WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological safety cabinetry

  1. A Biological Safety Cabinet Certification Program: Experiences in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, Toni; Kaewpan, Anek; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    Biological safety cabinets (BSCs) are the primary means of containment used in laboratories worldwide for the safe handling of infectious microorganisms. They provide protection to the laboratory worker and the surrounding environment from pathogens. To ensure the correct functioning of BSCs, they need to be properly maintained beyond the daily care routines of the laboratory. This involves annual maintenance and certification by a qualified technician in accordance to the NSF/American National Standards Institute 49-2014 Biosafety Cabinetry: Design, Construction, Performance, and Field Certification. Service programs can be direct from the manufacturer or through third-party service companies, but in many instances, technicians are not accredited by international bodies, and these services are expensive. This means that a large number of BSCs may not be operating in a safe manner. In this article, we discuss our approach to addressing the lack of trained and qualified personnel in Thailand who can install, maintain, and certify BSCs in a cost-effective and practical manner. We initiated a program to create both local and regional capacity for repair, maintenance, and certification of BSCs and share our experiences with the reader.

  2. Cell biology and EMF safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Living cells react defensively and start to synthesize stress proteins when exposed to potentially harmful stimuli. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are among the many different environmental stimuli that initiate stress protein synthesis. Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response.

  3. Biological Safety of Fish (Tilapia Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing site-specific cellular regulation. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of fish (tilapia atelocollagen for use in clinical application. We performed in vitro and in vivo biological studies of medical materials to investigate the safety of fish collagen. The extract of fish collagen gel was examined to clarify its sterility. All present sterility tests concerning bacteria and viruses (including endotoxin yielded negative results, and all evaluations of cell toxicity, sensitization, chromosomal aberrations, intracutaneous reactions, acute systemic toxicity, pyrogenic reactions, and hemolysis were negative according to the criteria of the ISO and the http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003478 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The present study demonstrated that atelocollagen prepared from tilapia is a promising biomaterial for use as a scaffold in regenerative medicine.

  4. Biological safety of fish (tilapia) collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Igawa, Kazunari; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing site-specific cellular regulation. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of fish (tilapia) atelocollagen for use in clinical application. We performed in vitro and in vivo biological studies of medical materials to investigate the safety of fish collagen. The extract of fish collagen gel was examined to clarify its sterility. All present sterility tests concerning bacteria and viruses (including endotoxin) yielded negative results, and all evaluations of cell toxicity, sensitization, chromosomal aberrations, intracutaneous reactions, acute systemic toxicity, pyrogenic reactions, and hemolysis were negative according to the criteria of the ISO and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The present study demonstrated that atelocollagen prepared from tilapia is a promising biomaterial for use as a scaffold in regenerative medicine. PMID:24809058

  5. Biological ensilage of fish - optimization of stability, safety and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enes Dapkevicius, M.L.N.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with stability, safety, and functionality aspects of biological fish silage (BFS) obtained by lactic acid fermentation. BFS may provide an economically viable, environment friendly way of upgrading fish waste.BFS has been found advantageous when compared to the so-called acid proce

  6. Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Immunomediated Systemic Diseases: Safety Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroncini, Gianluca; Albani, Lisa; Nobili, Lorenzo; Gabrielli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of some key molecular mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of the immune system responsible for inflammatory systemic diseases as severe as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), and Systemic Vasculitides, led to the development and subsequent introduction into clinical practice of biological drugs which are significantly improving the management of such complex disorders. This novel molecular targeted therapeutics represents in fact a valid alternative or complementary treatment to conventional immunosuppressive strategies, characterized by broad, unspecific actions and severe adverse effects. Main advantages of the use of biologic drugs reside in their steroid-sparing effect and in the ability of inducing remission of refractory disease states or curing specific organ involvements. Aim of this article is to review and briefly discuss the scientific evidence supporting the use of biologics in these diseases, with a particular emphasis on their efficacy and safety profile compared to the canonical drugs.

  7. 75 FR 59935 - Investigational New Drug Safety Reporting Requirements for Human Drug and Biological Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ``E2A Clinical Safety Data Management: Definitions and Standards for Expedited Reporting'' (60 FR 11284... 0910-AG13 Investigational New Drug Safety Reporting Requirements for Human Drug and Biological Products... safety reporting for human biological products: Laura Rich, Center for Biologics Evaluation and...

  8. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  9. Safety of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis: data from randomized controlled trials and registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biologics selectively target components of the immune system, resulting in better disease control. However, the growing use of biologics in RA has increased safety concerns among rheumatologists. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registries are the most reliable sources of clinical safety data. Although safety data from RCTs provide certain insights into the clinical safety profile of an agent, strict constraints in study design (eg, exclusion criteria and restrictive treatment protocols) often do not accurately reflect possible safety issues in the use of the agent, either in the clinical setting or over long-term treatment. Registries, on the other hand, are not restrictive regarding patient enrollment, making them more reliable in evaluating long-term safety. A number of registries have been established globally: in Europe, the United States, and Asia. However, the availability of registry data from Eastern Europe is lacking. The notable exceptions so far are registries from the Czech Republic (ATTRA, a registry of patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drugs) and Serbia (National registry of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Serbia [NARRAS]). The current report provides an overview of safety data with biologics in RA from RCTs and registries. Availability of regional safety data from Eastern Europe is of great importance to its clinicians for making evidence-based treatment decisions in RA. PMID:25670881

  10. Biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Klein, Nicola P; Dekker, Cornelia L; Edwards, Kathryn M; Marchant, Colin D; Vellozzi, Claudia; Fireman, Bruce; Sejvar, James J; Halsey, Neal A; Baxter, Roger

    2012-12-17

    In immunization safety research, individuals are considered at risk for the development of certain adverse events following immunization (AEFI) within a specific period of time referred to as the risk interval. These intervals should ideally be determined based on biologic plausibility considering features of the AEFI, presumed or known pathologic mechanism, and the vaccine. Misspecification of the length and timing of these intervals may result in introducing bias in epidemiologic and clinical studies of immunization safety. To date, little work has been done to formally assess and determine biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research. In this report, we present a systematic process to define biologically plausible and evidence-based risk interval estimates for two specific AEFIs, febrile seizures and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In addition, we review methodologic issues related to the determination of risk intervals for consideration in future studies of immunization safety.

  11. Safety of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis: data from randomized controlled trials and registries

    OpenAIRE

    Codreanu C; Damjanov N

    2015-01-01

    Catalin O Codreanu,1 Nemanja Damjanov2 1Rheumatology Department, Center of Rheumatic Diseases, Bucharest, Romania; 2Institute of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, SerbiaAbstract: Over the past decade, the use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biologics selectively target components of the immune system, resulting in better disease control. However, the growing use of biologics in RA has increased safety concer...

  12. Safety of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis: data from randomized controlled trials and registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codreanu C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalin O Codreanu,1 Nemanja Damjanov2 1Rheumatology Department, Center of Rheumatic Diseases, Bucharest, Romania; 2Institute of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, SerbiaAbstract: Over the past decade, the use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Biologics selectively target components of the immune system, resulting in better disease control. However, the growing use of biologics in RA has increased safety concerns among rheumatologists. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and registries are the most reliable sources of clinical safety data. Although safety data from RCTs provide certain insights into the clinical safety profile of an agent, strict constraints in study design (eg, exclusion criteria and restrictive treatment protocols often do not accurately reflect possible safety issues in the use of the agent, either in the clinical setting or over long-term treatment. Registries, on the other hand, are not restrictive regarding patient enrollment, making them more reliable in evaluating long-term safety. A number of registries have been established globally: in Europe, the United States, and Asia. However, the availability of registry data from Eastern Europe is lacking. The notable exceptions so far are registries from the Czech Republic (ATTRA, a registry of patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drugs and Serbia (National registry of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Serbia [NARRAS]. The current report provides an overview of safety data with biologics in RA from RCTs and registries. Availability of regional safety data from Eastern Europe is of great importance to its clinicians for making evidence-based treatment decisions in RA. Keywords: biologic therapy, biologic drugs, adverse events, infections, pregnancy, malignancies

  13. Long-term safety of biologics in the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal MR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Manisha R Panchal,1 Helen Coope,2 D John McKenna,3 Anton B Alexandroff31Department of Dermatology, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, Kingsmill Hospital, Nottinghamshire, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd, West Sussex, 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKAbstract: Biologics are novel and important agents in the treatment of severe psoriasis. These agents block specific molecular steps in the inflammatory cascade, thereby reducing activation and proliferation of keratinocytes. Prescreening for biologic agents and careful monitoring of patients is important. There are four biologics currently licensed and used in the treatment of psoriasis in the European Union. This is an evidence-based review examining clinical trials and focusing on the long-term safety data for four biologic agents. Current British Association of Dermatology guidance for the use of biologics in psoriasis and guidelines on the management of psoriasis from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have been used. Advances on safety information since 2009 in clinical trials are reviewed. The results show that overall there is no statistical significance in the incidence of adverse effects of biologics versus placebo. However, there are serious adverse effects that are reported for biologics that need to be assessed for and addressed promptly. Results of studies discussing major adverse cardiovascular events are also reviewed.Keywords: psoriasis, biologic agents, safety profile, major cardiovascular events

  14. A biological safety evaluation on reclaimed water reused as scenic water using a bioassay battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongbin Wei; Zhuowei Tan; Yuguo Du

    2011-01-01

    An assessment method based on three toxicity tests (algae growth inhibition,daphnia immobilization and larval fish toxicity) was used to screen the biological safety of reclaimed water which was reused as sole replenishment for scenic water system in a park (SOF Park) in northern China.A total of 24 water samples were collected from six sites of water system in the SOF Park in four different seasons.The results indicated that:(1) the reclaimed water directly discharged from a reclamation treatment plant near the SOF Park as influent of park had relatively low biological safety (all samples were ranked as C or D); (2) the biological safety of reclaimed water was improved greatly with the ecological reclamation treatment processes composing of artificial wetland system and followed oxidation pond system; (3) the biological safety of reclaimed water in the main lake of SOF Park kept at a health status during different seasons (all samples were ranked as A); (4) there was some certain correlation (R2 =0.5737) between the sum of toxicity scores and dissolved organic carbon for the studied water samples.It was concluded that the assessment method was reliable to screen the safety of reclaimed water reused as scenic water,and the reclaimed water with further ecological purification processes such as artificial wetland and oxidation pond system can be safely reused as scenic water in park.

  15. Biological safety evaluation of the modified urinary catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczuk, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.kowalczuk@umlub.pl [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro safety of the novel tosufloxacin (TOS)-treated catheters with the prolonged antimicrobial activity. The test samples of silicone latex catheter were prepared by the immobilization of TOS on chitosan (CHIT)-coated catheter by means of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions. Each step of the modification process of catheter surface was observed using ATR–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of the modified and unmodified catheters was assessed by direct and indirect tests in accordance with ISO standards using green monkey kidney (GMK) cell line. The MTT, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), WST-8, Sulforhodamine B (SRB) test results and microscopic observation clearly indicated that unmodified silicone latex catheters decrease cell metabolic activity, act as a cytotoxic agent causing cell lysis and induce cell death through necrotic or apoptotic process. We suggest that chitosan coat with TOS immobilized limits leaching of harmful agents from silicone latex material, which significantly enhances survivability of GMK cells and therefore is quite a good protection against the cytotoxic effect of this material. - Highlights: • Characterization of the novel antimicrobial urinary catheters • Monitoring of the catheter modification by FTIR analysis • Confirmation of high cytotoxicity of latex-based catheter used in urological practice • Chitosan-coated and tosufloxacin-treated catheter is less toxic than the untreated one. • The proposed surface modification protects cells against latex-induced death.

  16. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2014-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Alo...

  17. National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" Was Officially Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ May 28 2004, sponsored by Standardization Administration of P.R. China ( SAC ) and Certification and Accreditation Administration of P.R. China (CNCA), China National Accreditation Board For Laboratories (CNAL) organized the press conference on National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" in Beijing.

  18. Efficacy and safety of biological agents for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Amarilyo, Gil; Foeldvari, Ivan;

    2016-01-01

    % improvement according to the modified American College of Rheumatology Paediatric 30 response criteria (JIA ACR30). The primary safety outcome was defined as serious adverse events (SAEs). Outcomes were analysed by pairwise and network meta-analyses. The quality of evidence between biologic agents......% CI 0.03, 0.44), P = 0.001]. Risks of SAEs were similar among the biologic agents (supported by very low-quality evidence) and not different from placebo. CONCLUSION: Despite heterogeneous eligibility criteria and study designs across the five studies and different modified JIA ACR30 criteria...

  19. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  20. Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    This report contains a forecast of emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health (OSH) based on an expert survey and a literature review. The Agency also worked on forecasts and literature reviews on physical, chemical, and psychosocial risks in order to paint as full a picture as possible of the potential emerging risks in the world of work. These results are linked to other Risk Observatory work and aims to examine OSH trends in Europe and to anticipa...

  1. The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-Needling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304 needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations.

  2. Combining biologic and phototherapy treatments for psoriasis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnik B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Farahnik,1 Viraat Patel,2 Kourosh Beroukhim,3 Tian Hao Zhu,4 Michael Abrouk,2 Mio Nakamura,5 Rasnik Singh,3 Kristina Lee,5 Tina Bhutani,5 John Koo5 1University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT; 2School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 4University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, 5Department of Dermatology, Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: The efficacy and safety of biologic and phototherapy in treating moderate-to-severe psoriasis is well known. However, some patients may not respond well to biologic agents or phototherapy on their own and may require combination therapy. Skillfully combining a biologic agent and phototherapy may provide an additive improvement without much increase in risks.Objective: To summarize the current state of evidence for the efficacy and safety of combining biologics with phototherapy in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.Methods: We conducted an extensive search on Pubmed database for English language literature that evaluated the use of a combination of biologic and phototherapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis through January 2016. The search included the following keywords: psoriasis, etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, biologics, phototherapy, and combination therapy.Results: The primary literature included randomized controlled trials, a head-to-head study, open-label controlled and uncontrolled trials, case series, and case reports. Etanercept was used in over half of the reported cases, but other biologic agents used included ustekinumab, adalimumab, and infliximab. The vast majority of phototherapy was narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB radiation. Most cases reported enhanced improvement with combination therapy. Serious adverse events throughout the study duration

  3. Off-Label Biologic Regimens in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Dose Escalation, Reduction, and Interrupted Biologic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Brezinski; Armstrong, April W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment) with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SE...

  4. Safety Evaluation of CNS Administered Biologics-Study Design, Data Interpretation, and Translation to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemenot, Brian R; Korte, Sven; Wright, Teresa L; Adams, Eric L; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases are inadequately treated by systemically administered therapies due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents achieving adequate drug concentrations at sites of action. Due to the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and the inability of most systemically administered therapies to cross the BBB, direct CNS delivery will likely play an increasing role in treatment. Administration of large molecules, cells, viral vectors, oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies directly to the CNS via the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or parenchyma overcomes this obstacle. Clinical experience with direct CNS administration of small molecule therapies suggests that this approach may be efficacious for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using biological therapies. Risks of administration into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid include local damage from implantation of the delivery system and/or administration of the therapeutic and reactions affecting the CNS. Preclinical safety studies on CNS administered compounds must differentiate between the effects of the test article, the delivery device, and/or the vehicle, and assess exacerbations of reactions due to combinations of effects. Animal models characterized for safety assessment of CNS administered therapeutics have enabled human trials, but interpretation can be challenging. This manuscript outlines the challenges of preclinical intrathecal/intracerebroventricular/intraparenchymal studies, evaluation of results, considerations for special endpoints, and translation of preclinical findings to enable first-in-human trials. Recommendations will be made based on the authors' collective experience with conducting these studies to enable clinical development of CNS-administered biologics. PMID:27354708

  5. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, possessing antitoxic, antioxidant, radiation protective, cholesterol-lowering and lipid correcting qualities, and also a source of vitamins C, B9 (folic acid and P-active substances, possessing antioxidant properties. Due to high content in food red beet of a complex of microelements – iron, zinc, manganese and copper, and a complex of macro elements – potassium and magnesium, it can be recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases of heart and vascular system, and for prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia. Thus, the research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances showed that food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety are a high quality component ingredient for creation of food products of specialized and functional purpose

  6. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  7. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination.

  8. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  9. Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease: Safety of Biological Antirheumatic Drugs and Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accompanying the increased number of reports on the development or exacerbation of ILD in RA patients following therapy with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD) has aroused renewed interest. Although such cases have been reported mainly in association with the use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, the use of other biological DMARDs has also become a matter of concern. Nevertheless, it is difficult to establish a causative relationship between the use of biological DMARDs and either the development or exacerbation of ILD. Such pulmonary complications may occur in the natural course of RA regardless of the use of biological DMARDs. Since rheumatologists currently aim to achieve remission in RA patients, the administration of biological DMARDs is increasing, even for those with RA-ILD. However, there are no reliable, evidence-based guidelines for deciding whether biological DMARDs can be safely introduced and continued in RA-ILD patients. A standardized staging system for pulmonary conditions of RA-ILD patients is needed when making therapeutic decisions at baseline and monitoring during biological DMARD therapy. Based on the available information regarding the safety of biological DMARDs and the predictive factors for a worse prognosis, this review discusses candidate parameters for risk evaluation of ILD in RA patients who are scheduled to receive biological antirheumatic therapy.

  10. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination. PMID:26996102

  11. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  12. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  13. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  14. Off-label biologic regimens in psoriasis: a systematic review of efficacy and safety of dose escalation, reduction, and interrupted biologic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Brezinski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: We searched OVID Medline from January 1, 1990 through August 1, 2011 for prospective clinical trials that studied biologic therapy for psoriasis treatment in adults. Individual articles were screened for studies that examined escalated, reduced, or interrupted therapy with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, or alefacept. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 23 articles with 12,617 patients matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the systematic review. Data were examined for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes and adverse events including infections, malignancies, cardiovascular events, and anti-drug antibodies. The preponderance of data suggests that continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent was necessary for maintenance of disease control. Among non-responders, dose escalation with etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, and alefacept typically resulted in greater efficacy than standard dosing. Dose reduction with etanercept and alefacept resulted in reduced efficacy. Withdrawal of the examined biologics led to an increase in disease activity; efficacy from retreatment did not result in equivalent initial response rates for most biologics. Safety data on off-label dosing regimens are limited. CONCLUSION: Dose escalation in non-responders generally resulted in increased efficacy in the examined biologics used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent

  15. EULAR points to consider when establishing, analysing and reporting safety data of biologics registers in rheumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, William G; Carmona, Loreto; Finckh, Axel;

    2010-01-01

    upon safety data generated from observational drug registers makes it important to convert the lessons learned from such registers into recommendations for rheumatologists embarking upon the establishment of future registers, or analysing and reporting from new and existing registers....

  16. Biophysics and Molecular Biology of Cardiac Ion Channels for the Safety Pharmacologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Curtis, Michael J; Hayes, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac safety pharmacology is a continuously evolving discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE). The aim of cardiac safety pharmacology is to characterise the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects on the heart using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike Toxicology, safety pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare cardiotoxic (potentially lethal) events such as torsades de pointes (TdP), which is statistically associated with drug-induced changes in the QT interval of the ECG due to blockade of I Kr or K v11.1 current encoded by hERG. This gives safety pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for the safety pharmacology assessment of a drug on the heart are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and clinical safety monitoring. This chapter will briefly review the current cardiac safety pharmacology paradigm outlined in the ICH S7A and ICH S7B guidance documents and the non-clinical models and methods used in the evaluation of new chemical entities in order to define the integrated risk assessment for submission to regulatory authorities. An overview of how the present cardiac paradigm was developed will be discussed, explaining how it was based upon marketing authorisation withdrawal of many non-cardiovascular compounds due to unanticipated proarrhythmic effects. The role of related biomarkers (of cardiac repolarisation, e.g. prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG) will be considered. We will also provide an overview of the 'non-hERG-centric' concepts utilised in the evolving comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay (CIPA) that details conduct of the proposed ion channel battery test, use of human stem cells and application of in silico models to early cardiac safety

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Biological Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Older Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Staying the Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Alla; Lories, Rik J

    2016-06-01

    The population of older individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is rapidly expanding, mainly due to increased life expectancy. While targeted biological therapies are well established for the treatment of this disease, their use may be lower in older patients (age > 65 years) and very old patients (age > 75 years) as a result of perceived higher risks for adverse events in this population, taking into account comorbidity, polypharmacy, and frailty. In this review, we discuss the available evidence for the use of biological therapies in this growing patient group with specific attention towards the eventual reasons for biological treatment failure or withdrawal. The majority of data is found in secondary analyses of clinical trials and in retrospective cohorts. The most information available is on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. Older patients seem to have a less robust response to anti-TNF agents than a younger population, but drug survival as a proxy for efficacy does not seem to be influenced by age. Despite an overall rate of adverse effects comparable to that in younger patients, older RA patients are at higher risk of serious infections. Other biologics appear to have an efficacy similar to anti-TNF agents, also in older RA patients. Again, the drug survival rates for tocilizumab, rituximab, and abatacept resemble those in young RA patients with good general tolerability and safety profiles. The cardiovascular risk and the risk of cancer, increased in RA patients and in the older RA patients, do not appear to be strongly influenced by biologicals. PMID:27154398

  20. Evaluation of a class III biological safety cabinet for enclosure of an ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatigny, M A; Dunn, S; Ishimaru, K; Eagleson, J A; Prusiner, S B

    1979-11-01

    An evaluation of a special safety cabinet housing a high-speed centrifuge was made. The cabinet enclosed both the top access port and the drive and pumping machinery of the centrifuge. A titanium rotor was loaded with tubes containing a bacterial culture, weakened, and driven until rotor rupture occurred. There were several bent and broken components in the centrifuge, and bacteria leaked from the vacuum chamber. Although the forces were sufficient to displace the cabinet, none of the test bacteria were found outside the cabinet. PMID:543704

  1. Role of Public Standards in the Safety and Efficacy of Biologic Medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roger L.; Bristow, Adrian F.; Hauck, Walter W.; Srinivasan, V. Srini; Morris, Tina; Atouf, Fouad; Ambrose, Michael; Surendranath, Koduru V.; Chakrabarty, Ranjan; Menon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we emphasize the importance of public monographs with reference materials, coupled with careful process and change control and attention to GMPs, as a means of advancing access to good quality, safe, and effective medicines, with emphasis on available and incoming biologic medicines. With adequate control of articles covered by a monograph, these public standards can form the basis for a global public quality platform that covers reference products, non-interchangeable referen...

  2. Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Håkansson, Sebastian; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-08-01

    During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential.

