing scientific challenges relevant to biology, sustainable energy, and technologies that will fuel economic development without degrading our environment. Among the specific capability needs for advancing science and technology are tools that extract more detailed information in realistic environments (in situ or operando) at extreme conditions (pressure and temperature) and as a function of time (dynamic and time-dependent). One of the DOE workshops, Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next Generation Instrumentation and Beyond, specifically addressed the importance of electron-based characterization methods for a wide range of energy-relevant Grand Scientific Challenges. Boosted by the electron optical advancement in the last decade, a diversity of in situ capabilities already is available in many laboratories. The obvious remaining major capability gap in electron microscopy is in the ability to make these direct in situ observations over a broad spectrum of fast (µs) to ultrafast (picosecond [ps] and faster) temporal regimes. In an effort to address current capability gaps, EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, organized an Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Workshop, held June 14-15, 2011, with the primary goal to identify the scientific needs that could be met by creating a facility capable of a strongly improved time resolution with integrated in situ capabilities. The workshop brought together more than 40 leading scientists involved in applying and/or advancing electron microscopy to address important scientific problems of relevance to DOE’s research

  19. Creating a pipeline of talent for informatics: STEM initiative for high school students in computer science, biology, and biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Lotze, Michael T; Becich, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This editorial provides insights into how informatics can attract highly trained students by involving them in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training at the high school level and continuing to provide mentorship and research opportunities through the formative years of their education. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be expert in the emergent fields in front of them requires acceleration at an early time point. Both pathology (and biomedical) informatics are new disciplines which would benefit from involvement by students at an early stage of their education. In 2009, Michael T Lotze MD, Kirsten Livesey (then a medical student, now a medical resident at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)), Richard Hersheberger, PhD (Currently, Dean at Roswell Park), and Megan Seippel, MS (the administrator) launched the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Summer Academy to bring high school students for an 8 week summer academy focused on Cancer Biology. Initially, pathology and biomedical informatics were involved only in the classroom component of the UPCI Summer Academy. In 2011, due to popular interest, an informatics track called Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) was launched. CoSBBI currently acts as a feeder program for the undergraduate degree program in bioinformatics at the University of Pittsburgh, which is a joint degree offered by the Departments of Biology and Computer Science. We believe training in bioinformatics is the best foundation for students interested in future careers in pathology informatics or biomedical informatics. We describe our approach to the recruitment, training and research mentoring of high school students to create a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics. We emphasize here how mentoring of high school students in pathology informatics and biomedical informatics

  20. Creating a pipeline of talent for informatics: STEM initiative for high school students in computer science, biology, and biomedical informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Lotze, Michael T.; Becich, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial provides insights into how informatics can attract highly trained students by involving them in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training at the high school level and continuing to provide mentorship and research opportunities through the formative years of their education. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be expert in the emergent fields in front of them requires acceleration at an early time point. Both pathology (and biomedical) informatics are new disciplines which would benefit from involvement by students at an early stage of their education. In 2009, Michael T Lotze MD, Kirsten Livesey (then a medical student, now a medical resident at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)), Richard Hersheberger, PhD (Currently, Dean at Roswell Park), and Megan Seippel, MS (the administrator) launched the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Summer Academy to bring high school students for an 8 week summer academy focused on Cancer Biology. Initially, pathology and biomedical informatics were involved only in the classroom component of the UPCI Summer Academy. In 2011, due to popular interest, an informatics track called Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) was launched. CoSBBI currently acts as a feeder program for the undergraduate degree program in bioinformatics at the University of Pittsburgh, which is a joint degree offered by the Departments of Biology and Computer Science. We believe training in bioinformatics is the best foundation for students interested in future careers in pathology informatics or biomedical informatics. We describe our approach to the recruitment, training and research mentoring of high school students to create a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics. We emphasize here how mentoring of high school students in pathology informatics and biomedical informatics

  1. Case study teaching in high school biology: Effects on academic achievement, problem solving skills, teamwork skills, and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Ronald

    The purpose of this study was to examine the constructivist-based " case study teaching methodology" in High School Biology classes, specifically investigating the effect this methodology had on Academic Achievement, Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills. The effect of Teacher Beliefs toward constructivist learning environments was also explored and investigated, using a quantitative measure (the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, or CLES). A quasi-experimental design used eleven classes, five teachers, and two hundred fifty two high school biology students over two separate, consecutive quarters of a school year. Two researcher-made instruments measured Academic Achievement after each study quarter. T-Tests were used to compare the Experimental Group (Case Study Teaching Methodology) to the Control Group (Traditional Teaching) during each study quarter. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) scores were used as a covariate for ANCOVA tests. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on Academic Achievement during the first study quarter, but not the second quarter. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on four of seven Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills during the second quarter of the study. This study is significant in that it addresses a knowledge gap regarding the effects of the constructivist-based case study teaching methodology on secondary science education. The theoretical implications of this study are meaningful: empirical evidence is added to the growing knowledge base regarding the benefits of constructivist theory. The practical implications are equally meaningful: case study teaching methodology is supported as an effective application of constructivist theory in the secondary science classroom.

  2. Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week…

  3. Multimodal representation contributes to the complex development of science literacy in a college biology class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William Drew

    This study is an investigation into the science literacy of college genetics students who were given a modified curriculum to address specific teaching and learning problems from a previous class. This study arose out of an interest by the professor and researcher to determine how well students in the class Human Genetics in the 21st Century responded to a reorganized curriculum to address misconceptions that were prevalent after direct instruction in the previous year's class. One of the components to the revised curriculum was the addition of a multimodal representation requirement as part of their normal writing assignments. How well students performed in these writing assignments and the relationship they had to student learning the rest of the class formed the principle research interest of this study. Improving science literacy has been a consistent goal of science educators and policy makers for over 50 years (DeBoer, 2000). This study uses the conceptualization of Norris and Phillips (2003) in which science literacy can be organized into both the fundamental sense (reading and writing) and the derived sense (experience and knowledge) of science literacy. The fundamental sense of science literacy was investigated in the students' ability to understand and use multimodal representations as part of their homework writing assignments. The derived sense of science literacy was investigated in how well students were able to apply their previous learning to class assessments found in quizzes and exams. This study uses a mixed-methods correlational design to investigate the relationship that existed between students' writing assignment experiences connected to multimodal representations and their academic performance in classroom assessments. Multimodal representations are pervasive in science literature and communication. These are the figures, diagrams, tables, pictures, mathematical equations, and any other form of content in which scientists and science

  4. Tropospheric ozone using an emission tagging technique in the CAM-Chem and WRF-Chem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, A.; Coates, J.; Zhu, S.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a short-lived climate forcing pollutant. High concentration of ozone can affect human health (cardiorespiratory and increased mortality due to long-term exposure), and also it damages crops. Attributing ozone concentrations to the contributions from different sources would indicate the effects of locally emitted or transported precursors on ozone levels in specific regions. This information could be used as an important component of the design of emissions reduction strategies by indicating which emission sources could be targeted for effective reductions, thus reducing the burden of ozone pollution. Using a "tagging" approach within the CAM-Chem (global) and WRF-Chem (regional) models, we can quantify the contribution of individual emission of NOx and VOC precursors on air quality. Hence, when precursor emissions of NOx are tagged, we have seen that the largest contributors on ozone levels are the anthropogenic sources, while in the case of precursor emissions of VOCs, the biogenic sources and methane account for more than 50% of ozone levels. Further, we have extended the NOx tagging method in order to investigate continental source region contributions to concentrations of ozone over various receptor regions over the globe, with a zoom over Europe. In general, summertime maximum ozone in most receptor regions is largely attributable to local emissions of anthropogenic NOx and biogenic VOC. During the rest of the year, especially during springtime, ozone in most receptor regions shows stronger influences from anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOC in remote source regions.

  5. Expanding the chemical information science gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Broadly defined, chemical information science (CIS) covers chemical structure and data analysis including biological activity data as well as processing, organization, and retrieval of any form of chemical information. The CIS Gateway (CISG) of F1000Research was created to communicate research involving the entire spectrum of chemical information, including chem(o)informatics. CISG provides a forum for high-quality publications and a meaningful alternative to conventional journals. This gateway is supported by leading experts in the field recognizing the need for open science and a flexible publication platform enabling off-the-beaten path contributions. This editorial aims to further rationalize the scope of CISG, position it within its scientific environment, and open it up to a wider audience. Chemical information science is an interdisciplinary field with high potential to interface with experimental work.

  6. Biology and physics competencies for pre-health and other life sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Robert C; Friedlander, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The recent report on the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (SFFP) and the revised Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) reframe the preparation for medical school (and other health professional schools) in terms of competencies: what students should know and be able to do with that knowledge, with a strong emphasis on scientific inquiry and research skills. In this article, we will describe the thinking that went into the SFFP report and what it says about scientific and quantitative reasoning, focusing on biology and physics and the overlap between those fields. We then discuss how the SFFP report set the stage for the discussion of the recommendations for the revised MCAT, which will be implemented in 2015, again focusing the discussion on biology and physics. Based on that framework, we discuss the implications for undergraduate biology and physics education if students are to be prepared to demonstrate these competencies.

  7. Teleology and its constitutive role for biology as the science of organized systems in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Georg

    2012-03-01

    'Nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of teleology'. This could be the first sentence in a textbook about the methodology of biology. The fundamental concepts in biology, e.g. 'organism' and 'ecosystem', are only intelligible given a teleological framework. Since early modern times, teleology has often been considered methodologically unscientific. With the acceptance of evolutionary theory, one popular strategy for accommodating teleological reasoning was to explain it by reference to selection in the past: functions were reconstructed as 'selected effects'. But the theory of evolution obviously presupposes the existence of organisms as organized and regulated, i.e. functional systems. Therefore, evolutionary theory cannot provide the foundation for teleology. The underlying reason for the central methodological role of teleology in biology is not its potential to offer particular forms of (evolutionary) explanations for the presence of parts, but rather an ontological one: organisms and other basic biological entities do not exist as physical bodies do, as amounts of matter with a definite form. Rather, they are dynamic systems in stable equilibrium; despite changes of their matter and form (in metabolism and metamorphosis) they maintain their identity. What remains constant in these kinds of systems is their 'organization', i.e. the causal pattern of interdependence of parts with certain effects of each part being relevant for the working of the system. Teleological analysis consists in the identification of these system-relevant effects and at the same time of the system as a whole. Therefore, the identity of biological systems cannot be specified without teleological reasoning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Margin based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm and applied in biology science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Qudair Baig, Abdul; Ali, Haidar; Sajjad, Wasim; Reza Farahani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In biology field, the ontology application relates to a large amount of genetic information and chemical information of molecular structure, which makes knowledge of ontology concepts convey much information. Therefore, in mathematical notation, the dimension of vector which corresponds to the ontology concept is often very large, and thus improves the higher requirements of ontology algorithm. Under this background, we consider the designing of ontology sparse vector algorithm and application in biology. In this paper, using knowledge of marginal likelihood and marginal distribution, the optimized strategy of marginal based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm is presented. Finally, the new algorithm is applied to gene ontology and plant ontology to verify its efficiency.

  9. Understanding Bateson and Maturana: Toward a Biological Foundation for the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Paul F.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a study guide for translating the work of Gregory Bateson and Humberto R. Maturana. Demonstrates that their work is highly compatible. Highlights their essential message: social systems and all human endeavor must be understood in light of our existence as biological entities. (BH)

  10. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…

  11. The Student Writing Toolkit: Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching of Scientific Writing in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirrigl, Frank J., Jr.; Noe, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Teaching scientific writing in biology classes is challenging for both students and instructors. This article offers and reviews several useful "toolkit" items that improve student writing. These include sentence and paper-length templates, funnelling and compartmentalisation, and preparing compendiums of corrections. In addition,…

  12. RADIOISOTOPE TECHNIQUES FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, A LIST OF ANNOTATED REFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HURLBURT, EVELYN M.

    REFERENCES TO BIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS THAT EMPHASIZE THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES AS TRACERS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. MATERIALS INCLUDED ARE CONSIDERED TO BE READILY AVAILABLE AND WERE PUBLISHED AFTER 1960. SECTION I IS COMPOSED OF SELECTED SOURCES. ENTRIES INCLUDE (1) COMPLETE CITATIONS, (2) A BRIEF ANNOTATION, AND (3) LISTS OF…

  13. Biological invasions and natural colonisations are different: the need for invasion science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, J. R. U.; García-Díaz, P.; Cassey, P.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Blackburn, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-98 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * species spread * colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Development of a Free-Electron Laser Center and Research in Medicine, Biology and Materials Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-14

    where enhanced nonproton ion movements can be observed during the photocycle ( Marinetti and Mauzerall, 1986). We do not have the possibility to measure...Biological Membranes. C.L. 17 Bolis, E.J.M. Helmreich and H. Passow, editors. Alan R. Liss Inc., NY 39-50. Marinetti , T., and D. Mauzerall 1986. Large

  15. A Guided-Inquiry pH Laboratory Exercise for Introductory Biological Science Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Meagan A.; Lux, Nicholas; Metz, Anneke M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a continuing need for engaging inquiry-based laboratory experiences for advanced high school and undergraduate biology courses. The authors describe a guided-inquiry exercise investigating the pH-dependence of lactase enzyme that uses an inexpensive, wide-range buffering system, lactase dietary supplement, over-the-counter glucose test…

  16. Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Achievement and Science Learning Attitudes in Middle School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Lan; Son, Dae-Hee

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of cooperative learning on student achievement and attitudes of middle school biology students. Compares cooperative learning strategy, small group instruction, and traditional teaching methods. Reports significant achievement and attitude differences in the cooperative learning groups. (Contains 46 references.)…

  17. High School Biology Teachers' Views on Teaching Evolution: Implications for Science Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    In the US, there may be few scientific concepts that students maintain preconceived ideas about as strongly and passionately as they do with regard to evolution. At the confluence of a multitude of social, religious, political, and scientific factors lies the biology teacher. This phenomenological study provides insight into the salient aspects of…

  18. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  19. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…

  20. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Acceptance of Biological Evolution in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to determine whether or not pre-service science teachers in Turkey are resistant to learning about the theory of evolution (TOE), and to understand the reasons for their acceptance or rejection of this theory. Following an intervention process, essay documents were collected from each participant ("N" = 113) and…

  1. Nutrition knowledge of young, post-year one, non-biological science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Data were collected from engineering and computer science students using semi-structured questionnaire. Analysis was by frequency, percentage and SPSS version 20 statistical soft-ware. Results: Students generally had fair nutrition knowledge (59.7%). Further, 10.1% of engineering and 3.2% of computer ...