  3. Building Design Guidelines of Interior Architecture for Bio safety Levels of Biology Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the pivotal role of the Interior Architecture As one of the scientific disciplines minute to complete the Architectural Sciences, which relied upon the achievement and development of facilities containing scientific research laboratories, in terms of planning and design, particularly those containing biological laboratories using radioactive materials, adding to that, the application of the materials or raw materials commensurate with each discipline of laboratory and its work nature, and by the discussion the processing of design techniques and requirements of interior architecture dealing with Research Laboratory for electronic circuits an their applications with the making of its prototypes

  4. 生物安全柜的质量控制%Quality Control of Biological Safety Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 武文军; 熊陆平; 赵鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To ensure the safety and reliability of using biological safety cabinet(BSC) based on analyzing the quality and performance of BSC. Methods According to the correlative domestic and international criteria, the BSC performance testing content and key projects were analyzed and compared. Results Physical and biological performance tests of BSC included at least leak-tightness of carcass, integrity of high efficiency particulate air(HEPA) filter, airflow velocity of down -flow, airflow velocity of in -flow, airflow pattern, person protection, product protection and cross contamination protection. Conclusion The government should institute laws to regulate quality control of BSC. The laboratory should establish quality management system for periodic checking of BSC.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(5):113-115]%目的:分析生物安全柜的质量和性能,保障实验室人员安全、可靠地使用生物安全柜.方法:根据国内外相关标准,分析和比较了生物安全柜性能检测的内容和关键项目.结果:生物安全柜的物理和生物性能检测至少包括柜体防泄漏,高效过滤器完整性,下降气流流速,流入气流流速,气流模式,人员、产品与交叉污染保护.结论:国家应制定强制性法规,规定生物安全柜的质量控制;实验室应建立质量管理制度,对生物安全柜进行周期检测.

  5. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  6. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-01-01

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically. PMID:26132533

  7. Patient Preferences for Biologicals in Psoriasis: Top Priority of Safety for Cardiovascular Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available Patients with psoriasis are often affected by comorbidities, which largely influence treatment decisions. Here we performed conjoint analysis to assess the impact of comorbidities on preferences of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis for outcome (probability of 50% and 90% improvement, time until response, sustainability of success, probability of mild and severe adverse events (AE, probability of ACR 20 response and process attributes (treatment location, frequency, duration and delivery method of biologicals. The influence of comorbidities on Relative Importance Scores (RIS was determined with analysis of variance and multivariate regression. Among the 200 participants completing the study, 22.5% suffered from psoriatic arthritis, 31.5% from arterial hypertension, 15% from cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, and/or arterial occlusive disease, 14.5% from diabetes, 11% from hyperlipidemia, 26% from chronic bronchitis or asthma and 12.5% from depression. Participants with psoriatic arthritis attached greater importance to ACR 20 response (RIS = 10.3 vs. 5.0, p<0.001; β = 0.278, p<0.001 and sustainability (RIS = 5.8 vs. 5.0, p = 0.032 but less value to time until response (RIS = 3.4 vs. 4.8, p = 0.045 than those without arthritis. Participants with arterial hypertension were particularly interested in a low risk of mild AE (RIS 9.7 vs. 12.1; p = 0.033 and a short treatment duration (RIS = 8.0 vs. 9.6, p = 0.002. Those with cardiovascular disease worried more about mild AE (RIS = 12.8 vs. 10, p = 0.027; β = 0.170, p = 0.027 and severe AE (RIS = 23.2 vs. 16.2, p = 0.001; β = 0.203, p = 0.007 but cared less about time until response (β = -0.189, p = 0.013, treatment location (β = -0.153, p = 0.049, frequency (β = -0.20, p = 0.008 and delivery method (β = -0.175, p = 0.023 than others. Patients' concerns should be addressed in-depth when prescribing biologicals to comorbid patients, keeping in

  8. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. An overview of the safety and biological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Infante, Néstor; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2016-05-01

    Crystal proteins (Cry) produced during the growth and sporulation phases of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium are known as delta endotoxins. These toxins are being used worldwide as bioinsecticides to control pests in agriculture, and some Cry toxins are used against mosquitoes to control vector transmission. This review summarizes the relevant information currently available regarding the biosafety and biological effects that Bt and its insecticidal Cry proteins elicit in mammals. This work was performed because of concerns regarding the possible health impact of Cry toxins on vertebrates, particularly because Bt toxins might be associated with immune-activating or allergic responses. The controversial data published to date are discussed in this review considering earlier toxicological studies of B. thuringiensis, spores, toxins and Bt crops. We discussed the experimental studies performed in humans, mice, rats and sheep as well as in diverse mammalian cell lines. Although the term 'toxic' is not appropriate for defining the effects these toxins have on mammals, they cannot be considered innocuous, as they have some physiological effects that may become pathological; thus, trials that are more comprehensive are necessary to determine their effects on mammals because knowledge in this field remains limited.

  10. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. An overview of the safety and biological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Infante, Néstor; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2016-05-01

    Crystal proteins (Cry) produced during the growth and sporulation phases of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium are known as delta endotoxins. These toxins are being used worldwide as bioinsecticides to control pests in agriculture, and some Cry toxins are used against mosquitoes to control vector transmission. This review summarizes the relevant information currently available regarding the biosafety and biological effects that Bt and its insecticidal Cry proteins elicit in mammals. This work was performed because of concerns regarding the possible health impact of Cry toxins on vertebrates, particularly because Bt toxins might be associated with immune-activating or allergic responses. The controversial data published to date are discussed in this review considering earlier toxicological studies of B. thuringiensis, spores, toxins and Bt crops. We discussed the experimental studies performed in humans, mice, rats and sheep as well as in diverse mammalian cell lines. Although the term 'toxic' is not appropriate for defining the effects these toxins have on mammals, they cannot be considered innocuous, as they have some physiological effects that may become pathological; thus, trials that are more comprehensive are necessary to determine their effects on mammals because knowledge in this field remains limited. PMID:26537666

  12. Assessment of biochar safety via its leachate characterization using physicochemical and biological assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailianis, Stefanos; Tsouloufa, Argyro; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates the physicochemical composition of water aliquots derived from biochars produced from the pyrolysis of malt spent rootlets, in combination with the concomitant toxicological profile in each case. Specifically, physicochemical parameters and heavy metal ions were determined in aliquots of six (6) serial washes of biochar (1.5 g of solid was added in column and washed 6 times with 40 mL of distilled water per wash). The chemical analysis of each aliquot showed increased levels of PO4-3, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-2, F- and Br- in the first wash aliquot, followed by a significant decrease over washes. Non-detectable concentrations were observed after 3 washes in almost all cases. Similarly, the increased levels of Zn, Be, Cs, Mn, V and Se determined in the first wash aliquot were eliminated followed successive washes. In parallel, the toxic potency of each wash aliquot was recorded by (a) a multi-well test plate bioassay, using instars II-III larvae of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus, hatched from cysts derived from Screening Toxicity test supplied by MicroBio Tests Inc. (Thamnotoxkit FTM) and (b) the Microtox bioassay, using bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. According to the results, first and second wash aliquots were toxic for T. platyurus (LC50 values of 22.12 and 68.28% v/v, respectively), followed by a significant elimination of toxicity after further washes in all cases. Similarly, the Microtox bioassay showed a significant inhibition of Vibrio luminescence after treatment for a period of 5-90 min (98-100% inhibition of luminescence) with the first wash aliquot (EC50 ≤ 0.01 % v/v), with no toxicity to be observed after successive washes. According to the results, at least one wash of biochar is prerequisite for improving its safety for further use. Moreover, the removal of both inorganic and organic, such as metal ions, substances commonly washed by the biochar, could be a crucial step for its sustainable use and final

  13. Gold nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions: assessment of safety and biological identity for nanomedicine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correard F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Florian Correard,1,2 Ksenia Maximova,3 Marie-Anne Estève,1,2 Claude Villard,1 Myriam Roy,4 Ahmed Al-Kattan,3 Marc Sentis,3 Marc Gingras,4 Andrei V Kabashin,3 Diane Braguer1,2 1Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, CR02 UMR_S911, Marseille, France; 2APHM, Hôpital Timone, Marseille, France; 3Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LP3 UMR 7341, Marseille, France; 4Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINAM, UMR 7325 Marseille, France Abstract: Due to excellent biocompatibility, chemical stability, and promising optical properties, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs are the focus of research and applications in nanomedicine. Au-NPs prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions present an essentially novel object that is unique in avoiding any residual toxic contaminant. This paper is conceived as the next step in development of laser-ablated Au-NPs for future in vivo applications. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, uptake, and biological behavior of laser-synthesized Au-NPs prepared in water or polymer solutions in human cell lines. Our results showed that laser ablation allows the obtaining of stable and monodisperse Au-NPs in water, polyethylene glycol, and dextran solutions. The three types of Au-NPs were internalized in human cell lines, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and safety of Au-NPs were demonstrated by analyzing cell survival and cell morphology. Furthermore, incubation of the three Au-NPs in serum-containing culture medium modified their physicochemical characteristics, such as the size and the charge. The composition of the protein corona adsorbed on Au-NPs was investigated by mass spectrometry. Regarding composition of complement C3 proteins and apolipoproteins, Au-NPs prepared in dextran solution appeared as a promising drug carrier. Altogether, our results revealed the safety of laser-ablated Au-NPs in human cell lines and support their use for theranostic applications. Keywords: protein

  14. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  15. Performance Testing and Quality Control of Biological Safety Cabinets%生物安全柜的性能检测与质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through performance testing of biological safety cabinet,to understand its performance,so as to improve its safety.Methods Six required items are tested according to the standard of Biological Safety Cabinets.Results The six required items can meet the technical requirements,the biological safety cabinet is qualified.Conclusion Quality control of medical equipment is of great significance.%目的 通过对生物安全柜的性能检测,以掌握其性能现状,提高使用的安全性.方法 依据《生物安全柜》标准,对生物安全性等6个必检项目进行性能检测.结果 6个检测项目符合技术要求,生物安全柜性能合格.结论 加强医疗设备质量控制关系重大,不容忽视.

  16. 有关生物实验室安全问题的思考%Thinking about the Safety of Biological Laboratories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟辰

    2015-01-01

    The 21st century, scientific research projects in universities and the creation of course more and more diverse, the study and application of biological technology becomes more common, the corresponding biological laboratory use and safety is particularly important. Laboratory safety problems and corresponding safety measures were profound thinking, illustrates the biological laboratory hardware and software security risks from ideology, full participation, security system from three aspects: describes the biological laboratory of the central task and countermeasures.%21世纪后,高校科研项目和开设课程越来越多样化,生物技术的学习和应用也随之更为普遍,相应的生物实验室的使用和安全就尤为重要。就实验室安全方面出现的问题及相应的安全对策进行了深刻的思考,说明了生物实验室硬件和软件两方面存在的安全隐患,从思想意识、全员参与、安全制度三个方面阐述了生物实验室的中心任务和对策。

  17. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausel R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms, healing of colonic mucosa, and prevention of disease complications. Our treatment armamentarium has expanded dramatically over the past 10 years, and we now have multiple biologic agents approved for the treatment of moderate-severe disease, in addition to conventional therapies such as 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. In this review, we will provide a detailed discussion of the three tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α inhibitors currently approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. All three agents are effective for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, and they have comparable safety profiles. There are no head-to-head trials comparing their efficacy, and the choice of agent is most often based on insurance coverage, route of administration, and patient preference. Combination therapy with an immunomodulator is proven to be more effective than anti-TNF monotherapy, and patients who lose response to an anti-TNF agent should undergo dose intensification in order to regain clinical response. Despite therapeutic optimization, a significant percentage of patients will not achieve clinical remission with anti-TNF agents, and so newer therapies are on the horizon. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab

  18. Adult Stem Cells Properties in Terms of Commitment, Aging and Biological Safety of Grit-Blasted and Acid-Etched Ti Dental Implants Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo - Guirado, José L.; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibil...

  19. 医院输血科生物安全管理现状及对策%Current management of biological safety in hospital blood transfusion and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴争胜; 蒋璐茜; 陈秉宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 根据浙江省输血科(血库)生物安全建设的现状,探讨进行规范化管理的方法. 方法 随机调查浙江省30所医院输血科(血库)存在的生物安全隐患,探讨制定切实可行的管理措施. 结果 综合性医院输血科生物安全管理方面存在诸多隐患,其中管理制度、操作规程等完善的合格率仅60.0%,66.7%输血科工作区布局不够合理、工作人员感染防范意识较差、医疗废弃物处理不规范等,个人防护的基本配置>90.0%,但实际使用率欠佳. 结论 必须严格执行生物安全的法律法规,制定和健全规章制度,才能确保输血科生物安全,有效预防与控制医院感染.%OBJECTIVE To approach standardized management of biological safety in blood transfusion based upon the present situation in this field in Zhejiang.METHODS A randomized survey of hidden hazardous factors threatening biological safety was conducted among the departments of blood transfusion in 30 hospitals and the data were statistically analyzed.RESULTS Several risky issues were found in the management of blood transfusion and biological safety.The qualified rate of supervising system and operating rules was only 60.0 %, unreasonable layout of workspace, poor awareness of prevention of infection, inadequate disposition of medical wastes accounted for 66.7%, staff's body sheltering was equipped over 90.0%, but the actual using rate was unexpectedly low.CONCLUSION In order to ensure the biological safety in blood transfusion and effective prevention and control of hospital infection, the relevant laws and regulations concerning biological safety should be established and strictly carried out.

  20. The Research Status of Synthetic Biology Safety Ethics%合成生物学安全伦理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱万强; 墨宏山; 闫金定; 张敏

    2013-01-01

    近年来合成生物学取得了突破性进展,然而,公众在关注合成生物学突破的同时,也陷入了对其安全性的担忧。本文阐述了合成生物学的概念及其发展途径,分析了国外政府和科研机构对于合成生物学安全性的考虑,并提出了针对我国合成生物学理性发展的建议。%Synthetic biology achieves a breakthrough in recent years.The public have been paying attention to the breakthroughs of synthetic biology as well as lost in wor-ries about its safety .In this paper , we expound the con-cept of synthetic biology and its development pathway , analyze the security considerations of foreign govern-ments and research institutions on synthetic biology , and puts forward suggestions for rational development of synthetic biology in China .

  1. A Effect of Biological Pollution on Food Safety%生物性污染对食品安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙若玉; 任亚妮; 张斌

    2015-01-01

    生物性污染是威胁食品安全和人们身心健康的重要因素之一,主要包括细菌性污染、病毒性污染、真菌和真菌毒素污染、水产中的生物毒素、寄生虫与害虫污染几个方面。通过对食品生物性污染来源分析,提出相应的预防措施,为有效保证食品安全工作提供依据。%The biological pollution was one of the important factors that threaten food safety and people's physical and mental health,which including bacterial pollution, viral contamination, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, biological toxin in aquaculture, parasites and pests and so on. Through the analysis of the biological pollution, We put forward the corresponding prevention measures, provide the basis for effective guarantee food safety work.

  2. 生物性污染对食品安全的影响%A Effect of Biological Pollution on Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙若玉; 任亚妮; 张斌

    2015-01-01

    The biological pollution was one of the important factors that threaten food safety and people's physical and mental health,which including bacterial pollution, viral contamination, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, biological toxin in aquaculture, parasites and pests and so on. Through the analysis of the biological pollution, We put forward the corresponding prevention measures, provide the basis for effective guarantee food safety work.%生物性污染是威胁食品安全和人们身心健康的重要因素之一,主要包括细菌性污染、病毒性污染、真菌和真菌毒素污染、水产中的生物毒素、寄生虫与害虫污染几个方面。通过对食品生物性污染来源分析,提出相应的预防措施,为有效保证食品安全工作提供依据。

  3. Biological and haematological safety profile of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massaga, J J; Lusingu, J P; Makunde, R;

    2008-01-01

    -immune healthy adult male volunteers with and without malaria parasites. The objective was to collect data on biological and haematological safety, tolerability, and parasitological efficacy to serve as baseline in the evaluation of the effectiveness of AQ preventive intermittent treatment against malaria......Amodiaquine (AQ), an effective antimalarial drug for uncomplicated malaria, has been greatly restricted after cases of life-threatening agranulocytosis and hepatic toxicity during prophylactic use. We conducted a hospital based open-label randomised clinical trial in 40 indigenous semi...

  4. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with the use of biologic and other investigational agents: the importance of long-term post-marketing safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Allison; Borovicka, Judy H; West, Dennis P; Evens, Andrew M; Laumann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after receiving courses of two investigational biologic agents and cyclosporine followed by more than four years of subcutaneous efalizumab for the treatment of extensive chronic plaque psoriasis. Three years later, the patient remains free of lymphoma and his psoriasis is well controlled with thrice-weekly narrow-band ultraviolet phototherapy. This case emphasizes the importance of continued long-term post-marketing safety surveillance and the early reporting of all possible serious side effects, including cancers, related to the use of any newly available product. In particular, surveillance should focus on the immunomodulating biologic agents in order to identify possible dangerous sequelae.

  5. 交联透明质酸钠凝胶的生物安全性研究%Biological Safety Research of Cross-linked Sodium Hyaluronate Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彬; 奚宏伟; 魏长征

    2014-01-01

    采用L929细胞对不同浓度DVS进行细胞毒性试验,采用新西兰白兔对交联透明质酸钠凝胶进行皮内刺激和皮下植入试验,对DVS的急性毒性和交联透明质酸钠凝胶生物安全性进行了评价。结果表明:含量2.5 mg/kg以内的DVS对L929细胞不具备细胞毒性,交联透明质酸钠凝胶符合GB/T16886中皮内刺激试验和皮下植入试验要求,交联透明质酸钠凝胶具有较好的生物安全性。%The cytotoxicity of divinylsulfone ( DVS ) and biological safety of cross -linked sodium hyaluronate gel ( CHA) were used.The cytotoxicity of DVS was graded and evaluated by L 929 cells, the intracutaneous stimulation test and subcutaneous implanting test of CHA were graded by rabbits.The concentration of DVS below 2.5 mg/kg had no cytotoxicity , CHA possessed good biocompatibility according GB /T 16886.Cross -linked sodium hyaluronate gel possessed good biological safety.

  6. 动物解剖学实验的生物安全思考与建议%Considerations and Suggestions on Biological Safety of Animal Anatomy Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自强; 刘玉梅; 朱雪敏; 位兰

    2015-01-01

    Animal Anatomy Experiment is an experimental course and its content is mainly involved in animal operating. The biological safety problems existing in animal anatomy experiment are indispensable. In order to avoid the occurrence of biological safety problems in Animal Anatomy Experiments teaching, some suggestions were proposed in this paper based on the experiences in Animal Anatomy Experiments teaching.%动物解剖学实验是以剖解动物为主体的一门实验课程,动物剖解过程中生物安全问题不容忽视。根据多年来从事动物解剖学实验教学的切身经验,从多个方面提出了控制生物安全事故发生的有效措施,以期能够杜绝动物解剖学实验过程中生物安全事故的发生。

  7. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone.

  8. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone. PMID:27396166

  9. Considerations and Suggestions on Biological Safety of Animal Anatomy Experiments%动物解剖学实验的生物安全思考与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自强; 刘玉梅; 朱雪敏; 位兰

    2015-01-01

    Animal Anatomy Experiment is an experimental course and its content is mainly involved in animal operating. The biological safety problems existing in animal anatomy experiment are indispensable. In order to avoid the occurrence of biological safety problems in Animal Anatomy Experiments teaching, some suggestions were proposed in this paper based on the experiences in Animal Anatomy Experiments teaching.%动物解剖学实验是以剖解动物为主体的一门实验课程,动物剖解过程中生物安全问题不容忽视。根据多年来从事动物解剖学实验教学的切身经验,从多个方面提出了控制生物安全事故发生的有效措施,以期能够杜绝动物解剖学实验过程中生物安全事故的发生。

  10. Comparison of long-term drug survival and safety of biologic agents in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    zbr735, zbr735; Bang, B; Bryld, L E;

    2015-01-01

    and to analyse the factors that influence drug survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the prospective registry DERMBIO covering all patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with biologic agents in the academic centres in Denmark. Drug survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method......BACKGROUND: Drug survival (time to drug discontinuation) has recently emerged as an important parameter reflecting the long-term therapeutic performance in a real-life setting. Biologic drug survival in psoriasis is mainly limited by a gradual loss of efficacy over time. Previous studies have been...... limited by small patient population size and short observation times and yielded discrepant survival times for different biologics. OBJECTIVES: To calculate the long-term drug survival for adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab in a large cohort of real-life patients with psoriasis vulgaris...

  11. Progress in Biological Effects and Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials%纳米材料生物效应研究和安全性评价前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元方; 陈欣欣; 王海芳

    2011-01-01

    The sustainable development of nanotechnology requires the comprehensive understanding on the safety of nanomaterials. Since 2004, researches on the biological effects and safety evaluation of nanomaterials have been developing rapidly and grown to an interdisciplinary field, nanotoxicology. The safety issue of nanotechnology attracts the attentions of the academic, enterprise, government and public. The authors described the urgency and importance of safety evaluation on nanomaterials, and focused on the latest progress related to nano-product, workplace and environment. In addition, a brief discussion on the standardization in nanotechnology, the nano-ethics and the risk management of nanotechnology was presented.%纳米技术持续、健康的发展要求我们了解纳米材料的安全性.2004年以来,纳米材料生物效应和安全性研究发展迅速,形成一个跨学科的研究领域,并受到政府、学界、企业和社会公众等的广泛关注.文中叙述了纳米材料安全性评估的迫切性和重要意义,重点讨论了该领域的最新发展方向,包括纳米产品、工作场所和环境的安全等,同时简单讨论了纳米标准化、纳米技术风险管理和纳米伦理研究与纳米安全性研究的关系.