  2. Multimodal Representation Contributes to the Complex Development of Science Literacy in a College Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William Drew

    2011-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the science literacy of college genetics students who were given a modified curriculum to address specific teaching and learning problems from a previous class. This study arose out of an interest by the professor and researcher to determine how well students in the class Human Genetics in the 21st Century…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY LEARNING INSTRUCTIONAL TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND SELF-DIRECTED BY SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armansyah Putra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to develop biology learning materials in Junior High School for plants movement topic to increase students’ achievement and self-directed through Science Process Skill approach. This is development research refers to Kemp’s development model. The learning kit is taught in SMPN 1 Blega Bangkalan Madura for 28 students grade VIII employing science process skill approach. The research design uses One Group Pretest-Posttest and data is analyzed with the qualitative descriptive method. This research reveals that the implementation of learning kit is 83%, dominant student’s activities in 1st and 2nd learning process are observing (22% - 24%, most of the students have positive responses which are indicated by 99% of students expressing their like, the result of students’ learning mastery satisfies the classical criteria for 86%, the rate of students self-directed varies from 55,56% to 83,32%. Based on the data analysis, it can be concluded that the Development of Biology Learning Kit is feasible.

  4. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  5. The experimental teaching reform in biochemistry and molecular biology for undergraduate students in Peking University Health Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and participated in some original research work. There is a critical educational need to prepare these students for the increasing accessibility of research experience. The redesigned experimental curriculum of biochemistry and molecular biology was developed to fulfill such a requirement, which keeps two original biochemistry experiments (Gel filtration and Enzyme kinetics) and adds a new two-experiment component called "Analysis of anti-tumor drug induced apoptosis." The additional component, also known as the "project-oriented experiment" or the "comprehensive experiment," consists of Western blotting and a DNA laddering assay to assess the effects of etoposide (VP16) on the apoptosis signaling pathways. This reformed laboratory teaching system aims to enhance the participating students overall understanding of important biological research techniques and the instrumentation involved, and to foster a better understanding of the research process all within a classroom setting. Student feedback indicated that the updated curriculum helped them improve their operational and self-learning capability, and helped to increase their understanding of theoretical knowledge and actual research processes, which laid the groundwork for their future research work. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Margin based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm and applied in biology science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In biology field, the ontology application relates to a large amount of genetic information and chemical information of molecular structure, which makes knowledge of ontology concepts convey much information. Therefore, in mathematical notation, the dimension of vector which corresponds to the ontology concept is often very large, and thus improves the higher requirements of ontology algorithm. Under this background, we consider the designing of ontology sparse vector algorithm and application in biology. In this paper, using knowledge of marginal likelihood and marginal distribution, the optimized strategy of marginal based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm is presented. Finally, the new algorithm is applied to gene ontology and plant ontology to verify its efficiency.

  7. Margin based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm and applied in biology science

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wei; Qudair Baig, Abdul; Ali, Haidar; Sajjad, Wasim; Reza Farahani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In biology field, the ontology application relates to a large amount of genetic information and chemical information of molecular structure, which makes knowledge of ontology concepts convey much information. Therefore, in mathematical notation, the dimension of vector which corresponds to the ontology concept is often very large, and thus improves the higher requirements of ontology algorithm. Under this background, we consider the designing of ontology sparse vector algorithm and applicatio...

  8. Can we manage for biological diversity in the absence of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauger, D.L.; Hall, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Conservation of biological diversity is dependent on sound scientific information about underlying ecological processes. Current knowledge of the composition, distribution, abundance and life cycles of most species of plants and animals is incomplete, insufficient, unreliable, or nonexistent. Contemporary managers are also confronted with additional levels of complexity related to varying degrees of knowledge and understanding about interactions of species and ecosystems. Consequently, traditional species-oriented management schemes may have unintended consequences and ecosystem-oriented management initiatives may fail in the face of inadequate or fragmentary information on the structure, function, and dynamics of biotic communities and ecological systems. Nevertheless, resource managers must make decisions and manage based on the best biological information currently available. Adaptive resource management may represent a management paradigm that allows managers to learn something about the species or systems that they are managing while they are managing, but potential pitfalls lurk for such approaches. In addition to lack of control over the primary physical, chemical, and ecological processes, managers also lack control over social, economic, and political parameters affecting resource management options. Moreover, appropriate goals may be difficult to identify and criteria for determining success may be elusive. Some management responsibilities do not lend themselves to adaptive strategies. Finally, the lessons learned from adaptive management are usually obtained from a highly situational context that may limit applicability in a wider range of situations or undermine confidence that problems and solutions were properly diagnosed and addressed. Several scenarios are critically examined where adaptive management approaches may be inappropriate or ineffective and where management for biological diversity may be infeasible or inefficient without a sound

  9. Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research Strategic Data Roadmap for Earth System Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Palanisamy, Giri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boden, Thomas A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-25

    Rapid advances in experimental, sensor, and computational technologies and techniques are driving exponential growth in the volume, acquisition rate, variety, and complexity of scientific data. This wealth of scientifically meaningful data has tremendous potential to lead to scientific discovery. However, to achieve scientific breakthroughs, these data must be exploitable—they must be analyzed effectively and efficiently and the results shared and communicated easily within the wider Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) community. The explosion in data complexity and scale makes these tasks exceedingly difficult to achieve, particularly given that an increasing number of disciplines are working across techniques, integrating simulation and experimental or observational results (see Table 5 in Appendix 2). Consequently, we need new approaches to data management, analysis, and visualization that provide research teams with easy-to-use and scalable end-to-end solutions. These solutions must facilitate (and where feasible, automate and capture) every stage in the data lifecycle (shown in Figure 1), from collection to management, annotation, sharing, discovery, analysis, and visualization. In addition, the core functionalities are the same across climate science communities, but they require customization to adapt to specific needs and fit into research and analysis workflows. To this end, the mission of CESD’s Data and Informatics Program is to integrate all existing and future distributed CESD data holdings into a seamless and unified environment for the acceleration of Earth system science.

  10. Citizen Science as a Tool in Biological Recording—A Case Study of Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sladonja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native invasive species frequently appear in urban and non-urban ecosystems and may become a threat to biodiversity. Some of these newcomers are introduced accidentally, and others are introduced through a sequence of events caused by conscious human decisions. Involving the general public in biodiversity preservation activities could prevent the negative consequences of these actions. Accurate and reliable data collecting is the first step in invasive species management, and citizen science can be a useful tool to collect data and engage the public in science. We present a case study of biological recording of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle using a participatory citizen model. The first goal in this case study was to develop a cheap, widely accessible, and effective inventory method, and to test it by mapping tree of heaven in Croatia. A total of 90.61 km of roads and trails was mapped; 20 single plants and 19 multi-plant clusters (mapped as polygons were detected. The total infested area was 2610 m2. The second goal was to educate citizens and raise awareness of this invasive species. The developed tool and suggested approach aided in improving invasive risk management in accordance with citizen science principles and can be applied to other species or areas.

  11. Epistemological conceptions of biology majors and their transformation by an explicit proposal for teaching history and philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Niño El-Hani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results obtained in the test of a proposal for the teaching of history and philosophy of science to Higher Education students enrolled in courses on natural sciences. The proposal takes actual historical examples as a basis for eliciting discussions about philosophical issues. It amounts to an explicit approach, directly addressing epistemological contents, which was elaborated and tested from the perspective of a teacher-researcher. The proposal was tested through a quali-quantitative approach. Data were gathered in a class of a course on history and philosophy of science for Biology majors, through the questionnaire VNOS-C (Views of the Nature of Science, Form C, at the beginning and end of a term. They were qualitatively treated by analyzing categories built from the answers given by the students. Based on some issues agreed upon by several post-positivist theories of science, we evaluated the adequacy of the students’ epistemological views, obtaining scores for each question, the sum of which resulted in a total score for each questionnaire. The effects of the proposal on the students’ views were analyzed qualitative and quantitatively by means of a discussion of the frequencies of adequate, partially adequate, and inadequate answers to each question and a statistical test comparing the total scores of each student, in the pre- and post-tests. To analyze the effects on each epistemological aspect addressed in the questionnaire, we performed tests comparing the scores obtained by the students in each question, at the beginning and end of the term. Generally speaking, the proposal resulted in an evolution of the views about the nature of science of all students who did both the pre- and post-tests. It was more effective in promoting a change in views about the demarcation between science and other ways of knowing, the differences between laws and theories, and the relationship between models and evidence

  12. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  13. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  14. Post-genome integrative biology: so that's what they call clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J

    2001-01-01

    Medical science is increasingly dominated by slogans, a characteristic reflecting its growing bureaucratic and corporate structure. Chief amongst these slogans is the idea that genomics will transform the public health. I believe this view is mistaken. Using studies of the genetics of skin cancer and the genetics of skin pigmentation, I describe how recent discoveries have contributed to our understanding of these topics and of human evolution. I contrast these discoveries with insights gained from other approaches, particularly those based on clinical studies. The 'IKEA model of medical advance'--you just do the basic science in the laboratory and self-assemble in the clinic--is not only damaging to clinical advance, but reflects a widespread ignorance about the nature of disease and how clinical discovery arises. We need to think more about disease and less about genes; more in the clinic and less in the laboratory.

  15. Advances in imaging and electron physics time resolved electron diffraction for chemistry, biology and material science

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges two long-running serials-Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field.

  16. BIOSPEX: Biological space experiments, a compendium of life sciences experiments carried on US spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M.; Rummel, J. A. (Editor); Deutsch, S. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    United States space life science experiments, encompassing 27 years of experience beginning with sounding rocket flights carrying primates (1948) to the last U.S. spaceflight, the joint US/USSR Apollo Test Project (1975), are presented. The information for each experiment includes Principal Investigators, the program and mission on which it was flown, the specimens used, the objectives, protocol, equipment, results, conclusions, and bibliographic reference citations for publications derived from each experiment.

  17. Using Grand Challenges to Teach Science: A Biology-Geology Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M.; Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Three science courses at the University of Wyoming explore the inextricable connections between science and society by centering on grand challenges. Two of these courses are introductory integrated science courses for non-majors while the third is an upper level course for majors and non-majors. Through collaboration, the authors have developed these courses to explore the grand challenges of energy, water and climate. Each course focuses on the fundamental STEM principles required for a citizen to understand each grand challenge. However, the courses also emphasize the non-STEM perspectives (e.g., economics, politics, human well-being, externalities) that underlie each grand challenge and argue that creating equitable, sustainable and just solutions to the grand challenges hinges on an understanding of STEM and non-STEM perspectives. Moreover, the authors also consider the multitude of personal perspectives individuals bring to the classroom (e.g., values, beliefs, empathy misconceptions) that influence any stakeholder's ability to engage in fruitful discussions about grand challenge solutions. Discovering Science (LIFE 1002) focuses on the grand challenges of energy and climate. Students attend three one-hour lectures, one two-hour lab and a one-hour discussion each week. Lectures emphasize the STEM and non-STEM principles underlying each grand challenge. Laboratory activities are designed to be interdisciplinary and engage students in inquiry-driven activities to reinforce concepts from lecture and to model how science is conducted. Labs also expose students to the difficulties often associated with scientific studies, the limits of science, and the inherent uncertainties associated with scientific findings. Discussion sessions provide an opportunity for students to explore the complexity of the grand challenges from STEM and non-STEM perspectives, and expose the multitude of personal perspectives an individual might harbor related to each grand challenge

  18. [Biogeography: geography or biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafanov, A I

    2009-01-01

    General biogeography is an interdisciplinary science, which combines geographic and biological aspects constituting two distinct research fields: biological geography and geographic biology. These fields differ in the nature of their objects of study, employ different methods and represent Earth sciences and biological sciences, respectively. It is suggested therefore that the classification codes for research fields and the state professional education standard should be revised.

  19. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ...: Life sciences, aerospace medicine, agriculture science, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, immunology, industrial medicine, laser bioeffects, medicine, molecular biology, nonionizing radiation...