  12. BIOLOGICAL SAFETY EVALUATION OF CHITOSAN ANTIBACTERIAL SPRAY%一种壳聚糖抗菌喷膜剂的生物安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美玲; 张紫虹; 刘宇; 古梅英; 王凤岩

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解一种壳聚糖抗菌喷膜剂的毒性及生物相容性.方法 通过动物实验和细胞毒性试验方法,对该制剂的生物安全性进行了评价.结果 该壳聚糖制剂为一种抗菌喷膜制剂,其有效成分为含质量分数1%壳聚糖.该抗菌喷膜对体外培养的L -929细胞形态无明显影响,对细胞生长和增殖无明显抑制作用,细胞毒性均为0级.在新西兰家兔的阴道使用该抗菌喷膜黏膜后发现黏膜有轻微充血,组织病理学观察到血管充血程度较强,刺激指数为1.44,属极轻刺激性.该抗菌喷膜对豚鼠完整皮肤无致红斑和水肿反应,属不致敏级.结论 该抗菌喷膜无体外细胞毒作用,对试验动物完整皮肤无致敏性,但对动物阴道黏膜有极轻度刺激性,具有较好的生物安全性.%Objective To understand the toxicity and biocompatibiliry of chitosan antibacterial spray in order to assess its safety. Methods Animal test and cytotoxicity test in vitro were performed to evaluate the biological safety of this biological disinfectant. Results Chitosan antibacterial spray containing 1 % chitosan had no significant effect on the L - 929 cell morphology and had no significant inhibition on cell growth and proliferation; The cytotoxicity gradation was 0 degree in various concentration of leaching liquors of test materials. Mild irritation was found in vaginal mucosa of rabbit, vas congestion was found in pathological test and irritation index was 1.44 which belonged to mild irritation grade. No skin erythema and edema was found in albinism animal test, which belonged to no - hypersensitivity. Conclusion This chitosan antibacterial spray used for mucosa has mild stimulation, good biocompatibility and biological safety.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the thermo-treatment process to dispose of recombinant DNA waste from biological research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of recombinant DNA waste from biological laboratories into the eco-system may be one of the pathways resulting in horizontal gene transfer or 'gene pollution'. Heating at 100 deg. C for 5-10 min is a common method for treating recombinant DNA waste in biological research laboratories in China. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety of the thermo-treatment method in the disposal of recombinant DNA waste. Quantitative PCR, plasmid transformation and electrophoresis technology were used to evaluate the decay/denaturation efficiency during the thermo-treatment process of recombinant plasmid, pET-28b. Results showed that prolonging thermo-treatment time could improve decay efficiency of the plasmid, and its decay half-life was 2.7-4.0 min during the thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C. However, after 30 min of thermo-treatment some transforming activity remained. Higher ionic strength could protect recombinant plasmid from decay during the treatment process. These results indicate that thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C cannot decay and inactivate pET-28b completely. In addition, preliminary results showed that thermo-treated recombinant plasmids were not degraded completely in a short period when they were discharged into an aquatic environment. This implies that when thermo-treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into the eco-system, they may have enough time to re-nature and transform, thus resulting in gene diffusion

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  15. LED的光安全性和光生物效应%Safety and Biological Effects of Light on LED Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春宇; 张志远; 黄彦; 马俊涛; 段然

    2015-01-01

    LED是继传统光源之后的新型光源. 它具有高光效,节能,寿命长等诸多优点,在各领域得到越来越广泛的应用. 但是由于其独特的发光原理和光谱特性,一方面其光安全性问题得到人们越来越多的关注;另一方面它对人体的光生物效应也引发了学者更深入的研究和重视. 该文简要介绍了LED的发光原理,及其对人体安全性的评定标准,通过LED对人体可能产生的伤害和对人体的生物效应两方面进行阐述,以期研究者在今后的应用中能慎重考虑,既充分利用LED对人体的光生物效应,又要结合安全性考虑,采取科学适当的应用方式.%the LED is the light source after traditional light sources. It has high efficiency, energy saving, long life and other advantages, have been widely used in various fields. However, due to its unique spectral characteristics of light emitting principle and, on the one hand its light security had got more and more attention to researchers; on the other hand it's biological effects on human body also causes the scholars further study and attention. Introduced the principle of LED light, and its implications for human safety assessment standards through LED to the human body may have hurt and both biological effects on the human body, and to researchers in the future application of extreme caution, take full advantage of led light effects on the human body and combines safety, appropriate application of science.

  16. A comparative study of the safety and efficacy effect of 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin C mounted biological delivery membranes in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu ZH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhihong Wu,1 Shuning Li,2 Ningli Wang,2 Wanshun Liu,3 Wen Liu3 1General Hospital of Armed Police Forces, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China 3Ocean University of China, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the potential usage of biological delivery membranes containing mitomycin C (MMC or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in the construction of glaucoma-filtering blebs, and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Methods: Chitosan was selected as the biological membrane carrier to prepare sustained-released membranes. Twelve micrograms of 5-FU or MMC was covalently conjugated onto the membranes by solvent volatilization. Rabbits underwent glaucoma filtration surgery and were randomly allocated into one of the four treatment regimens: glaucoma filtration operation with no implantation of chitosan membrane group (as control, drug-free chitosan membrane implantation group (blank/placebo group, membrane containing 5-FU treatment group (5-FU group, and membrane containing MMC treatment group (MMC group. Each group consisted of 12 rabbits. Intraocular pressure (IOP was measured and evaluated over a 28-day period follow-up preoperatively, then after surgery on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 by Tono-Pen. The aqueous humor was analyzed in each experimental and control groups at days 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 after operation. Bleb survival and anterior segment were examined with a slit lamp microscope and photographed simultaneously. Two rabbits from each group were killed on day 28 and eight eye samples obtained for histopathological study. Corneas and lenses were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Both 5-FU and MMC significantly prolonged bleb survival compared with control groups. The filtering bleb’s survival period was significantly more prolonged in the MMC and 5-FU groups (maintained 14 days than the

  17. Biological safety of LipoFullerene composed of squalane and fullerene-C60 upon mutagenesis, photocytotoxicity, and permeability into the human skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2009-06-01

    Fullerene-C60 (C60) is mainly applied in the aqueous phase by wrapping with water-soluble polymer or by water-solublizing chemical-modification, whereas C60 dissolved in oil is scarcely applied; still less explicable is its toxicity.We dissolved C60 in squalane at near-saturated or higher concentrations (220-500 ppm), named LipoFullerene (LF-SQ),and examined its biological safety. LF-SQ was administered at doses of 0.49-1000 microg/ml to fibroblast cells Balb/3T3, and showed that cell viability was almost equal to that of the control regardless of the UVA- or sham-irradiation, indicating no phototoxicity. Reverse mutation by LF-SQ was examined on four histidine-demanding strains of Salmonella typhimurium and a tryptophan-demanding strain of Escherichia coli. As for the dosages of LF-SQ (313-5000 microg/plate), the dose-dependency of the number of reverse mutation colonies of each strain did not show a marked difference when compared with the negative control, regardless of the metabolic activation, in contrast to twice or more differences for five positive controls(sodium azide, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 2-nitrofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, and 2-aminoanthracene). In human skin biopsy built in a diffusion chamber, C60 permeated into the epidermis at 33.6 nmol/g tissue (24.2 ppm), on administration with LF-SQ containing 223 ppm of C60, but not detected in the dermis even after 24 hrs, as analysed by HPLC. It is presumed that LF-SQ can permeate into the epidermis via the corneum but can not penetrate the basement membrane,and so can not reach into the dermis, suggesting no necessity for considering a toxicity of C60 due to systemic circulation via dermal veins. Thus, C60 dissolved in squalane may not give any significant biological toxic effects such as photocytotoxicity,bacterial reverse mutagenicity, and permeability into the human skin.

  18. Biological safety of hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens%疏水性丙烯酸酯折叠式人工晶体的生物安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓杰; 姜宝光; 王召旭

    2015-01-01

    背景:在临床试验前,需对疏水性丙烯酸酯人工晶体以新西兰白兔作为植入对象进行生物学评价。目的:观察新型疏水性丙烯酸酯折叠式人工晶体的生物安全性。方法:取新西兰家兔12只,右侧眼做实验眼,植入沈阳百奥医疗器械有限公司研制疏水性丙烯酸酯折叠式人工晶体,左侧眼做对照眼,植入美国爱尔康公司的Acrysof IQ SN60WF人工晶体。结果与结论:与对照眼相比,兔实验眼植入后各时间点角膜、前房、植入物位置、眼后节变化差异无显著性意义;且角膜和晶体囊袋无炎症反应,组织增生差异无显著性意义;人工晶体表面无巨噬细胞等炎症细胞,晶体表面、襻根部可见纤维组织。说明此款新材料与临床中已经广泛应用的产品无显著差别,即具有生物安全性。%BACKGROUND:Hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens should be evaluated biologicaly with New Zealand rabbits as implant objects prior to clinical trial. OBJECTIVE:To observe the biological safety of hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand rabbits were enroled. The right eyes were implanted with self-developed hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens (Shenyang Baiao Medical Device Co., Ltd., China) as experimental group, and the left eyes were implanted with Acrysof IQ SN60WF (Alcon, USA) as control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After implantation, there were no significant differences in the cornea, anterior chamber, implant position, posterior segment of eyebal between two groups. Tissue proliferation had no obviously difference between the two groups, and there were cornea and lens pouch inflammations. No macrophages and other inflammatory cels were visualized on the surface of intraocular lens, and fibrous tissues were found on the intraocular lens surface and in the haptics root. These findings suggest that the self-developed hydrophobic acrylic

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  20. Status quo investigation on biological safety of laboratory in medical institutions of a certain area in Chongqing%重庆市某地医疗机构实验室生物安全现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许巍; 苏瑛; 冯垚; 邓清华; 何俊琳

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市某地区医疗机构已备案二级生物实验室生物安全现状,为卫生部门生物安全管理提供决策依据.方法 对该地区内所有申报二级生物安全实验室的22家医疗机构进行调查,通过形式和实质性审查、现场调查等方法进行普查.结果 医疗机构生物安全管理薄弱,基本设施和管理水平普遍达不到二级防护生物安全实验室的要求,与备案出入较大.生物安全柜配置率仅22.7%,54.5%的机构制定了生物安全标准操作规程,而建立生物安全责任制的机构仅40.9%.结论 应加大实验室生物安全硬件投入,制订完善的生物安全管理规范,对从业人员加强生物安全的培训,提高其安全意识.政府部门应加强监管,提出合理化建议.%Objective To understand the current situation of biological security in the biological second level laboratories(BSL 2) on records of the medical institutions in a certain area of Chongqing city and to provide the basis of decision making for the bio logical safety management in the health administrative departments. Methods 22 medical institutions applying for BSL 2 in this ar ea were investigated by the way of form and substantial examination,and field survey. Results The management of biological secur lty in the medical institutions were weak,the basic hardware facility and management level generally could not reach the essential re quirements for the second level prevention biological security laboratory. Compared with those in records, the difference was rela tively large. The collocation rate of the biological safety cabinet reached only 22. 7%. 54. 5% of the medical institutions formulated the standard operating procedure of biological safety. The institutions establishing the biological safety responsibility system ac counted for only 40. 9%. Conclusion We should increase the hardware investment in laboratory biological security,formulate the perfecting management standard of

  1. Food Safety for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants People at Risk of Foodborne Illness To Your Health! Food Safety for Seniors Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  2. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Auto Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Auto Safety Print A A ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  3. 苏云金芽孢杆菌的生物防治安全性研究进展%Advances on the Safety of Biological Control with Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琼; 倪超超

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is one of the most successful biological insecticides applied so far in the world. However, some reports in the past ten years showed that people doubted the safety of Bacillus thuringiensis, which was considered non-toxic to human and animals. Some experts thought that it was necessary to develop new Bt strains with better safety and efficiency with modern biological technology to avoid potential toxicity to human and animals.%苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)是目前全球应用最成功的生物杀虫剂之一。然而近10年多的研究成果表明,一直以来人们认为对人畜无毒性的苏云金芽孢杆菌的安全性问题受到质疑,一些专家认为有必要通过现代生物技术对苏云金芽孢杆菌进一步改良,重新选育一些安全性更可靠、杀虫效率更高的 Bt 菌株应用于生物防治,以避免其对人畜的可能毒害。

  4. Strategy Studies on Biological Safety of Genetically-modified Organism in China%我国转基因生物安全战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范云六; 黄大昉; 彭于发

    2012-01-01

    转基因技术已成为近代发展最快的作物改良技术,也是目前人们密切关注的农业技术.由于转基因作物育种关乎生态环境和人类的健康,由此引发的生物安全问题一直以来都备受争论,在国家的严格管理下,不断经受各种质疑和考验.总结了转基因生物安全的特点和我国转基因生物安全管理的成就,并分析了我国转基因生物安全存在的问题,以使公众能正确的认识转基因技术及其产品,使其健康发展,为农业生产服务,推进社会发展.%Transgenic technology is a rapidly developed agricultural technique for improving crops. At present, it is paid close attention by the people. Owing to the factor that transgenic crop breeding is correlated with ecological environment and human health, the issue of bio-safety has been debated at all times and is experiencing questioning and testing under the strict management of the country. This paper summarized the characteristics of genetically-modified organism (GMO) bio-safety and the achievement gained in managing GMO bio-safety in China, and analyzed the existing issues in GMO bio-safety, so as to help the public to correctly understand the transgenic technology and its products, to make GMO develop healthily, thus it can serve the agriculture production and promote social development.

  5. SAFETY TONIC (ENERGY) BEVERAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Kotova, T.; Razumov, A.; Sukhikh, A.; Polyakov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Volume growth of consumption of tonic (energy) beverages determines the necessity to study safety criteria of the components used in their manufacture, having a tonic effect. Relevancy of the study is stipulated by the fact, that for the first time biological safety of prolonged use of the main components of non-alcoholic tonic (energy) beverages is evaluated by identifying biomarkers damage of cell membranes and integral parameters of metabolism, the results of which are applicable to humans...

  6. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  7. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  8. Regulatory and bio-safety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing GMO and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been a subject of increasing discussions among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Transgenic technology alters an animal's genome to achieve desired production or health effects of commercial or societal value. Since transgenesis itself is a relatively new scientific approach, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is no existing information relevant to their performance under domestication or to their behavior in the wild, nor is there any firm basis for predicting their potential. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade, and ethics. Many concerns related to genetic modifications in animals or plants focus on safety of the human food chain. Given the present public perception of animal biotechnology in general, transgenic animals are viewed with varying degrees of optimism and skepticism. In light of these divergent views the question that remains to be answered is how to develop regulations that safeguard the public concerns and at the same time allow this technology to benefit agriculture, in a manner that neither 'restricts' nor 'facilitates'. Transgenic animals are produced for four basic reasons: to improve animal health, to increase productivity and improve product quality, to mitigate the environmental impact of foodanimal production, and to produce therapeutics. To date, scientists have been able to add, delete, silence or partially activate genes of interest. To regulate such a powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only to the regulators, but also to the developers who strive to prove that these animals are safe by demonstrating bioequivalency to their conventional counterparts. The regulations are based on the principle of substantial

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal., and biological effects on the CAM-assay: a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Dadandi, Mehmet Y; Paper, Dietrich H; Franz, Gerhard; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2003-01-01

    Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal. of the Lamiaceae family growing in central, east and southeast Anatolia is an endemic species for Turkey. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts by hydro distillation was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. The main components of the oil were found as beta-caryophyllene (24.2%), germacrene D (22.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.2%), among 49 identified compounds, representing 94.5% of the total essential oil. The overall biological activity of the essential oil (100 microg/pellet) was tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the fertilized hen's egg in order to examine the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. None of the tests showed pronounced activity, toxicity or irritation at the tested concentration. PMID:14713159

  10. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  11. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    effects were investigated via following indexes - occurrence of abnormality of certain type (geotropism and ontogenesis disturbance, chlorophyll abnormalities and root necrosis) in relation to the whole investigated sampling and occurrence of plants, progeny of which has detached abnormal forms. Our studies resulted in dose dependent character of the majority of investigated indexes. The most radiosensitive indexes of the common reed in conditions of long-term low-dose irradiation of parent plants include: all vitality indexes, frequency distribution of root and leaf length of germs, in progeny of which abnormal forms are detached. No reliable correlation was determined for dose dependences of root length distribution and abnormalities of particular type. Significant differences of studied indexes of seeds, with absorbed dose rate of parent plants 0.7-22.0 mcGy h{sup -1}, were determined in conditions of long-term ionizing radiation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. It is assumed that hormesis effect on littoral zone vegetation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone does exist. Studied indexes may be recommended for use in the complex determination of water bodies' radioecological safety. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  13. ITER safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the series of publications by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this document describes the ITER safety analyses. It contains an assessment of normal operation effluents, accident scenarios, plasma chamber safety, tritium system safety, magnet system safety, external loss of coolant and coolant flow problems, and a waste management assessment, while it describes the implementation of the safety approach for ITER. The document ends with a list of major conclusions, a set of topical remarks on technical safety issues, and recommendations for the Engineering Design Activities, safety considerations for siting ITER, and recommendations with regard to the safety issues for the R and D for ITER. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. SAFETY FIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  15. Clinical application of temporary crown and cement materials: physical properties and biological safety%临时冠材料及黏结材料的临床应用:物理性能与生物安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂二民; 姜瑞; 张春元; 曾尽娣; 谈济州

    2015-01-01

    背景:临时冠在临床应用较为广泛,临时冠及其黏结材料随着材料科学的发展不断更新,其临床应用、物理学性能及生物安全性方面也越来越优越.目的:综述临时冠及其黏结材料的临床应用现状、物理性能及生物安全性.方法:以"temporary crown,provisional crown,temporary restoration,provisional restoration,interim restoration"为英文检索词,应用计算机检索PubMed数据库中2004年1月至2014年12月发表的相关文章.纳入与临时冠及其黏结材料相关的研究文献,排除重复性研究.结果与结论:通过临床评价和实验研究得出,临时冠材料自身聚合收缩、聚合产热、单体释放等物理特性和细胞毒性、对软组织的刺激性等生物安全性方面是临床要克服的关键问题.临时冠材料和黏结材料在临床上应用广泛,随着新材料筛选和新制作方法的出现其具有巨大的应用前景和较高的临床价值,但在其实验室研究和临床应用的探索过程中,还有许多亟待解决和深入探究的问题.%BACKGROUND:Temporary crown has been used widely in clinic. The physical properties and biological safety of temporary crown and cement materials are more superior along with the development of material science. OBJECTIVE:To summarize clinical application, physical properties and biological safety of the temporary crown and cement materials. METHODS:PubMed database was searched by the key words of "temporary crown, provisional crown, temporary restoration, provisional restoration, interim restoration" in English to retrieve relevant articles published from January 2004 to December 2014. Literatures addressing the temporary crown and cement materials were included, and the repetitive researches were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Through the clinical evaluation and experimental study, the physical properties (polymerization shrinkage, polymerization heat production, polymerization monomer release) and

  16. 可降解聚已内酯材料的体外生物学特征:安全性评价%Biological characters in vitro of degradable polycaprolactone:safety evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾合麦提·玉素甫; 陈统一; 陈中伟

    2004-01-01

    背景:可降解聚己内酯体内植入物材料的毒副作用、生物安全性评价试验已有报道,但体外生物学安全性如何还不清楚.目的:评价可降解聚己内酯的体外生物学安全性.设计:随机对照重复测量设计.地点和对象:在上海市计划生育研究所毒理学实验室完成.Wistar大鼠130只、新西兰大白兔9只,上海医科大学中山医院动物实验部提供,清洁级.干预:采用可降解PCL的浸出液进行了急性毒性试验、Ames试验、微核试验、肌肉刺激实验、热源试验.主要观察指标:①急性毒性试验结果.②Ames试验结果.③微核试验结果.④肌肉刺激实验结果.⑤热源试验结果.结果:PCL浸出液对大鼠的生长及细胞无毒性作用,Ames试验及微核试验结果证明PCL对细胞染色体、DNA水平的遗传物质无损害作用.热源试验及肌肉刺激试验结果证明PCL无免疫原性.结论:PCL是一种具有良好的生物相容性、无毒性、无免疫原性的材料.%BACKGROUND: There are some reports on the toxic and side effects, biological safety evaluation of degradable polycaprolactone(PCL) as in vivo implantation material. However, the in vitro safety of biological is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro biological safety of degradable PCL.DESIGN: A randomized controlled and repeated survey design was conducted.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Toxicology, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research. One hundred and thirty Wister rats and 9 New Zealand rabbits of clean grade were provided by Department of Experimental Animals, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Medical University.INTERVENTIONS: The extraction solution of degradable PCL was used to conduct acute toxicity testing, Ames test, micronucleus test, muscle stimulation test and heat source test.RESULTS: PCL extraction solution had no toxic effects of on the growth of rats and on the cells. Ames test and

  17. Safety matters

    OpenAIRE

    Gelder, P. van

    1999-01-01

    Several events have transpired recently to underscore yet again how important the issue of safety is for the local construction industry. This month regular contributor J.A. McInnis takes a look at how some of these events relate to one major area of site safety: safety whilst working at a height.

  18. 可降解性壳聚糖基小口径人工血管的生物安全性%BIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF BIODEGRADABLE CHITOSAN SMALL-CALIBRE ARTIFICIAL VASCULAR PROSTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晓颖; 韩宝芹; 王海霞; 李辉; 徐文华; 刘万顺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological safety of a new type biodegraded chitosan-diameter small-calibre (inner diameter 2 mm) artificial vascular prosthesis (AVP). Methods Cytotoxicity, acute systemic toxicity. subcutaneous irritant reaction, inflammatory reaction, in vitro haemolysis, and plasma protein adherency of the AVP were detected. Results All the above parameters detected were consistent with clinical requirements, and the adsorption quantity of albumen of heparin-contained AVP was higher than that without heparin-contained AVP, Conclusion Biodegradable chitosan small calibre AVP is consistent with clinical requirements in terms of cell-safety and tissue-safety, which provides a sufficient theoretical evidence for its clinical application.%目的 对新型可降解的壳聚糖基小口径(内径为2 mm)人工血管的安全性进行检测,探讨其意义.方法 对壳聚糖基小口径人工血管的细胞毒性、急性全身毒性、皮下刺激反应、炎症反应、体外溶血率、血浆蛋白黏附等进行检测.结果 可降解壳聚糖基小口径人工血管细胞毒性、体外溶血率、急性全身毒性、皮下刺激反应及炎症反应均符合临床要求,且含有肝素的人工血管的清蛋白吸附量显著高于无肝素成分的人工血管.结论 可降解壳聚糖基小口径人工血管在细胞安全性、组织安全性方面均符合临床要求,为其临床应用提供充分的理论依据.

  19. Safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Safety Handbook is to outline simply the fundamental procedures and safety precautions which provide an appropriate framework for safe working with any potential hazards, such as fire and explosion, welding, cutting, brazing and soldering, compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, chemicals, ionizing radiations, non-ionising radiations, sound and vibration, as well as safety in the office. It also specifies the organisation for safety at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and the responsibilities of individuals and committees. It also defines the procedures for the scrutiny and review of all operations and the resultant setting of safety rules for them. ills

  20. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  1. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  2. A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens : article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Purchase

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intramuscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed intervals spanning 4 weeks post-vaccination. Necropsies were performed and samples were taken and tested. No clinical signs or mortalities could be attributed to the OBPft vaccine nor could active shedding of the vaccine strain be detected. Slight pathological changes were noted with both routes of vaccination; however, these changes were transient, returning to normal within the observation period. The injected groups showed a better serological response with the rapid serum plate agglutination (RSPA test than the orally vaccinated groups. In the duration of protection trial, birds were challenged at 3-8-week intervals post-vaccination. All unvaccinated birds died. Protection 8 and 16 weeks after vaccination was above 60 %, by 24 weeks after challenge, the vaccine protection was below 30 %. It was found that there was no significant difference (P < 0.05 in the protection offered by either the oral or injected route of vaccination with the OBPft vaccine.

  3. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  4. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  5. Visit safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to safety-general@cern.ch.   The HSE Unit

  6. Medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  7. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Healthy Jobs - Prevention through Design Hierarchy of Controls Industry and Occupation Coding and Support Logging Safety Machine Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and ...

  8. Biological Safety of Fish (Tilapia) Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Igawa, Kazunari; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing...

  9. Biological Safety of Fish (Tilapia) Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 耕平

    2015-01-01

    Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing...

  10. Safety Instructions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instructions N0 37 rev. 3 (IS 37 rev. 3) entitled ""LEVEL-3" SAFETY ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEMS" Is available on the web at the following URL: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335802 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  11. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LABOR UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety & Health Administration About OSHA A to Z Index Contact Us ... OF LABOR Career & Internships | Contact Us Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  12. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  13. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  14. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  15. Safety first!

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  16. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  17. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  18. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  19. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  20. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  1. SAFETY BULLETIN

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Bulletin no 4 (TIS 2002-04) entitled 'KNOW THE RISKS' is available on the web. Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, e-mail: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  2. Spinal cord biological safety comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy%脊柱适形调强放疗和普通放疗脊髓生物安全性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锡林宝勒日; 徐万龙; 陈刚; 刘浩; 王若峥; 白靖平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the spine intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the conventional radiation therapy on the beagle spinal cord neurons,in order to prove the biological safety of IMRT of the spinal cord.Methods Twelve selected purebred beagles were randomly divided into 2 groups.A beagle clinical model of tumor was mimiced in the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebrae.Then the beagles were irradiated by 2 different models of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy,with the total irradiation doses of 50 and 70 Gy.The samples of spinal cord were taken out from the same position of the nine and tenth thoracic vertebrae at the third month after radiation.All the samples were observed by the electron microscope,and the Fas and HSP70 expression in spinal cord neurons were evaluated by immunohistochemistry method.Terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique was used to examine the apoptotic cells in the spinal cord.Results The neurons in the spinal cord of IMRT group were mainly reversible injury,and those in the conventional radiation therapy were mainly apoptosis.Compared with the conventional radiation therapy group [50 Gy group,(7.3±1.1)% ;70 Gy group,(11.3 ±.4)%],the apoptosis rate of the spinal cord neurons of the intensity modulated radiotherapy group[50 Gy group,(1.2 ±0.7)%;70 Gy group(2.5 ±0.8)%] was much lower[(50 Gy group,t=0.022,P<0.05;70 Gy group,t=0.017,P<0.05)].The expression levels of Fas in the IMPT group(50 Gy group,4.6 ±0.8;70 Gy group,7.4 ±1.1)were also much lowerthan those in the other group(50 Gy group,15.1 4-6.4;70 Gy group,19.3 ±7.6.50 Gy group,t=0.231,P<0.05;70 Gy group,t:0.457,P<0.05),while the expression levels of HSP70 in the IMPT group(50 Gy group,9.1 ±0.8;70 Gy group,7.3±1.4)were much higher than those in the conventional radiation therapy group(50 Gy group,2.1 ±0.9;70 Gy group,1.7±0.3;50 Gy group,t=0.153,P<0.05;70 Gy group,t=0

  3. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/475438/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  4. A review of biological processes within oceanic water columns relevant to the assessment of the safety of disposal of waste, notably radioactive isotopes on or within the sea bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelagic biological processes and their connotations in the assessment of possible dispersal mechanisms of contaminants released on the deep oceanic seabed are reviewed. Biological gradients tend to be from the surface down so the search is for processes which run counter to these general gradients. Observed profiles of standing crop of both plankton and micronekton show that below 2000 m biological activity would have to be exceptionally dynamic to have an influence that will even approach within an order of magnitude of the dispersive effect of physical mixing. Examination of all forms of known migration mechanisms fails to reveal such dynamic activity. Nor have any critical pathways been identified within the present or foreseeable pattern of exploitation of the oceans. However, a major gap in knowledge is whether the pattern of these biological processes changes substantially in the region of continental slopes. (author)

  5. A Product Safety Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  6. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  7. Delivering safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  8. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  9. Safety training

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to isabelle.cusato@cern.ch. Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.

  10. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  11. Safety first

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  12. 全颞下颌关节假体植入山羊后的安全性评价%Biological safety evaluation of total temporomandibular joint prosthesis in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈佩; 张善勇; 杨驰; 恽白

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过建立山羊全颞下颌关节置换模型,探讨植入后山羊的血液学和组织学变化,评价自行设计的人工全颞下颌关节假体的安全性.方法:取健康6个月龄山羊10只,随机选取6只山羊,根据其颞下颌关节螺旋CT所测参数,采用Surgicase5.0软件重建三维头颅模型,制备人工全颞下颌关节假体,选用超高分子量聚乙烯制备关节窝衬里,钛合金制作下颌固位柄及关节窝上方钛板,钴-铬-钼合金制备髁突.另4只作为正常对照组.手术切除实验组6只山羊右侧髁突及关节盘,进行全关节置换.术前1周及术后1周、1、3、6个月采血,测定肝、肾功指标.术后3、6个月取山羊的肝、肾组织和假体周围及对侧下颌骨组织,通过TUNEL染色检测凋亡细胞并进行组织病理染色.采用SPSS16.0软件包对数据进行成组t检验.结果:所有实验动物均存活至实验完成,能够正常进食.各时间点实验组与对照组肝、肾功指标差异无显著性,肝、肾组织病理染色以及凋亡率与正常对照组一致,实验侧与对照侧骨组织均无明显炎症反应,实验侧组织在术后3个月成骨细胞较对照侧增多,术后6个月与对照侧组织无显著差异.结论:自行研制的全颢下颌关节假体具有较好的生物相容性和生物安全性.%PURPOSE:To observe the haematological and histological changes by establishing total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement model in sheep,and to evaluate the biological safety of domestic total TMJ prosthesis.METHODS:Ten healthy sheep were included in this study and six of them were as the experimental group.Spiral computed tomography (CT) data of the six sheep was obtained and transformed into 3-dimensional model by Surgicase 5.0software preoperatively.Total TMJ prostheses were made based on the skull model.Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene was used to make glenoid fossa lining,while titanium alloy was used to prefabricate mandibular

  13. Biological Safety of Aspergillus fumigatus SL-30 to Non-target Organisms%烟曲霉SL-30菌株对非靶生物的安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丹钊; 陈钧

    2013-01-01

    目的 初步研究烟曲霉(A spergillus fumigatus)SL-30菌株对非靶生物的安全性. 方法 将烟曲霉SL-30菌株分生孢子分散于200 ml长江水、湖水、雨水和自来水中,孢子浓度为6×106 cfu/ml,每2天取样检测并记录孢子数.采用半静态法测定浓度为1 04、105和106 cfu/ml烟曲霉SL-30菌株分生孢子对斑马鱼(Brachydanio rerio)、日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nippoensis)和泽蛙(Rana limnochris)蝌蚪的影响,以去氯水作为对照,观察处理后30d内上述动物的存活情况,并计算存活率.测定烟曲霉SL-30菌株分生孢子对小鼠经口急性毒性、大鼠经皮和吸入急性毒性. 结果 烟曲霉SL-30菌株分生孢子在各供试水样中可存活约12d.当烟曲霉SL-30菌株分生孢子浓度分别为104、105和106 cfu/ml时,孢子浓度与实验动物存活率之间未见显著剂量依赖关系,且斑马鱼、日本沼虾和泽蛙蝌蚪的存活率与处理相同天数的对照组间的差异,无统计学意义(P>0.05).烟曲霉SL-30菌株分生孢子对小鼠经口急性毒性、大鼠经皮和吸入急性毒性均属于低毒级,实验组动物均无明显中毒症状,大体解剖均未见明显异常,重要脏器的组织切片均未见明显病理改变. 结论 烟曲霉SL-30菌株对环境和非靶生物较安全.%Objective To evaluate biological safety of Aspergillus fumigatus SL-30,a potential molluscicide,to non-target organisms.Methods A.fumigatus SL-30 spores were scattered in the water (200 ml) from Yangtze River,lake,rain and tap water to forming 6×106 cfu/ml,the number of spores were then determined and recorded every 2 days.Effect of A.fumigatus SL-30 spores with concentration ranging from 104 cfu/ml to 106 cfu/ml on Brachydanio rerio,Macrobrachium nippoensis and tadpoles of Rana limnochris was tested by standard laboratory procedure,and survival rate of the above animals in 30 days was recorded.The tests included acute oral toxicity in mice,acute dermal toxicity and acute

  14. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  15. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  16. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ListexTM P100 for the removal of Listeria monocytogenes surface contamination of raw fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    to organisms other than Listeria spp., and because the fabrication parameters do not include anything obvious that might compromise safety. Data of studies considered indicate that Listex™ P100 is listericidal on inoculated catfish and salmon samples, but do not allow definitive conclusions on efficacy......Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of Listex™ P100 to reduce Listeria monocytogenes contamination on raw fish were assessed. The material should not present human toxicological problems because the bacteriophage P100, used as active principle, is not regarded as harmful to consumers nor...... in reducing L. monocytogenes counts on raw fish nor on its impact on L. monocytogenes contamination levels in finished product. It was not possible to estimate the potential listeriosis risk reduction by treating raw fish with Listex™ P100. The data were not adequate to allow firm conclusions on persistence...

  17. The Biological Safety Evaluation of Medical Titanium Alloy Ti -6Al -4V Matrix / Hydroxyapatite Compound%医用钛合金Ti-6Al-4V基体/羟基磷灰石涂层复合材料的生物安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 祝君梅; 程琳; 史梦柔; 李毅敏

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the biological safety of the new medical titanium alloy Ti -6Al -4V matrix/hydroxyapatite compound. Bio-safety of the compound samples were assessed according to study of genetictoxicology, cytotoxicity, bone implantation and delayed - type hypersensitivity. The result of Ames test showed that the compound samples had no mutagenicity. The samples did not induce chromosomal aberrations of CHL cells or gene mutations of V79 cells. The samples had no cytotoxicity in vitro . The result of the bone implantation experiments showed that the samples hade no local tissue irritation. The result of the maximum dose of delayed - type hypersensitivity test show that the samples have no allergenicity. The new compound possesses good biological safety.%评价新型医用钛合金Ti -6Al -4V基体/羟基磷灰石涂层复合材料的生物安全性.通过遗传毒性试验、细胞毒性试验、骨植入实验和迟发型超敏试验,对Ti - 6Al - 4V基体/HA涂层复合材料进行安全性研究.该复合物试样在Ames实验中无诱变性,对体外CHL细胞不诱发染色体畸变,不引起体外V79细胞的基因突变,无体外细胞毒性.该检品在骨植入试验中,对局部组织无刺激.最大剂量试验法迟发型超敏试验显示,该检品无致敏性.该复合材料有良好的生物安全性.

  18. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  19. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  20. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  1. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  2. The sampling test research on biological safety cabinet of medical and health institutions in Hebei province%河北省医疗卫生机构生物安全柜性能抽样检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师闻欣; 卢安; 崔泽; 卢振敏; 王茜; 孙克勤; 燕阔; 张世联; 张子翔; 安鸿

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To understand the status of performance test of bio-safety cabinets in medical system in Hebei province.Methods:Stratified random sampling method was used in the performance test of 81 bio-safety cabinets in medical systems in Hebei province and statistics analysis was performed.Results: The qualified rate of noise was 98.77% and the illumination was 50.62%. The qualified rate of cleanliness and downdraft velocity were 53.09% and 60.49%. The qualified rate of integrality of HEPA filters was 79.01%.There was 0 bio-safety cabinet to be checked once a year. Conclusion: The qualified rate of integrality of filters, cleanliness and downdraft velocity were lower. Bio-safety cabinets were in annual check-up irregularly. So it was necessary to do a good job for management, maintenance and supervision of bio-safety cabinets.%目的:调查和分析河北省医疗卫生系统生物安全柜防护性能现状,以加强实验室生物安全管理。方法:采用分层随机抽样方法对河北省的省、市和县级医疗卫生机构共计81台实验室生物安全柜进行现场检测,运用SPSS 18.0软件对检测数据进行统计分析。结果:在被检测的生物安全柜中噪声的合格率为98.77%,照度合格率为50.62%,洁净度和下降气流流速的合格率分别为53.09%和60.49%,高效过滤器完整性合格率为79.01%;常规进行年检的生物安全柜为0台。结论:所有被检测生物安全柜合格率偏低;生物安全柜未按标准进行年检。提示亟待加强生物安全柜的管理、维护和监督工作,推广操作技术规范。

  3. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  4. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  5. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    the same system model and that this model is formalized in a real-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems model with a state over time. The three safety analysis techniques are interpreted in this model and it is shown how to derive safety requirements for components of a system.......Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...

  6. CERN's new safety policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  7. Organization and Nuclear Safety: Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the experience in nuclear safety and its influence in the exploitation on nuclear power plants. The safety organization and quality management before and after Chernobylsk and three mile island accidents

  8. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  9. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  10. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  11. Bromine Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  12. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  13. Treating moderate to severe psoriasis - best use of biologics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Maeve

    2014-02-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy, safety and best use of biologic agents in moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Recommendations from two recent guidelines are summarised. The NICE Guidelines 2012 provide recommendations on best practice for prescribing biologics. The German S3 Guidelines are based on a systematic review of published studies and report the efficacy of biologics and guidelines for treatment. Data on the safety of biologics are available for up to 5 years in psoriasis and are on the whole reassuring. Registry data is evolving and will provide data on safety to help inform long-term monitoring of patients with psoriasis on biologics agents. New anti-interleukin-17 (IL17) and anti-IL17RA biologics are in Phase 3 clinical trials and may prove to be more effective than existing biologics.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  15. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  16. HANARO Safety Performance Indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANARO is a 30 MW open-tank-in-pool type multi-purpose research reactor. Safety improvement activities have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities for reactor application and utilization has also been emphasized. Safety performance indicators (SPIs) are used to assess the safety management status, in combination with other factors such as safety culture, human performance and operation status. The SPI system can provide a proactive approach to complement other safety assessment activities. HANARO has tried to develop a programme for the establishment of safety performance indicators. In this paper the application experience of safety performance indicators in HANARO is described. (author)

  17. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  18. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  19. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  20. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  1. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  2. Patient safety: Safety culture and patient safety ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv

    2006-01-01

    challenging issues of systemic, organisational, cultural and ethical relevance, which this dissertation seeks to address through the application of different disciplinary approaches. The main focus of researchis safety culture; through empirical and theoretical studies to comprehend the phenomenon, address......Patient safety - the prevention of medical error and adverse events - and the initiative of developing safety cultures to assure patients from harm have become one of the central concerns in quality improvement in healthcare both nationally andinternationally. This subject raises numerous...... the problems, and suggest possible solutions for improving patient safety through the promotion of safety culture and ethics. I seek to illuminate theissues of patient safety from several perspectives; the organizational healthcare system, in particular the healthcare workers perspectives and experiences...

  3. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  4. Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Drug Safety and Availability Postmarket Drug ...

  5. MedWatch Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedWatch alerts provide timely new safety information on human drugs, medical devices, vaccines and other biologics, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. The alerts...

  6. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & ...

  7. Applications of liquid chromatograhpy coupled with mass spectrometry in the detection of biological toxin in food safety testing%液质联用技术在生物毒素食品安全检测分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婵; 孙兴权; 吴远高; 代弟; 刘慧颖; 张彧; 曹际娟

    2015-01-01

    生物毒素是自然界一种重要的生命现象,是人们探讨生命科学奥秘和开发新药的重要工具和物质基础,也是食品安全领域的重点防治对象。真菌毒素和海洋生物毒素是与食品安全相关的两类生物毒素,二者均具有毒性强、污染面广的特点,对人类健康具有极大的危害。在生物毒素众多分析检测手段中,液质联用技术因灵敏、高效等特点而被广泛应用。本文以液质联用技术为切入点,综述了该技术用于生物毒素食品安全检测分析的研究与应用进展,同时对相关的样品处理技术研究也进行了概要介绍。%Biological toxin is a kind of important life phenomenon in nature, an important tool and the material basis to explore the secrets of life science and development of new drugs, and is also a key preventive treatment object in the field of food safety. Mycotoxin and marine biotoxins which are two kinds of natural toxic substances associated with food safety, have the characteristics of strong toxicity and pollute widely and a great harm to human health. Among the detection means of mycotoxin and marine biotoxin, the technique of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is widely used for its sensitive and efficient characteristics. Based on the LC-MS technique as a breakthrough point, its application in biological toxins related to food safety testing analysis in recent years were reviewed, as well as the related sample processing technology progress.

  8. 液质联用技术在生物毒素食品安全检测分析中的应用%Applications of liquid chromatograhpy coupled with mass spectrometry in the detection of biological toxin in food safety testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婵; 孙兴权; 吴远高; 代弟; 刘慧颖; 张彧; 曹际娟

    2015-01-01

    Biological toxin is a kind of important life phenomenon in nature, an important tool and the material basis to explore the secrets of life science and development of new drugs, and is also a key preventive treatment object in the field of food safety. Mycotoxin and marine biotoxins which are two kinds of natural toxic substances associated with food safety, have the characteristics of strong toxicity and pollute widely and a great harm to human health. Among the detection means of mycotoxin and marine biotoxin, the technique of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is widely used for its sensitive and efficient characteristics. Based on the LC-MS technique as a breakthrough point, its application in biological toxins related to food safety testing analysis in recent years were reviewed, as well as the related sample processing technology progress.%生物毒素是自然界一种重要的生命现象,是人们探讨生命科学奥秘和开发新药的重要工具和物质基础,也是食品安全领域的重点防治对象。真菌毒素和海洋生物毒素是与食品安全相关的两类生物毒素,二者均具有毒性强、污染面广的特点,对人类健康具有极大的危害。在生物毒素众多分析检测手段中,液质联用技术因灵敏、高效等特点而被广泛应用。本文以液质联用技术为切入点,综述了该技术用于生物毒素食品安全检测分析的研究与应用进展,同时对相关的样品处理技术研究也进行了概要介绍。

  9. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  10. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  11. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  12. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  13. Safety in construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety m

  14. Fusion safety status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes information on a) tritium handling and safety; b) activation product generation and release; c) lithium safety; d) superconducting magnet safety; e) operational safety and shielding; f) environmental impact; g) recycling, decommissioning and waste management; and h) accident analysis. Recommendations for high priority research and development are presented, as well as the current status in each area

  15. Safety at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Safety is an integral part of our working lives, and should be in our minds whatever job we do at CERN. Ultimately, safety is the responsibility of the Director General – your safety is my concern. That’s why I have this week appointed a new Safety Policy Committee (SAPOCO) that reflects the new Organizational structure of CERN. CERN’s Staff Rules and Regulations clearly lay out in chapter 3 the scope of safety at CERN as well as my responsibilities and yours in safety matters. At CERN, safety is considered in the broadest sense, encompassing occupational Health and Safety, environmental protection, and the safety of equipment and installations. It is my responsibility to put appropriate measures in place to ensure that these conditions are met. And it is the responsibility of us all to ensure that we are fully conversant with safety provisions applicable in our areas of work and that we comply with them. The appointment of a n...

  16. Demand for public safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; Ravallion, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In public safety of less concern to poor people? What about people in poor areas? How is demand for public safety affected by income inequality? Is there a self-correcting mechanism whereby higher crime increases demand for public safety? The authors study subjective assessments of public safety using a comprehensive socioeconomic survey of living standards in Brazil. They find public safety to be a normal good at the household level. Marginal income effects are higher for the poor, so inequa...

  17. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  18. Nuclear safety in perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt; Wahlström, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems...

  19. Training safely, Training safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Wu; An, M.; Jin, Y.; H. Geng

    2014-01-01

    It is the basic requirement of maritime safety education to guarantee the safety of teaching operation while training the crew's occupation safety capability. Marine Training Center of Shanghai Maritime University has undertaken the practical teaching of "marine survival" for many years and come up with the whole safety procedures of training. Based on the requirements of SOLAS convention and regulations of STCW over crew training, this paper introduces the safety allocation, utilization and ...

  20. Distance safety in blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In blasting performance for any purpose and in any location to implement these safeguards is necessary first to determine (calculated) safety distances in terms of the effect of the explosion from some explosive quantity. Calculation of distance safety in blasting performance are refers to: calculation of safety distances from the influence of air - shock waves, calculation of safety distances (zones) of spraying pieces (fragments action) and calculation of safety distances in action of seis...

  1. [Biological therapy for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinya; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone formation and resorption balance. Advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation and resorption led to promising therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In the novel biological drugs, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been clinically applied by positive effect on bone mineral density, negative effect on bone resorption, preventive effect on fragility fractures and safety. Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor is drawing attention as an antiresorptive drug which has lower bone resorption potency than bisphosphoneate. On the other hand, BHQ-880, an anti-Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) antibody and romosozumab (AMG-785) , an anti-sclerostin antibody which activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are drawing attention as bone formation accelerators with no bone resorption acceleration. Clinical studies of these drugs are now ongoing and their clinical applications are expected. PMID:24870844

  2. Radiation safety audit system - safety perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 Safety and Health at the University of Western Australia (UWA) implemented a system of Radiation Safety Audits. The system was implemented to ensure complete audits were carried out annually for each section of the University with radiation safety issues. The audits cover those aspects of radiation safety regulated in the Radiation Safety Act of Western Australia and include high powered lasers, UV emitting devices, radioactive materials, x-ray machines. In relation to these there are regulated considerations for equipment registration, location of use and storage registration, licensing of individual to use radiation, training, documentation, working rules, personal monitoring, calibrations and supervision. Within the University there are University systems to control materials and equipment coming onto campus, risk assessment protocols required for each new project or type of work, local permits and waste disposal. UWA Safety and Health have an active role in delivering control of radiation safety and ensuring that safety systems are appropriate relevant and used in an immediate and useful manner. Safety and Health has importantly built a network of key people on campus, made sure they are assisted, valued and that the systems are seen as a way to improve efficiency in delivering real, relevant and useful radiation safety outcomes. The systems include uniform documentation across campus, clear expectations and an ongoing interest from Safety and Health to ensure the systems remain alive. This has allowed the audits to become efficient and effective both for the sections involved but also for Safety and health in its recording systems and improvement follow up process.