  20. Plant lipidomics at the crossroads: From technology to biology driven science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Chapman, Kent D

    2017-08-01

    The identification and quantification of lipids from plant tissues have become commonplace and many researchers now incorporate lipidomics approaches into their experimental studies. Plant lipidomics research continues to involve technological developments such as those in mass spectrometry imaging, but in large part, lipidomics approaches have matured to the point of being accessible to the novice. Here we review some important considerations for those planning to apply plant lipidomics to their biological questions, and offer suggestions for appropriate tools and practices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium 2011 on advances in molecular and cell biology of stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This series of symposia in life sciences was initiated for the purpose of facilitating strong interactions among the national research fraternity working in the areas of bio-medical and agricultural sciences of relevance and interest for the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. Dedicated research efforts in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and other DAE institutions for nearly four decades have not only resulted in the development of technologies and products to improve the quality of human life, but have made impactful contributions in several contemporary areas in basic biological sciences. It is natural that keep visiting certain themes more than once. Biology of stress response is one such theme. The first symposium in the series was devoted to this field. And six years is long enough a time for catching up with the new developments. Stress to a system at equilibrium induces homeostatic mechanisms that ameliorate the stress. Entire living world, from microbes to man, have evolved such response mechanisms. Often a given battery of responsive genes may take care of more than one stresses and there may also be some redundancy in signalling or effector pathways to a response. Oxidative stress in one of the most common stresses that most living systems have to endure. Such a stress could be induced by a wide variety of insults including ionizing radiation, visible light, antibiotics, xenobiotics, metal ions, environmental pollutants, carcinogens, infectious agents etc. It may contribute to some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. It also plays an important role in killing of intracellular pathogens. In recent years mechanistic details of body's antioxidant defences are being increasingly revealed. Even more interesting are the new findings that suggest that prooxidants may induce an adaptive response to help cells survive against death induced by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The role of prosurvival transcription factors like NRF-2

  2. Growing into interdisciplinarity: how to converge biology, economics and social science in fisheries research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Kulmala, Soile; Kuikka, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that natural sciences alone cannot provide an adequate basis for the management of complex environmental problems. The scientific knowledge base has to be expanded in a more holistic direction by incorporating social and economic issues. As well, the multifaceted knowledge...... analyzed how and what kind of interdisciplinarity between natural scientists, environmental economists, and social scientists grew from the need to better understand the complexity and uncertainty inherent to the Baltic salmon fisheries, and how divergent knowledge was integrated in a form that can support...... and by formulating a global question at the outset of a process....

  3. Exploring Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching of Genetics in Swaziland Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Oke Onwu, Gilbert; de Villiers, Rian

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base included teacher-constructed concept maps, pre- and post-lesson teacher interviews, video-recorded genetics lessons, post-lesson teacher questionnaire and document analysis of teacher's reflective journals and students' work samples. The results showed that the teachers' individual PCK profiles consisted predominantly of declarative and procedural content knowledge in teaching basic genetics concepts. Conditional knowledge, which is a type of meta-knowledge for blending together declarative and procedural knowledge, was also demonstrated by some teachers. Furthermore, the teachers used topic-specific instructional strategies such as context-based teaching, illustrations, peer teaching, and analogies in diverse forms but failed to use physical models and individual or group student experimental activities to assist students' internalization of the concepts. The finding that all four teachers lacked knowledge of students' genetics-related preconceptions was equally significant. Formal university education, school context, journal reflection and professional development programmes were considered as contributing to the teachers' continuing PCK development. Implications of the findings for biology teacher education are briefly discussed.

  4. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  5. Operational forecast products and applications based on WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias; Mantovani, Simone; Olefs, Marc; Schellander-Gorgas, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities of the national weather service of Austria (ZAMG) include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. The mother domain expands over Europe, North Africa and parts of Russia. The nested domain includes the alpine region and has a horizontal resolution of 4 km. Local emissions (Austria) are used in combination with European inventories (TNO and EMEP) for the simulations. The modeling system is presented and the results from the evaluation of the assimilation of pollutants using the 3D-VAR software GSI is shown. Currently observational data (PM10 and O3) from the Austrian Air-Quality network and from European stations (EEA) are assimilated into the model on an operational basis. In addition PM maps are produced using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS in combination with model data using machine learning techniques. The modeling system is operationally evaluated with different data sets. The emphasis of the application is on the forecast of pollutants which are compared to the hourly values (PM10, O3 and NO2) of the Austrian Air-Quality network. As the meteorological conditions are important for transport and chemical processes, some parameters like wind and precipitation are automatically evaluated (SAL diagrams, maps, …) with other models (e.g. ECMWF, AROME, …) and ground stations via web interface. The prediction of the AOT is also important for operators of solar power plants. In the past Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models were used to predict the AOT based on cloud forecasts at the ZAMG. These models do not consider the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol distribution in the atmosphere with a consequent impact on the accuracy of forecasts especially during clear-sky days

  6. Results of the studies of radiation ecology and radiation biology at the Institute of Biology of Komi Science Centre, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences. (On the 40th anniversary of the radiation ecology department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Kudyasheva, A.G.; Popova, O.N.; Materij, L.D.; Shuktomova, I.I.; Frolova, N.P.; Kozubov, G.M.; Zajnullin, V.G.; Ermakova, O.V.; Rakin, A.O.; Bashlykova, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Materials on the history of foundation of the radiation Ecology Department at the Institute of Biology of the Komi Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the occasion of its 40-th anniversary are presented. The results of studies on radiation effects in low doses on the plant and animal populations as well as on radionuclide migration in natural biogeocenoses by increased radiation levels are analyzed. The performed complex studies were used as the basis for developing methodological approaches to the solution of a number of problems on the surface radioecology. Multiyear studies on the biogeocenoses of increased radioactivity of different origin made it possible to obtain multiple materials, indicating high diversity and specificity of reaction of living organisms in response to the background low level chronic irradiation. Attention was paid to studies on the Komi contamination by atmospheric radioactive fall-outs as well as to studies on the consequences of radioactive contamination of the Ukrainian Polesje due to the Chernobyl accident [ru

  7. [Review and analysis of transplant biological research projects funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weihua; Sun, Ruijuan; Dong, Erdan

    2015-08-01

    To study the funding and achievements in the field of organ transplantation support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). A search of NSFC database was made by using the key word "transplantation" and excluding "bone marrow transplantation" for the projects funded between 1988 and 2013. SCI indexed publications that marked with NSFC project number were collected by searching each grant number in the database of the Web of Science. Six hundreds fifty-five projects were identified and received about 220 million yuan in grant funding. These funded research projects were distributed among 25 provinces and autonomous regions, however, which were mainly in the developed coastal areas; of them, 43 (6.56%) projects were granted in xenotransplantation and 17 projects (2.60%) were funded in the field of traditional Chinese medicine-related organ transplantation; Transplantation on blood vessels, heart, kidney, liver, lung, small intestine, pancreatic, cornea, trachea, skin, etc. were primarily performed in research. Nine hundreds and sixty-one SCI-indexed publications were achieved. Magnitude and intensity of NSFC funding, output of SCI publications have been increasing, suggesting that NSFC positively promotes the development of organ transplantation. Although a great progress of transplantation has been made, basic and translational studies should be vigorously strengthened.

  8. Homeobox genes and tooth development: Understanding the biological pathways and applications in regenerative dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Anand; Srijaya, Thekkeparambil Chandrabose; Sukumaran, Prema; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty

    2018-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a group of conserved class of transcription factors that function as key regulators during the embryonic developmental processes. They act as master regulator for developmental genes, which involves coordinated actions of various auto and cross-regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the expression pattern of homeobox genes in relation to the tooth development and various signaling pathways or molecules contributing to the specific actions of these genes in the regulation of odontogenesis. An electronic search was undertaken using combination of keywords e.g. Homeobox genes, tooth development, dental diseases, stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, gene control region was used as search terms in PubMed and Web of Science and relevant full text articles and abstract were retrieved that were written in English. A manual hand search in text books were also carried out. Articles related to homeobox genes in dentistry and tissue engineering and regenerative medicine of odontogenesis were selected. The possible perspective of stem cells technology in odontogenesis and subsequent analysis of gene correction pertaining to dental disorders through the possibility of induced pluripotent stem cells technology is also inferred. We demonstrate the promising role of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine on odontogenesis, which can generate a new ray of hope in the field of dental science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A proposal to establish an international network in molecular microbiology and genetic engineering for scientific cooperation and prevention of misuse of biological sciences in the framework of science for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The conference on 'Science and Technology for Construction of Peace' which was organized by the Landau Network Coordination Center and A. Volta Center for Scientific Culture dealt with conversion of military and technological capacities into sustainable civilian application. The ideas regarding the conversion of nuclear warheads into nuclear energy for civilian-use led to the idea that the extension of this trend of thought to molecular biology and genetic engineering, will be a useful contribution to Science for Peace. This idea of developing a Cooperation Network in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering that will function parallel to and with the Landau Network Coordination in the 'A. Volta' Center was discussed in the Second International Symposium on Science for Peace, Jerusalem, January 1997. It is the reason for the inclusion of the biological aspects in the deliberations of our Forum. It is hoped that the establishment of an international network in molecular biology and genetic engineering, similar to the Landau Network in physics, will support and achieve the decommissioning of biological weapons. Such a network in microbiology and genetic engineering will contribute to the elimination of biological weapons and to contributions to Science for Peace and to Culture of Peace activities of UNESCO. (author)

  10. Collaborative Research. Fundamental Science of Low Temperature Plasma-Biological Material Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David Barry [Univ. California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment of biological tissue is a promising path toward sterilization of bacteria due to its versatility and ability to operate under well-controlled and relatively mild conditions. The present collaborative research of an interdisciplinary team of investigators at University of Maryland, College Park (UMD), and University of California, Berkeley (UCB) focused on establishing our knowledge based with regard to low temperature plasma-induced chemical modifications in biomolecules that result in inactivation due to various plasma species, including ions, reactive radicals, and UV/VUV photons. The overall goals of the project were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which low and atmospheric pressure plasma deactivates endotoxic biomolecules. Additionally, we wanted to understand the mechanism by which atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) modify surfaces and how these modifications depend on the interaction of APP with the environment. Various low pressure plasma sources, a vacuum beam system and several atmospheric pressure plasma sources were used to accomplish this. In our work we elucidated for the first time the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in biological deactivation of representative biomolecules, both in a UHV beam system and an inductively coupled, low pressure plasma system, and established the associated atomistic biomolecule changes. While we showed that both ions and VUV photons can be very efficient in deactivation of biomolecules, significant etching and/or deep modification (~200 nm) accompanied these biological effects. One of the most important findings in this work is the significant radical-induced deactivation and surface modification can occur with minimal etching. However, if radical fluxes and corresponding etch rates are relatively high, for example at atmospheric pressure, endotoxic biomolecule film inactivation may require near-complete removal of the film. These findings motivated further work at

  11. Two applications of information extraction to biological science journal articles: enzyme interactions and protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, K; Demetriou, G; Gaizauskas, R

    2000-01-01

    Information extraction technology, as defined and developed through the U.S. DARPA Message Understanding Conferences (MUCs), has proved successful at extracting information primarily from newswire texts and primarily in domains concerned with human activity. In this paper we consider the application of this technology to the extraction of information from scientific journal papers in the area of molecular biology. In particular, we describe how an information extraction system designed to participate in the MUC exercises has been modified for two bioinformatics applications: EMPathIE, concerned with enzyme and metabolic pathways; and PASTA, concerned with protein structure. Progress to date provides convincing grounds for believing that IE techniques will deliver novel and effective ways for scientists to make use of the core literature which defines their disciplines.

  12. Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscience stands out for its interdisciplinarity. Barriers between disciplines disappear and the fields tend to converge at the very smallest scale, where basic principles and tools are universal. Novel properties are inherent to nanosized systems due to quantum effects and a reduction in dimensionality: nanoscience is likely to continue to revolutionize many areas of human activity, such as materials science, nanoelectronics, information processing, biotechnology and medicine. This textbook spans all fields of nanoscience, covering its basics and broad applications. After an introduction to the physical and chemical principles of nanoscience, coverage moves on to the adjacent fields of microscopy, nanoanalysis, synthesis, nanocrystals, nanowires, nanolayers, carbon nanostructures, bulk nanomaterials, nanomechanics, nanophotonics, nanofluidics, nanomagnetism, nanotechnology for computers, nanochemistry, nanobiology, and nanomedicine. Consequently, this broad yet unified coverage addresses research in academ...

  13. Searching Online Chemical Data Repositories via the ChemAgora Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzi, Antonella; Wittwehr, Clemens

    2017-12-26

    ChemAgora, a web application designed and developed in the context of the "Data Infrastructure for Chemical Safety Assessment" (diXa) project, provides search capabilities to chemical data from resources available online, enabling users to cross-reference their search results with both regulatory chemical information and public chemical databases. ChemAgora, through an on-the-fly search, informs whether a chemical is known or not in each of the external data sources and provides clikable links leading to the third-party web site pages containing the information. The original purpose of the ChemAgora application was to correlate studies stored in the diXa data warehouse with available chemical data. Since the end of the diXa project, ChemAgora has evolved into an independent portal, currently accessible directly through the ChemAgora home page, with improved search capabilities of online data sources.