  3. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  4. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  5. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  6. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  7. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  8. Reactor system safety assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The philosophy of reactor safety is that design should follow established and conservative engineering practices, there should be safety margins in all modes of plant operation, special systems should be provided for accidents, and safety systems should have redundant components. This philosophy provides ''defense in depth.'' Additionally, the safety of nuclear power plants relies on ''safety systems'' to assure acceptable response to design basis events. Operating experience has shown the need to study plant response to more frequent upset conditions and to account for the influence of operators and non-safety systems on overall performance. Defense in depth is being supplemented by risk and reliability assessment

  9. Beyond safety accountability

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, E Scott

    2001-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-read conversational tone, Beyond Safety Accountability explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practic

  10. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Ⅱ A2 BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINET AGAINST THE VIRUS AEROSOL%ⅡA2型生物安全柜对病毒气溶胶的防护效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜茜; 温占波; 刘克洋; 杨文慧; 王洁; 李娜; 李劲松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective effect of the secondary biosafety cabinet against virus aerosol, so as to provide the basis for its safe using. Methods Phage phiX 174 aerosol was generated. Physcial and biological protection performance were evaluated according to the standard methods. Personal protection, product protection, and cross contamination were tested three times. Results Personal test showed the sum of plaque forming unit (pfu) from all liquid ram samplers were no more than 10 pfu,and all creviced samplers were less than 5 pfu. All product test showed less than 5 pfu. All cross contamination test showed the number of phiX 174 was less than 2 pfu. Conclusion The protection performance of the biosafety cabinet against viral aerosol were in accordance to the national standard.%目的 测试与评价二级生物安全柜对病毒气溶胶的防护效果,为该生物安全柜的安全使用提供依据.方法 发生噬菌体 phiX 174气溶胶,按照标准中规定的测试方法就安全柜的物理学评价指标及3种生物学评价指标即人员保护、交叉污染和产品保护进行测试,3种测试分别重复3次.结果 3次测试中,人员保护每次6个液体撞击式采样器的培养噬菌斑数之和不大于10 pfu,2个裂隙采样器的培养噬茵斑数之和不超过5pfu.产品保护每次所有培养皿上的phiX174噬茵斑数不超过5pfu.每次交叉污染测试中被检测侧壁36 cm外的所有培养皿上的噬菌斑数不超过2 pfu.结论 该生物安全柜对病毒气溶胶的防护效果符合标准的要求.

  12. 纳米特性引发的生物效应及其纳米生物材料安全性评价%Biological activity induced by nanometer properties and the safety evaluation of biomedical nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玲; 奚廷斐; 蒋学华; 汤京龙

    2006-01-01

    目的:随着纳米技术的不断发展,越来越多的纳米化技术被应用到生物医药领域,为疾病的诊断和治疗提供极大的利益.但是,当这些产品最终应用到人体的时候,引发了一系列的思考,纳米材料的毒性不断被报道.因此各国的科学家都呼吁在纳米生物医疗产品被更广泛的应用之前,应该通过进一步的实验对其风险收益比进行评估.了解纳米材料在体内和体外的特殊化学、物理性质对揭示纳米效应引起毒性和生物活性的机制也是至关重要的.资料来源:英文文献部分引自第七届国际生物材料会议论文;其余应用计算机检索Medline1999-07/2006-02与纳米材料安全性相关的文章,检索词为"Nano Safety,nanotoxicology,nanomaterials",限定语种为English;同期检索http://www.cqvip.com.cn中文全文数据库文献,检索词"纳米安全性,纳米毒性,纳米材料",限定语言为中文.资料选择:对资料进行初审,选出其中与纳米材料特殊理化性质及纳米材料安全性评价相关的文章共48篇.资料提炼:48篇粗选文献中有12篇是类似或重复的研究,予以排除.将纳入的36篇进行整理.参考文献列出其中的26篇.资料综合:应用于疾病的诊断、治疗、组织修复中的纳米生物材料,与机体接触后会通过多种途径进入人体,并能通过血液循环达到全身各部位.与常规的生物材料不同,纳米材料非常微小,具有很多特殊的理化性质,引发出一些特殊的生物效应.结论:纳米性质引发的特殊生物效应决定了,如果只采用常规的实验方法来检测纳米医药产品的生物安全性,明显是不科学也是不充分的.进行纳米材料的安全性评价时应充分考虑其物理化学性质和在机体中的存在状态.

  13. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  14. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  15. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  16. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  17. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  18. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health and safety program. Contact your state or territorial health department or use this directory of local ... producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and rural communities nationwide. NIOSH Agricultural Safety and Health Centers conduct ...

  19. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  20. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  1. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  3. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of Bacteria ...

  4. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Household Safety: Preventing Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > Household Safety: ... and often contain small parts. Make sure small refrigerator magnets are out of your child's reach. Check ...

  5. Nuclear Safety Review 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of IAEA activities in the field of nuclear safety with particular emphasis on the international cooperation in safety assessment of research reactors, early WWER type reactors is given. 12 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Bathroom safety - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000021.htm Bathroom safety - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Older adult bathroom safety What to consider at home Staying safe ...

  7. Backpack Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Backpack Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Backpack Safety Print A ... to help kids find the right backpack. Problems Backpacks Can Pose Although many factors can lead to ...

  8. In vivodegradation and biological safety of microporous vacuum polysaccharide hemostatic microspheres%微孔真空多聚糖止血微球体内降解与生物安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宝堂; 史跃; 何远清; 殷文静; 王颖

    2015-01-01

    背景:微孔真空多聚糖止血微球是一种具有自主知识产权的可吸收高分子止血材料,它来源于变性马铃薯植物淀粉,经特殊加工工艺制备而成。目的:将微孔真空多聚糖止血微球埋植于大鼠体内,观察止血微球在体内降解情况,检测体液各项安全性指标。方法:将0.1-0.2 g微孔真空多聚糖止血微球埋植于12只大鼠左侧脊柱皮下组织内,分别于植入后1,3,7,14 d,观察止血微球在组织内降解情况。实验另取15只大鼠,5只为对照组正常饲养,将另外10只麻醉,在脊柱两侧做2道切口,长约5 cm,深至肌层0.3 cm,在切口喷撤适量止血微球覆盖整个创面,缝合切口,正常饲养14 d,观察大鼠外观体征、行为活动、排泄、摄食情况,进行体液各项指标检测。最后解剖大鼠,观察主要器官的大体形态及颜色变化。结果与结论:埋植大鼠体内的微孔真空多聚糖止血微球7 d完全降解吸收。切口喷撤适量止血微球后,大鼠生命体征正常;血液及尿液检查各项生化指标均正常;肝、脾、脑、肾等主要器官大体形态及颜色均未发现明显异常变化。结果证实,微孔真空多聚糖止血微球可被体内的淀粉酶酶解为单糖,在体内7 d完全降解吸收,对组织器官无任何毒副反应。%BACKGROUND:Microporous vacuum polysaccharide hemostatic microspheres are derived from degenerated potato plant starch and prepared through special processing. It is an ideal absorbable polymer styptic material with independent intelectual property rights. OBJECTIVE: To observe the degradation of microporous vacuum polysaccharide hemostatic microspheres and detect the safety indicators of body fluids by implanting microporous vacuum polysaccharide hemostatic microspheres in rats. METHODS:0.1-0.2 g microporous vacuum polysaccharide hemostatic microspheres were implanted subcutaneously on the left side of

  9. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...... and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the unambiguous identity of a taxonomic unit, the body of knowledge including potential safety concerns and how these considerations lead to a list of biological agents recommended for QPS which EFSA keeps updated through...

  10. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  11. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  12. Patient Safety Executive Walkarounds

    OpenAIRE

    Feitelberg, Steven P

    2006-01-01

    The KP Patient Safety Executive Walkarounds Program in the KP San Diego Service Area was developed to provide routine opportunities for senior KP leaders, staff, and clinicians to discuss patient safety concerns proactively, working closely with our labor partners to foster a culture of safety that supports our staff and physicians. Throughout the KP San Diego Service Area, the Walkarounds program plays a major part in promoting responsible identification and reporting of patient safety issue...

  13. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  14. Generic safety documentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  15. Radiation Safety Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koth, Jana; Smith, Marcia Hess

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses radiation safety programs, including the members of the radiation safety team, their roles, and the challenges they face, with a focus on the radiation safety officer's duties. Agencies that regulate radiation safety also are described. The importance of minimizing patient dose, ensuring that dosimetry badges are worn correctly, and using therapeutic radioactive materials safely are addressed. Finally, radiologic technologists' role in using radiation safely is discussed, and the principles of time, distance, and shielding are reviewed. PMID:27146175

  16. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  17. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  18. Enhancing operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Chernobyl, the dictum An accident anywhere is an accident everywhereis a globally shared perception. The paper presents challenges to the international nuclear community: globalization, sustainable and dynamic development, secure, safe and clean energy supply, nuclear renaissance, public concern for nuclear safety, nuclear security, and technology and management. Strong national safety infrastructures and international cooperation are required to maintain a high level of nuclear safety and security worldwide. There is an increasing number of countries thinking of going nuclear: Morocco, Indonesia, Iran, Poland, Turkey, Bangladesh, Egypt, Vietnam, Chile, Nigeria, Malaysia, Thailand, Uruguay, Tunisia, Algeria. Another serious incident will jeopardize the prospect of nuclear renaissance. Safety and security are preconditions for countries newly introducing NPP as well as for those with mature nuclear programmes. The Global Nuclear Safety Regime (GNSR) is referred to as the institutional, legal and technical framework to achieve worldwide implementation of the safety of nuclear installations. At the top of the framework is the Convention on Nuclear Safety which covers the nuclear power plants. The convention has 56 contracting parties which meet triennially where national reports are presented and subject to the review of peers. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) undertakes a programme to foster the GNSR through the establishment of IAEA safety standards and related publications. The programme provides for the application of standards for the (1) safety of nuclear installations, (2) safety of radioactive sources, (3) safe transport of radioactive material and (4) management of radioactive waste. It also provides for the security of nuclear installations, nuclear material and radioactive material. The safety standards hierarchy is as follows: safety fundamental, safety requirements and safety guides. The safety fundamentals are the bases for IAEA

  19. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Departmental Rules and The Safety Guides were issued by the NNSA in 1998. The NNSA performed the activities of propagation and implementation of nuclear safety regulations at QTNPP in order to improve the nuclear safety culture of operating organization and construct and contract organizations

  20. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  1. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fire Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Fire Safety Print A A A Text Size What's in ... kids? Take the time now to review fire safety facts and tips so your family will be ...

  2. General safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  3. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  4. Biological Literacy in a College Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demastes, Sherry; Wandersee, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the proposed definition of biological literacy as the understanding of a small number of pervasive biological principles appropriate to making informed personal and societal decisions. Utilizes the content of a major daily newspaper to adjust biology instruction to focus on this notion of biological literacy. Discusses benefits and…

  5. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  6. Nuclear Safety Review 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2013 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2012. The Executive Overview provides crosscutting and worldwide nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major sections covered in this report. Sections A-E of this report cover improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the IAEA Safety Standards. The world nuclear community has made noteworthy progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2012, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as ''the Action Plan''). For example, an overwhelming majority of Member States with operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have undertaken and essentially completed comprehensive safety reassessments ('stress tests') with the aim of evaluating the design and safety aspects of plant robustness to protect against extreme events, including: defence in depth, safety margins, cliff edge effects, multiple failures, and the prolonged loss of support systems. As a result, many have introduced additional safety measures including mitigation of station blackout. Moreover, the IAEA's peer review services and safety standards have been reviewed and strengthened where needed. Capacity building programmes have been built or improved, and EPR programmes have also been reviewed and improved. Furthermore, in 2012, the IAEA continued to share lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident with the nuclear community including through three international experts' meetings (IEMs) on reactor and spent fuel safety, communication in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, and protection against extreme earthquakes and tsunamis

  7. Step Therapy And Biologics: No Easy Answers

    OpenAIRE

    HAGLAND, MARK

    2006-01-01

    For what diseases is it best to try traditional drug therapies first, and are there any instances in which going straight to the biologic is reasonable? Doctors and patients want the latest and greatest, but payers want better safety and efficacy data.

  8. [Organising the follow-up of biologics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, F

    2011-12-01

    Treatment with biologics requires specific evaluation based on assessment of clinical efficacy, of comorbidities and of safety. Although evaluation is mainly clinical, additional laboratory investigations may be needed. The occurrence of events, whether disease-related (infection, dysimmunity, cancer) or not (pregnancy, vaccination), is described in specific guidelines and in notification reports submitted to pharmacovigilance agencies. PMID:22137627

  9. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  10. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  11. Safety in Cryogenics – Safety device sizing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The calculation is separated in three operations: o The estimation of the loads arriving on the component to protect, o The calculation of the mass flow to evacuate, o And the sizing of the safety device.

  12. Safety & Regulatory Strategy : Food Safety and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, C.

    2013-01-01

    Food and feed safety is strictly regulated within the EU. Our team of toxicologists, risk assessors and consultants offers strategic advice and valuable expertise in regulatory affairs and health risk assessment.

  13. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechai, M. [MOBEC Engineering, North York, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of dam safety is to prevent an uncontrolled release of water and to have emergency preparedness plans in place in the event of failure. This presentation discussed dam and public safety around dams. Public safety around dams involves the safe management of water during normal operations, including intake water; discharge from turbines; and spill events. Public safety measures are intended to ensure the security of the site to minimize public exposure to hazards. The objectives of the presentation were to discuss the current state of industry practice in regards to public safety around dams and to provide input to the draft Canadian Dam Association guidelines for public safety around dams. The presentation also discussed the principles that would govern preparation of the guidelines and regulator's views on the public safety issues. figs.

  14. Efficacy and safety of three new biologics in the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis%比较三种新型生物制剂治疗中重度活动性类风湿关节炎的疗效与安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵征; 朱剑; 张江林; 张亚美; 黄烽; 邓小虎

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of rituximab, tocilizumab and adalimumab combined with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods:A total of 87 RA patients with a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)> 3.2 were randomly given rituximab, tocilizumab, adalimumab combined with DMARDs respectively or DMARDs alone for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20%improvement (ACR20). The secondary end points included the proportion of patients achieving ACR50, ACR70, improvement of DAS28, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Safety was assessed by adverse event documentation. Results: At the end of the 24th week, 82 patients completed the treatment. The proportion of patients achieving ACR20 treated by rituximab + DMARDs, tocilizumab + DMARDs, adalimumab + DMARDs, DMARDs alone was 66.67%, 94.44%, 73.08% and 53.57% respectively. Results for other secondary efficacy endpoints showed that these three new biologics could provide substantial beneifts to patients with RA by reducing clinical signs, HAQ and DAS28. Efifcacy of tocilizumab and adalimumab were better than rituximab. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate. The most common adverse event was upper respiratory tract infection. Lymphocytes decreased and abnormal liver function was next. No serious infections were observed. Conclusion:These three new biologics have signiifcant efifcacy and good safety towards RA patients. The efifcacy of tocilizumab and adalimumab are better than rituximab.%目的:观察利妥昔单抗、托珠单抗及阿达木单抗联合慢作用抗风湿药物(DMARDs)治疗中重度活动性类风湿关节炎24周后的疗效和安全性。方法:共入组87例DAS28>3.2的活动性类风湿关节炎患者,给予利妥昔单抗或托珠单抗或阿达木单抗同时联合DMARDs,或仅

  15. Production, safety, exchange, and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Two agents convert resources into safety investment and production while exchanging goods voluntarily. Safety investment ensures reduction of costly risk. High unit cost of safety effort reduces both productive effort and safety effort, which reduces income.

  16. Safety and the Human Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  17. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  18. Management of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)

  19. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  20. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  1. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michelle M; Vermeire, Theo

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, three Scientific Committees of the European Commission (EC) drafted Scientific Opinions on synthetic biology that provide an operational definition and address risk assessment methodology, safety aspects, environmental risks, knowledge gaps, and research priorities. These Opinions contribute to the international discussions on the risk governance for synthetic biology developments.

  2. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michelle M; Vermeire, Theo

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, three Scientific Committees of the European Commission (EC) drafted Scientific Opinions on synthetic biology that provide an operational definition and address risk assessment methodology, safety aspects, environmental risks, knowledge gaps, and research priorities. These Opinions contribute to the international discussions on the risk governance for synthetic biology developments. PMID:27234301

  3. Central Safety Department. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Officer and the Security Officer are responsible for radiation protection and technical safety, both conventional and nuclear, for the physical protection as well as the safeguards of nuclear materials and radioactive substances within the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (KfK). To fulfill these functions they rely on the assistance of the Central Safety Department. The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all problems of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures. The r+d work concentrates on the following aspects: physical and chemical behavior of biologically particularly active radionuclides, behavior of HT in the air/plant/soil system, biophysics of multicellular systems, improvement in radiation protection measurement and personnel dosimetry. The report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1986 routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Regulations for Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Safety Codes for Nuclear Pressure Retaining Components were issued by the NNSA in 1995. The Atomic Act and Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Transportation of Radioactive Materials have been finished and submitted to the State Council in 1995. At the same time the NNSA organized a revised collection of regulations on nuclear safety in both Chinese and English, titled 'The Collection of Regulations on Nuclear Safety of the People's Republic of China'. To enhance the implementation of newly issued nuclear safety regulations, the NNSA conducted seven times of propagating activities in relation to the regulations for nuclear pressure retaining components and research reactors design and operating in 1995

  5. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  6. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  7. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  8. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  9. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of nuclear safety regulations in 1996 is mainly focused on the preparation of related regulations, and safety guides for nuclear materials control, the reprocessing installations of spent fuels, the treatment and disposal for radioactive waste. The NNSA also assists the departments concerned of the State Council for modification on the 'Atomic Energy Act' (draft) and the' Regulations on the Safety Supervision and Control of Radioactive Materials Transportation' (draft)

  10. Thermal reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport

  11. Thermal reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  12. Radiation safety audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audit has been seen as one of the effective methods to ensure harmonization in radiation protection. A radiation safety audit is a formal safety performance examination of existing or future work activities by an independent team. Regular audit will assist the management in its mission to maintain the facilities environment that is inherently safe for its employees. The audits review the adequacy of facilities for the type of use, training, and competency of workers, supervision by authorized users, availability of survey instruments, security of radioactive materials, minimization of personnel exposure to radiation, safety equipment, and the required record keeping. All approved areas of use are included in these periodic audits. Any deficiency found in the audit shall be corrected as soon as possible after they are reported. Radiation safety audit is a proactive approach to improve radiation safety practices and identify and prevent any potential radiation accident. It is an excellent tool to identify potential problem to radiation users and to assure that safety measures to eliminate or reduce the problems are fully considered. Radiation safety audit will help to develop safety culture of the facility. It is intended to be the cornerstone of a safety program designed to aid the facility, staff and management in maintaining a safe environment in which activities are carried out. The initiative of this work is to evaluate the need of having a proper audit as one of the mechanism to manage the safety using ionizing radiation. This study is focused on the need of having a proper radiation safety audit to identify deviations and deficiencies of radiation protection programmes. It will be based on studies conducted on several institutes/radiation facilities in Malaysia in 2006. Steps will then be formulated towards strengthening radiation safety through proper audit. This will result in a better working situation and confidence in the radiation protection community

  13. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  14. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Pugsley, M. K.; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. Thi...

  15. Improving operating room safety

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett Jill; Hurlbert Scott N

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite the introduction of the Universal Protocol, patient safety in surgery remains a daily challenge in the operating room. This present study describes one community health system's efforts to improve operating room safety through human factors training and ultimately the development of a surgical checklist. Using a combination of formal training, local studies documenting operating room safety issues and peer to peer mentoring we were able to substantially change the culture of ...

  16. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  17. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  18. Relationship of safety culture and process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These 'guidelines' are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations

  19. Emerging Stem Cell Therapies: Treatment, Safety, and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Sng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the fundamental building blocks of life and contribute to the genesis and development of all higher organisms. The discovery of adult stem cells has led to an ongoing revolution of therapeutic and regenerative medicine and the proposal of novel therapies for previously terminal conditions. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was the first example of a successful stem cell therapy and is widely utilized for treating various diseases including adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is increasingly employed to catalyze the repair of mesenchymal tissue and others, including the lung and heart, and utilized in treating various conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and diabetes. There is also increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of other adult stem cells such as neural, mammary, intestinal, inner ear, and testicular stem cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells has led to an improved understanding of the underlying epigenetic keys of pluripotency and carcinogenesis. More in-depth studies of these epigenetic differences and the physiological changes that they effect will lead to the design of safer and more targeted therapies.

  20. Pharmacovigilance of biologicals : dynamics in post-approval safety learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory decisions to allow new drugs on the market by definition have to accept a certain level of uncertainty about the full benefit-risk balance. Pre-approval studies typically provide information on a limited number of patients over a relative short follow-up period, and handle strict inclusio

  1. Nuclear health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses the GAO's work on the Naval Reactors Program's environmental, health, and safety practices at its research and development facilities, the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory near Schenectady, New York; the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and their related reactor sites. This review was conducted because of several allegations concerning poor environmental, health, and safety practices at the facilities. These allegations involved employee over-exposures to radiation, reactor safety, asbestos problems, and improper management of areas containing radioactive and hazardous waste. In summary the review of the environmental, health, and safety practices at the Naval Reactors laboratories and sites has found no significant deficiencies

  2. Transport Safety Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    WEGMAN, F.; Brouwer, M.; CAUZARD, J.P; Elvik, R.; MACHATA, K.; Makinen, T.; STENBORG, L.; Yannis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Transport safety is a key priority in the Common Transport Policy and a high level of protection for EU citizens in all harmonisation activity is required by the Treaty. Policymakers and managers aiming for a higher level of safety need to take an interest in as many of the factors influencing safety as possible and, at least, those factors they are able to affect or control. Safety performance indicators provide a means by which policymakers can ensure that their actions are as effective as ...

  3. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  4. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  5. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  6. Improved safety at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 43/2006, a new approach to the implementation of Safety at CERN has been decided, which required taking some managerial decisions. The guidelines of the new approach are described in the document 'New approach to Safety implementation at CERN', which also summarizes the main managerial decisions I have taken to strengthen compliance with the CERN Safety policy and Rules. To this end I have also reviewed the mandates of the Safety Commission and the Safety Policy Committee (SAPOCO). Some details of the document 'Safety Policy at CERN' (also known as SAPOCO42) have been modified accordingly; its essential principles, unchanged, remain the basis for the safety policy of the Organisation. I would also like to inform you that I have appointed Dr M. Bona as the new Head of the Safety Commission until 31.12.2008, and that I will proceed soon to the appointment of the members of the new Safety Policy Committee. All members of the personnel are deemed to have taken note of the d...

  7. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastinak, O. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Ontario's current dam safety program is administered under guidelines and there is no regulation in place. It is a reactive program that is administered by area supervisors and regional engineers with support from policy, legal and enforcement branches. Currently, there are no regulatory requirements for inspections, dam classifications, public safety measures, emergency preparedness plans, operations and maintenance, or dam registration. This presentation proposed improvements to Ontario's current dam safety program and highlighted the imperatives for public safety around dams. The presentation also discussed the proposed elements of enhanced public safety requirements. The proposed measures would involve moving from a reactive, guidelines-based program to a regulated program under the Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act. The presentation discussed why public safety around dams should be regulated and provided an overview of dam related fatalities in Ontario. A public safety framework and public safety assessment report were also discussed. Registration of incidents and public safety measures were addressed. figs.

  8. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  9. Central Safety Department, annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all problems of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures. The r+d work concentrates on the following aspects: physical and chemical behaviour of biologically particularly active radionuclides, behaviour of HT in the air/plan/soil system, biophysics of multicellular systems, improvement in radiation protection measurement and personnel dosimetry. This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1987 routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. (orig./HP)

  10. Safety case plan 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the guidelines set forth by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (now Ministry of Employment and Economy) Posiva is preparing to submit the construction license application for a spent fuel repository by the end of the year 2012. The long-term safety section supporting the license application is based on a safety case, which, according to the internationally adopted definition, is a compilation of the evidence, analyses and arguments that quantify and substantiate the safety and the level of expert confidence in the safety of the planned repository. In 2005, Posiva presented a plan to prepare such a safety case. The present report provides a revised plan of the safety case contents mentioned above. The update of the safety case plan takes into account the recommendations made by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) about improving the focus and further developing the plan. Accordingly, particular attention is given to the quality management of the safety case work, the management of uncertainties and the scenario methodology. The quality management is based on the ISO 9001:2000 standard process thinking enhanced with special features arising from STUK's YVL Guides. The safety case production process is divided into four main sub-processes. The conceptualisation and methodology sub-process defines the framework for the assessment. The critical data handling and modelling sub-process links Posiva's main technical and scientific activities to the production of the safety case. The assessment sub-process analyses the consequences of the evolution of the disposal system in various scenarios, classified either as part of the expected evolution or as disruptive scenarios. The compliance and confidence sub-process is responsible for final evaluation of compliance of the assessment results with the regulatory criteria and the overall confidence in the safety case. As in the previous safety case plan, the safety case will be based on several reports, but

  11. Behavioral integrity for safety, priority of safety, psychological safety, and patient safety: a team-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Anseel, Frederik; Simons, Tony; Halbesleben, Jonathon RB; McCaughey, Deirdre; Savage, Grant T.; Sels, Luc

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety positively relates to both team priority of safety and psychological safety. In turn, team priority of safety and team psychological safety were, respectively, negatively and positively related with the nu...

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  13. Safety Training: basic safety and access courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the basic safety courses is to increase awareness for everyone working on the CERN site (CERN staff, associates, outside companies, students and apprentices) of the various hazards existing on site, and how to recognise and avoid them. Safety course changes The current organisation of basic safety courses is changing. There will be two main modifications: the organisation of the courses and the implementation of a specific new training course for the LHC machine during the LHC tests and hardware commissioning phase. Organisational changes This concerns the existing basic safety training, currently called level 1, level 2 and level 3. Under the new procedure, a video will be projected in registration building 55 and will run every day at 14.00 and 15.00 in English. The duration of the video will be 50 minutes. The course contents will be the same as the slides currently used, plus a video showing real situations. With this new organization, participants will systematically follow...

  14. Safety Training: Basic Safety and Access Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Vignes

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the basic safety courses is to increase awareness for everyone working on the CERN site (CERN staff, associates, outside companies, students and apprentices) of the various existing on-site hazards, and how to recognize and avoid them. Safety course changes The current organization for basic safety courses is changing. There will be two main modifications: the organization of the courses and the implementation of a specific new training course for the LHC machine during the LHC tests and hardware commissioning phase. Organizational changes This concerns the existing basic safety training, currently called level1, level2 and level3. Under the new procedure, a video will be projected in registration building 55 and will run every day at 14.00 and 15.00 in English. The duration of the video will be 50 minutes. The course contents will be the same as the slides currently used, plus a video showing real situations. With this new organization, attendees will systematically follow the...

  15. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  16. Nuclear safety in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicating on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, was supported by limited research in three sub-projects: 1) Risk assessment, 2) Safety analysis, and 3) Strategies for safety management. The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems for regulatory oversight are described in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall processes within which risk communication can take place. Safety culture, safety indicators and quality systems are important concepts in the nuclear safety area are very useful, but also offer important challenges for the future. They have been subject to special attention in the project. (au)

  17. Safety instruction no 50

    CERN Multimedia

    Secrétariat SC

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the safety instruction no 50 (IS 50) entitled 'Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479454/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit Secretariat, email: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  18. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  19. Laser safety and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasers are finding increasing routine applications in many areas of science, medicine and industry. Though laser radiation is non-ionizing in nature, the usage of high power lasers requires specific safety procedures. This paper briefly outlines the properties of laser beams and various safety procedures necessary in their handling and usage. (author)

  20. Probabilistic safety analyses (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide shows how the probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) are used in the design, construction and operation of light water reactor plants in order for their part to ensure that the safety of the plant is good enough in all plant operational states

  1. Querying Safety Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  2. Safety in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  3. SRP reactor safety evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant reactors have operated for over 100 reactor years without an incident of significant consequence to on or off-site personnel. The reactor safety posture incorporates a conservative, failure-tolerant design; extensive administrative controls carried out through detailed operating and emergency written procedures; and multiple engineered safety systems backed by comprehensive safety analyses, adapting through the years as operating experience, changes in reactor operational modes, equipment modernization, and experience in the nuclear power industry suggested. Independent technical reviews and audits as well as a strong organizational structure also contribute to the defense-in-depth safety posture. A complete review of safety history would discuss all of the above contributors and the interplay of roles. This report, however, is limited to evolution of the engineered safety features and some of the supporting analyses. The discussion of safety history is divided into finite periods of operating history for preservation of historical perspective and ease of understanding by the reader. Programs in progress are also included. The accident at Three Mile Island was assessed for its safety implications to SRP operation. Resulting recommendations and their current status are discussed separately at the end of the report. 16 refs., 3 figs

  4. Elements of nuclear safety

    CERN Document Server

    Libmann, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    This basically educational book is intended for all involved in nuclear facility safety. It dissects the principles and experiences conducive to the adoption of attitudes compliant with what is now known as "safety culture". This book is accessible to a wide range of readers.

  5. Structural safety during construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Mud, M.; Frijters, A.

    2014-01-01

    Structural safety during construction is a main concern for the building industry. Collapses of temporary structures or incomplete permanent structures are a threat for the safety of persons. Based on data from Dutch Labour Inspectorate this study concluded that approximately 20% of the fatalities d

  6. Safety analysis for `Fugen`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The improvement of safety in nuclear power stations is an important proposition. Therefore also as to the safety evaluation, it is important to comprehensively and systematically execute it by referring to the operational experience and the new knowledge which is important for the safety throughout the period of use as well as before the construction and the start of operation of nuclear power stations. In this report, the results when the safety analysis for ``Fugen`` was carried out by referring to the newest technical knowledge are described. As the result, it was able to be confirmed that the safety of ``Fugen`` has been secured by the inherent safety and the facilities which were designed for securing the safety. The basic way of thinking on the safety analysis including the guidelines to be conformed to is mentioned. As to the abnormal transient change in operation and accidents, their definition, the events to be evaluated and the standards for judgement are reported. The matters which were taken in consideration at the time of the analysis are shown. The computation programs used for the analysis were REACT, HEATUP, LAYMON, FATRAC, SENHOR, LOTRAC, FLOOD and CONPOL. The analyses of the abnormal transient change in operation and accidents are reported on the causes, countermeasures, protective functions and results. (K.I.)

  7. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  8. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K. [Karinta-Konsult HB (Sweden); Sjoeberg, B.M.D. [Norwegian Univ. of Scince and Technology (Norway); Larudisen, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wahlstroem, B. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicating on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, was supported by limited research in three sub-projects: 1) Risk assessment, 2) Safety analysis, and 3) Strategies for safety management. The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems for regulatory oversight are described in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall processes within which risk communication can take place. Safety culture, safety indicators and quality systems are important concepts in the nuclear safety area are very useful, but also offer important challenges for the future. They have been subject to special attention in the project. (au)

  9. Nuclear safety in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub......-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems forregulatory oversight are de-scribed in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other...... industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given.Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall proces-ses within which risk communication can take place...

  10. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  11. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  12. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  13. HTGR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the US. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity

  14. HTGR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the U.S. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity. (author)

  15. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  16. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Safety Guide provides facilities managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. Most facilities managers, unfamiliar with earthquake engineering, tend to look for answers in techniques more sophisticated than required to solve the actual problems in earthquake safety. Often the approach to solutions to these problems is so academic, legalistic, and financially overwhelming that mitigation of actual seismic hazards simply does not get done in a timely, cost-effective way. The objective of the Guide is to provide practical advice about earthquake safety so that managers and engineers can get the job done without falling into common pitfalls, prolonged diagnosis, and unnecessary costs. It is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, non-structural elements, life lines, and risk management. 5 references

  17. Operational and environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibility of the DOE Office of Operational and Environmental Safety is to assure that DOE-controlled activities are conducted in a manner that will minimize risks to the public and employees and will provide protection for property and the environment. The program supports the various energy technologies by identifying and resolving safety problems; developing and issuing safety policies, standards, and criteria; assuring compliance with DOE, Federal, and state safety regulations; and establishing procedures for reporting and investigating accidents in DOE operations. Guidelines for the radiation protection of personnel; radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities; an assessment of criticality accidents by fault tree analysis; and the preparation of environmental, safety, and health standards applicable to geothermal energy development are discussed

  18. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  19. Regulations on Meat Hygiene and Safety in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety concerns physical, chemical and biological aspects. With regard to these aspects it is important that the slaughterhouse and processing industry implement a HACCP programme. By implementing such a programme all hazards, which could affect human safety, will have to be identified, monitored when considered as critical and eliminated, reduced or prevented. With regard to preventing physical hazards, a metal detector should be a regular piece of equipment in the meat processing industry.

  20. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  1. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  2. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  3. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Safety Tips: Baseball KidsHealth > For Parents > Safety Tips: Baseball ... sport, and it's fun. View Survey Why Baseball Safety Is Important Baseball is by no means a ...

  4. Safety Tips: Basketball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Safety Tips: Basketball KidsHealth > For Parents > Safety Tips: Basketball Print A ... possible, make sure they follow these tips. Why Basketball Safety Is Important Fortunately, very few basketball injuries ...

  5. Practical Patient Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Reynard, John; Stevenson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Following recent high profile cases of surgical error in the UK and USA, patient safety has become a key issue in healthcare, now placed at heart of junior doctor's training. Errors made by doctors are very similar to those made in other high risk organisations, such as aviation, nuclear and petrochemical industries. Practical Patient Safety aims to demonstrate how core principles of safety from these industries can be applied in surgical and medical practice, in particular throughtraining for health care professionals and healthcare managers.Whilst theoretical aspects of risk management form

  6. Radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. Nuclear radiation is a powerful source of benefit to mankind, whether applied in the field of medicine, agriculture, environmental management or elsewhere. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Safety Department aiming at establishing Basic Safety Standard requirements in all Member States. (IAEA)

  7. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  8. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  9. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main areas of nuclear safety are considered in this paper, recalling the laws and resolutions in force and also the appropriate authority in each case. The following topics are reviewed: radiological protection, protection of workers, measures to be taken in case of an accident, radioactive effluents, impact on the environment of non-nuclear pollution, nuclear plant safety, protection against malicious acts, control and safeguard of nuclear materials, radioisotopes, transport of radioactive substances, naval propulsion, waste management, nuclear plant decommissioning and export of nuclear equipment and materials. Finally, the author describes the role of the general Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nuclear Safety

  10. LTE for public safety

    CERN Document Server

    Liebhart, Rainer; Wong, Curt; Merkel , Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the book is to educate government agencies, operators, vendors and other regulatory institutions how LTE can be deployed to serve public safety market and offer regulatory / public safety features. It is written in such a way that it can be understood by both technical and non-technical personnel with just introductory knowledge in wireless communication. Some sections and chapters about public safety services offered by LTE network are intended to be understood by anyone with no knowledge in wireless communication.

  11. The spirit of safety: oriental safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J. [Science Council of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Failure of a large system causes disasters. However, after an accident, the causes are frequently attributed to human error when the operators do not survive the accident. It might be difficult to prove that the real cause of the accident is human error. Process decision program chart (PDPC) would be a useful tool in indicating the causes of an accident since it can clearly show that if the operator made the correct choice, the safety of the system could be maintained. The case of the incident of the nuclear reactor at Mihama unit 2 is indicated by PDPC in which the sequence of events and the operations are indicated in this paper together with the safe operation. One can easily understand the cause of the incident and the way to avoid it. Also, PDPC for the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident is shown. Initially, in order to prevent an accident, mental training and safety culture is most important. The oriental safety culture based on Zentoism, a school of Buddhism is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  13. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  14. Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide harmonized guidance to designers, operators, regulators and providers of technical support on deterministic safety analysis for nuclear power plants. It provides information on the utilization of the results of such analysis for safety and reliability improvements. The Safety Guide addresses conservative, best estimate and uncertainty evaluation approaches to deterministic safety analysis and is applicable to current and future designs. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Grouping of initiating events and associated transients relating to plant states; 3. Deterministic safety analysis and acceptance criteria; 4. Conservative deterministic safety analysis; 5. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis; 6. Verification and validation of computer codes; 7. Relation of deterministic safety analysis to engineering aspects of safety and probabilistic safety analysis; 8. Application of deterministic safety analysis; 9. Source term evaluation for operational states and accident conditions; References.

  15. Safety alarms at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ninin, P; Henny, L

    1998-01-01

    In order to operate the CERN accelerators complex safely, the acquisition, transport and management of safety alarms is of crucial importance. The French regulatory authority [Direction de Sûreté des Installations Nucléaires de Base (INB)] defines them as Level 3 alarms; they represent as such a danger for the life and require an immediate intervention of the Fire Brigade. Safety alarms are generated by fire and flammable gas detection systems, electrical emergency stops, and other safety related systems. Level 3 alarms are transmitted for reliability reasons to their operation centre: the CERN Safety Control Room (SCR) using two different media: the hard-wired network and a computer based system. The hard-wired networks are connected to local panels summarizing in 34 security areas the overall CERN geography. The computer based system offers data management facilities such as alarm acquisition, distribution, archiving and information correlation. The Level 3 alarms system is in constant evolution in order...

  16. Wildland Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland Fire Safety Every year, wildfires burn across the U.S., and more and more people are living where wildfires ... including garages and sheds. If it can catch fire, don’t let it touch your house, deck ...

  17. IMPROVING PATIENT SAFETY:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Improving patient safety is both a national and international priority as millions of patients Worldwide suffer injury or death every year due to unsafe care. University College Zealand employs innovative pedagogical approaches in educational design. Regional challenges related to geographic...

  18. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  19. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  20. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  1. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Cold Weather Pet Safety Client Handout Available for download ... in hot cars , but did you know that cold weather also poses serious threats to your pets’ ...

  2. National Patient Safety Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Learning Series Webcasts CPPS Review Course E-Learning Patient Safety Curriculum CPPS Review Course Patient Blood Management Reducing Diagnostic Error Health Info Technology Publications Ask Me 3 For ...

  3. Reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of possible accidents may become characterized by the 'maximum credible accident', which will/will not happen. Similary, the performance of safety systems in a multitude of situations is sometimes simplified to 'the emergency system will/will not work' or even 'reactors are/ are not safe'. In assessing safety, one must avoid this fallacy of reducing a complicated situation to the simple black-and-white picture of yes/no. Similarly, there is a natural tendency continually to improve the safety of a system to assure that it is 'safe enough'. Any system can be made safer and there is usually some additional cost. It is important to balance the increased safety against the increased costs. (orig.)

  4. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2016-01-01

    been to determine if there is a safety-in-numbers effect. There is safety-in-numbers if the number of accidents increases less than proportionally to traffic volume (for motor vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists). All studies reviewed in the paper are multivariate accident prediction models, estimating...... of the safety-in-numbers effect is defensible. According to a random-effects inverse-variance meta-analysis, the summary estimates of the regression coefficients for traffic volume are 0.50 for motor vehicle volume, 0.43 for cycle volume and 0.51 for pedestrian volume. Estimates are highly consistent between...... studies. It is concluded that a safety-in-numbers effect exists. It is still not clear whether this effect is causal, nor, if causal, which mechanisms generate the effect....

  5. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  6. Improving Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The government takes a tougher stance on processors and producers violating food safety standards Awave of recent contaminated food incidents,exemplified by an E.coli outbreak in Germany and the discovery of industrial plasticizers in

  7. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  8. National Safety Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid ANSI Standards Shop our online store for training eqiupment, books and resources. ... Safety Program up to Par? Compare to other companies using our new benchmarking tool. ​ Early-bird Price ...

  9. Bathroom safety - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000154.htm Bathroom safety - children To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. To prevent accidents in the bathroom, never leave your child alone in the bathroom. ...

  10. Safety in paediatric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those of us working in a dedicated paediatric environment are aware of the important safety issues with regard to paediatrics. Our goal when working with paediatric patients, the goal is to obtain the best quality images while keeping patients safe and their distress to a minimum. This article will discuss some of the issues regarding paediatric safety in a diagnostic imaging department, including radiation doses and the risk to paediatric patients, reducing medication errors, safe sedation practice and environmental safety. Also discussed are some conditions requiring special consideration to maintain patient safety such as epiglottitis and suspected child abuse. Promotion of a patient/family-centered care system will create an environment of trust where parents or guardians will know that their children are being well cared for in a safe, effective environment. (author)

  11. Safety in paediatric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D.; Filice, I.; Murray, D.; Thomas, K. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Those of us working in a dedicated paediatric environment are aware of the important safety issues with regard to paediatrics. Our goal when working with paediatric patients, the goal is to obtain the best quality images while keeping patients safe and their distress to a minimum. This article will discuss some of the issues regarding paediatric safety in a diagnostic imaging department, including radiation doses and the risk to paediatric patients, reducing medication errors, safe sedation practice and environmental safety. Also discussed are some conditions requiring special consideration to maintain patient safety such as epiglottitis and suspected child abuse. Promotion of a patient/family-centered care system will create an environment of trust where parents or guardians will know that their children are being well cared for in a safe, effective environment. (author)

  12. Home safety - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reach of young children. After ironing, allow the iron to cool in a safe spot away from ... and prevention: Home safety: protect your child: prevent poisoning. Update May 5, 2015. Available at: www.healthychildren. ...

  13. Organizational Culture and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  14. Nuclear safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 17th semi-annual report 1980/1 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the first six months of 1980 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics - work performed, results obtained, plans for future work. (orig.)

  15. 2007 special equipment safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R.China (AQSIQ) issued a notice on May 28, 2007,requiring various locations to rectify their procedures for checking special equipment and hoisting machines for hidden problems. To further clarify and implement responsibility in the safety management of special equipment in enterprises, inspection responsibilities and test organizations related to technical assurance are to be established. Further, quality inspection departments will be supervised by law in order to improve special equipment safety.

  16. Safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety philosophy of a PWR type reactor distinguishing three levels of safety, is presented. At the first level, the concept of reactivity defining coefficients which measure the reactivity variation is introduced. At the second level, the reactor protection system establishing the design criteria to assure the high reliability, is defined. At the third level, the protection barriers to contain the consequences of accident evolution, are defined. (M.C.K.)

  17. Safety instruction No. 36

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that a revised version of Safety Instruction No. 36 (IS 36), entitled "Safety rules for the use of static magnetic fields at CERN" is available on the Web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335801/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat (e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch) SC Secretariat

  18. Waste safety activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety standards develop by the IAEA in the Safety Standard Series and other publication are reviewed. The Waste Safety Action plan includes: Action 1: Develop a common framework for the management and disposal of different types of radioactive waste, paying particular attention to large volumes of waste containing long-lived naturally occurring radionuclides. Action 2: Assess the safety implications of the extended storage of radioactive waste and of any future reconditioning which may be necessary and develop safety standards for the long-term storage of radioactive waste. Action 3: Promptly develop safety standards for geological disposal, addressing inter alia, issues of human intrusion, institutional control, retrievability, the content of the safety case and any implications of nuclear safeguards requirements for the design of the repositories. Action 4: Develop an internationally accepted and harmonized approach for controlling the removal of materials and sites from regulatory control. Action 5: Develop a structured and systematic programme to ensure adequate application of the Agency waste safety standards and facilitate their application in implementation of the Joint Convention. Action 6: Explore ways to ensure that information, knowledge and skills concerning radioactive waste management are made available to future generations. Action 7: Address the broader societal dimensions of radioactive waste management. Action 8: Review the new developments related to policies for the control of radioactive discharges to the environment, taking into account the availability and cost-effectiveness of discharge reduction technologies and the broader implications for radioactive waste management of reducing discharges. Action 9: Explore international mechanisms for facilitating the management of spent sealed radioactive sources. Some other activities as training courses and technical cooperation are also presented

  19. Bear Spray Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  20. Criticality safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  1. Nuclear Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semiannual progress report 1983/1 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the first six month of 1983 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics work performed, results obtained and plans for future work. (orig./RW)

  2. Objectives of safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of the safety aspects of exported nuclear power plants demonstrates that additional and somewhat special considerations exist for these plants. In view of this and the generally small regulatory staffs of importing coutnries, suggestions are given for measures which should be taken by various organizations involved in the export and import of nuclear power facilities to raise the level of the very essential safety assessment. (orig.)

  3. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  4. Nuclear safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semiannual progress report 1984/1 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the first six month of 1984 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departements and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics work performed, results obtained and plans for future work. This report was compiled by the project management. (orig./RW)

  5. Project Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semiannual progress report 1981/1 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the first six month of 1981 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics, work performed, results obtained, plans for future work. This report was compiled by the project management. (orig.)

  6. 前哨淋巴结显像剂99Tcm-rituximab体外特性和安全限度的实验研究%Experimental Study of Biological Property and Safety Limitation of Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging Agent 99Tcm-rituximab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪鹃; 张岩; 李艳; 翟士桢; 林保和; 杨志

    2011-01-01

    用99Tcm标记rituximab(美罗华)评价特异性前哨淋巴结(SLN)示踪剂99Tcm-rituximab体外特性及其体内应用的安全性.采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测了99Tcm-Rituximab的分子完整性;采用间接酶联免疫荧光分析(ELISA)及流式细胞术检测了99Tcm-rituximab的免疫活性;最后依据中华药典的要求行99Tcm-Rituximab安全限度及在正常小鼠体内分布实验.结果显示:99Tcm- rituximab标记率为90%~95%;标记化合物分子完整,免疫活性保留完全,标记化合物无菌无热源.受试小鼠以60 mg/kg剂量注射99 Tcm-rituximab(相当于人体用量的500倍),1周内未见小鼠死亡.小鼠体内分布结果显示:99Tcm-rituximab入血后主要通过肾脏排泄,放射性摄取值由1h的(14.01±0.61)%ID/g减少为24 h的(3.51±0.48)% ID/g;肝脏亦可见摄取.各器官未见有明显的放射性滞留.因此,99Tcm-rituximab结构及性能稳定,无急性毒性,使用安全,可应用于临床.%To evaluate the biological property and safety limitation of a specific sentinel lym-phoscintigraphy imaging agent, 99Tcm-rituximab, 99Tcm-rituximab were analyzed for chemical and radiochemical purity, via SDS-PAGE and ITLC-SG. The immunoreactivity were detected via ELISA and flow cytometry. The safety limitation and biodistribution were tested according to the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The results showed that 99Tcm-rituximab, with a labeling yield of 90%~95%, was intact, and processed similar immunoreactivity of ritux-imab. The final product was bacteria and pyogen free, and was safe to the body. According to the data of biodistribution, most of agent was excreted by the kiney, and the radio uptake decreased from (14. 01±0. 61)%ID/g at 1 h to (3. 51+0. 48) %ID/g at 24 h. The liver also uptook the agent. No accumulation was found in the normal tissue. 99Tcm-rituximab is stable and contains a good immunoreacivity and can be effectively used for clinical study.

  7. Safety Basis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities

  8. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  9. Fusion reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fusion could soon become a viable energy source. Work in plasma physics, fusion technology and fusion safety is progressing rapidly in a number of Member States and international collaboration continues on work aiming at the demonstration of fusion power generation. Safety of fusion reactors and technological and radiological aspects of waste management are important aspects in the development and design of fusion machines. In order to provide an international forum to review and discuss the status and the progress made since 1983 in programmes related to operational safety aspects of fusion reactors, their waste management and decommissioning concepts, the IAEA had organized the Technical Committee on ''Fusion Reactor Safety'' in Culham, 3-7 November 1986. All presentations of this meeting were divided into four sessions: 1. Statements on National-International Fusion Safety Programmes (5 papers); 2. Operation and System Safety (15 papers); 3. Waste Management and Decommissioning (5 papers); 4. Environmental Impacts (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 31 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  11. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  12. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H. [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  13. From Safety Culture to Safety Orientation - Developing a tool to measure safety in shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Håvold, Jon Ivar

    2007-01-01

    From Safety Culture to Safety Orientation.Developing a tool to measure safety in shippingThis study intend to develop a tool to measure safety orientation (SO) in shipping. SO should be considered a practical safety culture assessment instrument, indicating the degree of orientation towards safety in a group or an organisation. The scale can for example be used in benchmarking as a key performance indicator (KPI), or as an indicator in a balanced scorecard type of management tool.The definiti...

  14. Cryogenic safety organisation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With Safety being a top priority of CERN’s general policy, the Organisation defines and implements a Policy that sets out the general principles governing Safety at CERN. To the end of the attainment of said Safety objectives, the organic units (owners/users of the equipment) are assigned the responsibility for the implementation of the CERN Safety Policy at all levels of the organization, whereas the Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE) has the role of providing assistance for the implementation of the Safety Policy, and a monitoring role related to the implementation of continuous improvement of Safety, compliance with the Safety Rules and the handling of emergency situations. This talk will elaborate on the roles, responsibilities and organisational structure of the different stakeholders within the Organization with regards to Safety, and in particular to cryogenic safety. The roles of actors of particular importance such as the Cryogenic Safety Officers (CSOs) and the Cryogenic Sa...

  15. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  16. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. PMID:20538104

  17. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  18. Functional Safety for Safety-Related Systems: 10 Common Mistakes

    OpenAIRE

    Brissaud, Florent; Turcinovic, Didier

    2015-01-01

    International audience The functional safety is the part of the overall safety relating to equipment/ system/ installation and their control systems that depends on the correct functioning of the safety-related systems. Due to the critical role of safety-related systems for managing risks, international standards have been developed to provide guidelines and requirements for all their safety lifecycle activities. The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 are now recognized all around the world and have ...

  19. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue

  20. Food Safety for Moms to Be: While You're Pregnant - Listeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Food Safety ...

  1. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  2. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  3. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  4. Safety brings CERNois together

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The World Day for Health and Safety at Work, which was celebrated at CERN on 27 April, provided an opportunity for the safety professionals and members of the CERN personnel to get together to discuss joint concerns. It was a good opportunity for people to learn to distinguish between good and bad habits.   Members of the CERN Fire Brigade advise the Director-General. Two weeks ago, for the second year running, CERN’s restaurants hosted World Day for Health and Safety at Work stands. And once again, the stands attracted considerable interest. “Many people consulted our experts on safety issues relating in particular to ergonomics and electrical risks, the two themes to which we devoted particular attention this time,” explained Charles-Edouard Sala, a member of the BE Department’s Safety Unit and co-organiser of the event. The cardiac massage competition organised by members of CERN's Fire Brigade attracted a large number of competitors. No fe...

  5. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear safety review 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Review summarizes international developments in nuclear safety and radiation protection that are of importance in keeping nuclear power production and the uses of radiation among the safest of industrial activities. Major political changes in Europe have led to requests from eastern European countries for assistance in reassessing the safety of their nuclear power plants in operation and under construction. For its part in providing such assistance, the IAEA has expanded and extended the various advisory services in nuclear safety and radiation protection that it makes available to its Member States. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 continues to be a primary influence on developments in nuclear safety and radiation protection. Work has been initiated to set up an international research centre in the Chernobyl area for studies relating to the consequences of accidents at nuclear establishments. In the interim, at the request of the USSR, the IAEA has commenced a limited reassessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the public health and the environment in areas of the three Soviet republics most affected. Four other international organizations are participating in the study. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. KHNP special safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commemorating the 30 year anniversary of commercial nuclear power plant operation in KOREA, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has conducted a Special Safety Review (SSR) of its 20 operating units to understand their safety performance and to identify any areas that need improvement. The SSR reviewed all 20 operating units for 2 weeks per site. Areas that were reviewed are Safety Margins, Plant Performance, Employee Safety, Employee Performance and Performance Improvement Process. Each review team consisted of international and domestic members. The international reviewers were from IAEA, WANO and INPO. The domestic reviewers consisted of professors, Engineering Company, Research Institute and KHNP experts. The review confirmed safe and reliable operations of the 20 nuclear units. The common understanding resulted from the SSR is as follows. Firstly, KHNP corporate and its plants confirmed and shared mutual understanding on recurring areas for improvements, especially in the areas of Organizational Effectiveness, Industrial Safety, Human Performance, Configuration Management, Operations, Equipment Performance and Material Condition. Secondly, KHNP understood that plant and department level performances are directly related to the leadership and competency of the management team including supervisors. Thirdly, the strengths of individual stations that consistently have produced good results need to be shared with the other KHNP stations. Finally, KHNP learned that strong corporate leadership and support are needed to resolve most of the areas for improvement since they are common to all KHNP stations. (author)

  8. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  9. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  10. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  11. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  12. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  13. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are perfec

  14. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  15. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  16. Nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics 'Large-sized PWR-NPP Safety Techniques Research',and 'The Key Techniques Research on the Safety Supervision and Control for Operation of Nuclear Installations' have been adopted as an apart of 'the National 9th five Year Programs for Tacking the Key Scientific and Technical Topics' which are organized by the State Planning Commission (SPC) and State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC) respectively, and have obtained a financial support from them. To play a better role with the limited fund, the NNSA laid special stress on selecting key sub-topics on nuclear safety, and carefully choosing units which would undertake sub-topics and signing technical contracts with them

  17. Institute for safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area of nuclear reactor safety studies, the Institute for Safety Technology (STI) concentrated its efforts in analysing experimentally and numerically phenomena which characterize highly-improbable but very severe accidents either for light water or for sodium cooled reactors. In the STI nuclear isle, three new laboratories for waste (PETRA), fusion (ETHEL) and safeguards, (PERLA) activities are approaching completion and have made substantial progress in their licensing procedure. The Institute started activities in the non-nuclear safety research area only a few years ago and has been able this year to present its first significant experimental and theoretical results in the areas of runaway reactions, accidental release of products and their deflagration/detonation. Concerning Reference Methods for the Evaluation of Structure Reliability a better understanding was gained of the nonlinear cyclic and dynamic behaviour of materials and structures by performing experiments and developing constitutive and structural member models leading to the computer simulation of complete structures

  18. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  19. Fuel safety research 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  20. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  1. Levels of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states

  2. Nuclear installations sites safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into ten parts bearing: 1 Safety analysis procedures for Basis Nuclear Installations sites (BNI) in France 2 Site safety for BNI in France 3 Industrial and transport activities risks for BNI in France 4 Demographic characteristics near BNI sites in France 5 Meteorologic characteristics of BNI sites in France 6 Geological aspects near the BNI sites in France 7 Seismic studies for BNI sites in France 8 Hydrogeological aspects near BNI sites in France 9 Hydrological aspects near BNI sites in France 10 Ecological and radioecological studies of BNI sites in France

  3. SSC Safety Review Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toohig, T.E. [ed.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  4. Integrated Safety in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    a theoretical framework is developed from a combination of existing literature on health and safety and a mapping of existing practices based on interviews in all four companies. The interviews revealed that the basic knowledge on OHS among architects and engineers is limited. Also currently designers typically...... consider OHS in execution as a responsibility of the contractors. The output of this stage is a systematic and structured conceptual framework that couples OHS-risks in construction (health, safety and mental health) to the stages in the design and engineering processes. Moreover the framework includes...

  5. CERN safety week

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of accidents in 2008, the Safety Commission is organising a CERN safety week from 8 to 12 June for riders of bicycles, scooters and motorbikes. We invite you to take part in the programme, which will be held in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) and will consist of an exhibition, organised events and hands-on activities, including demonstrations of emergency braking, a driving simulator, simulation of what it feels like to drive under the influence of alcohol, demonstrations by the Fire Brigade, video projections, etc. There will also be a number of prizes to be won. Please sign up via your DSO.

  6. LASER safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the LASER safety course will be held in October IN ENGLISH. PLEASE SIGN-UP! -\t"Laser Users", on 27 October, 08:30-12:30. -\t"Laser Experts", on 27-28 October, 08:30-17:30 (including practical session) specifically aimed at LSOs. To register, go to: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077X10 You will receive an invitation via e-mail once your EDH document has been completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Safety Training (73811).

  7. National HTGR safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the National HTGR Program in the US with emphasis on the safety and licensing strategy being pursued. This strategy centers upon the development of an integrated approach to organizing and classifying the functions needed to produce safe and economical nuclear power production. At the highest level, four plant goals are defined - Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness. The HTGR features which support the attainment of each goal are described and finally a brief summary is provided of the current status of the principal safety development program supporting the validation of the four plant goals

  8. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls

  9. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  10. Role Of Biopreservation In Improving Food Safety And Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnadyuti Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopreservation refers to the use of antagonistic microorganisms or their metabolic products to inhibit or destroy undesired microorganisms in foods to enhance food safety and extend shelf life. In order to achieve improved food safety and to harmonize consumer demands with the necessary safety standards, traditional means of controlling microbial spoilage and safety hazards in foods are being replaced by combinations of innovative technologies that include biological antimicrobial systems such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB and/or their metabolites. Bacillus spp. have an antimicrobial action against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, as well as fungi, can therefore be used as a potential biopreservative in food processing due to its wide antimicrobial spectra. Bacteriocins are peptides or complex proteins biologically active with antimicrobial action against other bacteria, principally closely related species. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB have received particular attention in recent years due to their potential application in food industry as natural preservatives. Bacteriocin production in Bacillus spp. has been studied over the past few decades which include Subtilin from B. subtilis, Megacin from B. megaterium and Thermacin from B. stearothermophilus. Bio-preservation may be effectively used in combination with other preservative factors (called hurdles to inhibit microbial growth and achieve food safety. Using an adequate mix of hurdles is not only economically attractive; it also serves to improve microbial stability and safety, as well as the sensory and nutritional qualities of a food.

  11. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  12. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  13. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  14. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  15. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  16. Nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA checked and coordinated in 1999 the research project of the Surveillance Technology on Nuclear Installations under the National 9th-Five-Year Program to promote the organizations that undertake the research work on schedule and lay a foundation of obtaining achievements and effectiveness for the 9th-five-year plan on nuclear safety research

  17. Planning for Campus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to criminal violence, facilities officers are often called on to address campus safety and security issues beyond their usual responsibilities. Their experiences in coping with unanticipated events have produced a catalogue of lessons learned that can help them and their peers at other institutions who might face the same…

  18. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  19. Industrial Education Safety Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California is one of the few states in which school districts have a legal responsibility for accidents involving students while they are participating in assigned school activities. This guide was prepared to help school administrators and teachers evaluate their safety instruction programs and industrial education facilities in accordance with…

  20. Is Safety in Danger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In “Knowledge Under Threat” (Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 2012), Tomas Bogardus proposes a counterexample to the safety condition for knowledge. Bogardus argues that the case demonstrates that unsafe knowledge is possible. I argue that the case just corroborates the well-known require...

  1. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  2. Safety concerns us all

    CERN Multimedia

    SC/GS/S

    2004-01-01

    In spite of periodic safety inspections, risks can never be entirely excluded. The Safety Commission invites you to inform your supervisor or Territorial Safety Officer (TSO) of any hazardous situations you may be aware of. Actions to be taken following the fall of two windowpanes A few weeks ago, a windowpane fell from the third floor of an office building, causing minor damage to a car parked outside. No one was hurt in the incident. The putty holding the window in place had gradually deteriorated over time, and strong winds undoubtedly triggered the incident. A few weeks later, a sudden draft caused a window on the fifth floor of the same building to shatter and fall to the ground below. No one was hurt and there was no material damage. The incident was caused by a fan set into the opening window: as the window slammed shut, the weight of the fan caused the glass to break. What can we do to improve safety? examine the windows of our offices and workshops and report any problems or faults, such as dam...

  3. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. SC Secretariat

  4. HERBE final safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

  5. Communicating for Safety's Sake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    No community is safe until every member takes responsibility for the community's collective safety. College communities are no different from families, towns and businesses in that respect. Getting everyone to accept responsibility is a challenge and skilled communication is an important component of the solution. As part of the front line,…

  6. Safety Awareness & Communications Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Zanani

    2015-01-01

    The projects that I have worked on during my internships were updating the JSC Safety & Health Action Team JSAT Employee Guidebook, conducting a JSC mishap case study, preparing for JSC Today Close Call success stories, and assisting with event planning and awareness.

  7. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  8. Ensuring Nuclear Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident precipitates overall safety inspection by China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corp The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan had barely made headlines around the world when China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Corp.(CGNPC),a nuclear power magnate in China,organized

  9. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  10. Safety of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    safety profile has withstood the challenges of the harsh clinical reality and widespread use. Certainly, the esophageal or gastric irritation caused by the oral preparations is an established adverse effect, the risk of which can be reduced by the recommended routine of taking the medication. From the...

  11. Road lighting for safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is aimed at broad readership, not especially at lighting experts. Lighting is presented as a system, as part of the public highway. Much attention is paid to subjects not greatly covered in the specialist literature, such as environmental aspects, traffic safety, crime prevention, and the

  12. Obstacles to Laser Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2005-04-25

    The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.

  13. School Security and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Kenneth F.

    The author contends that safety and accident prevention should be given primary consideration in a school system's risk management program. He argues that accidents and losses are symptoms of defects in the management system. Two classes of loss discussed are (1) accidental -- injury/loss resulting from unintended events; and (2) purposeful --…

  14. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangers. If you're visiting a farm or live on one, being aware of potential hazards will help kids steer ... near baby animals. Helmets are an important safety feature when riding or ... after touching any animals. If you live on a farm, teach your kids to wash ...

  15. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  16. Safety culture in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, there are describe the activities already accomplished and the activities planned to be executed by the licensee and the regulator with the aim to develop, maintain and strength Safety Culture in all the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant activities. (author)

  17. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  18. Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satomi Onoue,1 Shizuo Yamada,1 Hak-Kim Chan2 1Department of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: To date, various nanodrug systems have been developed for different routes of administration, which include dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Nanodrug systems have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of pharmaceutical substances. In particular, functionalized nanodrug systems can offer enhanced bioavailability of orally taken drugs, prolonged half-life of injected drugs (by reducing immunogenicity, and targeted delivery to specific tissues. Thus, nanodrug systems might lower the frequency of administration while providing maximized pharmacological effects and minimized systemic side effects, possibly leading to better therapeutic compliance and clinical outcomes. In spite of these attractive pharmacokinetic advantages, recent attention has been drawn to the toxic potential of nanodrugs since they often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and safety characteristics of nanodrugs and the limitations of each delivery option is necessary for the further development of efficacious nanodrugs with high therapeutic potential and a wide safety margin. This review highlights the recent progress in nanodrug system development, with a focus on the pharmacokinetic advantages and safety challenges. Keywords: nanoparticles, nanotechnology, nanotoxicity, solubilization, targeted delivery

  19. Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    To date, various nanodrug systems have been developed for different routes of administration, which include dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Nanodrug systems have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of pharmaceutical substances. In particular, functionalized nanodrug systems can offer enhanced bioavailability of orally taken drugs, prolonged half-life of injected drugs (by reducing immunogenicity), and targeted delivery to specific tissues. Thus, nanodrug systems might lower the frequency of administration while providing maximized pharmacological effects and minimized systemic side effects, possibly leading to better therapeutic compliance and clinical outcomes. In spite of these attractive pharmacokinetic advantages, recent attention has been drawn to the toxic potential of nanodrugs since they often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and safety characteristics of nanodrugs and the limitations of each delivery option is necessary for the further development of efficacious nanodrugs with high therapeutic potential and a wide safety margin. This review highlights the recent progress in nanodrug system development, with a focus on the pharmacokinetic advantages and safety challenges. PMID:24591825

  20. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  1. Child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  2. Safety first - safety standards and safety management in Germany; Safety First - Sicherheitsstandards und Sicherheitsmanagement in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmeier, U. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Looking back over centuries shows that people have always been concerned about the perception of safety, risk, and the risk/benefit ratio. It is seen that risk, to this day, has eluded objective assessment. This soft perception marks boundary conditions under which technologies develop. For the peaceful use of nuclear power, this implies a continued thorough involvement in matters of safety, both internal, i.e. safety culture, and external, i.e. public, politics, authorities, expert consultants. The code of technical regulations in nuclear technology, which developed in consensus in Germany, e.g. the KTA 2000 project, can continue to serve as a main tool in the necessary process of objectification. Comparisons of codes on an international basis must be conducted with the appropriate methods because of the different foundations underlying these codes. Concerted activities of all operators of German nuclear power plants at present mark the way towards establishing safety management systems. These safety management systems are process-oriented and backed by indicators. Operators expect these measures to contribute decisively to an objectified perception of the safety levels of German nuclear power plants, both internal and external. (orig.) [German] 'Safety First' markiert einen wesentlichen Aspekt der heutigen Wahrnehmung der Begriffswelt von Sicherheit, Risiko und Risiko-Nutzen-Verhaeltnis, einer Begriffswelt deren Entwicklung Bestandteil der technologischen Entwicklung ueber die Jahrhunderte ist. Einerseits entzog sich dabei schon immer, so auch heute, der Begriff des Risikos ueber weite Strecken einem objektiven Zugang. Andererseits zeigt sich die Entwicklung der Wahrnehmung von Risiko von einem der technologischen Entwicklung nachgeschalteten Problemfeld hin zu einem integralen Bestandteil, geeignet eine technologische Entwicklung an sich in Frage zu stellen. Beides, die prioritaere wie die unscharfe Wahrnehmung des Risikos, markieren Randbedingungen

  3. Safety Pharmacology Evaluation of Biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzadeh, Hamid R; Engwall, Michael J; Vargas, Hugo M

    2015-01-01

    Biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals (BPs) are molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, soluble/decoy receptors, hormones, enzymes, cytokines, and growth factors that are produced in various biological expression systems and are used to diagnose, treat, or prevent various diseases. Safety pharmacology (SP) assessment of BPs has evolved since the approval of the first BP (recombinant human insulin) in 1982. This evolution is ongoing and is informed by various international harmonization guidelines. Based on these guidelines, the potential undesirable effect of every drug candidate (small molecule or BP) on the cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems, referred to as the "core battery," should be assessed prior to first-in-human administration. However, SP assessment of BPs poses unique challenges such as choice of test species and integration of SP parameters into repeat-dose toxicity studies. This chapter reviews the evolution of SP assessment of BPs using the approval packages of marketed BPs and discusses the past, current, and new and upcoming approach and methods that can be used to generate high-quality data for the assessment of SP of BPs.

  4. Radiological safety and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological safety control program in KAERI has been carried out to achieve an optimum radiation protection to radiation workers and visitors as well as to the general public around the nuclear facilities through the justification and the optimization of radiation protection based on the 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable(ALARA)' concept. This program consists of radiation area monitoring, personnel radiation exposure control, calibration of radiation monitoring instruments, and technical support for radiological safety and control. As the results of radiological safety control performances in 1988, it is pronounced that: a.The annual average external radiation level in the working areas shows the distribution, ranging from 0.02 to 22.53mR/hr in Daeduk Head Office and from 0.03 to 1.23mR/hr in Seoul Office. It appears to be of little differences compared with those of last years. b.No individual was exposed in excess of the annual dose limits set in the relevant regulation of the Atomic Energy Act. Their annual average personnel exposure appears to be 0.35mSv in Daeduk Head Office and 2.8mSv in Soul Office, which shows 20% decrease in Daeduk, and 35% decrease in Seoul compared with those of previous year. c. The calibration, maintenance and repair of radiation monitoring instruments which are commonly used in nuclear power plants and radioisotope application industries are very important in performing the radiological safety control and maintaining the tracerbility against the national standard. In 1988, as many as 4,458 calibrations including 282 calibration of KAERI owned instruments have been made available by the program. d. The technical support for radiological safety control was performed through the design consultation for decay tank manufacture of the Korea Cancer Center Hospital and the support for radiation monitoring activities in Seoul Office. (Author)

  5. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  6. Safety analysis and review system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a comprehensive Safety Analysis and Review System that satisfies Department of Energy safety analysis report requirements. This system consists of interrelated criteria for hazard classification, risk assessment, selection of Safety Class Items (SCIs), and selection of Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). The system provides input for design decisions at appropriate project milestones as required by the life cycle of a project. The criteria used for selection in hazard classification, risk assessment, Safety Class Items (SCI) identification, and Operational Safety Requirement (OSR) identification are the subject of this paper

  7. [Practical guide for the use of biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis - December 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Ana Filipa; Fonseca, João Eurico; Canhão, Helena; Santos, Maria José; Bernardo, Alexandra; Cordeiro, Ana; Cravo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Ana; Teixeira, Ana; Barcelos, Anabela; Malcata, Armando; Faustino, Augusto; Duarte, Cátia; Ribeiro, Célia; Nour, Dolores; Araújo, Domingos; Sousa, Elsa; Mariz, Eva; Ramos, Filipa; Vinagre, Filipe; Ventura, Francisco Simões; Sequeira, Graça; Santos, Helena; Branco, Jaime Cunha; Gomes, J A; Silva, J A; Ramos, João; Santo, Jorge Espírito; Costa, José António; Silva, J A; Ribeiro, José Saraiva; Inês, Luís; Miranda, Luís; Sampaio, Luzia; Costa, Maria Lúcia; Rodrigues, Mário; Afonso, Maria Carmo; Cunha, Maria Inês; Saavedra, Maria João; Queiroz, Mário Viana; Couto, Maura; Bernardes, Miguel; Bogas, Mónica; Pinto, Patrícia; Valente, Paula; Coelho, Paulo; Abreu, Pedro; Cortes, Sara; Pimenta, Sofia; Ramiro, Sofia; Figueira, Ricardo; Nóvoa, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the practical aspects of biological therapy use for rheumatoid arthritis patients, commenting safety issues before and after treatment initiation and the best treatment strategies to optimize efficacy. PMID:22472930

  8. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  9. Annual report 1988 of the Central Safety Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all problems of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures. The r+d work concentrates on the following aspects: physical and chemical behavior of biologically particularly active radionuclides, behavior of tritium in the air/plant/soil system, biophysics of multicellular systems, improvement in radiation protection measurement and personnel dosimetry. This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1988 routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. The reader is referred to the English translation of the Table of Contents and of Chapter 1 describing the duties and organization of the Central Safety Department. (orig./HP)

  10. A New Method for the Evaluation of Vaccine Safety Based on Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Momose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years, quality control and safety tests have been used to evaluate vaccine safety. However, conventional animal safety tests need to be improved in several aspects. For example, the number of test animals used needs to be reduced and the test period shortened. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a new vaccine evaluation system. In this review, we show that gene expression patterns are well correlated to biological responses in vaccinated rats. Our findings and methods using experimental biology and genome science provide an important means of assessment for vaccine toxicity.

  11. Management of safety, safety culture and self assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety management is the term used for the measures required to ensure that an acceptable level of safety is maintained throughout the life of an installation, including decommissioning. The safety culture concept and its implementation are described in part one of the paper. The principles of safety are now quite well known and are implemented worldwide. It leads to a situation where harmonization is being achieved as indicated by the entry into force of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. To go beyond the present nuclear safety levels, management of safety and safety culture will be the means for achieving progress. Recent events which took place in major nuclear power countries have shown the importance of the management and the consequences on safety. At the same time, electricity deregulation is coming and will impact on safety through reductions in staffing and in operation and maintenance cost at nuclear installations. Management of safety as well as its control and monitoring by the safety authorities become a key to the future of nuclear energy.(author)

  12. Safety Teams: An Approach to Engage Students in Laboratory Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Tanner, Martha J.; Ferrenberg, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and implemented a yearlong safety program into our organic chemistry lab courses that aims to enhance student attitudes toward safety and to ensure students learn to recognize, demonstrate, and assess safe laboratory practices. This active, collaborative program involves the use of student "safety teams" and includes hands-on safety…

  13. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  14. Agribusiness Safety. Module SH-15. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agribusiness safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to accomplish are listed (e.g., List at least two reasons for agribusiness safety standards). Then each objective is taught in detail, sometimes…

  15. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  16. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  17. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  18. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  19. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  20. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  1. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  2. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  3. Assessment of the impact of scheduled postmarketing safety summary analyses on regulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, E E; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, G J

    2016-07-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities. PMID:26853718

  4. Assessment of the impact of scheduled postmarketing safety summary analyses on regulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, E E; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, G J

    2016-07-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities.

  5. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  6. Safety aspects for underwater vehicles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.

    . This stresses for implementation of multiple safety measures of a high degree so that the platform operates continuously in a fail-safe mode. This paper discusses issues on safety measures implemented on the autonomous underwater platforms namely MAYA AUV...

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Trucker Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... March 3, 2015 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , Center for Motor Vehicle Safety Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communications (OADC) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  8. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... This conclusion stems from an extensive study of animal cloning and related food safety, culminating in the release ...

  9. Older Adults and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Older Adults and Food Safety An adage states, "With age, comes wisdom." Hopefully ...

  10. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L. J.; JENSEN, M. A.

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  11. A total safety management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear organizations, quality and safety are inextricably linked. Therefore, the search for excellence means reaching excellence in nuclear safety. The International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, developed, after the Chernobyl accident, the organizational approach for improving nuclear safety based on the safety culture, which requires a framework necessary to provide modifications in personnel attitudes and behaviors in situations related to safety. This work presents a Total Safety Management Model, based on the Model of Excellence of the Brazilian Quality Award and on the safety culture approach, which represents an alternative to this framework. The Model is currently under validation at the Nuclear Engineering Institute, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the results of its initial safety culture self assessment are also presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Indoor Environmental Quality Health Hazard ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact ...

  13. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  14. Study of industry safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with general remarks, industrial accidents, statistics of industrial accidents, unsafe actions, making machinery and facilities safe, safe activities, having working environment safe, survey of industrial accidents and analysis of causes, system of safety management and operations, safety management planning, safety education, human engineering such as human-machines system, system safety, and costs of disaster losses. It lastly adds individual protective equipment and working clothes including protect equipment for eyes, face, hands, arms and feet.

  15. Nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of the 8th-5 Year-Plan, the stress of research work on nuclear safety for the NNSA is to manage the research projects on nuclear safety related to the two items of state scientific and technical key projects, i.e. 'Key Technologies and Developing Complete Set of Equipment for 600 MW Nuclear Power Plants', and the 'Comprehensive Technologies Research for Low Temperature Nuclear Heating Reactors'. The tackling key projects of the 8th-5 Year-plan reaped rich fruits, of which, some have been used in the engineering practice. It is satisfactory with the research results of the tackling key topics for the 8th-5 Year Plan

  16. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  17. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  18. New safety course!

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Do you need to know how to use the portable breathing apparatus ("Biocell") in order to work at CERN? If so, you will need to sign up for a new course on how to use this personal protection system. The training starts with a refresher on how the Biocell works. You will then have an opportunity to use a training unit in realistic conditions simulating a tunnel incident: darkness, non-toxic smoke, the noise of a gas leak, an audible alarm to signal oxygen deficiency, and flashing hazard lights. Once you have participated in this 90-minute training session (in French or English), you will know how to use your Biocell in the event of an emergency. In the near future, completion of the course will become mandatory in order to obtain access rights for the LHC and SPS tunnels. Register for the Biocell course through the Safety training catalogue. Contact: mailto:safety.training@cern.ch

  19. New safety course!

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Do you need to know how to use the portable breathing apparatus ("Biocell") in order to work at CERN? If so, you will need to sign up for a new course on how to use this personal protection system. The training starts with a refresher on how the Biocell works. You will then have an opportunity to use a training unit in realistic conditions simulating a tunnel incident: darkness, non-toxic smoke, the noise of a gas leak, an audible alarm to signal oxygen deficiency, and flashing hazard lights. Once you have participated in this 90-minute training session (in French or English), you will know how to use your Biocell in the event of an emergency. In the near future, completion of the course will be made mandatory in order to obtain access rights for the LHC and SPS tunnels. Register for the Biocell course through the Safety training catalogue.Contact: mailto:safety.training@cern.ch

  20. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  1. Welding and reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high safety requirements which must be demanded of the quality of the welded joints in reactor technique have so far not been fulfilled in all cases. The errors occuring have caused considerable loss of availability and high material costs. They were not, however, so serious that one need have feared any immediate danger to the personnel or to the environment. The safety devices of reactor plants were only called upon in a few cases and to these they responded perfectly. The intensive efforts to complete and improve the specifications are to contribute to that in future, the reactor plants can be counted even more so as one of the safest technical plants ever. (orig./LH)

  2. Software safety hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  3. 75 FR 6401 - Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Evaluation and Research; Availability of Summaries of Safety and Effectiveness Data for Premarket Approval... safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This list is intended to inform the public...

  4. A Symmetric Safety Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny

    2009-01-01

    How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a “safety valve” that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrumen...

  5. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  6. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    OpenAIRE

    Griglio, B; S. Lomonaco; Nucera, D; M.A. Grassi

    2011-01-01

    Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5). After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were vis...

  7. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  8. HEALTHY AND SAFETY SWIMMING

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman CEYLAN

    2005-01-01

    Swimming is a sport which has own rules, styles, and fields, however, is one of the most performed avocation as amateur and a joke especially at summer months. Although one of the most beneficial sports, swimming can cause a number of several health problems such as infectious diseases, allergic events, or traumas, if it is not done at adequate conditions and eligible style. In this paper, the factors such as preparing to swimming, health and safety features of swimming areas, important healt...

  9. Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Šljivo, Irfan

    2015-01-01

     Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing such systems to comply with a safety standard is a time-consuming and costly process. Reuse within development of such systems is used to reduce the cost and time needed to both develop the system and the accompanying safety case. Reus...

  10. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  11. The effect of network biology on drug toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2013-01-01

    biology has the opportunity to contribute to a better understanding of a drug's safety profile. The authors believe that considering a drug action and protein's function in a global physiological environment may benefit our understanding of the impact some chemicals have on human health and toxicity. The...... network biology. The authors specifically assess this approach across different biological scales when it is applied to toxicity. Expert opinion: There has been much progress made with the amount of data that is generated by various omics technologies. With this large amount of useful data, network...

  12. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 483

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  13. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  14. Risk management and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper informs on the efforts to elaborate a feedback system for risk comprehensive evaluation and a system to improve structure safety foreseeing the possibility to control the latent risk, ensuring the qualitative evaluation of the safety level and improvement of safety culture in various branches of industry, first and foremost, in the electricity producing sector including the nuclear power industry

  15. Production, safety, fighting, and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Two agents make a trade off between production and safety investment, fighting for joint production. Ceteris paribus, if agent 1 has a higher unit cost of production, lower emphasis on safety causes more fighting and higher utility for agent 1, and less production and safety effort by agent 1.

  16. Knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Yue; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    With the wide research and application of nanomaterials in various fields, the safety of nanomaterials attracts much attention. An increasing number of reports in the literature have shown the adverse effects of nanomaterials, representing the quick development of nanotoxicology. However, many studies in nanotoxicology have not reflected the real nanomaterial safety, and the knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety remain large. Considering the remarkable influence of biological or environmental matrices (e.g., biological corona) on nanotoxicity, the situation of performing nanotoxicological experiments should be relevant to the environment and humans. Given the possibility of long-term and low-concentration exposure of nanomaterials, the reversibility of and adaptation to nanotoxicity, and the transgenerational effects should not be ignored. Different from common pollutants, the specific analysis methodology for nanotoxicology need development and exploration furthermore. High-throughput assay integrating with omics was highlighted in the present review to globally investigate nanotoxicity. In addition, the biological responses beyond individual levels, special mechanisms and control of nanotoxicity deserve more attention. The progress of nanotoxicology has been reviewed by previous articles. This review focuses on the blind spots in nanotoxicological research and provides insight into what we should do in future work to support the healthy development of nanotechnology and the evaluation of real nanomaterial safety.

  17. Knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Yue; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    With the wide research and application of nanomaterials in various fields, the safety of nanomaterials attracts much attention. An increasing number of reports in the literature have shown the adverse effects of nanomaterials, representing the quick development of nanotoxicology. However, many studies in nanotoxicology have not reflected the real nanomaterial safety, and the knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety remain large. Considering the remarkable influence of biological or environmental matrices (e.g., biological corona) on nanotoxicity, the situation of performing nanotoxicological experiments should be relevant to the environment and humans. Given the possibility of long-term and low-concentration exposure of nanomaterials, the reversibility of and adaptation to nanotoxicity, and the transgenerational effects should not be ignored. Different from common pollutants, the specific analysis methodology for nanotoxicology need development and exploration furthermore. High-throughput assay integrating with omics was highlighted in the present review to globally investigate nanotoxicity. In addition, the biological responses beyond individual levels, special mechanisms and control of nanotoxicity deserve more attention. The progress of nanotoxicology has been reviewed by previous articles. This review focuses on the blind spots in nanotoxicological research and provides insight into what we should do in future work to support the healthy development of nanotechnology and the evaluation of real nanomaterial safety. PMID:27203780

  18. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation. PMID:24510755

  19. Patient safety: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  20. Patient safety: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagian, James P. [National Center for Patient Safety, Department of Veterans Affairs, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  1. [Safety of intensive sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays low calorie or intesive sweeteners are getting more and more popular. These sweeteners can be placed to the market and used as food additives according to the recent EU legislation. In the meantime news are coming out one after the other stating that many of these artificial intensive sweeteners can cause cancer - the highest risk has been attributed to aspartam. Low calorie sweeteners, just like all the other additives can be authorized after strickt risk assessment procedure according to the recent food law. Only after the additive has gone through these procedure can be placed to the list of food additives, which contains not only the range of food these additives can be used, but also the recommended highest amount of daily consumption. European Food Safety Authority considering the latest scientific examination results, evaluates regularly the safety of sweeteners authorized earlier. Until now there is no evidence found to question the safety of the authorized intensive sweeteners. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 1), 14-28. PMID:27088715

  2. Safety at your service

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    You might think that only twelve people to man twelve different services, each needing several people could be a problem. Not for the DGS-SEE-SV Section! We can now reveal their magic formula.   From risk management to prevention and follow-up of accidents, from safety training to hunting for pollutants in buildings and providing safety input for calls for tenders, the DGS-SEE-SV’s services underpin virtually every aspect of CERN’s daily life. “The section was set up in 2011 to meet the Organization's needs more effectively", explains François Angerand, head of the DGS-SEE-SV section. "For some activities, such as providing safety input for calls for tenders, our Section acts as an interface between the Departments and all the other services of the HSE Unit. In other cases, we ourselves provide direct support to the Departments.” “Safety” is synonymous with “prevention”: the DGS-...

  3. An exercise in safety

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 14 October, a large-scale evacuation exercise took place. Ten buildings (1-2-3-4-50-51-52-53-58-304), with a total capacity of almost 1900 people, were successfully evacuated.   The exercise, which for the first time involved all of the central buildings on the Meyrin site, was organised by the PH Department in collaboration with the HSE Unit, the GS Department and the safety officers of all the various departments involved. On the day, around 400 people were evacuated in just a few minutes.  “It took us three months to prepare for the exercise,” explains Niels Dupont, safety officer for the PH Department, who organised the exercise. “Around 100 people: safety officers, firefighters, emergency guides, observers, representatives from the control centre, etc. attended four preparatory meetings and five training sessions. We also purchased equipment such as evacuation chairs, high-visibility vests and signs to mark the evacuation route.” The dec...

  4. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  5. Safety aspects in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a program for the evaluation of the physical installations and operational procedures in diagnostic radiology with respect to radiation-safety is described. In addition, a proposal for the quality analysis of X-ray equipment and film-processing is presented. The purpose is both to ensure quality and safety of the radiology service, as well as to aid in the initial and in-service training of the staff. Interviews with patients, staff practicing radiology at a wide range of levels and the controlling authorities were carried out in the State of Rio de Janeiro in order to investigate the existence and the effective use of personal radioprotection equipment as well as user's and staff's concern for radiation safety. Additionally physical measurements were carried out in University Hospitals in Rio de Janeiro to assess the quality of equipment in day-to-day use. It was found that in the locations which did not have routine maintenance the equipment was generally in a poor state which lead to a high incidence of repetition of examinations and the consequent financial loss. (author)

  6. Health and Safety First

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, health and safety underpin everything we do. We have strict operational procedures in place, as well as health, safety and environment (HSE) requirements to make our working environment as safe as possible. It’s everyone’s responsibility to follow these procedures and requirements to keep ourselves, and our colleagues, safe. We have a very good safety and operational record at CERN stretching back almost 60 years, but there is never room for complacency.   With this very much in mind, we have developed a robust plan for implementation if something unforeseen goes wrong.  Because however careful we all are, accidents do happen, and the mark of any organisation that aspires to be among the best in the world is how quickly and efficiently it acts when they do. A small team made up of people from several departments at CERN has produced a strategic crisis management plan that we can put into action should a major incident occur.  This plan focuses on...

  7. Total safety management: An approach to improving safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair

  8. Safety Information Modeling: Smart Safety Devices & Internet of Everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Aanandh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of Internet of things that connects the things, people and the process through which the people and things interact is coined as Internet of Everything. Safety management is constructed as a complex system of systems design coordinating with each other like the Fire Alarm System or Gas Detection System as well as the Emergency response like the Fire Fighters and Para-Medicals like the Ambulatory services. The governments have been setting up national broadband plans and separate dedicated spectrum for Public Safety Communications used for effective information rich emergency management and response. This paper outlines the evolution of the public safety LTE network and its applicability in the safety management system and safety preparedness. It also describes the role of Smart Objects and Internet of Everything in Safety Management. To achieve this, this paper develops the information models for safety management systems to be used in IoE utilizing the broad-band LTE networks.

  9. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Networks is discussed. Important advantages of safety-barrier diagrams as compared to other graphical risk-analysis methods are, firstly, the relative simplicity that supports communication with non-expert stakeholders and, secondly, the focus on deliberately inserted safety systems that supports......Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... the management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  10. Safety of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of research reactors that have been constructed worldwide for civilian applications is about 651. Of the reactors constructed, 284 are currently in operation, 258 are shut down and 109 have been decommissioned. More than half of all operating research reactors worldwide are over thirty years old. During this long period of time national priorities have changed. Facility ageing, if not properly managed, has a natural degrading effect. Many research reactors face concerns with the obsolescence of equipment, lack of experimental programmes, lack of funding for operation and maintenance and loss of expertise through ageing and retirement of the staff. Other reactors of the same vintage maintain effective ageing management programmes, conduct active research programmes, develop and retain high calibre personnel and make important contributions to society. Many countries that operate research reactors neither operate nor plan to operate power reactors. In most of these countries there is a tendency not to create a formal regulatory body. A safety committee, not always independent of the operating organization, may be responsible for regulatory oversight. Even in countries with nuclear power plants, a regulatory regime differing from the one used for the power plants may exist. Concern is therefore focused on one tail of a continuous spectrum of operational performance. The IAEA has been sending missions to review the safety of research reactors in Member States since 1972. Some of the reviews have been conducted pursuant to the IAEA' functions and responsibilities regarding research reactors that are operated within the framework of Project and Supply Agreements between Member States and the IAEA. Other reviews have been conducted upon request. All these reviews are conducted following procedures for Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) missions. The prime objective of these missions has been to conduct a comprehensive operational safety

  11. Tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the impact of privatization and globalization on traditional dam safety practice and the Canadian experience of the environmental dimension of dam failures, various aspects of tailings dam safety have much to offer the wider dam safety community. General design principles for tailings dams are not described, rather an attempt is made to frame some contemporary issues of tailings dam safety in ways that bring out their relevance in a broader dam safety context. Lessons applicable to future dam safety practice in related areas are examined, and the dam safety traditions of the mining, hydroelectric and related industries in Canada are brought together by illustrating some of the common elements and concerns they share. It is becoming evident that future dam safety activities for the hydroelectric, water supply and related dams will be carried out in a more privatized and globalized context by organizations less acquainted with traditional dam safety practices than in the past. If so, then tailings dam experience can be a pathfinder for how and why dam safety needs to be addressed in a corporate setting. It shows that the perceived effects of dam failures, environmental and otherwise, influence corporate damowners in ways that can amplify manyfold the objective consequences that dam safety assessments usually address. Dam safety professionals might do well to better understand and effectively communicate the financial and organizational impacts of dam failure on the corporate entity in ways that go beyond the traditional assessment of downstream hazard and failure consequences. Dam safety efforts can come to be seen less as imposed burdens of dam ownership and more as activities consistent with shareholder accountability and corporate self-interest. The Canadian mining industry, in adopting this perspective, is confirming that support for dam safety activities from the highest corporate level is essential for implementing them throughout the

  12. Tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, S.G.

    1999-07-01

    In the context of the impact of privatization and globalization on traditional dam safety practice and the Canadian experience of the environmental dimension of dam failures, various aspects of tailings dam safety have much to offer the wider dam safety community. General design principles for tailings dams are not described, rather an attempt is made to frame some contemporary issues of tailings dam safety in ways that bring out their relevance in a broader dam safety context. Lessons applicable to future dam safety practice in related areas are examined, and the dam safety traditions of the mining, hydroelectric and related industries in Canada are brought together by illustrating some of the common elements and concerns they share. It is becoming evident that future dam safety activities for the hydroelectric, water supply and related dams will be carried out in a more privatized and globalized context by organizations less acquainted with traditional dam safety practices than in the past. If so, then tailings dam experience can be a pathfinder for how and why dam safety needs to be addressed in a corporate setting. It shows that the perceived effects of dam failures, environmental and otherwise, influence corporate damowners in ways that can amplify manyfold the objective consequences that dam safety assessments usually address. Dam safety professionals might do well to better understand and effectively communicate the financial and organizational impacts of dam failure on the corporate entity in ways that go beyond the traditional assessment of downstream hazard and failure consequences. Dam safety efforts can come to be seen less as imposed burdens of dam ownership and more as activities consistent with shareholder accountability and corporate self-interest. The Canadian mining industry, in adopting this perspective, is confirming that support for dam safety activities from the highest corporate level is essential for implementing them throughout the

  13. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  14. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  15. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  16. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  17. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  18. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  19. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  20. Safety in networks and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State authorities have set safety criteria in the field of information technology as standard. A specific research and development direction has been initiated in order to fulfil these standards. At Siemens it is called ''network and system safety''. This edition of the Siemens magazine Special Research and Development gives an overview of the research and development works carried out in order to guarantee safety and reliability of Siemens products and systems. Computer networks, chips, fax coding, safety of railway signalling technique, control technology, telecommunication and safety control technique in nuclear power plants. (DG)