  14. Consideration of Experimental Approaches in the Physical and Biological Sciences in Designing Long-Term Watershed Studies in Forested Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of biological processes in controlling weathering, erosion, stream-water composition, soil formation, and overall landscape development is generally accepted. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Project in eastern Puerto Rico and Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Panama Canal Watershed Experiment (PCWE) are landscape-scale studies based in the humid tropics where the warm temperatures, moist conditions, and luxuriant vegetation promote especially rapid biological and chemical processes - photosynthesis, respiration, decay, and chemical weathering. In both studies features of small-watershed, large-watershed, and landscape-scale-biology experiments are blended to satisfy the research needs of the physical and biological sciences. The WEBB Project has successfully synthesized its first fifteen years of data, and has addressed the influence of land cover, geologic, topographic, and hydrologic variability, including huge storms on a wide range of hydrologic, physical, and biogeochemical processes. The ongoing PCWE should provide a similar synthesis of a moderate-sized humid tropical watershed. The PCWE and the Agua Salud Project (ASP) within the PCWE are now addressing the role of land cover (mature forests, pasture, invasive-grass dominated, secondary succession, native species plantation, and teak) at scales ranging from small watersheds to the whole Panama Canal watershed. Biologists have participated in the experimental design at both watershed scales, and small (0.1 ha) to large (50 ha) forest-dynamic plots have a central role in interfacing between physical scientists and biologists. In these plots, repeated, high-resolution mapping of all woody plants greater than 1-cm diameter provides a description of population changes through time presumably reflecting individual life histories, interactions with other organisms and the influence of landscape processes and climate

  15. The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory,…

  16. Science literacy and meaningful learning: status of public high school students from Rio de Janeiro face to molecular biology concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Escodino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the level of Molecular Biology (MB science literacy of students from two Brazilian public schools which do not consider the rogerian theory for class planning and from another institution, Cap UERJ, which favours this theory. We applied semiclosed questionnaires specific to the different groups of science literacy levels. Besides, we have asked them to perform conceptual maps with MB concepts in order to observe if they have experienced meaningful learning. Finally, we prepared MB classes for students of the three schools, considering their conceptual maps and tried to evaluate, through a second map execution, if the use of alternative didactics material, which consider meaningful learning process, would have any effect over the appropriation of new concepts. We observed that most students are placed at Functional literacy level. Nonetheless, several students from CAp were also settled at the higher Conceptual and Procedural levels. We found that most students have not experienced meaningful learning and that the employment of didactic material and implementation of proposals which consider the cognitive structure of the students had a significant effect on the appropriation of several concepts.

  17. Tracing "Ethical Subjectivities" in Science Education: How Biology Textbooks Can Frame Ethico-Political Choices for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-02-01

    This article describes how biology textbooks can work to discursively constitute a particular kind of "ethical subjectivity." Not only do textbooks constrain the possibilities for thought and action regarding ethical issues, they also require a certain kind of "subject" to partake in ethical exercises and questions. This study looks at how ethical questions/exercises found in four Ontario textbooks require students and teachers to think and act along specific lines. These include making ethical decisions within a legal-juridical frame; deciding what kinds of research should be publically funded; optimizing personal and population health; and regulation through policy and legislation. While engaging ethical issues in these ways is useful, educators should also question the kinds of (ethical) subjectivities that are partially constituted by discourses of science education. If science education is going to address twenty-first century problems such as climate change and social inequality, educators need to address how the possibilities for ethical engagement afforded to students work to constitute specific kinds of "ethical actors."

  18. Carbon Cycling and Biosequestration Integrating Biology and Climate Through Systems Science Report from the March 2008 Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, J.; Amthor, J.; Dahlman, R.; Drell, D.; Weatherwax, S.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most daunting challenges facing science in the 21st Century is to predict how Earth's ecosystems will respond to global climate change. The global carbon cycle plays a central role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and thus Earth's climate, but our basic understanding of the myriad of tightly interlinked biological processes that drive the global carbon cycle remains limited at best. Whether terrestrial and ocean ecosystems will capture, store, or release carbon is highly dependent on how changing climate conditions affect processes performed by the organisms that form Earth's biosphere. Advancing our knowledge of biological components of the global carbon cycle is thus crucial to predicting potential climate change impacts, assessing the viability of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and informing relevant policy decisions. Global carbon cycling is dominated by the paired biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic plants and microbes of Earth's land-masses and oceans use solar energy to transform atmospheric CO{sub 2} into organic carbon. The majority of this organic carbon is rapidly consumed by plants or microbial decomposers for respiration and returned to the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Coupling between the two processes results in a near equilibrium between photosynthesis and respiration at the global scale, but some fraction of organic carbon also remains in stabilized forms such as biomass, soil, and deep ocean sediments. This process, known as carbon biosequestration, temporarily removes carbon from active cycling and has thus far absorbed a substantial fraction of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

  19. Multilayer network modeling creates opportunities for novel network statistics. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-03-01

    As described in the review by Gosak et al., the field of network science has had enormous success in providing new insights into the structure and function of biological systems [1]. In the complex networks framework, system elements are network nodes, and connections between nodes represent some form of interaction between system elements [2]. The flexibility to define network nodes and edges to represent different aspects of biological systems has been employed to model numerous diverse systems at multiple scales.

  20. Bioinformatics strategies in life sciences: from data processing and data warehousing to biological knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Herbert; Glandorf, Jörg; Hufnagel, Peter

    2010-05-27

    With the large variety of Proteomics workflows, as well as the large variety of instruments and data-analysis software available, researchers today face major challenges validating and comparing their Proteomics data. Here we present a new generation of the ProteinScape bioinformatics platform, now enabling researchers to manage Proteomics data from the generation and data warehousing to a central data repository with a strong focus on the improved accuracy, reproducibility and comparability demanded by many researchers in the field. It addresses scientists; current needs in proteomics identification, quantification and validation. But producing large protein lists is not the end point in Proteomics, where one ultimately aims to answer specific questions about the biological condition or disease model of the analyzed sample. In this context, a new tool has been developed at the Spanish Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia Proteomics Facility termed PIKE (Protein information and Knowledge Extractor) that allows researchers to control, filter and access specific information from genomics and proteomic databases, to understand the role and relationships of the proteins identified in the experiments. Additionally, an EU funded project, ProDac, has coordinated systematic data collection in public standards-compliant repositories like PRIDE. This will cover all aspects from generating MS data in the laboratory, assembling the whole annotation information and storing it together with identifications in a standardised format.

  1. Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    The ability of powerful and well-funded interest groups to steer scientific research in ways that advance their goals has become a significant social concern. This steering ability is increasingly being recognized in the peer-reviewed scientific literature and in findings of deliberative scientific bodies. This paper provides a case study that illustrates some of the major strategies that can be used to structure and advance a controversial research field. It focuses on hormesis, described as a type of dose-response relationship in toxicology and biology showing low-dose stimulation but high-dose inhibition, or the reverse. Hormesis proponents tout its significance, arguing that substances toxic at high doses and beneficial at lower doses should be regulated less stringently. We identify five strategies employed by hormesis proponents to foster its acceptance: (1) creating institutions focused on supporting hormesis; (2) developing terminology, study designs, and data interpretations that cast it in a favorable light; (3) using bibliometric techniques and surveys to attract attention; (4) aggressively advocating for the phenomenon and challenging critics; and (5) working with outside interest groups to apply the hormesis phenomenon in the economic and political spheres. We also suggest a number of oversight strategies that can be implemented to help promote credible and socially responsible research in cases like this one.

  2. High resolution X-ray tomography with applications in biology and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.; Denbeaux, G.; Anderson, E.; Pearson, A.; Bates, W.; Vogt, S.; Knochen, C.; Meyer, M. A.; Zschech, E.

    2003-03-01

    With the new tomography setup developed for the x-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the Advanced Light Source, tomography of immunolabelled frozen-hydrated cells to detect protein distributions inside of cells was performed. The distribution of the nuclear protein, male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1) in the Drosophila melanogaster cell was studied. Another application field for high resolution tomography which is of fundamental interest in materials science is electromigration in advanced copper interconnects. In this work, quantitative time-resolved x-ray microscopy mass transport studies of the early stages of electromigration in an inlaid Cu line/via structure were performed with 40 nm spatial resolution at 1.8 keV photon energy. Correlation of the real time x-ray microscopy images with post mortem high voltage electron micrographs of the sample shows that the void nucleation occurs at the site of grain boundaries in Cu and that the voids migrate along these grain boundaries during electromigration. To provide 3D information about the exact location (bulk or interface) of void nucleation and migration during an EM experiment, as well as to measure quantitatively the mass transport in the volume, future experiments must be based on time-resolved x-ray tomography.

  3. Regulatory-Science: Biphasic Cancer Models or the LNT—Not Just a Matter of Biology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Paolo F.; Sammis, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that prudence and risk aversion must guide public decisions when the associated adverse outcomes are either serious or irreversible. With any carcinogen, the levels of risk and needed protection before and after an event occurs, are determined by dose-response models. Regulatory law should not crowd out the actual beneficial effects from low dose exposures—when demonstrable—that are inevitably lost when it adopts the linear non-threshold (LNT) as its causal model. Because regulating exposures requires planning and developing protective measures for future acute and chronic exposures, public management decisions should be based on minimizing costs and harmful exposures. We address the direct and indirect effects of causation when the danger consists of exposure to very low levels of carcinogens and toxicants. The societal consequences of a policy can be deleterious when that policy is based on a risk assumed by the LNT, in cases where low exposures are actually beneficial. Our work develops the science and the law of causal risk modeling: both are interwoven. We suggest how their relevant characteristics differ, but do not attempt to keep them separated; as we demonstrate, this union, however unsatisfactory, cannot be severed. PMID:22740778

  4. Regulatory-Science: Biphasic Cancer Models or the LNT-Not Just a Matter of Biology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Paolo F; Sammis, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that prudence and risk aversion must guide public decisions when the associated adverse outcomes are either serious or irreversible. With any carcinogen, the levels of risk and needed protection before and after an event occurs, are determined by dose-response models. Regulatory law should not crowd out the actual beneficial effects from low dose exposures-when demonstrable-that are inevitably lost when it adopts the linear non-threshold (LNT) as its causal model. Because regulating exposures requires planning and developing protective measures for future acute and chronic exposures, public management decisions should be based on minimizing costs and harmful exposures. We address the direct and indirect effects of causation when the danger consists of exposure to very low levels of carcinogens and toxicants. The societal consequences of a policy can be deleterious when that policy is based on a risk assumed by the LNT, in cases where low exposures are actually beneficial. Our work develops the science and the law of causal risk modeling: both are interwoven. We suggest how their relevant characteristics differ, but do not attempt to keep them separated; as we demonstrate, this union, however unsatisfactory, cannot be severed.

  5. Biological and Chemical Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Martyn; Dittrich, Peter; McCaskill, John

    2011-01-01

    Biological and chemical information technologies (bio/chem IT) have the potential to reshape the scientific and technological landscape. In this paper we briefly review the main challenges and opportunities in the field, before presenting several case studies based on ongoing FP7 research projects....

  6. Tanzania Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science would welcome manuscripts on: Biology, Zoology, Ecology, Botany, Chemistry, Earth sciences, Marine sciences, Physics, Life sciences, Applied Mathematics, Computer sciences, Logic, Mathematics, Systems science, Applied Physics, biomedical sciences, Computational biology, Electronics, ...

  7. Correcting for variable laser-target distances of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with ChemCam using emission lines of Martian dust spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A. [Optical Science Center for Applied Research, Delaware State University, Dover, DE (United States); Cousin, A.; Lanza, N.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lasue, J. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Clegg, S.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berger, G. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maurice, S. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Tokar, R.L.; Bender, S. [Planetary Science Institute, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Forni, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Breves, E.A.; Dyar, M.D. [Dept. of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (United States); Frydenvang, J. [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Delapp, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gasnault, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.M. [Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Alburquerque, NM (United States); Lewin, E. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Universite Grenoble l-CNRS, Grenoble (France); and others

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory, the ChemCam instrument acquires remote laser induced breakdown spectra at distances that vary between 1.56 m and 7 m. This variation in distance affects the intensities of the measured LIBS emission lines in non-trivial ways. To determine the behavior of a LIBS emission line with distance, it is necessary to separate the effects of many parameters such as laser energy, laser spot size, target homogeneity, and optical collection efficiency. These parameters may be controlled in a laboratory on Earth but for field applications or in space this is a challenge. In this paper, we show that carefully selected ChemCam LIBS emission lines acquired from the Martian dust can be used to build an internal proxy spectroscopic standard. This in turn, allows for a direct measurement of the effects of the distance of various LIBS emission lines and hence can be used to correct ChemCam LIBS spectra for distance variations. When tested on pre-launch LIBS calibration data acquired under Martian-like conditions and with controlled and well-calibrated targets, this approach yields much improved agreement between targets observed at various distances. This work lays the foundation for future implementation of automated routines to correct ChemCam spectra for differences caused by variable distance. - Highlights: • Selected Martian dust emission lines are used to correct for variable laser-target distances. • The correction model yields improved agreement between targets observed at various distances. • The impact of the model reduces the bias between predicted and actual compositions by as much as 70%. • When implemented, the model will yield spectral corrections for various ChemCam measurements. • This work is a foundation to perform novel stand-off LIBS measurements on Earth and other planets.

  8. QSARINS-chem: Insubria datasets and new QSAR/QSPR models for environmental pollutants in QSARINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Chirico, Nicola

    2014-05-15

    A database of environmentally hazardous chemicals, collected and modeled by QSAR by the Insubria group, is included in the updated version of QSARINS, software recently proposed for the development and validation of QSAR models by the genetic algorithm-ordinary least squares method. In this version, a module, named QSARINS-Chem, includes several datasets of chemical structures and their corresponding endpoints (physicochemical properties and biological activities). The chemicals are accessible in different ways (CAS, SMILES, names and so forth) and their three-dimensional structure can be visualized. Some of the QSAR models, previously published by our group, have been redeveloped using the free online software for molecular descriptor calculation, PaDEL-Descriptor. The new models can be easily applied for future predictions on chemicals without experimental data, also verifying the applicability domain to new chemicals. The QSAR model reporting format (QMRF) of these models is also here downloadable. Additional chemometric analyses can be done by principal component analysis and multicriteria decision making for screening and ranking chemicals to prioritize the most dangerous. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Preliminary performance assessment of biotoxin detection for UWS applications using a MicroChemLab device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2010-03-01

    In a multiyear research agreement with Tenix Investments Pty. Ltd., Sandia has been developing field deployable technologies for detection of biotoxins in water supply systems. The unattended water sensor or UWS employs microfluidic chip based gel electrophoresis for monitoring biological analytes in a small integrated sensor platform. This instrument collects, prepares, and analyzes water samples in an automated manner. Sample analysis is done using the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} analysis module. This report uses analysis results of two datasets collected using the UWS to estimate performance of the device. The first dataset is made up of samples containing ricin at varying concentrations and is used for assessing instrument response and detection probability. The second dataset is comprised of analyses of water samples collected at a water utility which are used to assess the false positive probability. The analyses of the two sets are used to estimate the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC curves for the device at one set of operational and detection algorithm parameters. For these parameters and based on a statistical estimate, the ricin probability of detection is about 0.9 at a concentration of 5 nM for a false positive probability of 1 x 10{sup -6}.

  10. Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS): a center for integrating clinical medicine and basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Rao, Naren P; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T; Kandasamy, Arun; Kesavan, Muralidharan; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; John, John P; Mukherjee, Odity; Purushottam, Meera; Kannan, Ramakrishnan; Mehta, Bhupesh; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Binukumar, B; Saini, Jitender; Jayarajan, Deepak; Shyamsundar, A; Moirangthem, Sydney; Vijay Kumar, K G; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chandra, Prabha S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Murthy, Pratima; Panicker, Mitradas M; Bhalla, Upinder S; Chattarji, Sumantra; Benegal, Vivek; Varghese, Mathew; Reddy, Janardhan Y C; Raghu, Padinjat; Rao, Mahendra; Jain, Sanjeev

    2018-04-18

    There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study. The families will be assessed: 1) To compare neuro-endophenotype measures between patients, first degree relatives (FDR) and healthy controls., 2) To identify cellular phenotypes which differentiate the groups., 3) To examine the longitudinal course of neuro-endophenotype measures., 4) To identify measures which correlate with outcome, and 5) To create a unified digital database and biorepository. The identification of the index participants will occur at well-established specialty clinics. The selected individuals will have a strong family history (with at least another affected FDR) of mental illness. We will also recruit healthy controls without family history of such illness. All recruited individuals (N = 4500) will undergo brief clinical assessments and a blood sample will be drawn for isolation of DNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). From among this set, a subset of 1500 individuals (300 families and 300 controls) will be assessed on several additional assessments [detailed clinical assessments, endophenotype measures (neuroimaging- structural and functional, neuropsychology, psychophysics-electroencephalography, functional near infrared spectroscopy, eye movement tracking)], with the intention of conducting repeated measurements every alternate year. PBMCs from this set will be used to generate lymphoblastoid cell lines, and a subset of these would be converted to induced pluripotent stem cell lines and also undergo

  11. Verbal and visual learning of science terminology by high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Andrew Morton

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether scientific terms with multiple meanings are more easily learned when taught pictorially or when taught verbally. The question of interference from previously known colloquial meanings is addressed as well. In carrying out this study, an experimental group of 30 students was taught pictorially and a control group of 30 students was taught verbally. Each group was made up of male and female students from the dominant culture (Caucasian) and from alternate cultures (mainly African American and Asian). The age of the participants was between 14 and 17. Students were selected as class groups. There were four class groups in the study. Class groups were assigned to the experimental or control group by random selection. Results were compared by use of a pre-test and post-test procedure. Students were asked to verbally describe 41 terms having scientific and colloquial meanings; they were to give the scientific meaning, if known, the colloquial if not, or leave a question mark if the term was unknown. They were then asked to draw a picture of the meaning of the term, if known. The same instructions were given to both groups. A series of seven hypotheses were identified. These hypotheses considered learning outcomes related to instructional mode as well as outcomes related to gender and cultural differences. An attempt was made to determine the similarity of the experimental and control groups. Student profiles, a learning styles inventory, and an imbedded image test all showed an initial similarity of the two groups. Once the pretest and posttest were given, data were analyzed by the use of the Chi-square of Association, the McNemar Chi-square, and Z scores (at.05 significance level). Results indicated significant differences in outcomes between the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group showed more science vocabulary learning than the control group and experienced more interference from the

  12. ChemProt-2.0: visual navigation in a disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Sonny Kim; Wich, Louis; Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    2013-01-01

    as well as adverse drug reactions have been integrated allowing for suggesting proteins associated to clinical outcomes. New chemical structure fingerprints were computed based on the similarity ensemble approach. Protein sequence similarity search was also integrated to evaluate the promiscuity...

  13. ChemProt-3.0: a global chemical biology diseases mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Jens Vindahl; Kjærulff, Sonny Kim; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    properties. In addition, the user has the possibility to search by compound, target, pathway, disease and clinical effect. Genetic variations associated to target proteins were integrated, making it possible to plan pharmacogenetic studies and to suggest human response variability to drug. Finally...

  14. Multilayer network modeling of integrated biological systems. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio

    2018-03-01

    Biological systems, from a cell to the human brain, are inherently complex. A powerful representation of such systems, described by an intricate web of relationships across multiple scales, is provided by complex networks. Recently, several studies are highlighting how simple networks - obtained by aggregating or neglecting temporal or categorical description of biological data - are not able to account for the richness of information characterizing biological systems. More complex models, namely multilayer networks, are needed to account for interdependencies, often varying across time, of biological interacting units within a cell, a tissue or parts of an organism.

  15. A Case-Based Scenario with Interdisciplinary Guided-Inquiry in Chemistry and Biology: Experiences of First Year Forensic Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, insight into forensic science students' experiences of a case-based scenario with an interdisciplinary guided-inquiry experience in chemistry and biology is presented. Evaluation of student experiences and interest showed that the students were engaged with all aspects of the case-based scenario, including the curriculum theory…

  16. The Effects of Individual versus Cooperative Testing in a Flipped Classroom on the Academic Achievement, Motivation toward Science, and Study Time for 9th Grade Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Megan O'Neill

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cooperative testing versus traditional or individual testing and the impacts on academic achievement, motivation toward science, and study time for 9th grade biology students. Research questions centered on weekly quizzes given in a flipped classroom format for a period of 13 weeks. The study used a mixed methods…

  17. The Relationship between Biology Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and the Understanding and Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Hernán; Cuevas, Emilia; Becerra, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the theory of evolution (TE) to scientific knowledge, a number of misconceptions continue to be found among biology teachers. In this context, the first objective of this study was to identify the impact of professional development programme (PDP) on teachers' understanding of nature of science (NOS) and evolution and on…

  18. The impact of a Classroom Performance System on learning gains in a biology course for science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Nilo Eric

    This study was conducted to determine if the use of the technology known as Classroom Performance System (CPS), specifically referred to as "Clickers", improves the learning gains of students enrolled in a biology course for science majors. CPS is one of a group of developing technologies adapted for providing feedback in the classroom using a learner-centered approach. It supports and facilitates discussion among students and between them and teachers, and provides for participation by passive students. Advocates, influenced by constructivist theories, claim increased academic achievement. In science teaching, the results have been mixed, but there is some evidence of improvements in conceptual understanding. The study employed a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent groups experimental design. The sample consisted of 226 participants in six sections of a college biology course at a large community college in South Florida with two instructors trained in the use of clickers. Each instructor randomly selected their sections into CPS (treatment) and non-CPS (control) groups. All participants filled out a survey that included demographic data at the beginning of the semester. The treatment group used clicker questions throughout, with discussions as necessary, whereas the control groups answered the same questions as quizzes, similarly engaging in discussion where necessary. The learning gains were assessed on a pre/post-test basis. The average learning gains, defined as the actual gain divided by the possible gain, were slightly better in the treatment group than in the control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) statistic with pretest scores as the covariate was conducted to test for significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest. A second ANCOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest scores, after

  19. PROTEIN TEACHING: AN APPROACH FOR TEACHER TRAINING APPLIED TO STUDENTS OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES COURSE AT UFRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K.S. NASCIMENTO et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching biochemistry in higher education is increasingly becoming a challenge. It is notoriously difficult for students to assimilate the topic; in addition there are many complaints about the complexity of subjects and a lack of integration with the day-to-day. A recurrent problem in undergraduate courses is the absence of teaching practice in specific disciplines. This work aimed to stimulate students in the biological sciences course who were enrolled in the discipline of MOLECULAR DIVERSITY (MD, to create hypothetical classes focused on basic education highlighting the proteins topic. The methodology was applied in a class that contained 35 students. Seven groups were formed, and each group chose a protein to be used as a source of study for elementary school classes. A lesson plan was created focusing on the methodology that the group would use to manage a class. The class was to be presented orally. Students were induced to be creative and incorporate a teacher figure, and to propose teaching methodologies for research using the CTS approach (Science, Technology and Society. Each group presented a three-dimensional structure of the protein they had chosen, explained their structural features and functions and how they would develop the theme for a class of basic education, and what kind of methodology they would use for this purpose. At the end of the presentations, a questionnaire was given to students in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the methodology in the teaching-learning process. The activity improved the teacher’s training and developed skills and abilities, such as creativity, didactical planning, teaching ability, development of educational models and the use of new technologies. The methodology used in this work was extremely important to the training of future teachers, who were able to better understand the content covered in the discipline and relate it to day-to-day life.

  20. ChemSonde: CO2 profiles using Radiosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul D.; Freshwater, Ray; Ouyang, Bin; Jones, Rod; Harris, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric composition measurements in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), are fairly sparse. They require specialised equipment, such as instrumented aircraft or large balloons, and these platforms can be expensive to run and operate intermittently, and therefore cannot provide continuous or long-term measurements. Although satellites can provide this level of coverage, they have a finite operational lifetime, are expensive to develop and launch, and encounter limits to their information retrieval; especially in the UTLS due in part to the radiative properties of clouds and the spatial gradients of the gas species encountered there, leading to errors and lower resolution vertical measurements compared to in-situ observations. The UTLS generally ia an important region of the atmosphere, being sensitive to changes in climate (through anthropogenic activity for example) which can influence the radiative, transport and chemical processing occurring there. As the interface between the stratosphere and troposphere, changes in the UTLS structure and chemical composition can effect the composition of the stratosphere (e.g. O3 and H2O) in turn changing the radiative environment, with potential feedbacks on tropospheric climate. At present, the only routine profile measurements are provided by the global ozonesonde network with a small number of ground-based lidar measurements. Again, these methods are limited by their spatial coverage and the range of species measured. Extending these existing networks by making it feasible to conduct wide-ranging composition profile measurements, would have the potential to revolutionise atmospheric measurement programmes. ChemSonde is package developed to incorporate a novel miniature optical cavity CO2 instrument launched on standard meteorological balloons (and electrochemical (EC) sensors for CO, O3, NOx).The package is suitable for use in global sonde networks, e.g. Global Climate

  1. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  2. CASSINI E/J/S/SW MIMI CHEMS SENSOR UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) uncalibrated data set includes all data collected from the MIMI Data...

  3. CASSINI E/J/S/SW MIMI CHEMS SENSOR UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) uncalibrated data set includes all data collected from the MIMI Data...

  4. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  5. Identifying Known Unknowns Using the USEPA CompTox Chemistry Dashboard AnalytBioanlytChem Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In this research, the performance of the Dashboard for identifying “known unknowns” was evaluated against that of the online ChemSpider database, one of the primary...

  6. CASSINI S MIMI CHEMS SENSOR CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) contains a deflection system and an overall field of view of 159 x 4 deg....

  7. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  8. Performance of WRF-Chem over Indian region: Comparison with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 126, Issue 8 · Current Issue Volume 126 | Issue 8. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  9. Chem I Supplement: Liquid Crystals--The Chameleon Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glenn H.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information relevant to everyday life so as to stimulate student interest in the properties of the two basic types of liquid crystals: thermotropic and lyotropic. Describes the applications of liquid crystals to electronics, biomedicine, and polymer science and appraises the future of liquid crystal research. (JM)

  10. Performance of WRF-Chem over Indian region: Comparison with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 2 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 2. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  11. Use of a virtual human performance laboratory to improve integration of mathematics and biology in sports science curricula in Sweden and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, D; Besier, T; Johnston, T; Rolston, B; Schorsch, A; Matheson, G; Annerstedt, C; Lindh, J; Rydmark, M

    2007-01-01

    New fields such as bioengineering are exploring the role of the physical sciences in traditional biological approaches to problems, with exciting results in device innovation, medicine, and research biology. The integration of mathematics, biomechanics, and material sciences into the undergraduate biology curriculum will better prepare students for these opportunities and enhance cooperation among faculty and students at the university level. We propose the study of sports science as the basis for introduction of this interdisciplinary program. This novel integrated approach will require a virtual human performance laboratory dual-hosted in Sweden and the United States. We have designed a course model that involves cooperative learning between students at Göteborg University and Stanford University, utilizes new technologies, encourages development of original research and will rely on frequent self-assessment and reflective learning. We will compare outcomes between this course and a more traditional didactic format as well as assess the effectiveness of multiple web-hosted virtual environments. We anticipate the grant will result in a network of original faculty and student research in exercise science and pedagogy as well as provide the opportunity for implementation of the model in more advance training levels and K-12 programs.

  12. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Price, Jordan V; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Most scientists agree that comprehension of primary scientific papers and communication of scientific concepts are two of the most important skills that we can teach, but few undergraduate biology courses make these explicit course goals. We designed an undergraduate neuroimmunology course that uses a writing-intensive format. Using a mixture of primary literature, writing assignments directed toward a layperson and scientist audience, and in-class discussions, we aimed to improve the ability of students to 1) comprehend primary scientific papers, 2) communicate science to a scientific audience, and 3) communicate science to a layperson audience. We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses. Students showed gains in both the perception of their understanding of primary scientific papers and of their abilities to communicate science to scientific and layperson audiences. These results indicate that this unique format can teach both communication skills and basic science to undergraduate biology students. We urge others to adopt a similar format for undergraduate biology courses to teach process skills in addition to content, thus broadening and strengthening the impact of undergraduate courses.

  13. Distributed chemical computing using ChemStar: an open source java remote method invocation architecture applied to large scale molecular data from PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Krishnan, S; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Bender, Andreas; Tropsha, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    We present the application of a Java remote method invocation (RMI) based open source architecture to distributed chemical computing. This architecture was previously employed for distributed data harvesting of chemical information from the Internet via the Google application programming interface (API; ChemXtreme). Due to its open source character and its flexibility, the underlying server/client framework can be quickly adopted to virtually every computational task that can be parallelized. Here, we present the server/client communication framework as well as an application to distributed computing of chemical properties on a large scale (currently the size of PubChem; about 18 million compounds), using both the Marvin toolkit as well as the open source JOELib package. As an application, for this set of compounds, the agreement of log P and TPSA between the packages was compared. Outliers were found to be mostly non-druglike compounds and differences could usually be explained by differences in the underlying algorithms. ChemStar is the first open source distributed chemical computing environment built on Java RMI, which is also easily adaptable to user demands due to its "plug-in architecture". The complete source codes as well as calculated properties along with links to PubChem resources are available on the Internet via a graphical user interface at http://moltable.ncl.res.in/chemstar/.

  14. ScrubChem: Cleaning of PubChem Bioassay Data to Create Diverse and Massive Bioactivity Datasets for Use in Modeling Applications (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PubChem Bioassay database is a non-curated public repository with bioactivity data from 64 sources, including: ChEMBL, BindingDb, DrugBank, Tox21, NIH Molecular Libraries Screening Program, and various academic, government, and industrial contributors. However, this data is d...

  15. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.

  16. The Another Assimilation System for WRF-Chem (AAS4WRF): a new mass-conserving emissions pre-processor for WRF-Chem regional modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara Vela, A. L.; Muñoz, A.; Lomas, A., Sr.; González, C. M.; Calderon, M. G.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) community model have been widely used for the study of pollutants transport, formation of secondary pollutants, as well as for the assessment of air quality policies implementation. A key factor to improve the WRF-Chem air quality simulations over urban areas is the representation of anthropogenic emission sources. There are several tools that are available to assist users in creating their own emissions based on global emissions information (e.g. anthro_emiss, prep_chem_src); however, there is no single tool that will construct local emissions input datasets for any particular domain at this time. Because the official emissions pre-processor (emiss_v03) is designed to work with domains located over North America, this work presents the Another Assimilation System for WRF-Chem (AAS4WRF), a ncl based mass-conserving emissions pre-processor designed to create WRF-Chem ready emissions files from local inventories on a lat/lon projection. AAS4WRF is appropriate to scale emission rates from both surface and elevated sources, providing the users an alternative way to assimilate their emissions to WRF-Chem. Since it was successfully tested for the first time for the city of Lima, Peru in 2014 (managed by SENAMHI, the National Weather Service of the country), several studies on air quality modelling have applied this utility to convert their emissions to those required for WRF-Chem. Two case studies performed in the metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo and Manizales in Brazil and Colombia, respectively, are here presented in order to analyse the influence of using local or global emission inventories in the representation of regulated air pollutants such as O3 and PM2.5. Although AAS4WRF works with local emissions information at the moment, further work is being conducted to make it compatible with global/regional emissions data file format. The tool is freely available upon request to the corresponding author.

  17. Advanced high school biology in an era of rapid change: a summary of the biology panel report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Panel for Biology were that AP courses in particular suffer from inadequate quality control as well as excessive pressure to fulfill their advanced placement function, which encourages teachers to attempt coverage of all areas of biology and emphasize memorization of facts rather than in-depth understanding. In this essay, the Panel's principal findings are discussed, with an emphasis on its recommendation that colleges and universities should be strongly discouraged from using performance on either the AP examination or the IB examination as the sole basis for automatic placement out of required introductory courses for biology majors and distribution requirements for nonmajors.

  18. Technology Integration in Science Education: A Study of How Teachers Use Modern Learning Technologies in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanakkan, Dionysius Joseph

    This multiple case-study investigated how high school biology teachers used modern learning technologies (probes, interactive simulations and animations, animated videos) in their classrooms and why they used the learning technologies. Another objective of the study was to assess whether the use of learning technologies alleviated misconceptions in Biology documented by American Association for the Advancement of Science. The sample consisted of eight teachers: four rural public school teachers, two public selective enrollment school teachers, and two private school teachers. Each teacher was followed for two Units of instruction. Data collected included classroom observations, field notes, student assignments and tests, teacher interviews, and pre-and post-misconception assessments. Paired t-tests were done to analyze the pre-post test data at a significance level of 0.05 and the qualitative data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Each case study was characterized and then a cross-case analyses was done to find common themes across the different cases. Teachers were found to use the learning technologies as a tool to supplement instruction to visualize abstract processes, collect data, and explore abstract concepts and processes. Teachers were found to situate learning, use scaffolding and questioning and make students work in collaborative groups. The genetics, photosynthesis, and evolution misconceptions were better alleviated than cellular respiration. Student work that was collected demonstrated a superficial understanding of the concepts under discussion even when they had misconceptions. The teachers used the learning technologies in their classrooms for a variety of reasons: visual illustrations, time-saving measure to collect data, best way to collect data, engaging and fun for students and the interactive nature of the visualization tools and models. The study's findings had many implications for research, professional development

  19. [Bibliometry of collaboration and impact of the Revista de Biología Tropical (Web of Science 2003-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Daniela; Córdoba González, Saray; Sanz-Casado, Elías

    2016-03-01

    The activity analysis of a scientific journal is relevant to know the evolution of its characteristics over time. In this paper, results of a bibliometric study of the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (Costa Rica) are presented. The goal of this study was to describe the main characteristics of its scientific production, and analyze its level of collaboration and its impact between the years 2003-2012. Data was derived from the Web of Science (Thomson-Reuters), and the relationship among authors and coauthors, institutions and countries, and their links with the citations received were analyzed for that period. Descriptive statistics about production (number of documents per year, institution and country), collaboration (authorship index, collaboration among institutions and countries) and impact (IF, position in JCR and number of citations received) were collected. Results showed that the journal has published 1 473 papers in this period, in similar proportions English and Spanish. Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela and Colombia are the most common countries of origin, with the Universidad of Costa Rica, Universidad Autónoma de Mexico and the University of Puerto Rico as the most common leader institutions. Collaboration between authors, institutions and countries has shown an increasing trend over the last decade. The co-author index was 3.07 per document, 63 % of publications included 2 or more institutions, and 22 % of the papers were product of international collaboration. The most common collaboration link was between Costa Rica and the United States of America. The impact factor has been oscillating during this last decade, reaching a maximum in 2012 (IF JCR = 0.553). Besides, 10 % of the most cited papers concentrated half of the citations received by the journal, and have a very high number of citations, compared with the journal mean. The main countries that cite the journal were USA, Brazil, Mexico

  20. Biological and Environmental Research Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research, March 28-31, 2016, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bader, David C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aluru, Srinivas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Aprá, Edoardo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Azad, Ariful [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bates, Susan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Blaby, Ian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaby-Haas, Crysten [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bonneau, Rich [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States); Bowen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bradford, Mark A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Brodie, Eoin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, James (Ben) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buluc, Aydin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bernholdt, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bylaska, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Calvin, Kate [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cannon, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheung, Margaret [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chowdhary, Kenny [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Collins, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Compo, Gil [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Crowley, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Debusschere, Bert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); D’Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dror, Ron [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Friedberg, Iddo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Fyke, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Zheng [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Georganas, Evangelos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Giraldo, Frank [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Gnanakaran, Gnana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Govind, Niri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Grandy, Stuart [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Gustafson, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hammond, Glenn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hargrove, William [USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C. (United States); Heroux, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Forrest [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hofmeyr, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Jacob, Rob [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jacobson, Dan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobson, Matt [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jain, Chirag [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Johansen, Hans [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Johnson, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, Andy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, Phil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kalyanaraman, Ananth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kang, Senghwa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); King, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koanantakool, Penporn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kopera, Michal [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kotamarthi, Rao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xiaolin [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Link, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Loew, Leslie [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Luke, Edward [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ma, Hsi -Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Maranas, Costas [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Martin, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McInnes, Lois Curfman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mills, Richard [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Molins Rafa, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mostafavi, Sara [Center for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moulton, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourao, Zenaida [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Najm, Habib [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ng, Bernard [Center for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norman, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oh, Sang -Yun [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Chongle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pass, Rebecca [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pau, George S. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prakash, Giri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Randall, David [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Renslow, Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Riihimaki, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Rokhsar, Dan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ruebel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Salinger, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scheibe, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schulz, Roland [Intel, Mountain View, CA (United States); Sivaraman, Chitra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sreepathi, Sarat [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steefel, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Talbot, Jenifer [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Tantillo, D. J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tartakovsky, Alex [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, Ronald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Urban, Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valiev, Marat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Wagner, Allon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, Haruko [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wieder, Will [NCAR/Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Wiley, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Worley, Pat [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yelick, Kathy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yoo, Shinjae [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yosef, Niri [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Understanding the fundamentals of genomic systems or the processes governing impactful weather patterns are examples of the types of simulation and modeling performed on the most advanced computing resources in America. High-performance computing and computational science together provide a necessary platform for the mission science conducted by the Biological and Environmental Research (BER) office at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report reviews BER’s computing needs and their importance for solving some of the toughest problems in BER’s portfolio. BER’s impact on science has been transformative. Mapping the human genome, including the U.S.-supported international Human Genome Project that DOE began in 1987, initiated the era of modern biotechnology and genomics-based systems biology. And since the 1950s, BER has been a core contributor to atmospheric, environmental, and climate science research, beginning with atmospheric circulation studies that were the forerunners of modern Earth system models (ESMs) and by pioneering the implementation of climate codes onto high-performance computers. See http://exascaleage.org/ber/ for more information.

  1. Do Facilitate, Don’t Demonstrate: Meaningful Engagement for Science Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We are encouraged to hand over the learning experience to the students who must do the learning. After the 1957 launch of Sputnik it seemed that learning by discovery would replace lectures and other forms of learning by rote. The innovative Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC), Chemical Education Materials Study (ChEMS), and Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) provided teachers with hands-on, activity-based curriculum materials emphasizing problem solving, process skills, and creativity. Our current reforms, based on the Next Generation Science Standards, stress that learner-centered strategies need to become commonplace throughout the classrooms of our formal education system. In this presentation, we share tips on how to double check your style of interactions for science outreach, to ensure the audience is working with a facilitator rather than simply enjoying an expert’s entertaining demonstration.

  2. Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors' Emotions about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of…

  3. Understanding Global Change (UGC) as a Unifying Conceptual Framework for Teaching Ecology: Using UGC in a High School Biology Program to Integrate Earth Science and Biology, and to Demonstrate the Value of Modeling Global Systems in Promoting Conceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Global change science is ideal for NGSS-informed teaching, but presents a serious challenge to K-12 educators because it is complex and interdisciplinary- combining earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Global systems are themselves complex. Adding anthropogenic influences on those systems creates a formidable list of topics - greenhouse effect, climate change, nitrogen enrichment, introduced species, land-use change among them - which are often presented as a disconnected "laundry list" of "facts." This complexity, combined with public and mass-media scientific illiteracy, leaves global change science vulnerable to misrepresentation and politicization, creating additional challenges to teachers in public schools. Ample stand-alone, one-off, online resources, many of them excellent, are (to date) underutilized by teachers in the high school science course taken by most students: biology. The Understanding Global Change project (UGC) from the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology has created a conceptual framework that organizes, connects, and explains global systems, human and non-human drivers of change in those systems, and measurable changes in those systems. This organization and framework employ core ideas, crosscutting concepts, structure/function relationships, and system models in a unique format that facilitates authentic understanding, rather than memorization. This system serves as an organizing framework for the entire ecology unit of a forthcoming mainstream high school biology program. The UGC system model is introduced up front with its core informational graphic. The model is elaborated, step by step, by adding concepts and processes as they are introduced and explained in each chapter. The informational graphic is thus used in several ways: to organize material as it is presented, to summarize topics in each chapter and put them in perspective, and for review and critical thinking exercises that supplement the usual end-of-chapter lists of

  4. Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII type Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT and Academics Ability of Natural Science-Biology in Vocational High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamsiah Hamsiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII tipe Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPTdan Kemampuan Akademik pada Pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK Abstract: Learning science in SMK 1 Bontang still dominated by conventional learning strategy is a method of learning with lecture. This has an impact on learning outcomes of cognitive science that tends biology is still low because the students have not been trained become independent learners, thus learning innovation PMII CWPT types can be used as a breakthrough to develop the cognitive learning. This study was conducted to determine the application CWPT strategies and academic skills in science teaching vocational Biology. Quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest design Nonequivalent Control Group. Results of the study, namely: (1 there CWPT effect on the cognitive learning, (2 no influence academic ability to cognitive learning outcomes, and (3 there is no interaction effect between learning strategy and the academic ability toward the cognitive learning. Key Words: peer-mediated instruction and intervention, classwide peer tutoring, academic skills, cognitive learning outcomes Abstrak: Pembelajaran IPA di SMKN 1 Bontang masih didominasi dengan strategi belajar konvensio-nal yaitu metode belajar dengan ceramah. Hal ini berdampak terhadap hasil belajar kognitif IPA biolo-gi yang cendrung masih rendah karena siswa belum terlatih menjadi pebelajar yang mandiri, sehingga inovasi pembelajaran PMII tipe CWPT dapat digunakan sebagai terobosan untuk mengembangkan  hasil belajar kognitif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui penerapan strategi CWPT dan kemam-puan akademik pada pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan pretest-posttest Nonequivalent Control Group. Hasil penelitian, yaitu: (1 ada pengaruh CWPT ter-hadap hasil belajar kognitif,  (2 ada  pengaruh  kemampuan akademik terhadap hasil belajar kognitif, dan (3 tidak ada  pengaruh interaksi antara

  5. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions about Using History of Science to Teach NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing…

  6. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey Toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-08-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the first time throughout four units of a community college biology course (genetics, molecular biology, evolution, and ecology). Through the action research cycles of planning, implementing, and reflecting, Sarah identified areas of challenge and success. This paper reports emergent themes that assisted her in successfully embedding NOS within the science content. Data include weekly lesson plans and pre/post reflective journaling before and after each lesson of this lecture/lab combination class that met twice a week. This course was taught back to back semesters, and this study is based on the results of a year-long process. Developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS involves coming to understand the overlaps and connections between NOS, other science subject matter, pedagogical strategies, and student learning. Sarah found that through action research she was able to grow and assimilate her understanding of NOS within the biology content she was teaching. A shift in orientation toward teaching products of science to teaching science processes was a necessary shift for NOS pedagogical success. This process enabled Sarah's development of PCK for NOS. As a practical example of putting research-based instructional recommendations into practice, this study may be very useful for other teachers who are learning to teach NOS.

  7. Teaching knowledge: a glimpse to a non-required dimension in the trajectories of teachers/researchers in Biological Sciences Academic Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Pinheiro da Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a study about the life trajectories and formation of teachers/researchers of an Academic Biological Sciences Course. We focus on two autobiographic narratives to understand the elaboration/appropriation processes of the teaching knowledge in formation and work experiences in the narratives analyzed. Our interest is to understand the pedagogical formation (absent or present in the lives of these teachers who had formative trajectories in four disciplinary areas of the Biological Sciences, and who act nowadays in the university teaching with Sciences and Biology teacher formation. We adopted the Autobiographical method to approach these trajectories that unfold in analytical categories which point to hints of how the formation and performance of the university teacher has happened. We analyze the documental corpus with the technique of analytical content and we present four established categories: (i knowledge of the professional formation; (ii disciplinary knowledge; (iii curriculum knowledge; and (iv experimental knowledge. It was identified the absence of teaching knowledge in the initial formation trajectory of two researchers and the need of this knowledge in university teaching practice.

  8. ChemCam Passive Sky Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars: Interannual Variability in Dust Aerosol Particle Size, Missing Water Vapor, and the Molecular Oxygen Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.; Bender, S. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Meslin, P. Y.; Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Martinez, G.; DeFlores, L. P.; Blaney, D. L.; Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Trainer, M. G.; Lefèvre, F.; Atreya, S. K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Wong, M. H.; Franz, H. B.; Guzewich, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Khayat, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) ChemCam spectrometer measures atmospheric aerosol properties and gas abundances by operating in passive mode and observing scattered sky light at two different elevation angles. We have previously [e. g. 1, 2] presented the methodology and results of these ChemCam Passive Sky observations. Here we will focus on three of the more surprising results that we have obtained: (1) depletion of the column water vapor at Gale Crater relative to that of the surrounding region combined with a strong enhancement of the local column water vapor relative to pre-dawn in-situ measurements, (2) an interannual change in the effective particle size of dust aerosol during the aphelion season, and (3) apparent seasonal and interannual variability in molecular oxygen that differs significantly from the expected behavior of a non-condensable trace gas and differs significantly from global climate model expectations. The ChemCam passive sky water vapor measurements are quite robust but their interpretation depends on the details of measurements as well as on the types of water vapor vertical distributions that can be produced by climate models. We have a high degree of confidence in the dust particle size changes but since aerosol results in general are subject to a variety of potential systematic effects our particle size results would benefit from confirmation by other techniques [c.f. 3]. For the ChemCam passive sky molecular oxygen results we are still working to constrain the uncertainties well enough to confirm the observed surprising behavior, motivated by similarly surprising atmospheric molecular oxygen variability observed by MSL's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument [4]. REFERENCES: [1] McConnochie, et al. (2017), Icarus (submitted). [2] McConnochie, et al. (2017), abstract # 3201, The 6th International Workshop on the Mars Atmosphere: Granada, Spain. [3] Vicente-Retortillo et al. (2017), GRL, 44. [4] Trainer et al. (2017), 2017 AGU Fall

  9. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  10. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  11. A day of systems and synthetic biology for non-experts: reflections on day 1 of the EMBL/EMBO joint conference on Science and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    From understanding ageing to the creation of artificial membrane-bounded 'organisms', systems biology and synthetic biology are seen as the latest revolutions in the life sciences. They certainly represent a major change of gear, but paradigm shifts? This is open to debate, to say the least. For scientists they open up exciting ways of studying living systems, of formulating the 'laws of life', and the relationship between the origin of life, evolution and artificial biological systems. However, the ethical and societal considerations are probably indistinguishable from those of human genetics and genetically modified organisms. There are some tangible developments just around the corner for society, and as ever, our ability to understand the consequences of, and manage, our own progress lags far behind our technological abilities. Furthermore our educational systems are doing a bad job of preparing the next generation of scientists and non-scientists.

  12. A Tricky Trait: Applying the Fruits of the "Function Debate" in the Philosophy of Biology to the "Venom Debate" in the Science of Toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy N W; Fry, Bryan G

    2016-09-07

    The "function debate" in the philosophy of biology and the "venom debate" in the science of toxinology are conceptually related. Venom systems are complex multifunctional traits that have evolved independently numerous times throughout the animal kingdom. No single concept of function, amongst those popularly defended, appears adequate to describe these systems in all their evolutionary contexts and extant variations. As such, a pluralistic view of function, previously defended by some philosophers of biology, is most appropriate. Venom systems, like many other functional traits, exist in nature as points on a continuum and the boundaries between "venomous" and "non-venomous" species may not always be clearly defined. This paper includes a brief overview of the concept of function, followed by in-depth discussion of its application to venom systems. A sound understanding of function may aid in moving the venom debate forward. Similarly, consideration of a complex functional trait such as venom may be of interest to philosophers of biology.

  13. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  14. A Decade of Publication of the First Peer-reviewed Scientifi c Journal in Mongolia – Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badamdorj Bayartogtokh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences was founded in 2003 and has been continuously published, with main mission to promote the development of biology, and communication among biologists in Mongolia and around the world. MJBS is the only single peer-reviewed, regularly published English language scientifi c journal existing in the history of modern science in Mongolia. With the support and participation of biologists around the world, MJBS has since become a major scientifi c journal in Mongolia. This is evident in the quantity, quality and wide subject range of papers published in MJBS during the last ten years. Below you will fi nd a detailed explanation of my motivation for starting the new journal and some details of the journal as well. Compiling bibliographic analysis I summarize the number and type of papers published, the number and distributions of authors published with MJBS over the last ten years. During its 10 years of existence, the journal published 158 papers of different categories by 414 authors from 16 countries of the world, in 15 issues with a total of 1,140 pages. Among the research articles, most deal with ecology, behavior and conservation (64%, systematics and evolution (19%, physiology and biochemistry (13%, but only four articles (1.4% were related to genetics, molecular biology, cellular and developmental biology. The journal has the potential to change the way we share information in our discipline. Finally, I discussed the future policy and development of MJBS.

  15. A Dual Case Study: Students' Perceptions, Self-Efficacy and Understanding of the Nature of Science in Varied Introductory Biology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Dena Beth Boans

    Since World War II, science education has been at the forefront of curricular reforms. Although the philosophical approach to science education has changed numerous times, the importance of the laboratory has not waned. A laboratory is meant to allow students to encounter scientific concepts in a very real, hands-on way so that they are able to either recreate experiments that have given rise to scientific theories or to use science to understand a new idea. As the interactive portion of science courses, the laboratory should not only reinforce conceptual ideas, but help students to understand the process of science and interest them in learning more about science. However, most laboratories have fallen into a safe pattern having teachers and students follow a scientific recipe, removing the understanding of and interest in science for many participants. In this study, two non-traditional laboratories are evaluated and compared with a traditional laboratory in an effort to measure student satisfaction, self-efficacy, attitudes towards science, and finally their epistemology of the nature of science (NOS). Students in all populations were administered a survey at the beginning and the end of their spring 2016 laboratory, and the survey was a mixture of qualitative questions and quantitative instruments. Overall, students who participated in one of the non-traditional labs rated their satisfaction higher and used affirming supportive statements. They also had significant increases in self-efficacy from pre to post, while the students in the traditional laboratory had a significant decrease. The students in the traditional laboratory had significant changed in attitudes towards science, as did the students in one of the non-traditional laboratories. All students lacked a firm grasp of the tenets of NOS, although one laboratory that includes explicit discussions of NOS saw improvement in at least on tenet. Data for two non-major biology laboratory populations was

  16. A study of the association of attitudes to the philosophy of science with classroom contexts, academic qualification and professional training, amongst A level biology teachers in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwimbi, Eric

    2003-04-01

    The responses from 33 A level biology teachers to a questionnaire were analysed to test for association between attitude to the philosophy of science and academic qualification professional training. The teachers in Harare, Zimbabwe, also self-reported on their school contexts. From the school context data the teachers were clustered to give two different clusters - richer and poorer schools. Teachers in the poorer school context cluster showed statistically significant differences from those in the richer school context cluster in their attitudes to the philosophy of science. Teachers in the richer schools had more relativist and deductivist attitudes while teachers in the poorer context clusters were more positivist and inductivist. Richer schools are able to employ teachers who are academically and professionally better qualified. This evidence suggests the differential distribution of facilities and resources across school contexts reinforces the differential distribution of attitudes to the philosophy of science.

  17. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  18. DayCent-Chem Simulations of Ecological and Biogeochemical Processes of Eight Mountain Ecosystems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Melannie D.; Baron, Jill S.; Clow, David W.; Creed, Irena F.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Ewing, Holly A.; Haines, Bruce D.; Knoepp, Jennifer; Lajtha, Kate; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Renfro, Jim; Robinson, R. Bruce; Van Miegroet, Helga; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Williams, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) cause complex responses in ecosystems, from fertilization to forest ecosystem decline, freshwater eutrophication to acidification, loss of soil base cations, and alterations of disturbance regimes. DayCent-Chem, an ecosystem simulation model that combines ecosystem nutrient cycling and plant dynamics with aqueous geochemical equilibrium calculations, was developed to address ecosystem responses to combined atmospheric N and S deposition. It is unique among geochemically-based models in its dynamic biological cycling of N and its daily timestep for investigating ecosystem and surface water chemical response to episodic events. The model was applied to eight mountainous watersheds in the United States. The sites represent a gradient of N deposition across locales, from relatively pristine to N-saturated, and a variety of ecosystem types and climates. Overall, the model performed best in predicting stream chemistry for snowmelt-dominated sites. It was more difficult to predict daily stream chemistry for watersheds with deep soils, high amounts of atmospheric deposition, and a large degree of spatial heterogeneity. DayCent-Chem did well in representing plant and soil carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes. Modeled stream nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations compared well with measurements at all sites, with few exceptions. Simulated daily stream sulfate (SO42-) concentrations compared well to measured values for sites where SO42- deposition has been low and where SO42- adsorption/desorption reactions did not seem to be important. The concentrations of base cations and silica in streams are highly dependent on the geochemistry and weathering rates of minerals in each catchment, yet these were rarely, if ever, known. Thus, DayCent-Chem could not accurately predict weathering products for some catchments. Additionally, few data were available for exchangeable soil cations or the magnitude of base cation

  19. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) Facility at BATAN for Nanostructure Studies in Materials Science and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, E. Giri Rachman

    2010-01-01

    structure of n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (β-DMS) core-shell micelle has been revealed by applying a contrast variation, H2O/D2O mixture. Preliminary investigation of globular protein on folding-unfolding, protein denaturation and protein self-assembly studies is being performed. It can be concluded that SMARTer, a 36 m SANS BATAN spectrometer becomes a major tool for structural investigations in the effective length scale of 1-100 nm in materials science and biology.

  20. The role of biological sciences in understanding the genesis and a new therapeutic approach to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Tęgowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contrasts the historical view on causal factors in Alzheimer’s disease (AD with the modern concept of the symptoms’ origin. Biological sciences dealing with cell structure and physiology enabled comprehension of the role of mitochondrial defects in the processes of formation of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid, which in turn gives hope for developing a new, more effective therapeutic strategy for AD. It has been established that although mitochondria constantly generate free radicals, from which they are protected by their own defensive systems, in some situations these systems become deregulated, which leads to free radical-based mitochondrial defects. This causes an energetic deficit in neurons and a further increase in the free radical pool. As a result, due to compensation processes, formation of tangles and/or acceleration of β-amyloid production takes place. The nature of these processes is initially a protective one, due to their anti-oxidative action, but as the amount of the formations increases, their beneficial effect wanes. They become a storage place for substances enhancing free radical processes, which makes them toxic themselves. It is such an approach to the primary causal factor for AD which lies at the roots of the new view on AD therapy, suggesting the use of methylene blue-based drugs, laser or intranasally applied insulin. A necessary condition, however, for these methods’ effectiveness is definitely an earlier diagnosis of the disease. Although there are numerous diagnostic methods for AD, their low specificity and high price, often accompanied by a considerable level of patient discomfort, make them unsuitable for early, prodromal screening. In this matter a promising method may be provided using an olfactory test, which is an inexpensive and non-invasive method and thus suitable for screening, although as a test of low specificity, it should be combined with other methods. Introducing new methods

  1. Investigating the Role of an Inquiry-Based Biology Lab Course on Student Attitudes and Views toward Science

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, Erica; Nomme, Kathy; Deane, Thomas; Pollock, Carol; Birol, G?lnur

    2016-01-01

    Students? academic experiences can influence their conceptualization of science. In contrast experts hold particular beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about science that are often absent in first-year undergraduate students. Shifts toward more expert-like attitudes and views have been linked to improved student engagement, critical-thinking ability, conceptual understanding, and academic performance. In this study, we investigate shifts in attitudes and views toward science by stu...

  2. The International Biological Program in Eastern Europe. Science Diplomacy, Comecon and the Beginnings of Ecology in Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-25 ISSN 0967-3407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : cold war * science diplomacy * environmental history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific science s to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2016

  3. Interactions between volatile organic compounds and reactive halogen in the tropical marine atmosphere using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Alba; Reeves, Claire E.; Baker, Alex; Volkamer, Rainer; von Glasow, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species (chlorine, bromine and iodine) are known to play an important role in the chemistry and oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, particularly in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Reactive halogens cause ozone (O3) destruction, change the HOx and NOX partitioning, affect the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mercury, reduce the lifetime of methane, and take part in new particle formation. Numerical models predicted that reactive halogen compounds account for 30% of O3 destruction in the MBL and 5-20% globally. There are indications that the chemistry of reactive halogens and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) in the tropics are inter-related. Moreover, the presence of aldehydes, such as glyoxal (CHOCHO), has a potential impact on radical cycling and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the MBL and free troposphere (FT). Model calculations suggest aldehydes to be an important sink for bromine atoms and hence competition for their reaction with O3 forming BrO and so illustrating a link between the cycles of halogens and OVOCs in the marine atmosphere. The main objective of this contribution is to investigate the atmospheric chemistry in the tropical East Pacific with a focus on reactive halogens and OVOCs and their links using the latest version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and field data from the TORERO campaign. WRF-Chem is a highly flexible community model for atmospheric research where aerosol-radiation-cloud feedback processes are taken into account. Our current reaction mechanism in WRF-Chem is based on the MOZART mechanism and has been extended to include bromine, chlorine and iodine chemistry. The MOZART mechanism includes detailed gas-phase chemistry of CHOCHO formation as well as state-of-the-science pathways to form SOA. Oceanic emissions of aldehydes, including CHOCHO, and of organic halogens based on measurements from the TORERO campaign have been added into the model. Sea

  4. Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S. M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T. H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J. G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M. B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M. A.; Moores, J. E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Mauchien, Patrick; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Schieber, Juergen; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Cros, Alain; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Toplis, Mike; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Fassett, Caleb; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Nolan, Thomas; Radziemski, Leon; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Lewis, Kevin; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  5. A Case Study on Observed and Simulated CO2 Concentration Profiles in Hefei based on Raman Lidar and GEOS-Chem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yinan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles provide significative constraints on the global/regional inversions of carbon sources and sinks. Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences developed a Raman Lidar system to detect the vertical distribution of atmospheric CO2. This paper compared the observations with the modeled results from a three-dimensional global chemistry transport model-GEOS-Chem, which showed a good agreement in the trend of change with lidar measurements. The case study indicated a potential for better simulating vertical distribution of atmospheric CO2 by combining with lidar measurements.

  6. "Capping Off" the Development of Graduate Capabilities in the Final Semester Unit for Biological Science Students: Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Biology is the most rapidly evolving scientific field of the 21st century. Biology graduates must be able to integrate concepts and collaborate outside their discipline to solve the most pressing questions of our time, e.g. world hunger, malnutrition, climate change, infectious disease and biosecurity. University educators are attempting to…

  7. Towards a Comprehensive Dynamic-chemistry Assimilation for Eos-Chem: Plans and Status in NASA's Data Assimilation Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, Steven; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, Ivanka; Nebuda, Sharon; Nielsen, J. Eric; Douglass, Anne R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to support the EOS-Chem project, a comprehensive assimilation package for the coupled chemical-dynamical system is being developed by the Data Assimilation Office at NASA GSFC. This involves development of a coupled chemistry/meteorology model and of data assimilation techniques for trace species and meteorology. The model is being developed using the flux-form semi-Lagrangian dynamical core of Lin and Rood, the physical parameterizations from the NCAR Community Climate Model, and atmospheric chemistry modules from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics branch at NASA GSFC. To date the following results have been obtained: (i) multi-annual simulations with the dynamics-radiation model show the credibility of the package for atmospheric simulations; (ii) initial simulations including a limited number of middle atmospheric trace gases reveal the realistic nature of transport mechanisms, although there is still a need for some improvements. Samples of these results will be shown. A meteorological assimilation system is currently being constructed using the model; this will form the basis for the proposed meteorological/chemical assimilation package. The latter part of the presentation will focus on areas targeted for development in the near and far terms, with the objective of Providing a comprehensive assimilation package for the EOS-Chem science experiment. The first stage will target ozone assimilation. The plans also encompass a reanalysis (ReSTS) for the 1991-1995 period, which includes the Mt. Pinatubo eruption and the time when a large number of UARS observations were available. One of the most challenging aspects of future developments will be to couple theoretical advances in tracer assimilation with the practical considerations of a real environment and eventually a near-real-time assimilation system.

  8. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world.

  9. Handheld Chem/Biosensor Using Extreme Conformational Changes in Designed Binding Proteins to Enhance Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFCEC-CX-TY-TR-2016-0007 HANDHELD CHEM/ BIOSENSOR USING EXTREME CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES IN DESIGNED BINDING PROTEINS TO ENHANCE SURFACE PLASMON...Include area code) 03/24/2016 Abstract 08/14/2015--03/31/2016 Handheld chem/ biosensor using extreme conformational changes in designed binding...Baltimore, Maryland on 17-21 April 2016. We propose the development of a highly sensitive handheld chem/ biosensor device using a novel class of engineered

  10. Investigating the Role of an Inquiry-Based Biology Lab Course on Student Attitudes and Views toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Erica; Nomme, Kathy; Deane, Thomas; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    Students' academic experiences can influence their conceptualization of science. In contrast experts hold particular beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about science that are often absent in first-year undergraduate students. Shifts toward more expert-like attitudes and views have been linked to improved student engagement,…

  11. Plasmonic Paper as a Novel Chem/Bio Detection Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Limei

    The time varying electric field of electromagnetic (EM) radiation causes oscillation of conduction electrons of metal nanoparticles. The resonance of such oscillation, termed localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), falls into the visible spectral region for noble metals such as gold, silver and copper. LSPR of metal nanostructures is sensitive to numerous factors such as composition, size, shape, dielectric properties of surrounding medium, and proximity to other nanostructures (plasmon coupling). The sensitivity of LSPR to the refractive index of surrounding medium renders it an attractive platform for chemical and biological sensing. When the excitation light is in resonance with the plasmon frequency of the metal nanoparticle, it radiates a characteristic dipolar radiation causing a characteristic spatial distribution in which certain areas show higher EM field intensity, which is manifested as electromagnetic field enhancement. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) involves dramatic enhancement of the intensity of the Raman scattering from the analyte adsorbed on or in proximity to a nanostructured metal surface exhibiting such strong EM field enhancement. Both LSPR and SERS have been widely investigated for highly sensitive and label-free chemical & biological sensors. Most of the SERS/LSPR sensors demonstrated so far rely on rigid planar substrates (e.g., glass, silicon) owing to the well-established lithographic approaches, which are routinely employed for either fabrication or assembly of plasmonic nanotransducers. In many cases, their rigid nature results in low conformal contact with the sample and hence poor sample collection efficiency. We hypothesized that paper substrates are an excellent alternative to conventional rigid substrates to significantly improve the (multi-)functionality of LSPR/SERS substrates, dramatically simplify the fabrication procedures and lower the cost. The choice of paper substrates for the implementation of SERS

  12. Modular Applications with Smartphones and Smartpads in Shape, Color and Spectral Measurements for Industry, Biology and Medicine plus Science, Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Dr Dietrich, Prof; Eng Paul-Gerald Dittrich, B.; Düntsch, B. Eng Eric; Kraus, Daniel; Gärtner, Claudia, Dr; Klemm, Dipl-Ing Richard

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in shape, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology and medicine as well as in measurement science, education and training. Laboratory applications will be supplemented and replaced by innovative in-field and point-of-care applications. Innovative functional modules are smartphones and/or smartpads supplemented by additional hardware apps and software apps. Specific examples are given for numerous practical applications concerning optodigital methods. The methodological classification distinguishes between different levels for combinations of hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartphones and/or smartpads. These methods are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places in industry, biology, medicine plus science, education and training towards innovative mobile working places with in-field and point-of-care characteristics as well as mobile open online courses MOOCs. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science and engineering. These working conditions will be very common due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. The fundamental enablers are smartphones and/or smartpads. A highly visible advantage of smartphones and/or smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations. Young people are becoming the pioneers.

  13. Modular Applications with Smartphones and Smartpads in Shape, Color and Spectral Measurements for Industry, Biology and Medicine plus Science, Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Prof Dr Dietrich; Gärtner, Dr Claudia; Dittrich, B Eng Paul-Gerald; Düntsch, B Eng Eric; Kraus, Daniel; Klemm, Dipl-Ing Richard

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in shape, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology and medicine as well as in measurement science, education and training. Laboratory applications will be supplemented and replaced by innovative in-field and point-of-care applications. Innovative functional modules are smartphones and/or smartpads supplemented by additional hardware apps and software apps. Specific examples are given for numerous practical applications concerning optodigital methods. The methodological classification distinguishes between different levels for combinations of hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartphones and/or smartpads. These methods are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places in industry, biology, medicine plus science, education and training towards innovative mobile working places with in-field and point-of-care characteristics as well as mobile open online courses MOOCs. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science and engineering. These working conditions will be very common due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. The fundamental enablers are smartphones and/or smartpads. A highly visible advantage of smartphones and/or smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations. Young people are becoming the pioneers

  14. Exploring Natural Products from the Biodiversity of Pakistan for Computational Drug Discovery Studies: Collection, Optimization, Design and Development of A Chemical Database (ChemDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Shaher Bano; Bokhari, Habib; Fatmi, Muhammad Qaiser

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan possesses a rich and vast source of natural products (NPs). Some of these secondary metabolites have been identified as potent therapeutic agents. However, the medicinal usage of most of these compounds has not yet been fully explored. The discoveries for new scaffolds of NPs as inhibitors of certain enzymes or receptors using advanced computational drug discovery approaches are also limited due to the unavailability of accurate 3D structures of NPs. An organized database incorporating all relevant information, therefore, can facilitate to explore the medicinal importance of the metabolites from Pakistani Biodiversity. The Chemical Database of Pakistan (ChemDP; release 01) is a fully-referenced, evolving, web-based, virtual database which has been designed and developed to introduce natural products (NPs) and their derivatives from the biodiversity of Pakistan to Global scientific communities. The prime aim is to provide quality structures of compounds with relevant information for computer-aided drug discovery studies. For this purpose, over 1000 NPs have been identified from more than 400 published articles, for which 2D and 3D molecular structures have been generated with a special focus on their stereochemistry, where applicable. The PM7 semiempirical quantum chemistry method has been used to energy optimize the 3D structure of NPs. The 2D and 3D structures can be downloaded as .sdf, .mol, .sybyl, .mol2, and .pdb files - readable formats by many chemoinformatics/bioinformatics software packages. Each entry in ChemDP contains over 100 data fields representing various molecular, biological, physico-chemical and pharmacological properties, which have been properly documented in the database for end users. These pieces of information have been either manually extracted from the literatures or computationally calculated using various computational tools. Cross referencing to a major data repository i.e. ChemSpider has been made available for overlapping

  15. Wearable Sensors for Chemical & Biological Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.

    2017-08-31

    One of PNNL’s strengths is the ability to conduct comprehensive technology foraging and objective assessments of various technology areas. The following examples highlight leading research by others in the area of chemical and biological (chem/bio) detection that could be further developed into a robust, highly integrated wearables to aid preparedness, response and recovery.

  16. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  17. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  18. The Chem-E-Car as a Vehicle for Service Learning through K-12 Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdon, William

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of combining the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' (AIChE) Chem-E-Car competition activities with engineering outreach to K-12 students in a service-learning course. Survey results are presented to show how the program develops technical skills as well as leadership, teamwork, and communication skills in…

  19. Chapter-10.ppt | Chemistry-352 | harvey | www.chem.wwu.edu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; initiat; sci ed; resources; chemistry; www.chem.wwu.edu; harvey; Chemistry-352; Chapter-10.ppt. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 ...

  20. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approachto predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, B.; Wedebye, E.B.; Dietrich, D.R.; Jaworska, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Paune, E.; Schwarz, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use.The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner prefer-ably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing