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Sample records for biological response modifier

  1. Biological Response Modifier in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Luo, Feifei; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Luman; Yang, Jiao; Deng, Yuting; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Jiawen; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Xuechao; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Biological response modifiers (BRMs) emerge as a lay of new compounds or approaches used in improving cancer immunotherapy. Evidences highlight that cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and noncoding RNAs are of crucial roles in modulating antitumor immune response and cancer-related chronic inflammation, and BRMs based on them have been explored. In particular, besides some cytokines like IFN-α and IL-2, several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists like BCG, MPL, and imiquimod are also licensed to be used in patients with several malignancies nowadays, and the first artificial small noncoding RNA (microRNA) mimic, MXR34, has entered phase I clinical study against liver cancer, implying their potential application in cancer therapy. According to amounts of original data, this chapter will review the regulatory roles of TLR signaling, some noncoding RNAs, and several key cytokines in cancer and cancer-related immune response, as well as the clinical cases in cancer therapy based on them.

  2. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals.

  3. Biological response modifiers and their potential use in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Louise S; Skov, Lone; Baadsgaard, Ole

    2003-01-01

    and fewer side-effects than the current systemic therapies now used for severe psoriasis, contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. In the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, the immune system plays a pivotal role, and this is where biological response modifiers such as monoclonal antibodies......In recent years, a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of several inflammatory skin diseases, combined with the developments within biotechnology, has made it possible to design more selective response modifiers. Biological response modifiers hold the potential for greater effectiveness......, recombinant cytokines, or fusion proteins may be effective. Several biological response modifiers have already shown positive results in phase II/III clinical trials in skin diseases, and many new biological response modifiers are in progress....

  4. Comparison of various assays to quantitate macrophage activation by biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.; Nanda, S.; Altom, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages treated with various compounds that enhance host antitumor resistance exhibit measurable changes in metabolism, function, and surface antigens. In this study, murine peptone-induced peritoneal macrophages were stimulated in vitro by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), muramyl dipeptide (MDP), and poly I.poly C. They were subsequently compared in their ability to release superoxide and act as tumoristatic and tumoricidal effector cells. Superoxide generation was assayed by the reduction of ferricytochrome C. All three compounds failed to induce significant O/sub 2/- release, unless the cells were also treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). MDP was most active in potentiating the PMA response. In the tumor growth inhibition assay, cytostatic activity was comparable for all three compounds and did not exceed 32 percent. The combination of subthreshold levels of these compounds and hybridoma-derived MAF acted synergistically to induce potent cytostatic activity. In the chromium release assay, LPS and poly I.poly C rendered macrophages cytolytic for P815 target cells at concentrations greater than or equal to 1 microgram/ml. In contrast, significant cytolysis was observed with MDP only at 100 micrograms/ml. Defining precisely the effect of various biological response modifiers on several parameters of macrophage function may facilitate use of these agents in cancer therapy.

  5. Metformin: A Novel Biological Modifier of Tumor Response to Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritzinsky, Marianne, E-mail: mkoritzi@uhnresearch.ca

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decade, evidence has emerged to support a role for the antidiabetic drug metformin in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In particular, recent studies demonstrate that metformin enhances tumor response to radiation in experimental models, and retrospective analyses have shown that diabetic cancer patients treated with radiation therapy have improved outcomes if they take metformin to control their diabetes. Metformin may therefore be of utility for nondiabetic cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. The purpose of this review is to examine the data pertaining to an interaction between metformin and radiation, highlighting the essential steps needed to advance our current knowledge. There is also a focus on key biomarkers that should accompany prospective clinical trials in which metformin is being examined as a modifying agent with radiation therapy. Existing evidence supports that the mechanism underlying the ability of metformin to enhance radiation response is multifaceted, and includes direct radiosensitization as well as a reduction in tumor stem cell fraction, proliferation, and tumor hypoxia. Interestingly, metformin may enhance radiation response specifically in certain genetic backgrounds, such as in cells with loss of the tumor suppressors p53 and LKB1, giving rise to a therapeutic ratio and potential predictive biomarkers.

  6. Gene expression of hematoregulatory cytokines is elevated endogenously after sublethal gamma irradiation and is differentially enhanced by therapeutic administration of biologic response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, V.M. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States); Adamovicz, J.J.; Madonna, G.S.; Gause, W.C. [Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Jackson, W.E. III [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Prompt, cytokine-mediated restoration of hematopoiesis is a prerequisite for survival after irradiation. Therapy with biologic response modifiers (BRMs), such as LPS, 3D monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and synthetic trehalose dicrynomycolate (S-TDCM) presumably accelerates hematopoietic recovery after irradiation are poorly defined. One hour after sublethal (7.0 Gy) {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, B6D2F1/J female mice received a single i.p. injection of LPS, MPL, S-TDCM, an extract from Serratia marcescens (Sm-BRM), or Tween 80 in saline (TS). Five hours later, a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay demonstrated marked splenic gene expression for IL-1{beta}, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). Enhanced gene expression for TNF-{alpha}, macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) was not detected. Injection of any BRM further enhanced cytokine gene expression and plasma levels of CSF activity within 24 h after irradiation and hastened bone marrow recovery. Mice injected with S-TDCM or Sm-BRM sustained expression of the IL-6 gene for at least 24 h after irradiation. Sm-BRM-treated mice exhibited greater gene expression for IL-1{beta}, IL-3, TNF-{alpha}, and G-CSF at day 1 than any other BRM. When challenged with 2 LD{sub 50/30} of Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 days after irradiation, 100% of Sm-BRM-treated mice and 70% of S-TDCM-treated mice survived, whereas {le}30% of mice treated with LPS, MPL, or TS survived. Thus, sublethal irradiation induces transient, splenic cytokine gene expression that can be differentially amplified and prolonged by BRMs. BRMs that sustained and/or enhanced irradiation-induced expression of specific cytokine genes improved survival after experimental infection. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Phase III, multicenter, open-label, long-term study of the safety of abatacept in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Urata, Yukitomo; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohta, Shuji; Honjo, Shigeru; Abe, Tohru; Yamamoto, Ami; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long-term safety of intravenous (IV) abatacept treatment in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) or other conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods This Phase III, open-label, long-term study (NCT00484289) comprised Japanese patients with RA who had completed abatacept Phase I or Phase II studies, and new patients intolerant to MTX. Patients from Phase I and Phase II studies re...

  8. BYSTANDERS, ADAPTIVE RESPONSES AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY - POTENTIAL MODIFIERS OF LOW-DOSE CANCER RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystanders, Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability -Potential Modifiers ofLow-DoseCancer Responses.There has been a concerted effort in the field of radiation biology to better understand cellularresponses that could have an impact on the estin1ation of cancer...

  9. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  10. Modified rotating biological contactor for removal of dichloromethane vapours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R; Philip, Ligy; Swaminathan, T

    2015-01-01

    Bioreactors are used for the treatment of waste gas and odour that has gained much acceptance in the recent years to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The different types of bioreactors (biofilter, biotrickling filter and bioscrubber) have been used for waste gas treatment. Each of these reactors has some advantages and some limitations. Though biodegradation is the main process for the removal of the pollutants, the mechanisms of removal and the microbial communities may differ among these bioreactors. Consequently, their performance or removal efficiency may also be different. Clogging of reactor and pressure drop are the main problems. In this study attempts are made to use the principle of rotating biological contactor (RBC) used for wastewater treatment for the removal of VOC. To overcome the above problem the RBC is modified which is suitable for the treatment of VOC (dichloromethane, DCM). DCM is harmful to human health and hazardous to the atmospheric environment. Modified RBC had no clogging problems and no pressure drop. So, it can handle the pollutant load for a longer period of time. A maximum elimination capacity of 25.7 g/m3 h has been achieved in this study for the DCM inlet load of 58 g/m3 h. The average biofilm thickness is 1 mm. The transient behaviour of the modified RBC treating DCM was investigated. The modified RBC is able to handle shutdown, restart and shock loading operations.

  11. Dose response biology: the case of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J; Mattson, Mark P; Calabrese, Vittorio

    2010-12-01

    Resveratrol often displays hormesis-like biphasic dose responses. This occurs in a broad range of biological models and for numerous endpoints of biomedical interest and public health concern. Recognition of the widespread occurrence of the hormetic nature of many of the responses of resveratrol is important on multiple levels. It can help optimize study design protocols by investigators, create a dose-response framework for better addressing dose-related biological complexities and assist in the development of public health and medical guidance with respect to considerations for what is an optimal dose not just for an agent such as resveratrol, but also for the plethora of agents that also act via hormetic mechanisms.

  12. Functional responses modified by predator density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratina, P.; Vos, M.; Bateman, A.W.; Anholt, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Realistic functional responses are required for accurate model predictions at the community level. However, controversy remains regarding which types of dependencies need to be included in functional response models. Several studies have shown an effect of very high predator densities on per capita

  13. Cyclic Voltammetric Responses of Nitrate Reductase on Chemical Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaRuSONG; HuiBoSHAO; 等

    2002-01-01

    Electrochemistry of nitrate reductases (NR) incorporated into 2-aminoethanethiol self-assembled on the gold electrode and polyacrylamide cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode was examined. NR on chemical modified electrode showed electrochemical cyclic voltammetric responses in phosphate buffers.

  14. Using host response modifiers in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M John; Donley, Timothy G

    2002-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between microbial plaque, the host's inflammatory response to the plaque, and host modifying factors (e.g., smoking, diabetes, genetics) that may have an impact on the disease process. It is known that plaque initiates periodontal disease but that the host response is responsible for the destruction of periodontal tissues. This article describes why host response modifiers may be used to help control inflammation and tissue destruction as part of the initial phase of periodontal therapy in selected patient groups.

  15. Neuroticism modifies psychophysiological responses to fearful films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Reynaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroticism is a personality component frequently found in anxious and depressive psychiatric disorders. The influence of neuroticism on negative emotions could be due to its action on stimuli related to fear and sadness, but this remains debated. Our goal was thus to better understand the impact of neuroticism through verbal and physiological assessment in response to stimuli inducing fear and sadness as compared to another negative emotion (disgust. METHODS: Fifteen low neurotic and 18 high neurotic subjects were assessed on an emotional attending task by using film excerpts inducing fear, disgust, and sadness. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR and corrugator muscle activity (frowning as indices of emotional expression. RESULTS: SCR was larger in high neurotic subjects than in low neurotics for fear relative to sadness and disgust. Moreover, corrugator activity and SCR were larger in high than in low neurotic subjects when fear was induced. CONCLUSION: After decades of evidence that individuals higher in neuroticism experience more intense emotional reactions to even minor stressors, our results indicate that they show greater SCR and expressive reactivity specifically to stimuli evoking fear rather than to those inducing sadness or disgust. Fear processing seems mainly under the influence of neuroticism. This modulation of autonomic activity by neurotics in response to threat/fear may explain their increased vulnerability to anxious psychopathologies such as PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder.

  16. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  17. Modified Bayesian Kriging for Noisy Response Problems for Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    CIE 2015 August 2-5, 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [DRAFT] DETC2015-47370 MODIFIED BAYESIAN KRIGING FOR NOISY RESPONSE PROBLEMS FOR...Lamb US Army RDECOM/TARDEC Warren, MI 48397-5000, USA david.lamb@us.army.mil ABSTRACT This paper develops a new modified Bayesian Kriging (MBKG...surrogate modeling method for problems in which simulation analyses are inherently noisy and thus standard Kriging approaches fail to properly

  18. Structure and biological activity of chemically modified nisin A species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollema, Harry S.; Metzger, Jörg W.; Both, Paula; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.

    1996-01-01

    Nisin, a 34-residue peptide bacteriocin, contains the less common amino acids lanthionine, β-methyllanthionine, dehydroalanine (Dha), and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Several chemically modified nisin A species were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by two-dimensional NMR and electrospray m

  19. SUMO-2 Orchestrates Chromatin Modifiers in Response to DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriks, Ivo A; Treffers, Louise W; Verlaan-de Vries, Matty

    2015-01-01

    with the DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). We have uncovered a dynamic set of 20 upregulated and 33 downregulated SUMO-2 conjugates, and 755 SUMO-2 sites, of which 362 were dynamic in response to MMS. In contrast to yeast, where a response is centered on homologous recombination, we identified......Small ubiquitin-like modifiers play critical roles in the DNA damage response (DDR). To increase our understanding of SUMOylation in the mammalian DDR, we employed a quantitative proteomics approach in order to identify dynamically regulated SUMO-2 conjugates and modification sites upon treatment...... dynamically SUMOylated interaction networks of chromatin modifiers, transcription factors, DNA repair factors, and nuclear body components. SUMOylated chromatin modifiers include JARID1B/KDM5B, JARID1C/KDM5C, p300, CBP, PARP1, SetDB1, and MBD1. Whereas SUMOylated JARID1B was ubiquitylated by the SUMO...

  20. Loss of strength in biologically degraded thermally modified wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Råberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The durability of thermally modified (TM and untreated (UT mini-stakes exposed to in-ground contact was compared by modulus of elasticity (MOE and mass loss with decay type using microscopy. Results showed a strong correlation between MOE and soft rot decay for UT stakes over a 30 month exposure period. For TM stakes, the correlation between MOE and decay rate (soft rot/bacteria was not as strong. Loss of MOE of the TM stakes is suggested to be accentuated by the extensive micro-checking produced in the TM wood tracheids during the original heat treatment. The micro-checks are thought to expand during the winter season due to water expansion during freezing, thereby leading to weakening of the wood in addition to the decay caused by soft rot and bacteria. Using molecular methods, Phialophora hoffmannii was identified as the main fungus causing soft rot decay.

  1. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.

  2. Automatic Biological Cell Counting Using a Modified Gradient Hough Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    We present a computational method for pseudo-circular object detection and quantitative characterization in digital images, using the gradient accumulation matrix as a basic tool. This Gradient Accumulation Transform (GAT) was first introduced in 1992 by Kierkegaard and recently used by Kaytanli & Valentine. In the present article, we modify the approach by using the phase coding studied by Cicconet, and by adding a "local contributor list" (LCL) as well as a "used contributor matrix" (UCM), which allow for accurate peak detection and exploitation. These changes help make the GAT algorithm a robust and precise method to automatically detect pseudo-circular objects in a microscopic image. We then present an application of the method to cell counting in microbiological images.

  3. Biological targets in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a comprehensive review of current and in-development biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manil Kukar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Manil Kukar1, Olga Petryna1, Petros Efthimiou21Rheumatology Division, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Enhanced understanding of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathophysiology and the role of cytokines has enabled the development of innovative biological agents in the last 10 years that target specific parts of the immune response. Failure to achieve adequate response with traditional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and increasing evidence of ongoing radiographic deterioration of the affected joints despite seemingly clinical response were essential stimuli for the development of biologics. The current and upcoming biological agents are primarily aimed at neutralizing circulating and cell-bound pro-inflammatory cytokines, interfering in the interaction of antigen-presenting and T-lymphocytes, eliminating circulating B-lymphocytes or by interfering with the intracellular signaling mechanisms of immuno-competent cells that lead to inflammation. These agents have improved the currently available treatments due to greater efficacy, fast action and greater tolerability. However, use of these agents has also been associated with significant, although rare, adverse events and considerable cost. Therefore, these agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present work aims to provide a global and updated review of the current and in-development biological DMARDs for the treatment of RA.Keywords: biological agents, rheumatoid arthritis, immunomodulators, treatment, cytokines

  4. [The Israeli medical response plan for an unusual biological event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poles, Lion

    2002-05-01

    Lack of national preparedness for biological warfare or a bioterrorism event as well as for a natural outbreak of a dangerous agent may lead to grave consequences (large-scale morbidity and mortality) in the short and long term. Threat assessment and its consequences are the basis for the contingency for such an event, with the medical community playing the leading role. In this article we present the principles of the Israeli medical response plan for an unusual biological event--whether of natural origin or a deliberate attack. The primary goals of the preparedness program are reducing mortality and morbidity, preventing a disaster, decreasing the irrational public response and inducing the resumption of the normal course of life. The program presented and its phases are universal, with the proper modifications needed to be implemented according to the specific etiology and the circumstances of the event. In order to successfully deal with the incident, national-level coordination of many non-medical organizations is required. An integration body in the Ministry of Health is a prerequisite for the early detection of the outbreak and for the rapid and proper identification of the etiologic agent. An effective triage system which screens the truly-exposed, the sick and their contacts among the many worried-well engorging the medical organizations, should be the spearhead for an integrated health system dealing with disease prevention and treatment. Public relations and recruitment of the media for transferring relevant information are a vital part of the response. In this rare and unfamiliar emergency situation the basic principle is to use existing response systems, implementing most of the routine procedures and functions, modified according to guidelines from central governmental bodies.

  5. Biological safety evaluation of the modified urinary catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczuk, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.kowalczuk@umlub.pl [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro safety of the novel tosufloxacin (TOS)-treated catheters with the prolonged antimicrobial activity. The test samples of silicone latex catheter were prepared by the immobilization of TOS on chitosan (CHIT)-coated catheter by means of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions. Each step of the modification process of catheter surface was observed using ATR–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of the modified and unmodified catheters was assessed by direct and indirect tests in accordance with ISO standards using green monkey kidney (GMK) cell line. The MTT, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), WST-8, Sulforhodamine B (SRB) test results and microscopic observation clearly indicated that unmodified silicone latex catheters decrease cell metabolic activity, act as a cytotoxic agent causing cell lysis and induce cell death through necrotic or apoptotic process. We suggest that chitosan coat with TOS immobilized limits leaching of harmful agents from silicone latex material, which significantly enhances survivability of GMK cells and therefore is quite a good protection against the cytotoxic effect of this material. - Highlights: • Characterization of the novel antimicrobial urinary catheters • Monitoring of the catheter modification by FTIR analysis • Confirmation of high cytotoxicity of latex-based catheter used in urological practice • Chitosan-coated and tosufloxacin-treated catheter is less toxic than the untreated one. • The proposed surface modification protects cells against latex-induced death.

  6. Alginate-modifying enzymes: Biological roles and biotechnological uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga eErtesvåg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate denotes a group of industrially important 1-4-linked biopolymers composed of the C-5-epimers β-D-mannuronic acid (M and α-L-guluronic acid (G. The polysaccharide is manufactured from brown algae where it constitutes the main structural cell wall polymer. The physical properties of a given alginate molecule, e.g. gel-strength, water-binding capacity, viscosity and biocompatibility, are determined by polymer length, the relative amount and distribution of G residues and the acetyl content, all of which are controlled by alginate modifying enzymes. Alginate has also been isolated from some bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, and bacterially synthesized alginate may be O-acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Initially, alginate is synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and some M residues are subsequently epimerized to G residues. In bacteria a mannuronan C-5-epimerase (AlgG and an alginate acetylase (AlgX are integral parts of the protein complex necessary for alginate polymerisation and export. All alginate-producing bacteria use periplasmic alginate lyases to remove alginate molecules aberrantly released to the periplasm. Alginate lyases are also produced by organisms that utilize alginate as carbon source. Most alginate-producing organisms encode more than one mannuronan C-5 epimerase, each introducing its specific pattern of G residues. Acetylation protects against further epimerization and from most alginate lyases. One enzyme with alginate deacetylase activity from Pseudomonas syringae has been reported. Functional and structural studies reveal that alginate lyases and epimerases have related enzyme mechanisms and catalytic sites. Alginate lyases are now utilized as tools for alginate characterization. Secreted epimerases have been shown to function well in vitro, and have been engineered further in order to obtain enzymes that can provide alginates with new and desired properties for use in medical and

  7. Assessing the effectiveness of synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in psoriatic arthritis – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley GH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabrielle H Kingsley, David L Scott Rheumatology Unit, Kings College London, London, UK Background: Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis the primary manifestations of which are locomotor and skin disease. Although a number of guidelines have been published citing strategies for reducing disease progression, the evidence base for disease-modifying agents is unclear. This forms the focus of this systematic review. Methods: The systematic review was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2009 checklist. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs that looked at the impact of interventions with disease-modifying agents, either synthetic drugs or biologics on musculoskeletal outcomes, notably American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders. Results were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.6 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK. Whilst our primary focus was on published trials, we also looked at new trials presented in abstract form in 2013–2014 that were not yet published to avoid omitting important and up-to-date information on developing treatments. Results: Our in-depth analysis included 28 trials overall enrolling 5,177 patients published between the 1980s and now as well as limited analysis of some studies in abstract form as described earlier. The most frequently available locomotor outcome measure was the American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders. The risk ratio for achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders response was positive in favor of treatment (risk ratio 2.30; 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.96; however, there was evidence of considerable heterogeneity between trials. Overall randomized controlled trials of established synthetic disease-modifying agents were largely negative (methotrexate, ciclosporin and sulfasalazine though leflunomide showed a small positive effect. A new synthetic agent, apremilast, did show a

  8. Treatment heterogeneity in asthma: genetics of response to leukotriene modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, John J

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, asthma continues to be a significant health and economic burden. Although asthma cannot be cured, several drugs, including beta2 agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene (LT) modifiers, are well tolerated and effective in minimizing symptoms, improving lung function, and preventing exacerbations. However, inter-patient variability in response to asthma drugs limits their effectiveness. It has been estimated that 60-80% of this inter-patient variability may be attributable to genetic variation. LT modifiers, in particular, have been associated with heterogeneity in response. These drugs exert their action by inhibiting the activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent bronchoconstrictors and pro-inflammatory agents. Two classes of LT modifiers are 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) inhibitors (zileuton) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) [montelukast, pranlukast, and zarfirlukast]. LT modifiers can be used as alternatives to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in mild persistent asthma, as add-on therapy to low- to medium-dose ICS in moderate persistent asthma, and as add-on to high-dose ICS and a long-acting ss2 agonist in severe persistent asthma. At least six genes encode key proteins in the LT pathway: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), ALOX5 activating protein (ALOX5AP [FLAP]), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), the ATP-binding cassette family member ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 [MRP1]), and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1). Studies have reported that genetic variation in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, and ABCC1 influences response to LT modifiers. Plasma concentrations of LTRAs vary considerably among patients. Physio-chemical characteristics make it likely that membrane efflux and uptake transporters mediate the absorption of LTRAs into the systemic circulation following oral administration. Genes that encode efflux and uptake transport proteins harbor many variants that could

  9. Engineering Titanium for Improved Biological Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C; Bearinger, J; Dimasi, E; Gilbert, J

    2002-01-23

    The human body and its aggressive environment challenge the survival of implanted foreign materials. Formidable biocompatibility issues arise from biological, chemical, electrical, and tribological origins. The body's electrolytic solution provides the first point of contact with any kind of implant, and is responsible for transport, healing, integration, or attack. Therefore, determining how to successfully control the integration of a biomaterial should begin with an analysis of the early interfacial dynamics involved. setting, a complicated feedback system of solution chemistry, pH, ions, and solubility exists. The introduction of a fixation device instantly confounds this system. The body is exposed to a range of voltages, and wear can bring about significant shifts in potentials across an implant. In the environment of a new implant the solution pH becomes acidic, ionic concentrations shift, cathodic currents can lead to corrosion, and oxygen levels can be depleted; all of these impact the ability of the implant to retain its protective oxide layer and to present a stable interface for the formation of a biolayer. Titanium has been used in orthopedic and maxilofacial surgery for many years due to its reputation as being biocompatible and its ability to osseointegrate. Osseointegration is defined as direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone, and the surface of a load carrying implant. Branemark discovered this phenomenon in the 60's while examining titanium juxtaposed to bone. The mechanism by which titanium and its passivating oxide encourage osseosynthetic activity remains unknown. However in general terms the oxide film serves two purposes: first to provide a kinetic barrier that prevents titanium from corroding and second to provide a substrate that allows the constituents of bone (calcium phosphate crystals, cells, proteins, and collagen) to bond to it. We believe that the electrochemical environment dictates the

  10. Optimization of Adsorption Conditions of Cr (VI by PEI Modified BSG Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlong Jiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface response optimization of Adsorption Conditions of Cr (VI wastewater by PEI modified brewer's grains (BSG with the factors of pH value, adsorbent concentration, adsorption time, amount of adsorbent and the response of adsorption rate were studied. The optimal parameters for adsorption conditions were of adsorbent concentration of 113.30 mg/L, adsorbent particle size of 60~80 mesh, pH 1.79, adsorbent amount of 4.99 g/L, adsorption time and temperature of 1.88 h and 30°C, respectively. The maximal absorption rate got 100.0%, adsorption capacity was 46.58 mg/g. The PEI modified BSG is a promising, cheap, efficient, new biological materials of adsorption for Cr (VI in wastewater.

  11. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  12. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses. Objective The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique. Data, Sources, and Selection The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research. Results Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups. Conclusions The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies. PMID:27441840

  13. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Bernedo Alcazar

    Full Text Available The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses.The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique.The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research.Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups.The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies.

  14. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  15. Systems biology of neutrophil differentiation and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Porse, Bo T; Borregaard, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Systems biology has emerged as a new scientific field, which aims at investigating biological processes at the genomic and proteomic levels. Recent studies have unravelled aspects of neutrophil differentiation and immune responses at the systems level using high-throughput technologies...

  16. The Impact of Conventional and Biological Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Bone Biology. Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Sofia Carvalho; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-08-01

    The bone and the immune system have a very tight interaction. Systemic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), induce bone loss, leading to a twofold increase in osteoporosis and an increase of fragility fracture risk of 1.35-2.13 times. This review focuses on the effects of conventional and biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on bone biology, in the context of systemic inflammation, with a focus on RA. Published evidence supports a decrease in osteoclastic activity induced by DMARDs, which leads to positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown if this effect could be translated into fracture risk reduction. The combination with antiosteoclastic drugs can have an additional benefit.

  17. Moisture sorption, biological durability, and mechanical performance of WPC containing modified wood and polylactates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological durability is an important feature for wood-plastic composites (WPC intended for outdoor applications. One route to achieving WPC products with increased biological durability is to use wood preservative agents in the formulation of the WPC. Another option could be to use a chemically modified wood component that already exhibits increased resistance to biological degradation. There is also a need to use biobased thermoplastics made from renewable resources, which would decrease the dependency on petrochemically-produced thermoplastics in the future. The objective of this study was to examine moisture sorption properties, biological durability, and mechanical performance of injection-molded WPC samples based on acetylated or thermally modified wood components and a polylactate matrix. The biological durability was evaluated in a terrestrial microcosm (TMC test according to ENV 807, followed by mechanical evaluation in a center point bending test. The moisture sorption properties were investigated via both water soaking and exposure in a high-humidity climate. Low or negligible mass losses were observed in the TMC test for all WPC samples. However, the mechanical evaluation after exposure in the TMC test showed 35-40% losses in both strength and stiffness for the WPC containing an unmodified wood component.

  18. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  19. Lipid peroxidation generates biologically active phospholipids including oxidatively N-modified phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sean S; Guo, Lilu

    2014-07-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.

  20. Research on the Hydrophilic Modified of LDPE for the New Biological Suspended Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the main pollution sources of the city, which pollute soil, deteriorate the water quality and increase the water shortages and urban load. LDPE is low cost and widely used as the basic material of wastewater treatment, but LDPE’s hydrophilic is not good enough to meet the need of suspended filler in wastewater treatment. In this paper the hydrophilic modified of LDPE for the new biological suspended filler was studied and the preparation and processing technique based on LDPE was researched. The hydrophilic and mechanic performance of the hydrophilic modified materials was tested. Results shown that the new type of hydrophilic modified materials has good hydrophilic and meets the demand of urban sewage treatment. The research on the new suspended filler materials has great meaning in solving the problem of urban sewage and recycling.

  1. Chemical modifiers in arsenic determination in biological materials by tungsten coil electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Huerta, V.N.; Neira, J.Y. [Departamento de Analisis Instrumental, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 237, Concepcion (Chile)

    2004-01-01

    Palladium, iridium, and rhodium are evaluated as possible chemical modifiers in the determination of As in digest solutions of biological materials (human hair and clam) by tungsten coil electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (TCA-AAS). The modifier in solution was applied onto the coil and thermally pre-reduced; the pre-reduction conditions, the amount of modifier, and the thermal program were optimized. Palladium was not satisfactory, whereas Ir and Rh were effective modifiers and rendered better relative sensitivity for As by a factor of 1.4 and 1.9, respectively compared to the case without modifier. Upon optimization of thermal conditions for As in pre-reduced Ir (2.0 {mu}g) and Rh (2.0 {mu}g) modifiers and in the digest solutions of the study matrices, Rh (2.0 {mu}g) was more effective modifier and was selected as such. The mean within-day repeatability was 2.8% in consecutive measurements (25-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}) (3 cycles, each of n=6) and confirmed good short-term stability of the absorbance measurements. The mean reproducibility was 4.4% (n=20 in a 3-day period) and the detection limit (3{sigma}{sub blank}/slope) was 29 pg (n=15). The useful coil lifetime in Rh modifier was extended to 300-400 firings. Validation was by determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of ''Oyster tissue'' solution with a percentage relative error (E{sub rel}%) of 2% and percentage relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 3% (n=4), and by analytical recovery of As spiked in CRM of human hair [94{+-}8% (n=4)]. The methodology is simple, fast (sample readout frequency 21 h{sup -1}), reliable, of low cost, and was applied to the determination of As in hair samples of exposed and unexposed workers. (orig.)

  2. Biological response of hydrogels embedding gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsich, Eleonora; Travan, Andrea; Donati, Ivan; Di Luca, Andrea; Benincasa, Monica; Crosera, Matteo; Paoletti, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    A nanocomposite hydrogel based on natural polysaccharides and gold nanoparticles (ACnAu) has been prepared and its biological effects were tested in vitro with both bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Antimicrobial tests showed that AC-nAu gels are effective in killing both gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram- (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. LDH assays pointed at a toxic effect towards eukaryotic cell-lines (HepG2 and MG63), in contrast with the case of silver-based hydrogels; cytofluorimetry studies demonstrated an apoptosis-related mechanism induced by increase of ROS intracellular level which leads to cell death after 24 h of direct contact with AC-nAu gels. In vivo biocompatibility has been evaluated in a rat model, investigating the peri-implant soft tissue reaction after 1 month of implantation. The results show that silver-containing samples induced a fibrotic capsule of the same average thickness of the control sample (devoid of nanoparticles) (∼50 μm), while in the case of gold containing materials the fibrotic capsule was thicker (∼100 μm), confirming a higher biocompatibility for silver-based samples than for gold-based ones.

  3. Supramolecular Assemblies Responsive to Biomolecules toward Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Hamachi, Itaru

    2015-10-01

    Stimuli-responsive supramolecular assemblies consisting of small molecules are attractive functional materials for biological applications such as drug delivery, medical diagnosis, enzyme immobilization, and tissue engineering. By use of their dynamic and reversible properties, many supramolecular assemblies responsive to a variety of biomolecules have been designed and synthesized. This review focuses on promising strategies for the construction of such dynamic supramolecular assemblies and their functions. While studies of biomolecule-responsive supramolecular assemblies have mainly been performed in vitro, it has recently been demonstrated that some of them can work in live cells. Supramolecular assemblies now open up new avenues in chemical biology and biofunctional materials.

  4. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...... decreases in formation of appressoria as well as accumulation of H2O2, HRGPs and phytoalexins. Concomitant with these inducible responses, fungal growth was stopped during or just after penetration in genotypes SC146 and SC326. High levels of H2O2 accumulating at late infection stages (5 days after...

  5. Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    2001  11 Cyranowski, David, Marmoset Model takes Centre Stage, Nature, 459-523-527, May 2009  10    genetically modified or synthetically produced...Agency, “Unclassified Memorandum – NCI Response to ECBC”, 9 November 2011 David Cyranowski, “ Marmoset Model Takes Centre Stage”; Nature, 459 -523-527

  6. Simulation of triaxial response of granular materials by modified DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoLiang; Li, JiaChun

    2014-12-01

    A modified discrete element method (DEM) with rolling effect taken into consideration is developed to examine macroscopic behavior of granular materials in this study. Dimensional analysis is firstly performed to establish the relationship between macroscopic mechanical behavior, mesoscale contact parameters at particle level and external loading rate. It is found that only four dimensionless parameters may govern the macroscopic mechanical behavior in bulk. The numerical triaxial apparatus was used to study their influence on the mechanical behavior of granular materials. The parametric study indicates that Poisson's ratio only varies with stiffness ratio, while Young's modulus is proportional to contact modulus and grows with stiffness ratio, both of which agree with the micromechanical model. The peak friction angle is dependent on both inter-particle friction angle and rolling resistance. The dilatancy angle relies on inter-particle friction angle if rolling stiffness coefficient is sufficiently large. Finally, we have recommended a calibration procedure for cohesionless soil, which was at once applied to the simulation of Chende sand using a series of triaxial compression tests. The responses of DEM model are shown in quantitative agreement with experiments. In addition, stress-strain response of triaxial extension was also obtained by numerical triaxial extension tests.

  7. Response Priming with More or Less Biological Movements as Primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, David; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Response priming in general is a suitable tool in cognitive psychology to investigate motor preactivations. Typically, compatibility effects reflect faster reactions in cases in which prime and target suggest the same response (i.e., compatible trials) compared with cases in which prime and target suggest opposite responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving dots that were horizontally aligned, Bermeitinger (2013) found a stable pattern of results: with short SOAs, faster responses in compatible trials were found; with longer SOAs up to 250 ms, faster responses in incompatible trials were found. It is unclear whether these results are specific to the special motion used therein or whether it generalizes to other motions. We therefore used other motions realized by arrangements of dots. In four experiments, we tested point-light displays (biological coherent walkers vs. less biological scrambled/split displays) as primes. In two experiments, eye gaze motions realized by moving dots representing irises and pupils (i.e., biological) versus the same motion either without surrounding face information or integrated in an abstract line drawing (i.e., less biological) were used. We found overall large positive compatibility effects with biological motion primes and also positive-but smaller-compatibility effects with less biological motion primes. Most important, also with very long SOAs (up to 1320 ms), we did not find evidence for negative compatibility effects. Thus, the pattern of positive-followed-by-negative-compatibility effects found in Bermeitinger (2013) seems to be specific to the materials used therein, whereas response priming in general seems an applicable tool to study motion perception.

  8. Evaluation of the usefulness of modified biological fingerprints in chest radiographs for patient recognition and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoichiro; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Morishita, Junji

    2016-07-01

    We have been developing an image-searching method to identify misfiled images in a PACS server. Developing new biological fingerprints (BFs) that would reduce the influence of differences in positioning and breathing phases to improve the performance of recognition is desirable. In our previous studies, the whole lung field (WLF) that included the shadows of the body and lungs was affected by differences in positioning and/or breathing phases. In this study, we showed the usefulness of a circumscribed lung with a rectangular region of interest and the upper half of a chest radiograph as modified BFs. We used 200 images as hypothetically misfiled images. The cross-correlation identifies the resemblance between the BFs in the misfiled images and the corresponding BFs in the database images. The modified BFs indicated better results than did WLF in a receiver operating characteristic analysis; therefore, they could be used as identifiers for patient recognition and identification.

  9. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabella eGariboldi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1 surface topography, (2 pore size and geometry, (3 porous networks and (4 macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way, as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  10. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Best, Serena M

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1) surface topography, (2) pore size and geometry, (3) porous networks, and (4) macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  11. Mechano-biological Coupling of Cellular Responses to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mian; Wang, Yuren; Zheng, Huiqiong; Shang, Peng; Duan, Enkui; Lü, Dongyuan

    2015-11-01

    Cellular response to microgravity is a basic issue in space biological sciences as well as space physiology and medicine. It is crucial to elucidate the mechano-biological coupling mechanisms of various biological organisms, since, from the principle of adaptability, all species evolved on the earth must possess the structure and function that adapts their living environment. As a basic element of an organism, a cell usually undergoes mechanical and chemical remodeling to sense, transmit, transduce, and respond to the alteration of gravitational signals. In the past decades, new computational platforms and experimental methods/techniques/devices are developed to mimic the biological effects of microgravity environment from the viewpoint of biomechanical approaches. Mechanobiology of plant gravisensing in the responses of statolith movements along the gravity vector and the relevant signal transduction and molecular regulatory mechanisms are investigated at gene, transcription, and protein levels. Mechanotransduction of bone or immune cell responses and stem cell development and tissue histogenesis are elucidated under microgravity. In this review, several important issues are briefly discussed. Future issues on gravisensing and mechanotransducing mechanisms are also proposed for ground-based studies as well as space missions.

  12. Victimization and Biological Stress Responses in Urban Adolescents: Emotion Regulation as a Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    Associations between urban adolescents' victimization experiences and biological stress responses were examined, as well as emotion regulation as a moderator of these associations. Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study with a low-income, community-based sample (n = 242; 91 % African American; 57 % female; M = 11.98, SD = 1.56 years at baseline) revealed that victimization, assessed over 3 study waves, was associated with an attenuated cortisol response to a stress interview at the final study wave, indicating that responses of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis were dysregulated. Cortisol responses were moderated by caregiver-reported adolescent emotion regulation, suggesting that this modifiable protective factor that is taught in many school-based prevention programs could help reduce harm associated with HPA axis dysregulation linked to victimization.

  13. A Modified Oxidation Ditch with Additional Internal Anoxic Zones for Enhanced Biological Nutrient Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; YANG Dianhai; XU Li; SHEN Changming

    2013-01-01

    A novel modified pilot scale anaerobic oxidation ditch with additional internal anoxic zones was operated experimentally,aiming to study the improvement of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the effect of enhanced denitrifying phosphorus removal in the process.Under all experimental conditions,the anaerobic-oxidation ditch with additional internal anoxic zones and an internal recycle ratio of 200% had the highest nutrient removal efficiency.The effluent NH+4-N,total nitrogen(TN),PO34--P and total phosphorus(TP)contents were 1.2 mg·L-1,13 mg·L-1,0.3 mg·L-1 and 0.4 mg·L-1,respectively,all met the discharge standards in China.The TN and TP removal efficiencies were remarkably improved from 37% and 50% to 65% and 88% with the presence of additional internal anoxic zones and internal recycle ratio of 200%.The results indicated that additional internal anoxic zones can optimize the utilization of available carbon source from the anaerobic outflow for denitrification.It was also found that phosphorus removal via the denitrification process was stimulated in the additional internal anoxic zones,which was beneficial for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal when treating wastewater with a limited carbon source.However,an excess internal recycle would cause nitrite to accumulate in the system.This seems to be harmful to biological phosphorus removal.

  14. Biological and ecological responses to carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.

    This dissertation examines the biological and ecological responses to carbon nanoparticles, a major class of nanomaterials which have been mass produced and extensively studied for their rich physical properties and commercial values. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review on the structures, properties, applications, and implications of carbon nanomaterials, especially related to the perspectives of biological and ecosystems. Given that there are many types of carbon nanomaterials available, this chapter is focused on three major types of carbon-based nanomaterials only, namely, fullerenes, single walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. On the whole organism level, specifically, Chapter II presents a first study on the fate of fullerenes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in rice plants, which was facilitated by the self assembly of these nanomaterials with NOM. The aspects of fullerene uptake, translocation, biodistribution, and generational transfer in the plants were examined and quantified using bright field and electron microscopy, FT-Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The uptake and transport of fullerene in the plant vascular system were attributed to water transpiration, convection, capillary force, and the fullerene concentration gradient from the roots to the leaves of the plants. On the cellular level, Chapter III documents the differential uptake of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 vs. amphiphilic C70-NOM complex in Allium cepa plant cells and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. This study was conducted using a plant cell viability assay, and complemented by bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. In particular, C60(OH)20 and C70-NOM showed contrasting uptake in both the plant and mammalian cells, due to their significant differences in physicochemistry and the presence of an extra hydrophobic plant cell wall in the plant cells. Consequently, C60(OH)20 was found to induce toxicity in Allium cepa cells but not in HT-29 cells, while C70

  15. Climate change and biological invasions: evidence, expectations, and response options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2016-05-31

    A changing climate may directly or indirectly influence biological invasions by altering the likelihood of introduction or establishment, as well as modifying the geographic range, environmental impacts, economic costs or management of alien species. A comprehensive assessment of empirical and theoretical evidence identified how each of these processes is likely to be shaped by climate change for alien plants, animals and pathogens in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments of Great Britain. The strongest contemporary evidence for the potential role of climate change in the establishment of new alien species is for terrestrial arthropods, as a result of their ectothermic physiology, often high dispersal rate and their strong association with trade as well as commensal relationships with human environments. By contrast, there is little empirical support for higher temperatures increasing the rate of alien plant establishment due to the stronger effects of residence time and propagule pressure. The magnitude of any direct climate effect on the number of new alien species will be small relative to human-assisted introductions driven by socioeconomic factors. Casual alien species (sleepers) whose population persistence is limited by climate are expected to exhibit greater rates of establishment under climate change assuming that propagule pressure remains at least at current levels. Surveillance and management targeting sleeper pests and diseases may be the most cost-effective option to reduce future impacts under climate change. Most established alien species will increase their distribution range in Great Britain over the next century. However, such range increases are very likely be the result of natural expansion of populations that have yet to reach equilibrium with their environment, rather than a direct consequence of climate change. To assess the potential realised range of alien species will require a spatially explicit approach that not only

  16. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  17. Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Yong [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belinsky, Steven [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our main research objective was to determine the biological bases for low-dose, radiation-induced adaptive responses in the lung and use the knowledge gained to produce an improved risk model for radiation-induced lung cancer that accounts for activated natural protection, genetic influences, and the role of epigenetic regulation (epiregulation). Currently, low-dose radiation risk assessment is based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis which now is known to be unsupported by a large volume of data.

  18. Immunomodulation of rheumatologic disorders with non-biologic disease modifying antirheumtic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ulrich A

    2016-04-01

    Although biological agents have revolutionized the immunomodulation of many rheumatic disorders, conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) remain important glucocorticosteroid sparing agents and combination partners. In rheumatoid arthritis, low-dose glucocorticosteroids can be regarded as a DMARD due to preventive effects on joint erosions. Therapy with methothrexate and possibly also other DMARDs may alter the natural evolution of rheumatoid arthritis severity over time and therapy should be instituted as early as possible. Leflunomide is an equipotent alternative to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis, if methotrexate cannot be tolerated. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits toll-like receptor signaling and exerts antithrombotic and antihyperlipidemic effects, all thought to be beneficial in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine improves organ involvement in lupus, prevents lupus flares, and reduces mortality. It should be given to every lupus patient without contraindications.

  19. Simulation and applications of a novel modified SBR system for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W; Timpany, P; Dawson, B

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic simulation and applications of a novel, continuous-fed, constant level modified sequencing batch reactor for biological nutrient removal are presented. The underlying mathematical model and practical applications of the simulation are discussed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the applications as well as the flexibility of the system in meeting different wastewater treatment requirements. Operation experience from full-scale wastewater treatment plant demonstrates the reliability, ease of operation and high efficiency of the system. Average BOD5, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TSS removals of 97, 81, 88 and 94% are achieved respectively on an annual basis with little operator attention. Consistently high waste activated sludge concentrations are demonstrated, averaging approximately 20,000 mg/L.

  20. ANALISIS ARGUMENTASI MAHASISWA PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI PADA ISU SOSIOSAINFIK KONSUMSI GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis argumentasi yang dikemukakan oleh mahasiswa pendidikan biologi terkait isu sosiosaintifik yaitu konsumsi pangan Genetically Modified Organism (GMO.  Penelitian menggunakan metode survei secara online.  Partisipan yang berasal dari semester III-VII Universitas Islam Negeri Jakarta yang secara sukarela mengisi kuisioner online yang diunggah pada weblog. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan isu sosiosaintifik GMO lebih banyak ditanggapi secara saintifik oleh partisipan.  Argumentasi sebagian besar berada pada level II, yaitu telah mampu mengungkapkan sebuah klaim disertai dengan alasan. Hanya sedikit yang sudah mampu memberikan argumen secara holistik (level IV, yaitu mampu mengungkapkan argumen dengan alasan yang kuat yang tidak mudah dibantah.  Umumnya argumentasi yang dikemukan partisipan berjenis argumentasi sederhana dan argumentasi tipe rantai.  Berdasarkan temuan ini, perlu dikembangkan sebuah model perkuliahan yang dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berargumentasi. This research aimed to analyze the argument for socioscientifik issue “Genetically Modified Organism (GMO Food Consumtion”.  This reseach used online survey.  Participant filled online questionaire that uploaded in weblog.  Participants are student of biology education in Jakarta Islamic State University. The result showed most participants gave scientific view in their argument.  Most of argumentations were in level II; participants gave a klaim within a warrant.  Only a few argument were in level IV, it’s a holistic argument that contained a klaim, a warrant, a backing, and a rebuttal.  Most of argument had simple type or chain type.  From this result, university must develop strategies of lecturing to improve argumentation skill.

  1. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, F., E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sannino, A.; Pollini, M. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag{sub 2}O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed.

  2. Response signatures of four biological indicators to an iron and steel industrial landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul M.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Industrial landfills greatly modify surrounding areas by affecting chemical, physical, and biological integrity. Few data quantifying contaminant levels near landfills in sediments or in the organisms living near landfills exist. We examined several indicators of the aquatic community to determine whether a relationship existed between proximity to an industrial landfill and a decrease in biological integrity. The purpose was to determine patterns in community compositions and concentrations of contaminants in organisms and to assess the effects of contaminants on several trophic levels in the Grand Calumet Lagoons and adjacent ponds. In most aquatic systems, it is difficult to establish causal relationships between contaminants and ecosystem health due to the many ecological factors that can influence the responses of organisms and communities to particular stressors.

  3. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  4. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity. Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound and PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and it exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells – even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  5. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity. Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells. We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants

  6. Chemically modified oligonucleotides with efficient RNase H response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Boel, Anne Marie; Lobedanz, Sune;

    2008-01-01

    Ten different chemically modified nucleosides were incorporated into short DNA strands (chimeric oligonucleotides ON3-ON12 and ON15-ON24) and then tested for their capacity to mediate RNAse H cleavage of the complementary RNA strand. The modifications were placed at two central positions directly...... in the RNase H cleaving region. The RNA strand of duplexes with ON3, ON5 and ON12 were cleaved more efficiently than the RNA strand of the DNA:RNA control duplex. There seems to be no correlation between the thermal stability between the duplexes and RNase H cleavage....

  7. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and tim

  8. EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis with synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: 2013 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, J.S.; Landewe, R.; Breedveld, F.C.; Buch, M.; Burmester, G.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Gaujoux-Viala, C.; Gossec, L.; Nam, J.; Ramiro, S.; Winthrop, K.; Wit, M. de; Aletaha, D.; Betteridge, N.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Boers, M.; Buttgereit, F.; Combe, B.; Cutolo, M.; Damjanov, N.; Hazes, J.M.; Kouloumas, M.; Kvien, T.K.; Mariette, X.; Pavelka, K.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Rubbert-Roth, A.; Scholte-Voshaar, M.; Scott, D.L.; Sokka-Isler, T.; Wong, J.B.; Heijde, D. van der

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the 2010 European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (sDMARDs and bDMARDs, respectively) have been updated. The 2013 update has been developed by an int

  9. An Experimental Study in the Mechanical Response of Polymer Modified Geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0057 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN THE MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF POLYMER MODIFIED GEOPOLYMERS Benjamin Valera...03-JUN-2010 -- 02-MAR-2012 An Experimental Study in the Mechanical Response of Polymer Modified Geopolymers FA4819-10-C-0020 0909999F GOVT D0 QD101005...molecular weight of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG), Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) on metakaolin and F type fly ash sodium based geopolymers in heir mechanical

  10. Semantic annotation of biological concepts interplaying microbial cellular responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated extraction systems have become a time saving necessity in Systems Biology. Considerable human effort is needed to model, analyse and simulate biological networks. Thus, one of the challenges posed to Biomedical Text Mining tools is that of learning to recognise a wide variety of biological concepts with different functional roles to assist in these processes. Results Here, we present a novel corpus concerning the integrated cellular responses to nutrient starvation in the model-organism Escherichia coli. Our corpus is a unique resource in that it annotates biomedical concepts that play a functional role in expression, regulation and metabolism. Namely, it includes annotations for genetic information carriers (genes and DNA, RNA molecules, proteins (transcription factors, enzymes and transporters, small metabolites, physiological states and laboratory techniques. The corpus consists of 130 full-text papers with a total of 59043 annotations for 3649 different biomedical concepts; the two dominant classes are genes (highest number of unique concepts and compounds (most frequently annotated concepts, whereas other important cellular concepts such as proteins account for no more than 10% of the annotated concepts. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, a corpus that details such a wide range of biological concepts has never been presented to the text mining community. The inter-annotator agreement statistics provide evidence of the importance of a consolidated background when dealing with such complex descriptions, the ambiguities naturally arising from the terminology and their impact for modelling purposes. Availability is granted for the full-text corpora of 130 freely accessible documents, the annotation scheme and the annotation guidelines. Also, we include a corpus of 340 abstracts.

  11. Physiochemical and Biological Properties of Modified Collagen Sponge from Porcine Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuanyuan; HUANG Shujie; WU Jimin; GUAN Jing; ZHANG Xizheng; LI Zhihong; WANG Pengfei; LI Ruixin; GUO Yong; NING Bo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare one-step method to EDC/NHS crosslinking(EDC/NHS group)and one-step simultaneous method to EDC/NHS crosslinking and heparin immobilization(EDC/NHS-Heparin group)in improving physiochemical and biological properties of native collagen sponge(Control group).Modified collagen sponge overcome the disad-vantages of native collagen sponge.IR spectra suggest the change of the functional groups.DSC data indicate that the stability of caloric transformation in EDC/NHS group is slightly higher than that of EDC/NHS-Heparin group.The crosslinking degree,stability against enzymes,stability in morpho-logically and biomechanical properties of EDC/NHS-Heparin group are higher than those of EDC/NHS group,whereas,the water-binding capacity in EDC/NHS-Heparin group is lower than that of EDC/NHS group.HUVECs in EDC/NHS-Heparin group scaffold proliferate fast,migrate well and distribute uniformly.One-step simultaneous method gains the better effects in above aspects, heparinized collagen matrices increase in angiogenic potential and suit for defect repairing and tissue engineering.

  12. Ten years of publicly funded biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ashley M; Proudman, Susanna M; Vitry, Agnes I; Sorich, Michael J; Cleland, Leslie G; Wiese, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment were among the first high-cost medicines to be subsidised in Australia. High-cost medicines pose several challenges to the Australian National Medicines Policy, which aims to provide timely access to effective medicines at a cost individuals and the community can afford. Thus, novel restriction criteria were developed to encourage cost-effective use of bDMARDs. Government expenditure on bDMARD subsidies for RA treatment grew to about $383 million in 2014. Evidence that initiation and continuation criteria for bDMARDs meet usually applied cost-benefit criteria is lacking. The combined expenditure on tocilizumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab (added to the Australian Government's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in 2010) was $93 million in 2014, which is 210% over the initial estimate. Present and future challenges with regard to bDMARDs for RA and other high-cost drugs include improved expenditure predictions, monitoring of cost-effectiveness in relation to actual use and strategic development, regulation and use of biosimilars. Ten years of documentation on clinical and laboratory findings indicating eligibility to initiate and continue on bDMARDs remains un-used. These data represent an untapped opportunity to promote quality of use of bDMARDs and biosimilars and to improve cost predictions for high-cost drugs.

  13. Numerical solution of the Penna model of biological aging with age-modified mutation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical calculation of the Penna bit-string model of biological aging, modified for the case of a -dependent mutation rate m(a) , where a is the parent’s age. The mutation rate m(a) is the probability per bit of an extra bad mutation introduced in offspring inherited genome. We assume that m(a) increases with age a . As compared with the reference case of the standard Penna model based on a constant mutation rate m , the dynamics of the population growth shows distinct changes in age distribution of the population. Here we concentrate on mortality q(a) , a fraction of items eliminated from the population when we go from age (a) to (a+1) in simulated transition from time (t) to next time (t+1) . The experimentally observed q(a) dependence essentially follows the Gompertz exponential law for a above the minimum reproduction age. Deviation from the Gompertz law is however observed for the very old items, close to the maximal age. This effect may also result from an increase in mutation rate m with age a discussed in this paper. The numerical calculations are based on analytical solution of the Penna model, presented in a series of papers by Coe [J. B. Coe, Y. Mao, and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288103 (2002)]. Results of the numerical calculations are supported by the data obtained from computer simulation based on the solution by Coe

  14. Chemically and biologically modified activated carbon sorbents for the removal of lead ions from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Osman, Maher M; Ahmed, Somia B

    2012-01-01

    A method is described for hybridization of the adsorption and biosorption characteristics of chemically treated commercial activated carbon and baker's yeast, respectively, for the formation of environmental friendly multifunctional sorbents. Activated carbon was loaded with baker's yeast after acid-base treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy were used to characterize these sorbents. Moreover, the sorption capabilities for lead (II) ions were evaluated. A value of 90 μmol g(-1) was identified as the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon. Acid-base treatment of activated carbon was found to double the sorption capacity (140-180 μmol g(-1)). Immobilization of baker's yeast on the surface of activated carbon sorbents was found to further improve the sorption capacity efficiency of lead to 360, 510 and 560 μmol g(-1), respectively. Several important factors such as pH, contact time, sorbent dose, lead concentration and interfering ions were examined. Lead sorption process was studied and evaluated by several adsorption isotherms and found to follow the Langmuir and BET models. The potential applications of various chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents for removal of lead from real water matrices were also investigated via multistage micro-column technique and the results referred to excellent recovery values of lead (95.0-99.0 ± 3.0-5.0 %).

  15. Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Alexander C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains of BMP receptors. In the present study the biological effect of a BMP-2 double mutant with antagonistic activity was evaluated in vivo. Methods Equine-derived collagenous carriers were loaded with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 in a well-known dose to provide an osteoinductive stimulus. The study was performed in a split animal design: carriers only coupled with rhBMP-2 (control were implanted into prepared cavities of lower limb muscle of rats, specimens coupled with rhBMP-2 as well as BMP-2 double mutant were placed into the opposite limb in the same way. After 28 days the carriers were explanted, measured radiographically and characterized histologically. Results As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. The specimens coupled with both proteins showed a significant decreased bone formation in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The antagonistic effect of a specific BMP-2 double mutant could be demonstrated in vivo. The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism.

  16. The geranyl-modified tryptophan residue is crucial for ComXRO-E-2 pheromone biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Fumitada; Kobayashi, Ko; Okada, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Hisao; Ojika, Makoto; Sakagami, Youji

    2011-07-01

    The ComX pheromone is an isoprenoidal oligopeptide containing a modified tryptophan residue, which stimulates natural genetic competence in gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus. We have reported the structure of the ComX(RO-E-2) pheromone, which is produced by the RO-E-2 strain of Bacillus subtilis. ComX(RO-E-2) analogs with substituted amino acids and isoprenoid modified tryptophan residues (e.g., prenyl, geranyl, and farnesyl), were synthesized and examined for biological activity. These results indicate that Phe-Trp(∗)(Ger)-NH(2) is the minimum pharmacophore of the ComX(RO-E-2) pheromone. Furthermore, the length of the isoprenoid moiety (i.e., modification style), and the presence of double bonds, are crucial for biological activity. The modification style of the ComX pheromone is more important than the peptide sequence with respect to biological activity.

  17. Differentially Expressed Genes Distributed Over Chromosomes and Implicated in Certain Biological Processes for Site Insertion Genetically Modified Rice Kemingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu, Yunhe Li, Jie Zhao, Xiuping Chen, Guiliang Jian, Yufa Peng, Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of genetically modified (GM plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11. The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis.

  18. Biological responses to environmental heterogeneity under future ocean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W; Cornwall, Christopher E; Davison, Andrew; Doney, Scott C; Fourquez, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Lima, Ivan D; McMinn, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to

  19. The stress response to surgery: release mechanisms and the modifying effect of pain relief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    This short review updates information on the release mechanisms of the systemic response to surgical injury and the modifying effect of pain relief. Initiation of the response is primarily due to afferent nerve impulses combined with release of humoral substances (such as prostaglandins, kinins...... in releasing the classical endocrine catabolic response, while humoral factors are important for the hyperthermic response, changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis immunofunction, and capillary permeability. The modifying effect of pain relief on the surgical stress response is dependent upon the technique...... on the stress response. In summary, pain alleviation itself may not necessarily lead to an important modification of the stress response, and a combined approach with inhibition of the neural and humoral release mechanisms is necessary for a pronounced inhibition or prevention of the response to surgical injury....

  20. Age modifies the pituitary TSH response to thyroid failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between serum TSH, total T4 and various patient characteristics when hypothyroidism is diagnosed in a population, and to study how age, sex and serum T4 levels influenced pituitary TSH response. Design: A computer-based register linked to laboratory datab......, and longer time may be needed after thyroid hormone withdrawal before elderly patients with thyroid cancer reach sufficiently high TSH values to allow for an effective radio-iodine treatment....... patients. Conclusions: For the same degree of thyroid failure, the serum TSH is lower among the elderly. This is most likely caused by a decrease in the hypothalamic/pituitary response to low serum T4. A certain increase in serum TSH may indicate more severe hypothyroidism in an old than in a young patient...

  1. Employment of Item Response Theory to measure change in Children's Analogical Thinking Modifiability Test

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz,Odoisa Antunes de; Primi,Ricardo; Carvalho,Lucas de Francisco; Enumo,Sônia Regina Fiorim

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic testing, with an intermediate phase of assistance, measures changes between pretest and post-test assuming a common metric between them. To test this assumption we applied the Item Response Theory in the responses of 69 children to dynamic cognitive testing Children's Analogical Thinking Modifiability Test adapted, with 12 items, totaling 828 responses, with the purpose of verifying if the original scale yields the same results as the equalized scale obtained by Item Response Theory i...

  2. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  3. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  4. Maternal separation modifies behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stress in CCR7 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emma L; Jaehne, Emily J; Jawahar, M Catharine; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2014-04-15

    Alterations in immune function of various humoral and cellular factors, including chemokines, secondary to early stress may play a role in the enhanced vulnerability to psychiatric conditions in those with a history of childhood adversity. C57BL/6 (WT) mice and mice deficient for the chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7(-/-)) were used to determine the effects of maternal separation on a range of behaviours and the biological stress response. Unpredictable maternal separation (MS) was conducted for 3h daily from postnatal day 1 to 14, with subsequent behavioural testing at 10 weeks of age. Corticosterone was quantified in 11-week-old mice. Maternally separated (MS) CCR7(-/-), but not WT mice, displayed reduced interest in social novelty compared to CCR7(-/-) naïve mice. Separated CCR7(-/-) mice also exhibited significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations compared to non-separated mice. CCR7(-/-) mice spent less time in the centre during an open field test and more time in the closed arm of the elevated zero maze compared to their wild-type (WT) controls suggesting they were more anxious, however, no difference was observed between MS and control mice in either strain or test. Together these findings suggest that CCR7 is involved in mediating social behaviour and stress response following maternal separation, whereas other behaviours such as anxiety appear to be modified by CCR7 independent of maternal separation. The observed altered cell-mediated immune function possibly underlying the behavioural and neuroendocrine differences in CCR7(-/-) mice following maternal separation requires further investigation.

  5. Interaction of Biologically Active Molecules with Sulfur-modified Gold Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xue-feng; YANG Gui-fu; WANG Xiao; WANG Zi-chen; LIN Hai-bo

    2007-01-01

    The immobilization of cytochrome c or horseradish peroxidase at the sulfur-modified gold electrode exhibits a ra-pid electron transfer behavior because of its specific orientation on the electrode surface and the interaction between cytochrome c or horseradish peroxidase and sulfur-modified on the surface of the Au electrode.

  6. THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADENOVIRUS-MEDIATED IL-18 GENE-MODIFIED MURINE COLORECTAL ADENOCARCINOMA CELL IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a strong activator of NK cells and promotes the generation of IL-2, IFN-g, and GM-CSF. In the present study, we constructed adenovirus encoding IL-18 gene (AdIL-18), and observed the biological characteristics of IL-18 gene-modified murine colorectal adenocarcinoma cell (CT26) in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Gene modification was mediated by adenovirus. The proliferation of the cells was determined by MTT and IL-18 was assayed by ELISA. The cytotoxicity of NK and CTL was detected by four-hour 51Cr release assay. Results: IL-18 gene modification had no effect on the proliferation and morphology of CT-26 cells in vitro, but the growth of IL-18-modified CT26 cells was obviously inhibited in vivo. In addition, although IL-18-modified CT26 cells could form tumor nodules in vivo as well as LacZ-modified CT26 cells or wild-type CT26 cells, the mean survival time of the mice inoculated with IL-18-modified CT26 cells was significantly prolonged as compared with that of control groups. Thus, the anti-tumor immune responses were induced in the group of mice inoculated with IL-18-modified CT26 cells, which might be related to the activation of NK cells and CTL. However, all the three groups ultimately died of tumor.free facility for all experiments. CT26, Yac-1 and 293 cells were from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA). All cell lines were cultured in RPMI1640 (GIBCO-BRL, Grandisland, NY) supple-mented with penicillin (100 units/ml), streptomycin (100 mg/ml), 2-mercaptoethanol (5′10-5 M), and 10% FCS (GIBCO-BRL) at 37℃ in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air.

  7. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  8. Responses to low doses of ionizing radiation in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Pollycove, Myron; Sondhaus, Charles A

    2004-07-01

    Biological tissues operate through cells that act together within signaling networks. These assure coordinated cell function in the face of constant exposure to an array of potentially toxic agents, externally from the environment and endogenously from metabolism. Living tissues are indeed complex adaptive systems.To examine tissue effects specific for low-dose radiation, (1) absorbed dose in tissue is replaced by the sum of the energies deposited by each track event, or hit, in a cell-equivalent tissue micromass (1 ng) in all micromasses exposed, that is, by the mean energy delivered by all microdose hits in the exposed micromasses, with cell dose expressing the total energy per micromass from multiple microdoses; and (2) tissue effects are related to cell damage and protective cellular responses per average microdose hit from a given radiation quality for all such hits in the exposed micromasses.The probability of immediate DNA damage per low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) average micro-dose hit is extremely small, increasing over a certain dose range in proportion to the number of hits. Delayed temporary adaptive protection (AP) involves (a) induced detoxification of reactive oxygen species, (b) enhanced rate of DNA repair, (c) induced removal of damaged cells by apoptosis followed by normal cell replacement and by cell differentiation, and (d) stimulated immune response, all with corresponding changes in gene expression. These AP categories may last from less than a day to weeks and be tested by cell responses against renewed irradiation. They operate physiologically against nonradiogenic, largely endogenous DNA damage, which occurs abundantly and continually. Background radiation damage caused by rare microdose hits per micromass is many orders of magnitude less frequent. Except for apoptosis, AP increasingly fails above about 200 mGy of low-LET radiation, corresponding to about 200 microdose hits per exposed micromass. This ratio appears to exceed approximately

  9. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil-water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil-water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  10. Biological in vitro and in vivo responses of chrysotile versus amphiboles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignon, J; Jaurand, M C

    1983-09-01

    Although all commercial forms of asbestos have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic in animals, so far epidemiological data are controversial concerning what asbestos types are the most carcinogenic and fibrogenic in humans. In order to understand the early cellular events induced by fibrous particles, different in vitro studies (hemolysis, release of enzymes by macrophages, assays on cell culture systems) have been carried out in several laboratories; most of these studies have shown that cell and subcellular in vitro responses were different depending on fiber types: chrysotile versus amphiboles. This presentation compares the results of different laboratories with our data obtained by using a model which modifies the chemistry of the fibers by acid treatment. The acid-leached chrysotile and acid-treated amphibole fibers showed different biological responses in several in vitro systems used in comparison to unleached fibers. These differences in the in vitro reactivity were related to the chemical state of the fibers and might explain the differences in their effects in animals after intrapleural injection as assessed by the percentage of mesothelioma, the latency period, the survival time and the degree of pleural fibrosis. The carcinogenic effect of the fibers is discussed in relation of their in vitro inflammatory or cytotoxic responses.

  11. Educating for social responsibility: changing the syllabus of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F; Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Developmental biology is deeply embedded in the social issues of our times. Such topics as cloning, stems cells, reproductive technologies, sex selection, environmental hormone mimics and gene therapy all converge on developmental biology. It is therefore critical that developmental biologists learn about the possible social consequences of their work and of the possible molding of their discipline by social forces. We present two models for integrating social issues into the developmental biology curriculum. One model seeks to place discussions of social issues into the laboratory portion of the curriculum; the other model seeks to restructure the course, such that developmental biology and its social contexts are synthesized directly.

  12. Optical Properties and In Vitro Biological Studies of Oligonucleotide-Modified Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie A. Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble semiconducting nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs have attracted much interest in recent years due to their tuneable emission and potential applications in photonics and biological imaging. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET processes are very important for elucidating biochemical mechanisms in vitro, and QDs constitute an excellent substrate for this purpose. In this work, new oligonucleotide-functionalised CdTe-based QDs were prepared, characterised and biologically tested. These QDs demonstrated interesting optical properties as well as remarkable in vitro behaviour and potential for a range of biological applications.

  13. Cystic fibrosis gene modifier SLC26A9 modulates airway response to CFTR-directed therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strug, Lisa J; Gonska, Tanja; He, Gengming; Keenan, Katherine; Ip, Wan; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Lin, Fan; Panjwani, Naim; Gong, Jiafen; Li, Weili; Soave, David; Xiao, Bowei; Tullis, Elizabeth; Rabin, Harvey; Parkins, Michael D; Price, April; Zuberbuhler, Peter C; Corvol, Harriet; Ratjen, Felix; Sun, Lei; Bear, Christine E; Rommens, Johanna M

    2016-08-29

    Cystic fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine. Recent advances in drug development that target the causal CFTR directly result in lung function improvement, but variability in response is demanding better prediction of outcomes to improve management decisions. The genetic modifier SLC26A9 contributes to disease severity in the CF pancreas and intestine at birth and here we assess its relationship with disease severity and therapeutic response in the airways. SLC26A9 association with lung disease was assessed in individuals from the Canadian and French CF Gene Modifier consortia with CFTR-gating mutations and in those homozygous for the common Phe508del mutation. Variability in response to a CFTR-directed therapy attributed to SLC26A9 genotype was assessed in Canadian patients with gating mutations. A primary airway model system determined if SLC26A9 shows modification of Phe508del CFTR function upon treatment with a CFTR corrector.In those with gating mutations that retain cell surface-localized CFTR we show that SLC26A9 modifies lung function while this is not the case in individuals homozygous for Phe508del where cell surface expression is lacking. Treatment response to ivacaftor, which aims to improve CFTR-channel opening probability in patients with gating mutations, shows substantial variability in response, 28% of which can be explained by rs7512462 in SLC26A9 (P = 0.0006). When homozygous Phe508del primary bronchial cells are treated to restore surface CFTR, SLC26A9 likewise modifies treatment response (P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that SLC26A9 airway modification requires CFTR at the cell surface, and that a common variant in SLC26A9 may predict response to CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  14. Use of Rats Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modified with mHCN2 Gene to Create Biologic Pacemakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金; 张存泰; 黄深; 王国强; 全小庆

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of rats mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified with murine hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated 2 (mHCN2) gene as biological pacemakers in vitro was studied. The cultured MSCs were transfected with pIRES2-EGFP plasmid carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and mHCN2 gene. The identification using restriction enzyme and sequencing indicated that the mHCN2 gene was inserted to the pIRES2-EGFP. Green fluorescence could be seen in MSCs after transfection for 24-48...

  15. Sugar-Responsive Pseudopolyrotaxane Composed of Phenylboronic Acid-Modified Polyethylene Glycol and γ-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Seki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a sugar-responsive pseudopolyrotaxane (PPRX by combining phenylboronic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (PBA–PEG and γ-cyclodextrin. Phenylboronic acid (PBA was used as a sugar-recognition motif in the PPRX because PBA reacts with a diol portion of the sugar molecule and forms a cyclic ester. When D-fructose or D-glucose was added to a suspension of PPRX, PPRX disintegrated, depending on the concentration of the sugars. Interestingly, catechol does not show a response although catechol has a high affinity for PBA. We analyzed the response mechanism of PPRX by considering equilibria.

  16. Synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and biological use of lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, J Justin; Feinberg, Evan N; Alidori, Simone; McDevitt, Michael R; Heller, Daniel A; Scheinberg, David A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to create a more robust and more accessible standard for amine-modifying single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A 1,3-cycloaddition was developed using an azomethine ylide, generated by reacting paraformaldehyde and a side-chain-Boc (tert-Butyloxycarbonyl)-protected, lysine-derived alpha-amino acid, H-Lys(Boc)-OH, with purified SWCNT or C60. This cycloaddition and its lysine adduct provides the benefits of dense, covalent modification, ease of purification, commercial availability of reagents, and pH-dependent solubility of the product. Subsequently, SWCNTs functionalized with lysine amine handles were covalently conjugated to a radiometalated chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The (111)In-labeled construct showed rapid renal clearance in a murine model and a favorable biodistribution, permitting utility in biomedical applications. Functionalized SWCNTs strongly wrapped small interfering RNA (siRNA). In the first disclosed deployment of thermophoresis with carbon nanotubes, the lysine-modified tubes showed a desirable, weak SWCNT-albumin binding constant. Thus, lysine-modified nanotubes are a favorable candidate for medicinal work.

  17. Breakthrough disease during interferon-[beta] therapy in MS: No signs of impaired biologic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, D; Krakauer, M; Lund, H;

    2010-01-01

    Disease activity is highly variable in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), both untreated and during interferon (IFN)-beta therapy. Breakthrough disease is often regarded as treatment failure; however, apart from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), no blood biomarkers have been established...... as reliable indicators of treatment response, despite substantial, biologically measurable effects. We studied the biologic response to treatment in a cohort of NAb-negative patients to test whether difference in responsiveness could segregate patients with and without breakthrough disease during therapy....

  18. RELEVANCE OF CROP BIOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan eAkinbo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERA. This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for environmental risk assessment (ERA include: growth habit, centre of origin, centre of genetic diversity, proximity of wild relatives, inter-fertility, mode of pollen dispersal, length of pollen viability, mating system, invasiveness, weediness, mode of propagation, mode of seed dispersal and length of seed dormancy. In this paper, we discuss the crops being genetic engineered in Africa and describe the crop biology of those with native relatives.

  19. Relevance of Crop Biology for Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERAs). This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for ERA include growth habit, ce...

  20. RELEVANCE OF CROP BIOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERA). This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for environmental risk assessmen...

  1. Synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and biological use of lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvey JJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available J Justin Mulvey,1,2 Evan N Feinberg,1,3 Simone Alidori,1 Michael R McDevitt,4,5 Daniel A Heller,1,6 David A Scheinberg1,5,6 1Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY, USA; 2Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT USA; 4Department of Radiology and 5Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: We aimed to create a more robust and more accessible standard for amine-modifying single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. A 1,3-cycloaddition was developed using an azomethine ylide, generated by reacting paraformaldehyde and a side-chain-Boc (tert-Butyloxycarbonyl-protected, lysine-derived alpha-amino acid, H-Lys(Boc-OH, with purified SWCNT or C60. This cycloaddition and its lysine adduct provides the benefits of dense, covalent modification, ease of purification, commercial availability of reagents, and pH-dependent solubility of the product. Subsequently, SWCNTs functionalized with lysine amine handles were covalently conjugated to a radiometalated chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA. The 111In-labeled construct showed rapid renal clearance in a murine model and a favorable biodistribution, permitting utility in biomedical applications. Functionalized SWCNTs strongly wrapped small interfering RNA (siRNA. In the first disclosed deployment of thermophoresis with carbon nanotubes, the lysine-modified tubes showed a desirable, weak SWCNT-albumin binding constant. Thus, lysine-modified nanotubes are a favorable candidate for medicinal work. Keywords: fullerene, cycloaddition, azomethine, DOTA, thermophoresis, 111In

  2. Responses to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Pollycove, Myron; Sondhaus, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Biological tissues operate through cells that act together within signaling networks. These assure coordinated cell function in the face of constant exposure to an array of potentially toxic agents, externally from the environment and endogenously from metabolism. Living tissues are indeed complex adaptive systems.

  3. Binary self-assembled monolayers modified Au nanoparticles as carriers in biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsun-Yun; You, Yun-Wen; Liao, Hua-Yang; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are good nonviral carriers because of their ease of synthesis and conjugation in biochemistry, and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provide a tunable system to change their interfacial properties. Using homogeneously mixed carboxylic acid and amine functional groups, a series of surface potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) could be obtained and allow systematic study of the effect of surface potential. In this work, the result of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay revealed that binary-SAM modified AuNPs have high biocompatibility with HEK293T cells. The amount of AuNPs ingested by the cells was found to increase with increasing surface potential and the difference was also confirmed with a scanning transmission electron microscope. The ability of binary-SAM modified AuNPs as carriers was examined, and the plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)-containing eGFP reporter gene was used as the model cargo. Fluorescence imaging revealed that the transfection efficiency generally increased with increasing surface potential. More importantly, when the IEP of the AuNPs was higher than that of the environment of the endosome but lower than that of the cytoplasm, the plasmid DNA can be protected better and released more easily during the endocytosis process hence higher efficiency is obtained with 60% NH2 and 40% COOH in the binary-SAM.

  4. Delineating the DNA damage response using systems biology approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stechow, Louise von

    2013-01-01

    Cellular responses to DNA damage are highly variable and strongly depend on the cellular and organismic context. Studying the DNA damage response is crucial for a better understanding of cancer formation and ageing as well as genotoxic stress-induced cancer therapy. To do justice to the multifaceted

  5. Ultrasound Attenuation in Biological Tissue Predicted by the Modified Doublet Mechanics Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin; LIU Xiao-Zhou; WU Jun-Ru

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results have shown that in the megahertz frequency range the relationship between the acoustic attenuation coefficient in soft tissues and frequency is nearly linear. The classical continuum mechanics (CCM),which assumes that the material is uniform and continuous, fails to explain this relationship particularly in the high megahertz range. Doublet mechanics (DM) is a new elastic theory which takes the discrete nature of material into account. The current DM theory however does not consider the loss. We revise the doublet mechanics (DM)theory by including the loss term, and calculate the attenuation of a soft tissue as a function of frequency using the modified the DM theory (MDM). The MDM can now well explain the nearly linear relationship between the acoustic attenuation coefficient in soft tissues and frequency.

  6. Histological assessment of pulpal responses to resin modified glass ionomer cements in human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eskandarizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biocompatibility of resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs as a lining material is still under question. The present study evaluated the response of the pulp-dentin complex following application of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, calcium hydroxide and conventional glass-ionomer in deep cavities prepared in human teeth. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 30 deep class V buccal cavities (3 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm were prepared in human premolars treatment planned to be extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into 3 groups. Groups were lined by a RMGI (Vivaglass, conventional glass Ionomer (Ionocid and calcium hydroxide respectively. The cavities were subsequently filled with amalgam. Each group was then divided into two sub-groups according to time intervals 5 and 30 days. The patients were referred to Kerman Dental School and in accordance with orthodontic treatment plan; premolars were extracted and then prepared for histological assessment. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff techniques. All of the samples were examined using a number of criteria including odontoblastic changes, inflammatory cells response, reactionary dentin formation and presence of microorganisms. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P 0.05. Conclusion: Ionocid and Vivaglass resin-modified glass ionomers can be used as lining materials in human teeth.

  7. Differences in individual responsiveness of serum cholesterol to fat-modified diets in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B; van Gastel, A C; de Rover, C M; van Montfort, M A; Knuiman, J T

    1988-12-01

    In the period 1963-1974, 82 monks and 48 nuns from five Dutch and Belgian Trappist monasteries each participated in two or more out of nine different trials designed to test the effect of 58 different fat-modified diets on serum cholesterol. We analysed these data to quantify the extent to which healthy, normolipaemic subjects differ in the responsiveness of their serum cholesterol to a change in dietary fatty acid composition. Statistically significant between-person variance components (SD2p) were found in the serum cholesterol responses for the whole group (SD2p = [0.20 mmol l-1]2), for the men (SD2p = [0.24 mmol l-1]2) and for those women who participated in three or more trials (SD2p = [0.14 mmol l-1]2). The between-person variation (expressed as SD) was on average only half as large as the within-person variation in response when the same subject was challenged repeatedly. It is concluded that medically significant differences in responsiveness to fat-modified diets exist in both men and women. However, few subjects fail entirely to respond to a change in dietary fatty acid composition. In addition, the large within-subject variability makes it difficult to identify hypo- and hyperresponders.

  8. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-28

    stimulation of the red nucleus produces EPSPs in contralateral AAN neurons at mono- synaptic latencies 26 Holstege and Tan "’ report that with...Consistent with these anatomical data. intermediate facial nucleus neurons respond with EPSPs at monosynaptic latencies to red nucleus stimulation...responses. SpoV cells could project to red nucleus intrinsic inhibitory intemneurons. If these interneurons fired in 276 response to movement

  9. Dual-porosity model of solute diffusion in biological tissue modified by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnič-Kalamiza, Samo; Miklavčič, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2014-07-01

    In many electroporation applications mass transport in biological tissue is of primary concern. This paper presents a theoretical advancement in the field and gives some examples of model use in electroporation applications. The study focuses on post-treatment solute diffusion. We use a dual-porosity approach to describe solute diffusion in electroporated biological tissue. The cellular membrane presents a hindrance to solute transport into the extracellular space and is modeled as electroporation-dependent porosity, assigned to the intracellular space (the finite rate of mass transfer within an individual cell is not accounted for, for reasons that we elaborate on). The second porosity is that of the extracellular space, through which solute vacates a block of tissue. The model can be used to study extraction out of or introduction of solutes into tissue, and we give three examples of application, a full account of model construction, validation with experiments, and a parametrical analysis. To facilitate easy implementation and experimentation by the reader, the complete derivation of the analytical solution for a simplified example is presented. Validation is done by comparing model results to experimentally-obtained data; we modeled kinetics of sucrose extraction by diffusion from sugar beet tissue in laboratory-scale experiments. The parametrical analysis demonstrates the importance of selected physicochemical and geometrical properties of the system, illustrating possible outcomes of applying the model to different electroporation applications. The proposed model is a new platform that supports rapid extension by state-of-the-art models of electroporation phenomena, developed as latest achievements in the field of electroporation.

  10. Biological impact of cigarette smoke compared to an aerosol produced from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, U; Gonzalez Suarez, I; Xiang, Y; Dossin, E; Guy, P A; Mathis, C; Marescotti, D; Goedertier, D; Martin, F; Peitsch, M C; Hoeng, J

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious and fatal diseases. The best way for smokers to avoid health risks is to quit smoking. Using modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) may be an alternative to reduce the harm caused for those who are unwilling to quit smoking, but little is known about the toxic effects of MRTPs, nor were the molecular mechanisms of toxicity investigated in detail. The toxicity of an MRTP and the potential molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in high-content screening tests and whole genome transcriptomics analyses using human bronchial epithelial cells. The prototypic (p)MRTP that was tested had less impact than reference cigarette 3R4F on the cellular oxidative stress response and cell death pathways. Higher pMRTP aerosol extract concentrations had impact on pathways associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics and the reduction of oxidative damage. A pMRTP aerosol concentration up to 18 times higher than the 3R4F caused similar perturbation effects in biological networks and led to the perturbation of networks related to cell stress, and proliferation biology. These results may further facilitate the development of a systems toxicology-based impact assessment for use in future risk assessments in line with the 21st century toxicology paradigm, as shown here for an MRTP.

  11. Temperature-responsive chromatography using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel-modified silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hideko; Sunamoto, Tatsuo; Ayano, Eri; Matsushima, Yoshikazu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Okano, Teruo

    2002-01-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) has the sharpest phase transition of the class of thermo-sensitive N-alkyl acrylamide polymers. We developed a new method of HPLC using packing materials modified with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogel. A temperature-responsive surface was prepared by polymerization of NIPAAm in the presence of a cross-linker on the silica support. The surface properties and functions of the stationary phases change in response to the external temperature. Therefore it easily changes the interaction of a solute with the surface with a constant aqueous mobile phase. A temperature-responsive elution behavior was observed on the separation of steroids and PTH-amino acids. The method is expected to be applicable to separation in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields.

  12. Orientational Polarizability and Stress Response of Biological Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, S. A.; de, R.; Zemel, A.

    We present a theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes random forces as well as forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix and those due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate both the static and high frequency limits of the orientational response in terms of the cellular polarizability. For systems in which the forces due to regulation and activity dominate the mechanical forces, we show that there is a non-linear dynamical response which, in the high frequency limit, causes the cell to orient nearly perpendicular to the direction of the applied stress.

  13. Systems biology unravels interferon responses to respiratory virus infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; L; Kroeker; Kevin; M; Coombs

    2014-01-01

    Interferon production is an important defence against viral replication and its activation is an attractive therapeutic target. However, it has long been known that viruses perpetually evolve a multitude of strategies to evade these host immune responses. In recent years there has been an explosion of information on virusinduced alterations of the host immune response that have resulted from data-rich omics technologies. Unravelling how these systems interact and determining the overall outcome of the host response to viral infection will play an important role in future treatment and vaccine development. In this review we focus primarily on the interferon pathway and its regulation as well as mechanisms by which respiratory RNA viruses interfere with its signalling capacity.

  14. Assessment of Pathological Response of Breast Carcinoma in Modified Radical Mastectomy Specimens after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Paclitaxel based neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen (NAT in the setting of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC can render inoperable tumor (T4, N2/N3 resectable. The aim of this study was to assess the status of carcinoma in the breast and lymph nodes after paclitaxel based NAT in order to find out the patient and the tumor characteristics that correspond to the pathological responses which could be used as a surrogate biomarker to assess the treatment response. Materials and Methods. Clinical and tumor characteristics of patients with breast carcinoma (n=48 were assessed preoperatively. These patients were subjected to modified radical mastectomy after 3 courses of paclitaxel based NAT regimen. The pathological responses of the tumor in the breast and the lymph nodes were studied by using Chevallier’s system which graded the responses into pathological complete response (pCR, pathological partial response (pPR, and pathological no response (pNR. Results. Our studies showed a pCR of 27.1% and a pPR of 70.9% . Clinically small sized tumors (2–5 cms and Bloom Richardson’s grade 1 tumors showed a pCR. Mean age at presentation was 50.58 yrs. 79.2% of cases were invasive ductal carcinoma NOS; only 2.1% were invasive lobular carcinoma, their response to NAT being the same. There was no downgrading of the tumor grades after NAT. Ductal carcinoma in situ and lymphovascular invasion were found to be resistant to chemotherapy. The histopathological changes noted in the lymph nodes were similar to that found in the tumor bed. Discussion and Conclusion. From our study we conclude that histopathological examination of the tumor bed is the gold standard for assessing the chemotherapeutic tumor response. As previous studies have shown pCR can be used as a surrogate biomarker to assess the tumor response.

  15. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose and uric acid in biological fluids using chitosan-modified paper microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ellen F M; Garcia, Paulo T; Cardoso, Thiago M G; Lopes, Flavio M; Martins, Felipe T; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2016-08-07

    This paper describes the modification of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) with chitosan to improve the analytical performance of colorimetric measurements associated with enzymatic bioassays. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer extensively used to modify biosensing surfaces due to its capability of providing a suitable microenvironment for the direct electron transfer between an enzyme and a reactive surface. This hypothesis was investigated using glucose and uric acid (UA) colorimetric assays as model systems. The best colorimetric sensitivity for glucose and UA was achieved using a chromogenic solution composed of 4-aminoantipyrine and sodium 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy-benzenesulfonate (4-AAP/DHBS), which provided a linear response for a concentration range between 0.1 and 1.0 mM. Glucose and UA were successfully determined in artificial serum samples with accuracies between 87 and 114%. The limits of detection (LODs) found for glucose and UA assays were 23 and 37 μM, respectively. The enhanced analytical performance of chitosan-modified μPADs allowed the colorimetric detection of glucose in tear samples from four nondiabetic patients. The achieved concentration levels ranged from 130 to 380 μM. The modified μPADs offered analytical reliability and accuracy as well as no statistical difference from the values achieved through a reference method. Based on the presented results, the proposed μPAD can be a powerful alternative tool for non-invasive glucose analysis.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Pravin; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga

    2014-10-30

    Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors.

  17. The IgM Response to Modified LDL in Experimental Atherosclerosis Hypochlorite-modified LDL IgM Antibodies versus Classical Natural T15 IgM Antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marcella; Damoiseaux, Jan; Duijvestijn, Adriaan; Heeringa, Peter; Gijbels, Marion; de Winther, Menno; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Shoenfeld, Y; Gershwin, ME

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: It is hypothesized that IgM antibodies to oxidized LDL are anti-atherogenic. Myeloperoxidase from plaque-infiltrating neutrophils catalyzes the production of hypochlorite (HOCl), which oxidizes LDL. Here we study the IgM response to HOCl-modified LDL in comparison to titers of T15 clon

  18. A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dendritic cell (DC possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-γ and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.

  19. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.

  20. Optimization of tetracycline hydrochloride adsorption on amino modified SBA-15 using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemikia, Samaneh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Montazer, Majid

    2015-04-01

    Several researchers are focused on preparation of mesoporous silica as drug carriers with high loading efficiency to control or sustain the drug release. Carriers with highly loaded drug are utilized to minimize the time of drug intake. In this study, amino modified SBA-15 was synthesized through grafting with amino propyl triethoxy silane and then loaded with tetracycline hydrochloride. The drug loading was optimized by using the response surface method considering various factors including drug to silica ratio, operation time, and temperature. The drug to silica ratio indicated as the most influential factor on the drug loading yield. Further, a quadratic polynomial equation was developed to predict the loading percentage. The experimental results indicated reasonable agreement with the predicted values. The modified and drug loaded mesoporous particles were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption. The release profiles of tetracycline-loaded particles were studied in different pH. Also, Higuchi equation was used to analyze the release profile of the drug and to evaluate the kinetic of drug release. The drug release rate followed the conventional Higuchi model that could be controlled by amino-functionalized SBA-15. Further, the drug delivery system based on amino modified SBA-15 exhibits novel features with an appropriate usage as an anti-bacterial drug delivery system with effective management of drug adsorption and release.

  1. Bacterial Genotoxins: Merging the DNA Damage Response into Infection Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Grasso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial genotoxins are unique among bacterial toxins as their molecular target is DNA. The consequence of intoxication or infection is induction of DNA breaks that, if not properly repaired, results in irreversible cell cycle arrest (senescence or death of the target cells. At present, only three bacterial genotoxins have been identified. Two are protein toxins: the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT family produced by a number of Gram-negative bacteria and the typhoid toxin produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The third member, colibactin, is a peptide-polyketide genotoxin, produced by strains belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 of Escherichia coli. This review will present the cellular effects of acute and chronic intoxication or infection with the genotoxins-producing bacteria. The carcinogenic properties and the role of these effectors in the context of the host-microbe interaction will be discussed. We will further highlight the open questions that remain to be solved regarding the biology of this unusual family of bacterial toxins.

  2. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, J. Alan; Fogden, Michael P. L.; Campbell, John H.

    1999-04-01

    Recent warming has caused changes in species distribution and abundance, but the extent of the effects is unclear. Here we investigate whether such changes in highland forests at Monteverde, Costa Rica, are related to the increase in air temperatures that followed a step-like warming of tropical oceans in 1976 (refs4, 5). Twenty of 50 species of anurans (frogs and toads) in a 30-km2 study area, including the locally endemic golden toad (Bufo periglenes), disappeared following synchronous population crashes in 1987 (refs 6-8). Our results indicate that these crashes probably belong to a constellation of demographic changes that have altered communities of birds, reptiles and amphibians in the area and are linked to recent warming. The changes are all associated with patterns of dry-season mist frequency, which is negatively correlated with sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and has declined dramatically since the mid-1970s. The biological and climatic patterns suggest that atmospheric warming has raised the average altitude at the base of the orographic cloud bank, as predicted by the lifting-cloud-base hypothesis,.

  3. Analysis of the XRCC1 gene as a modifier of the cerebral response in ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juo Suh-Hang H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there have been studies of the genetic risk factors in the development of stroke, there have been few investigations of role of genes in the cerebral response to ischemia. The brain responds to ischemia in a series of reactions that ultimately influence the volume of a stroke that, in general, correlates with disability. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in these reactions could act as modifiers of this response and impact stroke volume. One of the pathways participating in the cerebral ischemic response involves reactive oxygen species which can cause oxidative damage to nucleic acids. DNA repair mechanisms are in place to protect against such damage and imply a role for DNA repair genes in the response of the brain to ischemia and are potential candidate genes for further investigation. Methods We studied two common polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene, XRCC1, C26304T and G28152A, in 134 well characterized patients with non lacunar ischemic strokes. We also performed a case control association study with 113 control patients to assess whether these variants represent risk factors in the development of ischemic stroke. Results Independent of etiology, the "T" allele of the C26304T polymorphism is significantly associated with larger stroke volumes (T-test analysis, p Conclusion Our study suggests a major gene effect of the "T" allele of the C26304T polymorphism modulating the cerebral response to ischemia in non lacunar ischemic stroke.

  4. The Cortisol Awakening Response for Modified Method for Higher Order Logical Relationship Using Different Mean Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the free cortisol response to waking, believed to be genetically influenced, would be elevated in a significant percent age of cases, regard less of the afternoon Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST value based on high-order fuzzy logical relationships. First, the proposed method fuzzifies the historical data into fuzzy sets to form high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, it calculates the value of the variable between the subscripts of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Finally, it chooses a modified high-order fuzzy logical relationships group to forecast the free cortisol response to walking and the short day time profile using various mean techniques like, Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean, Heronian Mean, Root Mean Square and Harmonic Mean.

  5. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-30

    Eichenbaum , H. and Butter, C.M., The role of frontalcortex-reticular interactions in performance and extinction of Recordings of multiple-unit activity in...such a way that they are appropriate to the ’task demands’ imposed by training parameters (Levey and Martin , 1968). The main evidence for this adaptive...8217 Science 237, 1445-1452. 12. Levey, A. B. and Martin , I. (1968) ’Shape of the conditioned eyelid response,’ Psychological Review 75, 398-408. 13. Millenson

  6. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  7. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Weissland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8. Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score, peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VEpeak, heart rate (HRpeak, peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values, and the perceived rating exertion (RPE were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P<0.05 with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P<0.05. At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition.

  8. Neo-epitopes on methylglyoxal modified human serum albumin lead to aggressive autoimmune response in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Habib, Safia; Siddiqui, Sheelu Shafiq; Ali, Asif; Moinuddin

    2016-05-01

    Glyco-oxidation of proteins has implications in the progression of diabetes type 2. Human serum albumin is prone to glyco-oxidative attack by sugars and methylglyoxal being a strong glycating agent may have severe impact on its structure and consequent role in diabetes. This study has probed the methylglyoxal mediated modifications of HSA, the alterations in its immunological characteristics and possible role in autoantibody induction. We observed an exposure of chromophoric groups, loss in the fluorescence intensity, generation of AGEs, formation of cross-linked products, decrease in α-helical content, increase in hydrophobic clusters, FTIR band shift, attachment of methylglyoxal to HSA and the formation of N(ε)-(carboxyethyl) lysine in the modified HSA, when compared to the native albumin. MG-HSA was found to be highly immunogenic with additional immunogenicity invoking a highly specific immune response than its native counterpart. The binding characteristics of circulating autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients showed the generation of anti-MG-HSA auto-antibodies in the these patients, that are preferentially recognized by the modified albumin. We propose that MG induced structural perturbations in HSA, result in the generation of neo-epitopes leading to an aggressive auto-immune response and may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of diabetes type 2 associated complications.

  9. Biological response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to the streptozotocin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alice Vieira da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR to the diabetogenic effect of streptozotocin (STZ was studied. The animals were subdivided into three groups: control (citrate buffer, streptozotocin 40 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, and general biologic parameters were analyzed, in addition to systolic blood pressure, blood glucose and insulin levels determinations. Both doses were able to induce hyperglycemia above 300 mg/dl; however, 50 mg/kg provoked a more pronounced physiological alterations in body weight, diuresis, water and food intake. There was no change on systolic blood pressure with either dose. Results suggested that SHRs did not need doses of streptozotocin above 40mg/kg in order to produce diabetes probably because this strain was much more sensible than normotensive rats. In addition, streptozotocin might be a drug choice to induce diabetes without provoking alterations in the blood pressure which allowed the use of this experimental model in the studies of induced hypertension-diabetes.Foi estudada a sensibilidade de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR adultos ao efeito diabetogênico da estreptozotocina (STZ. Os animais foram subdivididos em grupos: controle (tampão citrato, 40 mg/kg ou 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina, sendo analisados parâmetros biológicos gerais, pressão arterial sistólica, níveis sanguíneos de glicose e insulina. Ambas doses foram capazes de induzir hiperglicemia acima de 300 mg/dl, entretanto a dose de 50 mg/kg provocou efeitos fisiológicos mais pronunciados no peso corpóreo, diurese, ingestão hídrica e de ração. Não houve alteração da pressão arterial sistólica em qualquer dose. Nossos achados sugerem que SHRs não necessitam de doses de estreptozotocina acima de 40 mg/kg com para produzir diabetes, provavelmente porque essa cepa é muito mais sensível do que ratos normotensos. A estreptozotocina pode ser a droga de escolha para induzir diabetes sem provocar alterações na press

  10. Rhodium as permanent modifier for atomization of lead from biological fluids using tungsten filament electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Brockman, Paul; Slavin, Walter

    2002-04-01

    Rhodium (Rh) was investigated as a permanent modifier for the atomization of Pb from biological fluids in W-filament atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Heating the W-filament with a Rh solution provided a protective coating for subsequent determinations of Pb in blood and urine matrices. The W-filament AAS instrumentation used was based on a prototype design that utilized self-reversal background correction scheme and peak area measurements. We found that Rh not only stabilized Pb during the pyrolysis step, but also facilitated the removal of carbonaceous residues during the cleaning step, requiring much less power than with phosphate modifier. Thus, the filament lifetime was greatly extended to over 300 firings. Periodic reconditioning with Rh was necessary every 30 firings or so. Conditioning the filament with Rh also permitted direct calibration using simple aqueous Pb standards. The method detection limit for blood Pb was approximately 1.5 μg dl -1, similar to that reported previously. Potential interferences from concomitants such as Na, K, Ca and Mg were evaluated. Accuracy was verified using lead reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the New York State Department of Health. Blood lead results below 40 μg dl -1 were within ±1 μg dl -1 of certified values, and within ±10% above 40 μg dl -1; within-run precision was ±10% or better. Additional validation was reported using proficiency test materials and human blood specimens. All blood lead results were within the acceptable limits established by regulatory authorities in the US. When measuring Pb in urine, sensitivity was reduced and matrix-matched calibration became necessary. The method of detection limit was 27 μg l -1 for urine Pb. Urine lead results were also validated using an acceptable range comparable to that established for blood lead by US regulatory agencies.

  11. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase.

  12. Analysis of clinical trials with biologics using dose-time-response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Markus R; Schmidli, Heinz

    2015-09-30

    Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies are increasingly and successfully used for the treatment of many chronic diseases. Unlike conventional small drug molecules, which are commonly given as tablets once daily, biologics are typically injected at much longer time intervals, that is, weeks or months. Hence, both the dose and the time interval have to be optimized during the drug development process for biologics. To identify an adequate regimen for the investigated biologic, the dose-time-response relationship must be well characterized, based on clinical trial data. The proposed approach uses semi-mechanistic nonlinear regression models to describe and predict the time-changing response for complex dosing regimens. Both likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for inference and prediction are discussed. The methodology is illustrated with data from a clinical study in an auto-immune disease.

  13. In vivo biological response to extracorporeal shockwave therapy in human tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waugh, C. M.; Morrissey, D.; Jones, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session...... significantly elevated for four hours post-ESWT (p biological response to ESWT treatment could be differentiated between possible responders and non......-responders based on a minimum 5-fold increase in any inflammatory marker or MMP from pre- to post-ESWT. Our findings provide novel evidence of the biological mechanisms underpinning ESWT in humans in vivo. They suggest that the mechanical stimulus provided by ESWT might aid tendon remodelling in tendinopathy...

  14. Testing the Capacity of the National Biological Dose Response Plan (NBDRP) EX40801

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    providing radiation biological dose estimates using the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). As indicated in the CRTI-06-0146RD charter, the existing...laboratories of the National Biological Dose Response Plan plus two US laboratories. Samples were scored for the dicentric chromosome assay and the CBMN...Wilkins, R.C. QuickScan dicentric chromosome analysis for radiation biodosimetry , Health Physics Journal, In Press (2009). 2. McNamee, J.P., Flegal

  15. Correlation between pretreatment levels of interferon response genes and clinical responses to an immune response modifier (Imiquimod) in genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, I; Tyring, S K; Brysk, M M; Stanley, M A; Tomai, M A; Miller, R L; Smith, M H; McDermott, D J; Slade, H B

    2000-07-01

    Imiquimod (IQ) has been successfully used in treatment of genital warts. In clinical settings, patients responded well but wart reduction rates varied. Our aim was to find a correlation between clinical responses and pretreatment (constitutive) levels of genes that might be involved in the molecular action of IQ. Since IQ is a cytokine inducer, we analyzed levels of expression of genes of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and their inhibitors as well as interferon response factors (IRFs) in pretreatment biopsy specimens from complete responders (99 to 100% wart reduction rate) versus incomplete responders (75 to 92% wart reduction rate) by reverse transcription-PCR. We found that mRNA levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and IRF1 were higher in complete responders than in incomplete responders. Incomplete responders expressed larger amounts of STAT3, IRF2, and protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) mRNAs compared to complete responders before IQ treatment. We hypothesize that high-level expression of STAT1 and IRF1 is advantageous for a better IQ response. The observed differences in constitutive mRNA levels of these genes may be the consequence of alterations in cellular differentiation and/or variable expression of endogenous interferons. Previous in vitro studies showed that keratinocyte differentiation coordinates the balance between positive and negative signals along the JAK/STAT pathway by regulating the IRF1:IRF2 and STAT1:PIAS1 ratios and thus affecting induction of IQ-inducible genes. Specifically, differentiation supports constitutive expression of STAT1 and IRF1 mRNAs but not expression of IRF2 and PIAS1. Our data are in good agreement with studies that showed the importance of STAT1 in cytokine induction and activation of interferon-responsive genes by IQ.

  16. Differences in copper bioaccumulation and biological responses in three Mytilus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven J; Farmen, Eivind; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Blanco-Rayón, Esther; Izagirre, Urtzi

    2015-03-01

    Mytilus species are important organisms in marine systems being highly abundant and widely distributed along the coast of Europe and worldwide. They are typically used in biological effects studies and have a suite of biological effects endpoints that are frequently measured and evaluated for stress effects in laboratory experiments and field monitoring programmes. Differences in bioaccumulation and biological responses of the three Mytilus species following exposure to copper (Cu) were investigated. A laboratory controlled exposure study was performed with three genetically confirmed Mytilus species; M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis and M. trossulus. Chemical bioaccumulation and biomarkers were assessed in all three Mytilus species following a 4 day and a 21 day exposure to waterborne copper concentrations (0, 10, 100 and 500μg/L). Differences in copper bioaccumulation were measured after both 4 and 21 days, which suggests some physiological differences between the species. Furthermore, differences in response for some of the biological effects endpoints were also found to occur following exposure. These differences were discussed in relation to either real physiological differences between the species or merely confounding factors relating to the species natural habitat and seasonal cycles. Overall the study demonstrated that differences in chemical bioaccumulation and biomarker responses between the Mytilus spp. occur with potential consequences for mussel exposure studies and biological effects monitoring programmes. Consequently, the study highlights the importance of identifying the correct species when using Mytilus in biological effects studies.

  17. In vitro mesenchymal stem cell response to a CO{sub 2} laser modified polymeric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, D.G., E-mail: d.waugh@chester.ac.uk [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ (United Kingdom); Hussain, I. [School of Life Sciences, Brayford Pool, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Lawrence, J.; Smith, G.C. [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, D. [School of Life Sciences, Brayford Pool, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Toccaceli, C. [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    With an ageing world population it is becoming significantly apparent that there is a need to produce implants and platforms to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. This is needed to meet the socio-economic demands of many countries worldwide. This paper details one of the first ever studies in to the manipulation of stem cell growth on CO{sub 2} laser surface treated nylon 6,6 highlighting its potential as an inexpensive platform to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. Through CO{sub 2} laser surface treatment discrete changes to the surfaces were made. That is, the surface roughness of the nylon 6,6 was increased by up to 4.3 μm, the contact angle was modulated by up to 5° and the surface oxygen content increased by up to 1 atom %. Following mesenchymal stem cell growth on the laser treated samples, it was identified that CO{sub 2} laser surface treatment gave rise to an enhanced response with an increase in viable cell count of up to 60,000 cells/ml when compared to the as-received sample. The effect of surface parameters modified by the CO{sub 2} laser surface treatment on the mesenchymal stem cell response is also discussed along with potential trends that could be identified to govern the mesenchymal stem cell response.

  18. Embryo Microinjection of Selenomethionine Reduces Hatchability and Modifies Oxidant Responsive Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. K.; Janz, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated that exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet) causes developmental toxicities in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The objectives of this study were to establish a dose-response relationship for developmental toxicities in zebrafish after embryo microinjection of Se (8, 16 or 32 μg/g dry mass of eggs) in the form of SeMet, and to investigate potential underlying mechanism(s) of SeMet-induced developmental toxicities. A dose-dependent increase in frequencies of mortality and total deformities, and reduced hatchability were observed in zebrafish exposed to excess Se via embryo microinjection. The egg Se concentration causing 20% mortality was then used to investigate transcript abundance of proteins involved in antioxidant protection and methylation. Excess Se exposure modified gene expression of oxidant-responsive transcription factors (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor nrf2a and nrf2b), and enzymes involved in cellular methylation (methionine adenosyltransferase mat1a and mat2ab) in zebrafish larvae. Notably, excess Se exposure up-regulated transcript abundance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (ahr2), a signalling pathway involved in the toxicity of dioxin-related compounds. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress or modification of methylation, or a combination of these mechanisms, might be responsible for Se-induced developmental toxicities in fishes.

  19. In vitro mesenchymal stem cell response to a CO2 laser modified polymeric material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, D G; Hussain, I; Lawrence, J; Smith, G C; Cosgrove, D; Toccaceli, C

    2016-10-01

    With an ageing world population it is becoming significantly apparent that there is a need to produce implants and platforms to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. This is needed to meet the socio-economic demands of many countries worldwide. This paper details one of the first ever studies in to the manipulation of stem cell growth on CO2 laser surface treated nylon 6,6 highlighting its potential as an inexpensive platform to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. Through CO2 laser surface treatment discrete changes to the surfaces were made. That is, the surface roughness of the nylon 6,6 was increased by up to 4.3μm, the contact angle was modulated by up to 5° and the surface oxygen content increased by up to 1atom %. Following mesenchymal stem cell growth on the laser treated samples, it was identified that CO2 laser surface treatment gave rise to an enhanced response with an increase in viable cell count of up to 60,000cells/ml when compared to the as-received sample. The effect of surface parameters modified by the CO2 laser surface treatment on the mesenchymal stem cell response is also discussed along with potential trends that could be identified to govern the mesenchymal stem cell response.

  20. Production of octyl levulinate biolubricant over modified H-ZSM-5:Optimization by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kakasaheb Y.Nandiwale; Sunil K.Yadava; Vijay V.Bokade

    2014-01-01

    The present study highlighted the use of modified H-ZSM-5 (Meso-HZ-5) as heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of octyl levulinate biolubricant by catalytic esterification of biomass derived renewable levulinic acid (LA) with n-octanol. The process variables such as catalyst loading (X1 ), n-octanol to LA molar ratio (X2 ) and reaction temperature (X3 ) were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM), using Box-Behnken model. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the adequacy and significance of the quadratic model. The yield of octyl levulinate was obtained to be 99%at optimum process parameters. The developed quadratic model was found to be adequate and statistically accurate with correlation value (R2) of 0.9971 to predict the yield of octyl levulinate biolubricant. The study was also extended on the validation of theoretical and experimental data, including catalyst reusability.

  1. Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Tsirbas, Angelo; Gordon, Mark;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify components of a provisional clinical response index for thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique. METHODS: The International Thyroid Eye Disease Society conducted a structured, 3-round Delphi exercise establishing consensus for a core set of measures for clinical...... exercise, we developed provisional core measures for assessing disease activity and severity in clinical trials of therapies for thyroid eye disease. These measures will be iteratively refined for use in multicenter clinical trials.......% of participants) rated 153 criteria in Delphi 3 (67 criteria were excluded because of redundancy). Criteria with a mean greater than 6 (1 = least appropriate to 9 = most appropriate) were further evaluated by the nominal group technique and provisional core measures were chosen. CONCLUSIONS: Using a Delphi...

  2. Changes in blood-brain barrier function modify the neuroendocrine response to circulating substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Johansson, B B; Oprsalová, Z; Vigas, M

    1989-04-01

    It is known that various experimental, pathological and even physiological situations may be accompanied by transient increases in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The hypothesis that under such conditions the blood-borne substances can reach the active sites in the brain in concentrations high enough to influence central control of hormone release was verified in these studies. A suitable experimental model of BBB opening by protamine sulfate administration in conscious rats was introduced. Using this model it was shown that the dopaminergic blocker domperidone inhibited apomorphine-induced ACTH release if permeability of the BBB was increased, but not under normal conditions. It is suggested that the changes in BBB function can modify the neuroendocrine response also to other circulating substances and this may be an important, until now unconsidered phenomenon in neuroendocrine research.

  3. Dermoscopic hemorrhagic dots: an early predictor of response of psoriasis to biologic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Apalla, Zoe; Ardigo, Marco; Chellini, Patricia; Cordeiro, Natalia; Guimaraes, Mariana; Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Papadimitriou, Ilias; Pellacani, Giovanni; Sotiriou, Elena; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Ioannides, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background Biologic agents are routinely used in the treatment of severe psoriasis. The evaluation of treatment response is mainly based on the physician’s global clinical assessment. Objective To investigate whether dermoscopy might enhance the assessment of response of psoriasis to treatment with biologic agents. Methods Patients with severe psoriasis scheduled to receive a biologic agent were enrolled in the study. A target lesion from each patient was clinically and dermoscopically documented at baseline and after one, two and six months. The clinical response was evaluated by the recruiting clinicians at all visits, while dermoscopic images were evaluated by two independent investigators, blinded to the clinical information. Chi Square test was used for cross-tabulation comparisons, while odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p values were calculated using univariate logistic regression. Results Overall, there was a significant correlation between clinical response and vessel distribution at all time points: a regular vessel distribution correlated with no response, a clustered distribution with partial response, and the dermoscopic absence of vessels with complete response. The presence of dermoscopic hemorrhagic dots was a potent predictor of favorable clinical response at the subsequent visit at all time points. Among lesions initially clinically responding and later recurring, 87.5% displayed dermoscopic dotted vessels despite the macroscopic remission. Conclusion Dermoscopy might be a useful additional tool for evaluating the response of psoriatic patients to biologic agents. Hemorrhagic dots represent an early predictor of clinical response, while the persistence or reappearance of dotted vessels might predict clinical persistence or recurrence, respectively. PMID:27867739

  4. Monitoring Drug and Antidrug Levels: A Rational Approach in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Biologic Agents Who Experience Inadequate Response While Being on a Stable Biologic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mazilu

    2014-01-01

    and ETN regarding EULAR response (P=0.002 and P=0.023, DAS28 score (P=0.002 and P=0.003, and SDAI score (P=0.001 and P=0.026. Detectable biologic drug levels correlated with a better clinical response in patients experiencing their first RA inadequate response while being on a stable biologic treatment with RTX, IFX, and ETN.

  5. Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Malaria, Drugs, Diet, and Biological Response Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-29

    observed between WR 238417, the putative biguanide precursor of a triazine (WR 99210), and both sulfadiazine and pyrime- thamine against pyrimethamine...bisquinolines (BM 03821) was more active and less toxic than BL 57511. Synergistic activity was observed between WR 238417, the putative biguanide ...intervals until day 60 postinfection. Survival times were also monitored for this 60 day period. In experiment 680 WR 250417, the putative biguanide

  6. An appraisal of biological responses and network of environmental interactions in non-mining and mining impacted coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Malik, A; Jineesh, V.K.; Fernandes, S.O.; Das, A; Pandey, S.S.; Kanolkar, G.; Sujith, P.P.; Velip, D.; Shaikh, S.; Helekar, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    iron brought from the hinterlands. We hypothesize that there could be a shift in biological response along with changes in network of interactions between environmental and biological variables in these mining and non-mining impacted regions, lying 160...

  7. Serum lipid response to a fat-modified, oatmeal-enhanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, L; Emidy, L A; Liu, K A; Liao, Y L; Ballew, C; King, J; Stamler, J

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm and extend previous findings that serum cholesterol response to a fat-modified diet is enhanced by oat fiber. Participants (n = 236) were recruited from the Continental Illinois National Bank in Chicago. Data including weight, serum lipid level, lipoproteins, and 3-day food records were collected at baseline and every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. All participants were instructed to follow the fat-modified (Phase II) diet recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). After 4 weeks, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. While both groups continued to follow the AHA diet, Group 1 was instructed to include 2 oz (56 g, dry wt) of oatmeal, isocalorically substituted for other carbohydrate foods. Group 2 served as the control and consumed no oat products throughout the study. Serum cholesterol values at baseline and after 4 weeks of the AHA diet were similar for both groups (203.9 and 193.0 mg/dl for Group 1 and 205.3 and 194.5 mg/dl for Group 2). After 4 weeks of oatmeal intervention, mean group differences were -6.8 and -2.1 mg/dl (P = 0.008 one-tailed t test) for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Following an additional 4 weeks of oatmeal intervention, the Group 1 mean cholesterol increased slightly (0.9 mg/dl), while the Group 2 level decreased slightly (-0.7 mg/dl). Overall serum cholesterol responses for the two groups from Visit 2 to Visit 4 were -6.0 and -2.8 mg/dl for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.074, one tail). Changes in weight were small and nonsignificant. Subgroup analyses revealed greater reductions in serum cholesterol among participants with the highest baseline serum cholesterol (-8.0 mg/dl vs -1.7 mg/dl for Subgroups 1 and 2, respectively). These data support previous findings that inclusion of oatmeal in a fat-modified diet is helpful in lowering serum cholesterol, particularly for individuals with elevated serum cholesterol levels.

  8. In vivo biological response to extracorporeal shockwave therapy in human tendinopathy:Response of tendinopathy to shockwave therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Charlotte; Morrissey, Dylan; Jones, Eleanor; Riley, Graham; Langberg, Henning; SCREEN, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session of ESWT was administered to the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon in thirteen healthy individuals (aged 25.7±7.0 years) and patellar or Achilles tendon of six patients with tendinopathies (aged 39....

  9. Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP119 antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awobode Henrietta O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119, inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP119 had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP119 would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods The cellular responses to wild-type MSP119 and a panel of modified MSP119 antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-naïve and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP119. A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27→Tyr, Leu31→Arg, Tyr34→Ser and Glu43→Leu had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360 and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that specific MSP119 variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  10. In Silico Nanodosimetry: New Insights into Nontargeted Biological Responses to Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Kuncic

    2012-01-01

    nontargeted responses cannot be understood in the framework of DNA-centric radiobiological models; what is needed are new physically motivated models that address the damage-sensing signalling pathways triggered by the production of reactive free radicals. To this end, we have conducted a series of in silico experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying physical processes responsible for nontargeted biological responses to radiation. Our simulation studies implement new results on very low-energy electromagnetic interactions in liquid water (applicable down to nanoscales and we also consider a realistic simulation of extranuclear microbeam irradiation of a cell. Our results support the idea that organelles with important functional roles, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, as well as membranes, are viable targets for ionizations and excitations, and their chemical composition and density are critical to determining the free radical yield and ensuing biological responses.

  11. Glycemic response to corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and its relationship to physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous, partially hydrolyzed, granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products, cyclodextrins (CDs) and short chain maltodextrins, may be used as an alternative to modified corn starc...

  12. MoS2-modified ZnO quantum dots nanocomposite: Synthesis and ultrafast humidity response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze, Lu; Yueqiu, Gong; Xujun, Li; Yong, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In this work, ZnO quantum dots (QDs), layered MoS2 and MoS2-modified ZnO QDs (MoS2@ZnO QDs) nanocomposite were synthesized and then applied as humidity sensor. The crystal structure, morphology and element distribution of ZnO QDs, MoS2 and MoS2@ZnO QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The humidity sensing characteristics of the MoS2 and MoS2@ZnO QDs against various relative humidity were measured at room temperature. The results show that the MoS2@ZnO QDs sensor exhibits high sensitivity with an impedance variation of three or four orders of magnitude to relative humidity range of 11-95% and it exhibits a short response-recovery time (1 s for adsorption and 20 s for desorption) and excellent repeatability. The mechanisms of the excellent performance for humidity sensing of MoS2@ZnO QDs sensor were discussed based on its impedance properties. Our work could offer guidelines to design higher performance especially ultrafast humidity response sensor utilizing the nanocomposite structure with two dimensional material and QDs.

  13. Saccharomyces boulardii modifies Salmonella typhimurium traffic and host immune responses along the intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST is an enteropathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that causes infection following oral ingestion. ST spreads rapidly along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and invades the intestinal epithelium to ultimately reach internal body organs. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B is prescribed for prophylaxis of diarrheal infectious diseases. We previously showed that S.b-B prevents weight loss in ST-infected mice and significantly decreases bacterial translocation to the spleen and liver. This study was designed to investigate the effect of S.b-B on ST migration along the GIT and the impact of the yeast on the host's early innate immune responses. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI was used to evaluate the effect of S.b-B on the progression of luminescent Salmonella Typhimurium (ST-lux in the GIT of mice pretreated with streptomycin. Photonic emission (PE was measured in GIT extracts (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon at various time periods post-infection (PI. PE analysis revealed that, 45 min PI, ST-lux had migrated slightly faster in the mice treated with S.b-B than in the untreated infected animals. At 90 min PI, ST-lux had reached the cecum in both groups of mice. Adhesion of ST to S.b-B was visualized in the intestines of the mice and probably accounts for (1 the faster elimination of ST-lux in the feces, and (2 reduced translocation of ST to the spleen and liver. In the early phase of infection, S.b-B also modifies the host's immune responses by (1 increasing IFN-γ gene expression and decreasing IL-10 gene expression in the small intestine, and (2 elevating both IFN-γ, and IL-10 mRNA levels in the cecum. BLI revealed that S.b-B modifies ST migration and the host immune response along the GIT. Study findings shed new light on the protective mechanisms of S.b-B during the early phase of Salmonella pathogenesis.

  14. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  15. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    damage response (Chapter 5). When DNA damage is repaired, cells restart the cell cycle and resume growth. This process is called damage recovery. In S. cerevisiae, the molecular mechanism of recovery relies on dephosphorylation of Rad53 by protein phosphatases (PPs), that, in case of recovery from MMS......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...

  16. Emergency response to nuclear, biological and chemical incidents:challenges and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Li; Wen-Jun Tang; Ya-Kun Ma; Ji-Min Jia; Rong-Li Dang; Er-Chen Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Given the multiple terrorist attacks that have occurred in recent years in China, medical rescue teams and specialized incident assessment teams have been established by the government; however, medical rescue after nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents remains challenging and is often inefficient. In the present article, problems were analyzed regarding the assessment of responder countermeasures, training of professionals and the management of emergency medical incidents related to nuclear, biological and chemical attacks. Countermeasures, the establishment of response coordination, public education, practical training and exercise, and a professional consultant team or system should be the focus of emergency medical response facilities. Moreover, the government was offered professionals who are involved in managing nuclear, biological and chemical incidents.

  17. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  18. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in modified carbon source division anaerobic anoxic oxic process with return activated sludge pre-concentration☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Lu; Haiyan Wu; Haoyan Li; Dianhai Yang

    2015-01-01

    A pilot-scale modified carbon source division anaerobic anoxic oxic (AAO) process with pre-concentration of returned activated sludge (RAS) was proposed in this study for the enhanced biological nutrient removal (BNR) of municipal wastewater with limited carbon source. The influent carbon source was fed in step while a novel RAS pre-concentration tank was adopted to improve BNR efficiency, and the effects of an influent carbon source distribution ratio and a RAS pre-concentration ratio were investigated. The results show that the removal efficiency of TN is mainly influenced by the carbon source distribution ratio while the TP removal relies on the RAS pre-concentration ratio. The optimum carbon source distribution ratio and RAS pre-concentration ratio are 60%and 50%, respectively, with an inner recycling ratio of 100%under the optimum steady operation of pilot test, reaching an average effluent TN concentration of 9.8 mg·L−1 with a removal efficiency of 63%and an average TP removal efficiency of 94%. The mechanism of nutrient removal is discussed and the kinetics is analyzed. The results reveal that the optimal carbon source distribution ratio provides sufficient denitrifying carbon source to each anoxic phase, reducing nitrate accumulation while the RAS pre-concentration ratio improves the condition of anaerobic zone to ensure the phosphorus release due to less nitrate in the returned sludge. Therefore, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and phosphorus accumulation organisms play an important role under the optimum condition, enhancing the performance of nutrient removal in this test.

  19. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

  20. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  1. Bone Response to Surface-Modified Titanium Implants: Studies on the Early Tissue Response to Implants with Different Surface Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Larsson Wexell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of experimental studies, the bone formation around systematically modified titanium implants is analyzed. In the present study, three different surface modifications were prepared and evaluated. Glow-discharge cleaning and oxidizing resulted in a highly stoichiometric TiO2 surface, while a glow-discharge treatment in nitrogen gas resulted in implants with essentially a surface of titanium nitride, covered with a very thin titanium oxide. Finally, hydrogen peroxide treatment of implants resulted in an almost stoichiometric TiO2, rich in hydroxyl groups on the surface. Machined commercially pure titanium implants served as controls. Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed no significant differences in oxide thickness or surface roughness parameters, but differences in the surface chemical composition and apparent topography were observed. After surface preparation, the implants were inserted in cortical bone of rabbits and evaluated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Light microscopic evaluation of the tissue response showed that all implants were in contact with bone and had a large proportion of newly formed bone within the threads after 6 weeks. There were no morphological differences between the four groups. Our study shows that a high degree of bone contact and bone formation can be achieved with titanium implants of different surface composition and topography.

  2. Vitamin E supplementation modifies adaptive responses to training in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, P; Napolitano, G; Barone, D; Di Meo, S

    2014-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to test, by vitamin E treatment, the hypothesis that muscle adaptive responses to training are mediated by free radicals produced during the single exercise sessions. Therefore, we determined aerobic capacity of tissue homogenates and mitochondrial fractions, tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and expression of factors (PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2) involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, we determined the oxidative damage extent, antioxidant enzyme activities, and glutathione content in both tissue preparations, mitochondrial ROS production rate. Finally we tested mitochondrial ROS production rate and muscle susceptibility to oxidative stress. The metabolic adaptations to training, consisting in increased muscle oxidative capacity coupled with the proliferation of a mitochondrial population with decreased oxidative capacity, were generally prevented by antioxidant supplementation. Accordingly, the expression of the factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, which were increased by training, was restored to the control level by the antioxidant treatment. Even the training-induced increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione level and tissue capacity to oppose to an oxidative attach were prevented by vitamin E treatment. Our results support the idea that the stimulus for training-induced adaptive responses derives from the increased production, during the training sessions, of reactive oxygen species that stimulates the expression of PGC-1, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzymes expression. On the other hand, the observation that changes induced by training in some parameters are only attenuated by vitamin E treatment suggests that other signaling pathways, which are activated during exercise and impinge on PGC-1, can modify the response to the antioxidant integration.

  3. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination.

  4. The protective effect of modified intravenous immunoglobulin in LPS sepsis model is associated with an increased IRA B cells response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Pashova, Shina; Vassilev, Tchavdar; Pashov, Anastas

    2013-04-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin preparations (IVIg) that have undergone a mild oxidizing treatment with ferrous ions have an increased polyspecificity, which is not associated with a higher propensity to form aggregates. Among other biological properties of the modified IVIg, a protective effect in LPS sepsis model stands out as the native preparation is totally devoid of it or even exacerbates sepsis. A recent finding identified an LPS induced subset of B1 lymphocytes that migrate from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen acquiring the expression of CD93, GM-CSF as well as the capacity to control sepsis. This report demonstrates that modified IVIg, but not the native preparation, causes a further increase in this population during LPS sepsis. Partial targeted suppression of the peritoneal B cell proliferation by an intracellular dye abrogates this effect and the clinical benefit of modified IVIg.

  5. Modeling Dose-response at Low Dose: A Systems Biology Approach for Ionization Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchao; Ricci, Paolo F

    2010-03-18

    For ionization radiation (IR) induced cancer, a linear non-threshold (LNT) model at very low doses is the default used by a number of national and international organizations and in regulatory law. This default denies any positive benefit from any level of exposure. However, experimental observations and theoretical biology have found that both linear and J-shaped IR dose-response curves can exist at those very low doses. We develop low dose J-shaped dose-response, based on systems biology, and thus justify its use regarding exposure to IR. This approach incorporates detailed, molecular and cellular descriptions of biological/toxicological mechanisms to develop a dose-response model through a set of nonlinear, differential equations describing the signaling pathways and biochemical mechanisms of cell cycle checkpoint, apoptosis, and tumor incidence due to IR. This approach yields a J-shaped dose response curve while showing where LNT behaviors are likely to occur. The results confirm the hypothesis of the J-shaped dose response curve: the main reason is that, at low-doses of IR, cells stimulate protective systems through a longer cell arrest time per unit of IR dose. We suggest that the policy implications of this approach are an increasingly correct way to deal with precautionary measures in public health.

  6. A Modified HPLC Method for the Determination of 2-thiothaozolodine-4-carboxylic Acid in Biological Monitoring of the Workers who Exposed to Carbon Disulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaodongTan; YangLi; YongyiBi; FuyuanWang; JunYan; MichelVanhoorne

    2000-01-01

    According to the role that chemicals will resolve each other if they have similar property, this article presents a modified determination method of TTCA that is used as a biological monitoring for the workers who exposed to carbon disulfide. The proposed method adds a Na2HPO4- NaH2PO4 buffer extracted process. This twice extracted pre-clean method with diethyl-ether and Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer for TTCA determination could increase the separation efficiency from the adiacent peaks. The average recovery ratio was about 79-81% and detection limit was 5μg/L. The modified analytic process become more sensitive and useful for the biological monitoring of carbon disulfide exposure comparing the other analytic methods.

  7. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ebersviller

    2012-03-01

    target PM for "effect modification". Fortunately, in the absence of "seed particles", the complex highly-reactive VOC system used does not create any secondary aerosol in situ. All PM present in these tests were, therefore, introduced by injection of MOA to serve as PM-to-be-modified by the gaseous environment. PM addition was only done during dark periods, either before or after the daylight period. The purpose of this design is to test if a non-toxic PM becomes toxic in initially unreacted ("Fresh", or in reacted ("Aged" complex VOC conditions. To have a complete design, we also tested the effects of clean air and the same VOC conditions, but without introducing any PM. Thus, there were six exposure treatment conditions that were evaluated with the side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-effects exposure systems; five separate chamber experiments were performed: two with clean air and three with the complex VOC/NOx mixture.

    For all of these experiments and exposures, chemical composition data and matching biological effects results for two end-points were compared. Chemical measurements demonstrate the temporal evolution of oxidized species, with a corresponding increase in toxicity observed from exposed cells. The largest increase in gas-phase toxicity was observed in the two "Aged" VOC exposures. The largest increase in particle-phase toxicity was observed in the "Aged" VOC exposure with the addition of PM after sunset. These results are a clear demonstration that the findings from Part 1 can be extended to the complex urban oxidized environment. This further demonstrates that the atmosphere itself cannot be ignored as a source of toxic species when establishing the risks associated with exposure to PM. Because gases and PM are transported and deposited differently within the atmosphere and lungs, these results have significant consequences. In the next (and final part of the study, testing is further applied to systems with real diesel exhaust

  8. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-12-01

    for "effect modification". Fortunately, in the absence of "seed particles", the complex highly-reactive VOC system used does not create any secondary aerosol in situ. All PM present in these tests were, therefore, introduced by injection of MOA to serve as PM-to-be-modified by the gaseous environment. PM addition was only done during dark periods, either before or after the daylight period. The purpose of this design is to test if a non-toxic PM becomes toxic in initially unreacted ("Fresh", or in reacted ("Aged" complex VOC conditions. To have a complete design, we also tested the effects of clean air and the same VOC conditions, but without introducing any PM. Thus, there were six exposure treatment conditions that were evaluated with the side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-effects exposure systems; five separate chamber experiments were performed: two with clean air and three with the complex VOC/NOx mixture. For all of these experiments and exposures, chemical composition data and matching biological effects results for two end-points were compared. Chemical measurements demonstrate the temporal evolution of oxidized species, with a corresponding increase in toxicity observed from exposed cells. The largest increase in gas-phase toxicity was observed in the two "Aged" VOC exposures. The largest increase in particle-phase toxicity was observed in the "Aged" VOC exposure with the addition of PM after sunset. These results are a clear demonstration that the findings from Part 1 can be extended to the complex urban oxidized environment. This further demonstrates that the atmosphere itself cannot be ignored as a source of toxic species when establishing the risks associated with exposure to PM. Because gases and PM are transported and deposited differently within the atmosphere and lungs, these results have significant consequences. In the next (and final part of the study, testing is further applied to systems with real diesel exhaust, including primary PM from a

  9. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    modification". Fortunately, in the absence of "seed particles", the complex highly-reactive VOC system used does not create any secondary aerosol in situ. All PM present in these tests were, therefore, introduced by injection of MOA to serve as PM-to-be-modified by the gaseous environment. PM addition was only done during dark periods, either before or after the daylight period. The purpose of this design is to test if a non-toxic PM becomes toxic in initially unreacted ("Fresh"), or in reacted ("Aged") complex VOC conditions. To have a complete design, we also tested the effects of clean air and the same VOC conditions, but without introducing any PM. Thus, there were six exposure treatment conditions that were evaluated with the side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-effects exposure systems; five separate chamber experiments were performed: two with clean air and three with the complex VOC/NOx mixture. For all of these experiments and exposures, chemical composition data and matching biological effects results for two end-points were compared. Chemical measurements demonstrate the temporal evolution of oxidized species, with a corresponding increase in toxicity observed from exposed cells. The largest increase in gas-phase toxicity was observed in the two "Aged" VOC exposures. The largest increase in particle-phase toxicity was observed in the "Aged" VOC exposure with the addition of PM after sunset. These results are a clear demonstration that the findings from Part 1 can be extended to the complex urban oxidized environment. This further demonstrates that the atmosphere itself cannot be ignored as a source of toxic species when establishing the risks associated with exposure to PM. Because gases and PM are transported and deposited differently within the atmosphere and lungs, these results have significant consequences. In the next (and final) part of the study, testing is further applied to systems with real diesel exhaust, including primary PM from a vehicle operated with

  10. In vivo biological response to extracorporeal shockwave therapy in human tendinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    CM Waugh; Morrissey, D.; E. Jones; GP Riley; H Langberg; HRC Screen

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session of ESWT was administered to the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon in thirteen healthy individuals (aged 25.7 ± 7.0 years) and patellar or Achilles tendon of six patients with tendinopathies (aged 3...

  11. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption.

  12. Optimizing the lanthanum adsorption process onto chemically modified biomaterials using factorial and response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andreea; Davidescu, Corneliu Mircea; Negrea, Adina; Ciopec, Mihaela; Grozav, Ion; Negrea, Petru; Duteanu, Narcis

    2017-01-29

    The rare metals' potential to pollute air, water, soil, and especially groundwater has received lot of attention recently. One of the most common rare earth group elements, lanthanum, is used in many industrial branches, and due to its toxicity, it needs to be eliminated from all residual aqueous solutions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the control of the adsorption process for lanthanum removal from aqueous solutions, using cellulose, a known biomaterial with high adsorbent properties, cheap, and environment friendly. The cellulose was chemically modified by functionalization with sodium β-glycerophosphate. The experimental results obtained after factorial design indicate optimum adsorption parameters as pH 6, contact time 60 min, and temperature 298 K, when the equilibrium concentration of lanthanum was 250 mg L(-1), and the experimental adsorption capacity obtained was 31.58 mg g(-1). Further refinement of the optimization of the adsorption process by response surface design indicates that at pH 6 and the initial concentration of 256 mg L(-1), the adsorption capacity has maximum values between 30.87 and 36.73 mg g(-1).

  13. Optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to modify abiotic stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Watanabe, Takahito; Sugano, Shigeo S; Ueta, Risa; Ishihara, Ryosuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Osakabe, Keishi

    2016-05-26

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to modify plant genomes, however, improvements in specificity and applicability are still needed in order for the editing technique to be useful in various plant species. Here, using genome editing mediated by a truncated gRNA (tru-gRNA)/Cas9 combination, we generated new alleles for OST2, a proton pump in Arabidopsis, with no off-target effects. By following expression of Cas9 and the tru-gRNAs, newly generated mutations in CRIPSR/Cas9 transgenic plants were detected with high average mutation rates of up to 32.8% and no off-target effects using constitutive promoter. Reducing nuclear localization signals in Cas9 decreased the mutation rate. In contrast, tru-gRNA Cas9 cassettes driven by meristematic- and reproductive-tissue-specific promoters increased the heritable mutation rate in Arabidopsis, showing that high expression in the germ line can produce bi-allelic mutations. Finally, the new mutant alleles obtained for OST2 exhibited altered stomatal closing in response to environmental conditions. These results suggest further applications in molecular breeding to improve plant function using optimized plant CRISPR/Cas9 systems.

  14. Optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to modify abiotic stress responses in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Watanabe, Takahito; Sugano, Shigeo S; Ueta, Risa; Ishihara, Ryosuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Osakabe, Keishi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to modify plant genomes, however, improvements in specificity and applicability are still needed in order for the editing technique to be useful in various plant species. Here, using genome editing mediated by a truncated gRNA (tru-gRNA)/Cas9 combination, we generated new alleles for OST2, a proton pump in Arabidopsis, with no off-target effects. By following expression of Cas9 and the tru-gRNAs, newly generated mutations in CRIPSR/Cas9 transgenic plants were detected with high average mutation rates of up to 32.8% and no off-target effects using constitutive promoter. Reducing nuclear localization signals in Cas9 decreased the mutation rate. In contrast, tru-gRNA Cas9 cassettes driven by meristematic- and reproductive-tissue-specific promoters increased the heritable mutation rate in Arabidopsis, showing that high expression in the germ line can produce bi-allelic mutations. Finally, the new mutant alleles obtained for OST2 exhibited altered stomatal closing in response to environmental conditions. These results suggest further applications in molecular breeding to improve plant function using optimized plant CRISPR/Cas9 systems. PMID:27226176

  15. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  16. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations and composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lurling, Miguel; Spears, Bryan M.; Yasseri, Said; Lundberg, Daniel; Moore, Alanna; Jensen, Nicholai D.; Reitzel, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory scale study of 10 European lakes treated between 2006 and 2013 with a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) to control sediment phosphorus (P) release was conducted. The study followed the responses in sediment characteristics including La and P fractions and bin

  17. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations and composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lürling, Miquel;

    2016-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory scale study of 10 European lakes treated between 2006 and 2013 with a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) to control sediment phosphorus (P) release was conducted. The study followed the responses in sediment characteristics including La and P fractions...

  18. Dual-tracer method to estimate coral reef response to a plume of chemically modified seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaren, J. K.; Caldeira, K.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new method, based on measurement of seawater samples, to estimate the response of a reef ecosystem to a plume of an additive (for example, a nutrient or other chemical). In the natural environment, where there may be natural variability in concentrations, it can be difficult to distinguish between changes in concentrations that would occur naturally and changes in concentrations that result from a chemical addition. Furthermore, in the unconfined natural environment, chemically modified water can mix with waters that have not been modified, making it difficult to distinguish between effects of dilution and effects of chemical fluxes or transformations. We present a dual-tracer method that extracts signals from observations that may be affected by both natural variability and dilution. In this dual-tracer method, a substance (in our example case, alkalinity) is added to the water in known proportion to a passive conservative tracer (in our example case, Rhodamine WT dye). The resulting plume of seawater is allowed to flow over the study site. Two transects are drawn across the plume at the front and back of the study site. If, in our example, alkalinity is plotted as a function of dye concentration for the front transect, the slope of the resulting mixing line is the ratio of alkalinity to dye in the added fluid. If a similar mixing line is measured and calculated for the back transect, the slope of this mixing line will indicate the amount of added alkalinity that remains in the water flowing out of the study site per unit of added dye. The ratio of the front and back slopes indicates the fraction of added alkalinity that was taken up by the reef. The method is demonstrated in an experiment performed on One Tree Reef (Queensland, Australia) aimed at showing that ocean acidification is already affecting coral reef growth. In an effort to chemically reverse some of the changes to seawater chemistry that have occurred over the past 200 years, we added

  19. Spectral Response and Diagnostics of Biological Activity of Hydroxyl-Containing Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Mayer, G. V.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using IR Fourier spectra and employing quantum-chemical calculations of electronic structure, spectra, and proton-acceptor properties, synthetic derivatives of aminophenol exhibiting biological activity in the suppression of herpes, influenza, and HIV viruses have been investigated from a new perspective, with the aim of establishing the spectral response of biological activity of the molecules. It has been experimentally established that the participation of the aminophenol hydroxyl group in intramolecular hydrogen bonds is characteristic of structures with antiviral properties. A quantum-chemical calculation of the proton-acceptor ability of the investigated aminophenol derivatives has shown that biologically active structures are characterized by a high proton-acceptor ability of oxygen of the hydroxyl group. A correlation that has been obtained among the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond, high proton-acceptor ability, and antiviral activity of substituted aminophenols enables us to predict the pharmacological properties of new medical preparations of the given class of compounds.

  20. Combining angular response classification and backscatter imagery segmentation for benthic biological habitat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Hasan, Rozaimi; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Backscatter information from multibeam echosounders (MBES) have been shown to contain useful information for the characterisation of benthic habitats. Compared to backscatter imagery, angular response of backscatter has shown advantages for feature discrimination. However its low spatial resolution inhibits the generation of fine scale habitat maps. In this study, angular backscatter response was combined with image segmentation of backscatter imagery to characterise benthic biological habitats in Discovery Bay Marine National Park, Victoria, Australia. Angular response of backscatter data from a Reson Seabat 8101 MBES (240 kHz) was integrated with georeferenced underwater video observations for constructing training data. To produce benthic habitat maps, decision tree supervised classification results were combined with mean shift image segmentation for class assignment. The results from mean angular response characteristics show effects of incidence angle at the outer angle for invertebrates (INV) and mixed red and invertebrates (MRI) classes, whilst mixed brown algae (MB) and mixed brown algae and invertebrates (MBI) showed similar responses independent from incidence angle. Automatic segmentation processing produce over segmented results but showed good discrimination between heterogeneous regions. Accuracy assessment from habitat maps produced overall accuracies of 79.6% (Kappa coefficient = 0.66) and 80.2% (Kappa coefficient = 0.67) for biota and substratum classifications respectively. MRI and MBI produced the lowest average accuracy while INV the highest. The ability to combine angular response and backscatter imagery provides an alternative approach for investigating biological information from acoustic backscatter data.

  1. Principal response curves: analysis of time-dependent multivariate responses of biological community to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a novel multivariate method is proposed for the analysis of community response data from designed experiments repeatedly sampled in time. The long-term effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the invertebrate community and the dissolved oxygen (DO)–pH–alkalinity–conductivity syndrom

  2. Responses to a Modified Visual Cliff by Pre-Walking Infants Born Preterm and at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Shan; Reilly, Marie; Mercer, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their caregivers on a modified visual…

  3. Validity of the relative-dose-response test and the modified-relative-dose-response test as indicators of vitamin A stores in liver 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Our group and many others have used the relativedose- response (RDR) test and the modified-RDR (MRDR) test as proxy indicators of liver stores of vitamin A. However, we have become concerned about the validity of these indicators. Objective: Simulation models were used to assess effects

  4. An analysis of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 genes as modifiers of the cerebral response to ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Souvik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischemia involves a series of reactions which ultimately influence the final volume of a brain infarction. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in these reactions could act as modifiers of the cerebral response to ischemia and impact the resultant stroke volume. The final volume of a cerebral infarct is important as it correlates with the morbidity and mortality associated with non-lacunar ischemic strokes. Methods The proteins encoded by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO-1 genes are, through oxidative mechanisms, key participants in the cerebral response to ischemia. On the basis of these biological activities, they were selected as candidate genes for further investigation. We analyzed the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and the C419A polymorphism in the GSTO-1 gene in 128 patients with non-lacunar ischemic strokes. Results We found no significant association of either the MTHFR (p = 0.72 or GSTO-1 (p = 0.58 polymorphisms with cerebral infarct volume. Conclusion Our study shows no major gene effect of either the MTHFR or GSTO-1 genes as a modifier of ischemic stroke volume. However, given the relatively small sample size, a minor gene effect is not excluded by this investigation.

  5. Sensory processing sensitivity: a review in the light of the evolution of biological responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the literature on sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) in light of growing evidence from evolutionary biology that many personality differences in nonhuman species involve being more or less responsive, reactive, flexible, or sensitive to the environment. After briefly defining SPS, it first discusses how biologists studying animal personality have conceptualized this general environmental sensitivity. Second, it reviews relevant previous human personality/temperament work, focusing on crossover interactions (where a trait generates positive or negative outcomes depending on the environment), and traits relevant to specific hypothesized aspects of SPS: inhibition of behavior, sensitivity to stimuli, depth of processing, and emotional/physiological reactivity. Third, it reviews support for the overall SPS model, focusing on development of the Highly Sensitive Person (HSP) Scale as a measure of SPS then on neuroimaging and genetic studies using the scale, all of which bears on the extent to which SPS in humans corresponds to biological responsivity.

  6. Mechanical properties and in vitro biological response to porous titanium alloys prepared for use in intervertebral implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparrós, C; Guillem-Martí, J; Molmeneu, M; Punset, M; Calero, J A; Gil, F J

    2014-11-01

    The generation of titanium foams is a promising strategy for modifying the mechanical properties of intervertebral reinforcements. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the in vitro biological response of Ti6Al4V alloys with different pore sizes for use in intervertebral implants in terms of the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells. We studied the production of Ti6Al4V foams by powder metallurgy and the biological responses to Ti6Al4V foams were assessed in terms of different pore interconnectivities and elastic moduli. The Ti6Al4V foams obtained had similar porosities of approximately 34%, but different pore sizes (66 µm for fine Ti6Al4V and 147 µm for coarse Ti6Al4V) due to the sizes of the microsphere used. The Ti6Al4V foams had a slightly higher Young׳s modulus compared with cancellous bone. The dynamic mechanical properties of the Ti6Al4V foams were slightly low, but these materials can satisfy the requirements for intervertebral prosthesis applications. The cultured cells colonized both sizes of microspheres near the pore spaces, where they occupied almost the entire area of the microspheres when the final cell culture time was reached. No statistical differences in cell proliferation were observed; however, the cells filled the pores on fine Ti6Al4V foams but they only colonized the superficial microspheres, whereas the cells did not fill the pores on coarse Ti6Al4V foams but they were distributed throughout most of the material. In addition, the microspheres with wide pores (coarse Ti6Al4V) stimulated higher osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by the Alcaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity. Our in vitro results suggest that foams with wide pore facilitate internal cell colonization and stimulate osteoblast differentiation.

  7. A comprehensive collection of systems biology data characterizing the host response to viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Aevermann, Brian D.; Pickett, Brett E.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Klem, Edward B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Peter S Askovich; III, Armand Bankhead; Bolles, Meagen; Carter, Victoria; Chang, Jean; Clauss, Therese R.W.; Dash, Pradyot; Diercks, Alan H.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Ellis, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Systems Biology for Infectious Diseases Research program was established by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to investigate host-pathogen interactions at a systems level. This program generated 47 transcriptomic and proteomic datasets from 30 studies that investigate in vivo and in vitro host responses to viral infections. Human pathogens in the Orthomyxoviridae and Coronaviridae families, especially pandemic H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza A viruses and severe...

  8. The Emergence of the Dose–Response Concept in Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Calabrese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A historical assessment of the origin of the dose–response in modern toxicology and its integration as a central concept in biology and medicine is presented. This article provides an overview of how the threshold, linear and biphasic (i.e., hormetic dose–response models emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and competed for acceptance and dominance. Particular attention is directed to the hormetic model for which a general description and evaluation is provided, including its historical basis, and how it was marginalized by the medical and pharmacology communities in the early decades of the 20th century.

  9. The Emergence of the Dose–Response Concept in Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    A historical assessment of the origin of the dose–response in modern toxicology and its integration as a central concept in biology and medicine is presented. This article provides an overview of how the threshold, linear and biphasic (i.e., hormetic) dose–response models emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and competed for acceptance and dominance. Particular attention is directed to the hormetic model for which a general description and evaluation is provided, including its historical basis, and how it was marginalized by the medical and pharmacology communities in the early decades of the 20th century. PMID:27929392

  10. Nanotextured stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biological response in coronary stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Chandini C.; Prabhath, Anupama; Cherian, Aleena Mary; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Chennazhi, Krishnaprasad; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-12-01

    Nanosurface engineering of metallic substrates for improved cellular response is a persistent theme in biomaterials research. The need to improve the long term prognosis of commercially available stents has led us to adopt a `polymer-free' approach which is cost effective and industrially scalable. In this study, 316L stainless steel substrates were surface modified by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline pH, with and without the addition of a chromium precursor, to generate a well adherent uniform nanotopography. The modified surfaces showed improved hemocompatibility and augmented endothelialization, while hindering the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, they also exhibited superior material properties like corrosion resistance, surface integrity and reduced metal ion leaching. The combination of improved corrosion resistance and selective vascular cell viability provided by nanomodification can be successfully utilized to offer a cell-friendly solution to the inherent limitations pertinent to bare metallic stents.

  11. Serotonergic chemosensory neurons modify the C. elegans immune response by regulating G-protein signaling in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Anderson

    Full Text Available The nervous and immune systems influence each other, allowing animals to rapidly protect themselves from changes in their internal and external environment. However, the complex nature of these systems in mammals makes it difficult to determine how neuronal signaling influences the immune response. Here we show that serotonin, synthesized in Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory neurons, modulates the immune response. Serotonin released from these cells acts, directly or indirectly, to regulate G-protein signaling in epithelial cells. Signaling in these cells is required for the immune response to infection by the natural pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum. Here we show that serotonin signaling suppresses the innate immune response and limits the rate of pathogen clearance. We show that C. elegans uses classical neurotransmitters to alter the immune response. Serotonin released from sensory neurons may function to modify the immune system in response to changes in the animal's external environment such as the availability, or quality, of food.

  12. Silicon Deprivation Does Not Significantly Modify the Acute White Blood Cell Response but Does Modify Tissue Mineral Distribution Response to an Endotoxin Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with rats was conducted to determine whether silicon deprivation affects the acute-phase immune response to an endotoxin challenge. Weanling female rats were assigned to two weight-matched groups of 24; one group was fed a basal diet containing about 1.9 µg Si/kg, the other group was f...

  13. Electrocatalytic response of poly(cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-Nafion modified electrode toward sulfadiazine in urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping HONG; Yah ZHU; Yan-zhen ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive amperometric sulfadiazine sensor fabricated by electrochemical deposition of poly(cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine) (poly(CoⅡTAPc)) on the surface of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes-Nafion (MWCNTs-Nafion) modified electrode is described.This electrode showed a very attractive performance by combining the advantages of Co11TAPc,MWCNTs,and Nafion.Compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the MWCNTs-Nafion modified electrode,the electrocatalytic activity of poly(CoⅡTAPc)-coated MWCNTs-Nafion GCE generated greatly improved electrochemical detections toward sulfadiazine including low oxidation potential,high current responses,and good anti-fouling performance.The oxidation peak currents of sulfadiazine obtained on the new modified electrode increased linearly while increasing the concentration of sulfadiazine from 0.5 to 43.5 μmol/L with the detection limit of 0.17 μmol/L.

  14. Systems Cancer Biology and the Controlling Mechanisms for the J-Shaped Cancer Dose Response: Towards Relaxing the LNT Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, In Chio; Zhao, Yuchao; Wu, YingJie; Ricci, Paolo F

    2012-01-01

    The hormesis phenomena or J-shaped dose response have been accepted as a common phenomenon regardless of the involved biological model, endpoint measured and chemical class/physical stressor. This paper first introduced a mathematical dose response model based on systems biology approach. It links molecular-level cell cycle checkpoint control information to clonal growth cancer model to predict the possible shapes of the dose response curves of Ionizing Radiation (IR) induced tumor transforma...

  15. Wind erodibility response of physical and biological crusts to rain and flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubault, H.; Bullard, J. E.; Strong, C. L.; Ghadiri, H.; McTainsh, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil surface crusts are important controllers of the small-scale wind entrainment processes that occur across all dust source regions globally. The crust type influences water and wind erosion by impacting infiltration, runoff, threshold wind velocity and surface storage capacity of both water and loose erodible material. The spatial and temporal patterning of both physical and biological crusts is known to change with rainfall and flooding. However, little is known about the impact of differing water quantity (from light rainfall through to flooding) on soil crusting characteristics (strength, roughness, sediment loss). This study compares the response of two soil types (loamy sand - LS, sandy loam - SL) with and without BSCs to three different rainfall events (2mm, 8mm, 15mm). Two BSC treatments were used one that simulated a young cyanobacteria dominated crust and an older flood induced multi species biological crust. For both soil types, soil surface strength increased with increasing rainfall amount with LS having consistently higher resistance to rupture than SL. Regardless of texture, soils with BSCs were more resistant and strength did not change in response to rainfall impact. Soil loss due to wind erosion was substantially higher on bare LS (4 times higher) and SL (3 times higher) soils compared with those with BSCs. Our results also show that young biological crust (formed by the rainfall event) have reduced soil erodibility with notably greater strength, roughness and reduced sediment losses when compared to soils with physical crust. Interestingly though, the erodibility of the old BSC did not differ greatly from that of the young BSC with respect to strength, roughness and sediment loss. This raises questions regarding the rapid soil surface protection offered by young colonising cyanobacteria crusts. Further analyses exploring the role of biological soil crusts on surface response to rainfall and wind saltation impact are ongoing.

  16. Computation of the effective mechanical response of biological networks accounting for large configuration changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nady, K; Ganghoffer, J F

    2016-05-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is involved to derive the effective elastic response of biological membranes viewed as repetitive beam networks. Thereby, a systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of biological membranes in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the equivalent continuum. Biomembranes networks are classified based on nodal connectivity, so that we analyze in this work 3, 4 and 6-connectivity networks, which are representative of most biological networks. The individual filaments of the network are described as undulated beams prone to entropic elasticity, with tensile moduli determined from their persistence length. The effective micropolar continuum evaluated as a continuum substitute of the biological network has a kinematics reflecting the discrete network deformation modes, involving a nodal displacement and a microrotation. The statics involves the classical Cauchy stress and internal moments encapsulated into couple stresses, which develop internal work in duality to microcurvatures reflecting local network undulations. The relative ratio of the characteristic bending length of the effective micropolar continuum to the unit cell size determines the relevant choice of the equivalent medium. In most cases, the Cauchy continuum is sufficient to model biomembranes. The peptidoglycan network may exhibit a re-entrant hexagonal configuration due to thermal or pressure fluctuations, for which micropolar effects become important. The homogenized responses are in good agreement with FE simulations performed over the whole network. The predictive nature of the employed homogenization technique allows the identification of a strain energy density of a hyperelastic model, for the purpose of performing structural calculations of the shape evolutions of biomembranes.

  17. Low-dose photons modify liver response to simulated solar particle event protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Daila S; Coutrakon, George B; Rizvi, Asma; Bayeta, Erben J M; Luo-Owen, Xian; Makinde, Adeola Y; Baqai, Farnaz; Koss, Peter; Slater, James M; Pecaut, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    The health consequences of exposure to low-dose radiation combined with a solar particle event during space travel remain unresolved. The goal of this study was to determine whether protracted radiation exposure alters gene expression and oxidative burst capacity in the liver, an organ vital in many biological processes. C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 2 Gy simulated solar particle event (SPE) protons over 36 h, both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate photons ((57)Co, 0.049 Gy total at 0.024 cGy/h). Livers were excised immediately after irradiation (day 0) or on day 21 thereafter for analysis of 84 oxidative stress-related genes using RT-PCR; genes up or down-regulated by more than twofold were noted. On day 0, genes with increased expression were: photons, none; simulated SPE, Id1; photons + simulated SPE, Bax, Id1, Snrp70. Down-regulated genes at this same time were: photons, Igfbp1; simulated SPE, Arnt2, Igfbp1, Il6, Lct, Mybl2, Ptx3. By day 21, a much greater effect was noted than on day 0. Exposure to photons + simulated SPE up-regulated completely different genes than those up-regulated after either photons or the simulated SPE alone (photons, Cstb; simulated SPE, Dctn2, Khsrp, Man2b1, Snrp70; photons + simulated SPE, Casp1, Col1a1, Hspcb, Il6st, Rpl28, Spnb2). There were many down-regulated genes in all irradiated groups on day 21 (photons, 13; simulated SPE, 16; photons + simulated SPE, 16), with very little overlap among groups. Oxygen radical production by liver phagocytes was significantly enhanced by photons on day 21. The results demonstrate that whole-body irradiation with low-dose-rate photons, as well as time after exposure, had a great impact on liver response to a simulated solar particle event.

  18. Stock price responses on the German suspension of genetically modified maize

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Finger

    2010-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the German governments' decision to suspend the cultivation of genetically modified maize on the stock returns of involved companies. Moreover, the first announcement to investigate a ban as well as a court decision rejecting Monsanto's lawsuit against the suspension are considered. This study is motivated by the expectation that these decisions have consequences beyond the small German market for genetically modified maize. An event study is used to evalu...

  19. Quantitative changes in sets of proteins as markers of biological response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.; Gemmell, M.A.; Tollaksen, S.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lalwani, N.D.; Reddy, J.K. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to either physical or chemical insults triggers a cascade of bio-chemical events within the target cell. This response requires adjustment within the protein population of the cell, some proteins becoming more abundant (those involved in the cellular response), others less abundant (those not required or counterproductive to the response). Thus, quantitative changes in the global protein population of an exposed biological system may well serve as an indicator of exposure, provided the alterations observed are selective and dose-dependent. In this paper we present results from a study in which liver protein changes induced by exposure of mice to chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma where monitored. Clofibrate, and its chemical analog ciprofibrate, are hypolipidemic drugs. Di-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used widely in disposable containers for blood products. WY-14643 is a chemical shown to cause hypolipidemic and peroxisome proliferation, similar to clofibrate, ciprofibrate and DEHP, but structurally different from these three chemicals. Thus, two of the four chemicals are structurally similar while the remaining two are very distinct, although all four chemicals cause the same gross biological response. Our results show that although common protein effects are observed in mice exposed to these chemicals, each chemical also causes specific alterations in selective subsets of proteins that could serve as markers of a particular exposure. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. High-throughput screening normalized to biological response: application to antiviral drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhara A; Patel, Anand C; Nolan, William C; Huang, Guangming; Romero, Arthur G; Charlton, Nichole; Agapov, Eugene; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The process of conducting cell-based phenotypic screens can result in data sets from small libraries or portions of large libraries, making accurate hit picking from multiple data sets important for efficient drug discovery. Here, we describe a screen design and data analysis approach that allow for normalization not only between quadrants and plates but also between screens or batches in a robust, quantitative fashion, enabling hit selection from multiple data sets. We independently screened the MicroSource Spectrum and NCI Diversity Set II libraries using a cell-based phenotypic high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that uses an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-driven luciferase-reporter assay to identify interferon (IFN) signal enhancers. Inclusion of a per-plate, per-quadrant IFN dose-response standard curve enabled conversion of ISRE activity to effective IFN concentrations. We identified 45 hits based on a combined z score ≥2.5 from the two libraries, and 25 of 35 available hits were validated in a compound concentration-response assay when tested using fresh compound. The results provide a basis for further analysis of chemical structure in relation to biological function. Together, the results establish an HTS method that can be extended to screening for any class of compounds that influence a quantifiable biological response for which a standard is available.

  1. A Personalized Approach to Biological Therapy Using Prediction of Clinical Response Based on MRP8/14 Serum Complex Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Nair

    Full Text Available Measurement of MRP8/14 serum levels has shown potential in predicting clinical response to different biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We aimed to develop a treatment algorithm based on a prediction score using MRP8/14 measurements and clinical parameters predictive for response to different biological agents.Baseline serum levels of MRP8/14 were measured in 170 patients starting treatment with infliximab, adalimumab or rituximab. We used logistic regression analysis to develop a predictive score for clinical response at 16 weeks. MRP8/14 levels along with clinical variables at baseline were investigated. We also investigated how the predictive effect of MRP8/14 was modified by drug type. A treatment algorithm was developed based on categorizing the expected response per drug type as high, intermediate or low for each patient and optimal treatment was defined. Finally, we present the utility of using this treatment algorithm in clinical practice.The probability of response increased with higher baseline MRP8/14 complex levels (OR = 1.39, differentially between the TNF-blockers and rituximab (OR of interaction term = 0.78, and also increased with higher DAS28 at baseline (OR = 1.28. Rheumatoid factor positivity, functional disability (a higher HAQ, and previous use of a TNF-inhibitor decreased the probability of response. Based on the treatment algorithm 80 patients would have been recommended for anti-TNF treatment, 8 for rituximab, 13 for another biological treatment (other than TNFi or rituximab and for 69 no recommendation was made. The predicted response rates matched the observed response in the cohort well. On group level the predicted response based on the algorithm resulted in a modest 10% higher response rate in our cohort with much higher differences in response probability in individual patients treated contrary to treatment recommendation.Prediction of response using MRP8/14 levels along with clinical predictors has

  2. Response of biological uv dosimeters to the simulated extraterrestrial uv radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Rontó, G.; Kerékgyártó, T.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.

    In the Laboratory polycrystalline uracil thin layer and bacteriophage T7 detectors have been developed for UV dosimetry on the EarthSs surface. Exponential response of the uracil polycrystal has been detected both by absorption spectroscopy and measurements of the refractive index under the influence of terrestrial solar radiation or using UV-C sources. In UV biological dosimetry the UV dose scale is additive starting at a value of zero according to the definition of CIE (Technical Report TC-6-18). The biological dose can be defined by a measured end-effect. In our dosimeters (phage T7 and uracil dosimeter) exposed to natural (terrestrial) UV radiation the proportion of pyrimidin photoproducts among the total photoproducts is smaller than 0.1 and the linear correlation between the biological and physical dose is higher than 0.9. According to the experimental data this linear relationship is often not valid. We observed that UV radiation did not only induce dimerisation but shorter wavelengths caused monomerisation of pyrimidin dimers. Performing the irradiation in oxygen free environment and using a Deuterium lamp as UV source, we could increase monomerisation against dimerisation thus the DNA-based dosimetrySs additivity rule is not fulfilled in these conditions. In this study we will demonstrate those non-linear experiments which constitute the basis of our biological experiments on the International Space Station.

  3. Tracking down the links between charged particles and biological response: A UK perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mark A.

    2013-07-01

    The UK has a long history of radiobiology research into charged particles, with interest likely to expand in the coming years following the recent government announcement of £250 million to build two proton beam therapy facilities in the UK. A brief overview of research and facilities past and present with respect to radiation protection and oncology along with biological consequences and underlying mechanisms will be presented and discussed. Increased knowledge of the mechanisms underpinning the radiation action on biological systems is important in understanding, not only the risks associated with exposure, but also in optimising radiotherapy treatment of cancer. Ionizing radiation is always in the form of structure tracks which are a unique characteristic of ionizing radiation alone producing damage grossly different and far more biologically effective than endogenous damage. The track structure is the prime determinant of biological response to DNA, with charged particles of increasing LET leading to an increase in the frequency and complexity of clustered DNA damage. High-LET particles will also produce non-homogeneous dose distribution through a cell nucleus resulting in correlated DNA breaks along the path of the particle and an increase in the probability of complex chromosomal rearrangements. However it is now well established that there is variety of phenomena that do not conform to the conventional paradigm of targeted radiobiology, but there is insufficient evidence to assess the implications of these non-targeted effects for radiotherapy or relevance to risk for human health.

  4. In vivo biological response to extracorporeal shockwave therapy in human tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Waugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session of ESWT was administered to the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon in thirteen healthy individuals (aged 25.7 ± 7.0 years and patellar or Achilles tendon of six patients with tendinopathies (aged 39.0 ± 14.9 years. Dialysate samples from the surrounding peri-tendon were collected before and immediately after ESWT. Interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, vascular endothelial growth factor and interferon-γ were quantified using a cytometric bead array while gelatinase activity (MMP-2 and -9 was examined using zymography. There were no statistical differences between the biological tissue response to ESWT in healthy and pathological tendons. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were the cytokines predominantly detected in the tendon dialysate. IL-1β and IL-2 did not change significantly with ESWT. IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were elevated immediately after ESWT and remained significantly elevated for four hours post-ESWT (p < 0.001. Pro-forms of MMP-2 and -9 also increased after ESWT (p < 0.003, whereas there were no significant changes in active MMP forms. In addition, the biological response to ESWT treatment could be differentiated between possible responders and non-responders based on a minimum 5-fold increase in any inflammatory marker or MMP from pre- to post-ESWT. Our findings provide novel evidence of the biological mechanisms underpinning ESWT in humans in vivo. They suggest that the mechanical stimulus provided by ESWT might aid tendon remodelling in tendinopathy by promoting the inflammatory and catabolic processes that are associated with removing damaged matrix constituents. The non-response of some individuals may

  5. In vivo biological response to extracorporeal shockwave therapy in human tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C M; Morrissey, D; Jones, E; Riley, G P; Langberg, H; Screen, H R C

    2015-05-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session of ESWT was administered to the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon in thirteen healthy individuals (aged 25.7 ± 7.0 years) and patellar or Achilles tendon of six patients with tendinopathies (aged 39.0 ± 14.9 years). Dialysate samples from the surrounding peri-tendon were collected before and immediately after ESWT. Interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, vascular endothelial growth factor and interferon-γ were quantified using a cytometric bead array while gelatinase activity (MMP-2 and -9) was examined using zymography. There were no statistical differences between the biological tissue response to ESWT in healthy and pathological tendons. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were the cytokines predominantly detected in the tendon dialysate. IL-1β and IL-2 did not change significantly with ESWT. IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were elevated immediately after ESWT and remained significantly elevated for four hours post-ESWT (p < 0.001). Pro-forms of MMP-2 and -9 also increased after ESWT (p < 0.003), whereas there were no significant changes in active MMP forms. In addition, the biological response to ESWT treatment could be differentiated between possible responders and non-responders based on a minimum 5-fold increase in any inflammatory marker or MMP from pre- to post-ESWT. Our findings provide novel evidence of the biological mechanisms underpinning ESWT in humans in vivo. They suggest that the mechanical stimulus provided by ESWT might aid tendon remodelling in tendinopathy by promoting the inflammatory and catabolic processes that are associated with removing damaged matrix constituents. The non-response of some individuals may help to

  6. Biologically Inspired Design Principles for Scalable, Robust, Adaptive, Decentralized Search and Automated Response (RADAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Distributed search problems are ubiquitous in Artificial Life (ALife). Many distributed search problems require identifying a rare and previously unseen event and producing a rapid response. This challenge amounts to finding and removing an unknown needle in a very large haystack. Traditional computational search models are unlikely to find, nonetheless, appropriately respond to, novel events, particularly given data distributed across multiple platforms in a variety of formats and sources with variable and unknown reliability. Biological systems have evolved solutions to distributed search and response under uncertainty. Immune systems and ant colonies efficiently scale up massively parallel search with automated response in highly dynamic environments, and both do so using distributed coordination without centralized control. These properties are relevant to ALife, where distributed, autonomous, robust and adaptive control is needed to design robot swarms, mobile computing networks, computer security system...

  7. Physical and biological response of the Arabian Sea to tropical cyclone Phyan and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byju, P; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2011-06-01

    The response to the tropical cyclone Phyan, which developed in the eastern Arabian Sea during 9-11 November 2009, was rapid cooling of sea surface temperature (SST), enhancement of chlorophyll a and two-fold increase in net primary productivity (NPP). Cooling of SST was immediate in response to the strong wind-mixing, and the subsequent upward Ekman pumping sustained the cooling even after the dissipation of Phyan. The biological response mediated by the upward Ekman pumping driven vertical transport of subsurface nutrient showed a time lag of 3-4 days. The CO₂ flux to the atmosphere associated with Phyan was 0.123 Tg C, which accounted for ~85% of the total out-gassing from the eastern Arabian Sea during November. Thus, an increased occurrence of cyclones in a warming environment will lead to an enhanced biomass production and also increase in CO₂ out-gassing.

  8. Radiative transfer equation for predicting light propagation in biological media: comparison of a modified finite volume method, the Monte Carlo technique, and an exact analytical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    We examine the accuracy of a modified finite volume method compared to analytical and Monte Carlo solutions for solving the radiative transfer equation. The model is used for predicting light propagation within a two-dimensional absorbing and highly forward-scattering medium such as biological tissue subjected to a collimated light beam. Numerical simulations for the spatially resolved reflectance and transmittance are presented considering refractive index mismatch with Fresnel reflection at the interface, homogeneous and two-layered media. Time-dependent as well as steady-state cases are considered. In the steady state, it is found that the modified finite volume method is in good agreement with the other two methods. The relative differences between the solutions are found to decrease with spatial mesh refinement applied for the modified finite volume method obtaining method is used for the time semi-discretization of the radiative transfer equation. An agreement among the modified finite volume method, Runge-Kutta method, and Monte Carlo solutions are shown, but with relative differences higher than in the steady state.

  9. Biological Inquiry: A New Course and Assessment Plan in Response to the Call to Transform Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Ellen S.; Abercrombie, Clarence L.; Ivy, Tracie M.; Kusher, Dave I.; Moeller, John F.; Rayner, Doug A.; Smith, Charles F.; Spivey, Natalie W.

    2012-01-01

    We transformed our first-year curriculum in biology with a new course, Biological Inquiry, in which greater than 50% of all incoming, first-year students enroll. The course replaced a traditional, content-driven course that relied on outdated approaches to teaching and learning. We diversified pedagogical practices by adopting guided inquiry in…

  10. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

  11. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The role of N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  12. The effect of fluoride surface modification of ceramic TiO{sub 2} on the surface properties and biological response of osteoblastic cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiainen, H; Knychala, J; Lyngstadaas, S P; Haugen, H J [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Monjo, M [Department of Fundamental Biology and Health Sciences, Research Institute on Health Sciences (IUNICS), University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Nilsen, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, J E, E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no [Oral Research Laboratory, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-08-15

    This study investigates the effect of fluoride surface modification on the surface properties of polycrystalline ceramic TiO{sub 2} and the biological response of murine osteoblast cells to fluoride-modified TiO{sub 2} in vitro. Fluoride concentrations up to 9 at.% were detected and the fluoride was found to bind to the surface in a ligand exchange reaction between surface hydroxyl groups and the fluoride anions from the HF. No significant changes in the surface topography were detected. In vitro experiments were performed in order to evaluate the biological response of the MC3T3-E1 cells to the fluoride-modified ceramic TiO{sub 2} surfaces. No difference in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was seen in comparison to unmodified samples, apart from the highest fluoride concentration ({approx}9 at.%) which was found to be more toxic to the cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed no conclusive evidence for the fluoride-induced promotion of osteoblast differentiation as no significant increase in the collagen-1, osteocalcin, or BMP-2 mRNA levels was detected on the fluoride-modified ceramic TiO{sub 2} surfaces apart from one group, which showed an elevated osteocalcin level and higher number of cells. Since the observed grain boundary corrosion is also anticipated to reduce the mechanical properties of ceramic TiO{sub 2}, this surface modification method may not be an ideal method for improving the osteogenic response of ceramic TiO{sub 2} scaffolds.

  13. Discourse about Synthetic Biology and Responsible Innovation: Notes from a Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Coenen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominated as it is by visionary images of the future and influenced by the ‘Responsible Research and Innovation’ (RRI approach, the discourse about synthetic biology (SynBio and the prospects for its application may be interpreted as an arena for argument about the future of our societies generally. At a time when the widespread end of the systemic conflict between capitalism and socialism has made it rare for the whole of society to engage in debates on fundamental political and socioeconomic issues, discourses on science and technology can apparently be used to address questions of this kind indirectly. It is possible to clarify this function of SynBio discourse by setting it in its historical context, in which respect the focus is placed on older discourses about the societal significance of biology and its technological applications.

  14. Numerical investigation of thermal response of laser-irradiated biological tissue phantoms embedded with gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Akshay; Kumar, Sumit; Srivastava, Atul

    2016-10-01

    The work presented in this paper focuses on numerically investigating the thermal response of gold nanoshells-embedded biological tissue phantoms with potential applications into photo-thermal therapy wherein the interest is in destroying the cancerous cells with minimum damage to the surrounding healthy cells. The tissue phantom has been irradiated with a pico-second laser. Radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been employed to model the light-tissue interaction using discrete ordinate method (DOM). For determining the temperature distribution inside the tissue phantom, the RTE has been solved in combination with a generalized non-Fourier heat conduction model namely the dual phase lag bio-heat transfer model. The numerical code comprising the coupled RTE-bio-heat transfer equation, developed as a part of the current work, has been benchmarked against the experimental as well as the numerical results available in the literature. It has been demonstrated that the temperature of the optical inhomogeneity inside the biological tissue phantom embedded with gold nanoshells is relatively higher than that of the baseline case (no nanoshells) for the same laser power and operation time. The study clearly underlines the impact of nanoshell concentration and its size on the thermal response of the biological tissue sample. The comparative study concerned with the size and concentration of nanoshells showed that 60nm nanoshells with concentration of 5×10(15)mm(-3) result into the temperature levels that are optimum for the irreversible destruction of cancer infected cells in the context of photo-thermal therapy. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, the present study is one of the first attempts to quantify the influence of gold nanoshells on the temperature distributions inside the biological tissue phantoms upon laser irradiation using the dual phase lag heat conduction model.

  15. Purification and biochemical characterization of the complete structure of a proteolytically modified beta-2-microglobulin with biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Thim, L; Christensen, M

    1987-01-01

    A modified form of beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-m) has previously been described to be present in serum from patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and small-cell lung cancer [Plesner, T. and Wiik, A. (1979) Scand. J. Immunol. 9, 247-254; Bhalla et al. (1...

  16. Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F.R. Sommer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections elicit an immediate innate response involving antiviral factors. The activities of some of these factors are, in turn, blocked by viral countermeasures. The ensuing battle between the host and the viruses is crucial for determining whether the virus establishes a foothold and/or induces adaptive immune responses. A comprehensive systems-level understanding of the repertoire of anti-viral effectors in the context of these immediate virus-host responses would provide significant advantages in devising novel strategies to interfere with the initial establishment of infections. Recent efforts to identify cellular factors in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, using genome-wide siRNA screens and other systems biology “omics” methodologies, have revealed several potential anti-viral effectors for viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, West Nile virus (WNV, and influenza virus. This review describes the discovery of novel viral restriction factors and discusses how the integration of different methods in systems biology can be used to more comprehensively identify the intimate interactions of viruses and the cellular innate resistance.

  17. Peculiarities of the dielectric response of the silver-modified-zeolite porous microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, U.; Ozturk Koc, S.; Orbukh, V. I.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Agamaliev, Z. A.; Lebedeva, N. N.; Koçum, İ. C.; Salamov, B. G.; Ozer, M.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize electrical conductivity and dielectrical properties of the silver-exchanged zeolite - natural clinoptilolite from Western part of Turkey and Azerbaijan in the range of frequencies from 200 Hz to 1 MHz and at room temperature. For a better understanding the effect of concentration and content of silver in the nanoporous zeolite volume on the conductivity, a study of the dielectric properties of an un-modified and silver-modified zeolite plates with different amounts of Ag ions and Ag nanoparticles is performed. Un-modified and three different types of the silver ion-exchanged modified clinoptilolite plates were prepared. It was found, that with increasing silver concentration, resistance of zeolite plate monotonically decreases at the same time a capacitance is increases. It is suggested an explanation of the observed frequency dependence of the capacitance and resistance of zeolite plates on the silver concentrations may be explain on the basis of an electrode-dielectric interface gap model. At the same time, the observed phenomenon can be explained by considering the fact that with increasing content of silver the conductivity increases. These results show that Ag nanoparticles play significant role for performance improvement in plasma electronic devices with zeolite cathode.

  18. Simultaneous determination of cysteamine and folic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples using modified multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Taherkhani; Hassan Karimi-Maleh; Ali A.Ensafi; Hadi Beitollahi; Ahmad Hosseini; Mohammad A.Khalilzadeh; Hassan Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and ferrocene (FC) was used as a selective electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cysteamine (CA) and folic acid (FA).This modified electrode showed very efficient electrocatalytic activity for the anodic oxidation of CA.The peak current of differential pulse voltammograms of CA and FA increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.7-200 μmol/L CA and 5.0-700 μmol/L FA.The detection limits for CA and FA were 0.3 μmol/L and 2.0 μ mol/L,respectively.The diffusion coefficient (D) and transfer coefficient (α) of CA were also determined.These conditions are sufficient to allow determination of CA and FA both individually and simultaneously.

  19. A global analysis of ENSO synchrony: The oceans' biological response to physical forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2012-09-01

    A global-scale Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of physical (sea surface temperatures, sea level height anomalies, atmospheric sea level pressure, photosynthetically active radiation, zonal surface currents and wind-driven upwelling velocities) and biological (surface chlorophyll concentrations and primary production) variables shows synchronous variations from 1993 to 2010 in the first mode of variability associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The first EOF of vertical temperature structure along the equatorial Pacific shows identical temporal patterns. The ENSO-driven biological changes are explained both qualitatively and quantitatively from a subset of the physical variables. During the strong 1997-1998 El Niño a global new production decrease of ˜0.6-0.9 PgC yr-1 is estimated from changes in the depth of the nutricline and wind-driven upwelling. This is consistent with the 3.0 PgC yr-1 decrease in global primary production observed by satellite remote sensing. A simple two-layer model of chlorophyll and primary production driven by changes in nitrate and light reproduces the patterns and magnitude of changes observed by satellite. Changes in the depth of the nutricline are found to be the primary driver of the biological anomalies. The ENSO mode of zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific shows that horizontal advection is responsible for changes in chlorophyll in the central Pacific not explained by the two-layer model.

  20. Evaluation of treatment response for breast cancer: are we entering the era of "biological complete remission"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bian; Tao Wang; Yi Liu; Hui-Qiang Zhang; Jin-Jie Song; Shao-Hua Zhang; Shi-Kai Wu; San-Tai Song; Ze-Fei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women.The post-operative recurrence and metastasis are the leading causes of breast cancer-related mortality.In this study,we tried to explore the role of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection combination PET/CT technology evaluating the prognosis and treatment response of patients with breast cancer; meanwhile,we attempted to assess the concept of "biological complete remission" (bCR) in this regard.A 56-year-old patient with breast cancer (T2N1M1,stage Ⅳ left breast cancer,with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and lungs) received 6 cycles of salvage treatment with albumin-bound paclitaxel plus capecitabine and trastuzumab.Then,she underwent CTC detection and PET/CT for efficacy evaluation.CTC detection combination PET/CT is useful for the evaluation of the biological efficacy of therapies for breast cancer.The bCR of the patient appeared earlier than the conventional clinical imaging complete remission and promised the histological (pathological) complete remission.The integrated application of the concepts including bCR,imageological CR,and histological CR can achieve the early and accurate assessment of biological therapeutic reponse and prognosis of breast cancer.

  1. Assessment of the Effects of Student Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes over a Broad Range of Biology Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Preszler, Ralph W.; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B.; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought t...

  2. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  3. Mineral proximity influences mechanical response of proteins in biological mineral-protein hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pijush; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2007-03-01

    The organic phase of nacre, which is composed primarily of proteins, has an extremely high elastic modulus as compared to that of bulk proteins, and also undergoes large deformation before failure. One reason for this unusually high modulus could be the mineral-organic interactions. In this work, we elucidate the specific role of mineral proximity on the structural response of proteins in biological structural composites such as nacre through molecular modeling. The "glycine-serine" domain of a nacre protein Lustrin A has been used as a model system. It is found that the amount of work needed to unfold is significantly higher when the GS domain is pulled in the proximity of aragonite. These results indicate that the proximity of aragonite has a significant effect on the unfolding mechanisms of proteins when pulled. These results will provide very useful information in designing synthetic biocomposites, as well as further our understanding of mechanical response in structural composites in nature.

  4. Tracking Biological and Ecosystem Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Pacific Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Changing seasonal sea ice conditions and seawater temperatures strongly influence biological processes and marine ecosystems at high latitudes. In the Pacific Arctic, persistent regions termed "hotspots", are localized areas with high benthic macroinfaunal biomass that have been documented over four decades (see Figure). These regions are now being more formally tracked to relate physical forcing and ecosystem response as an Arctic Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) supported by the US National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan and international partners. These hotspots are important foraging areas for upper trophic level benthic feeders, such as marine mammals and seabirds. South of St. Lawrence Island (SLI) in the northern Bering Sea, benthic feeding spectacled eiders, bearded seals and walruses are important winter consumers of infauna, such as bivalves and polychaetes. Gray whales have historically been a major summer consumer of benthic amphipods in the Chirikov Basin to the north of SLI, although summertime sightings of gray whales declined in the Chirikov from the 1980s up until at least 2002. The SE Chukchi Sea hotspot, as are the other hotspots, is maintained by export of high chlorophyll a that is produced locally as well as advected by water masses transiting northward through the system. Both walrus and gray whales are known to forage in this hotspot seasonally on high biomass levels of benthic prey. Notably the center of the highest benthic biomass regions has shifted northward in three of the DBO hotspots in recent years. This has coincided with changing sediment grain size, an indicator of current speed, and is also likely a response to changes in primary production in the region. Studies of these broad biological responses to changing physical drivers have been facilitated through development of the DBO cooperative effort by both US and international scientists. The DBO includes a series of coordinated, multi-trophic level observations that

  5. Open water processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From physical forcing to biological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  6. Effects of a supportive or an unsupportive audience on biological and psychological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Kozanian, Tamar A; Moore, Amy N; Moons, Wesley G

    2010-01-01

    Although social support is related to substantial benefits for health and well-being, research has uncovered qualifications to its benefits. In a test of the psychological and biological impact of an audience on responses to laboratory stress challenges, 183 participants going through the Trier Social Stress Test experienced either (a) an unsupportive audience, (b) a supportive audience, or (c) no audience. Both audience conditions produced significantly stronger cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the stress tasks, relative to the no-audience control, even though the supportive audience was rated as supportive. Contrary to hypotheses offered by several theories, these effects were not moderated by self-esteem, individual differences in psychological resources, or baseline social support. Psychological resources and baseline social support were, however, tied to more beneficial biological and psychological profiles at baseline and at recovery in some cases. It was concluded that when one must perform stressful tasks in front of an audience, evaluative concerns may outweigh the potential benefits of a supportive audience.

  7. Some biological and hematological responses of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to Atrazine herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Bekeh Ada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at finding the influence of Atrazine on a most widely farmed fish,Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, in Nigeria. Specific areas of investigation were to find the LC50after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of the chemical administration to the fish. The effects of the chemical onthe behavioral and biological responses of O. niloticus were equally observed. The ten fish each werestocked in six different tanks containing 40 liters of water. These tanks contained graded concentrationsof the chemical and the treatments were replicated three times. Dissolved oxygen content was reducingwith increasing Atrazine concentration, while temperature and pH increased with increasing Atrazineconcentration. The LC50 of Atrazine in 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were 7.9, 7.6, 7.3 and 7.2 respectively.Behavioral and biological responses included loss of reflex, air gulping, erratic swimming, discoloration,hemorrhage and molting. The blood parameters observed showed that there were increases in packedcell volume (PCV and red blood cell count (RBC and decrease in hemoglobin (Hb, erythrocytesedimentation rate (ESR and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, while there was no significant change inwhite blood cell count (WBC and mean cell volume (MCV values. The chemical was therefore observedto be lethal to juvenile O. niloticus.

  8. Biological drugs targeting the immune response in the therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveria Pastore

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Saveria Pastore1, Emanuela Gubinelli2, Luca Leoni2, Desanka Raskovic2, Liudmila Korkina11Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Cutaneous Physiopathology; 2Second Dermatology Unit, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, IRCCS, Roma, ItalyAbstract: Chronic plaque psoriasis affects more than 2% of world population, has a chronic recurrent behavior, gives a heavy burden to the patients’ quality of life, and hence remains a huge medical and social problem. The clinical results of conventional therapies of psoriasis are not satisfactory. According to the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of psoriasis, it is defined as an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease. A new generation of biological drugs, targeting molecules and cells involved into perturbed pro-inflammatory immune response in the psoriatic skin and joints, has been recently designed and applied clinically. These biological agents are bioengineered proteins such as chimeric and humanized antibodies and fusion proteins. In particular, they comprise the antitumor necrosis factor-α agents etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab, with clinical efficacy in both moderate-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and the anti-CD11a efalizumab with selective therapeutic action exclusively in the skin. Here, we overview recent findings on the molecular pathways relevant to the inflammatory response in psoriasis and present our clinical experience with the drugs currently employed in the dermatologic manifestations, namely etanercept, infliximab, and efalizumab. The growing body of clinical data on the efficacy and safety of antipsoriasis biological drugs is reviewed as well. Particular focus is given to long-term safety concerns and feasibility of combined therapeutic protocols to ameliorate clinical results.Keywords: psoriasis, immune-mediated inflammation, etanercept, infliximab, efalizumab

  9. Biological inquiry: a new course and assessment plan in response to the call to transform undergraduate biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Ellen S; Abercrombie, Clarence L; Ivy, Tracie M; Kusher, Dave I; Moeller, John F; Rayner, Doug A; Smith, Charles F; Spivey, Natalie W

    2012-01-01

    We transformed our first-year curriculum in biology with a new course, Biological Inquiry, in which >50% of all incoming, first-year students enroll. The course replaced a traditional, content-driven course that relied on outdated approaches to teaching and learning. We diversified pedagogical practices by adopting guided inquiry in class and in labs, which are devoted to building authentic research skills through open-ended experiments. Students develop core biological knowledge, from the ecosystem to molecular level, and core skills through regular practice in hypothesis testing, reading primary literature, analyzing data, interpreting results, writing in disciplinary style, and working in teams. Assignments and exams require higher-order cognitive processes, and students build new knowledge and skills through investigation of real-world problems (e.g., malaria), which engages students' interest. Evidence from direct and indirect assessment has guided continuous course revision and has revealed that compared with the course it replaced, Biological Inquiry produces significant learning gains in all targeted areas. It also retains 94% of students (both BA and BS track) compared with 79% in the majors-only course it replaced. The project has had broad impact across the entire college and reflects the input of numerous constituencies and close collaboration among biology professors and students.

  10. CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.; Burnham, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that GMOs improved the quality or safety of food, and most knowledgeable about biotechnology were th...

  11. Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Jill K; France, Bryan; Cote, Christopher K; Jenkins, Amy; Bozue, Joel A; Welkos, Susan L; Bhargava, Ragini; Ho, Chi-Lee; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Lusis, Aldons J; Davis, Richard C; LeVine, Steven M; Bradley, Kenneth A

    2011-12-01

    Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis. The outcome of infection is influenced by pathogen-encoded virulence factors such as lethal toxin (LT), as well as by genetic variation within the host. To identify host genes controlling susceptibility to anthrax, a library of congenic mice consisting of strains with homozygous chromosomal segments from the LT-responsive CAST/Ei strain introgressed on a LT-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) background was screened for response to LT. Three congenic strains containing CAST/Ei regions of chromosome 11 were identified that displayed a rapid inflammatory response to LT similar to, but more severe than that driven by a LT-responsive allele of the inflammasome constituent NRLP1B. Importantly, increased response to LT in congenic mice correlated with greater resistance to infection by the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. The genomic region controlling the inflammatory response to LT was mapped to 66.36-74.67 Mb on chromosome 11, a region that encodes the LT-responsive CAST/Ei allele of Nlrp1b. However, known downstream effects of NLRP1B activation, including macrophage pyroptosis, cytokine release, and leukocyte infiltration could not fully explain the response to LT or the resistance to B. anthracis Sterne in congenic mice. Further, the exacerbated response in congenic mice is inherited in a recessive manner while the Nlrp1b-mediated response to LT is dominant. Finally, congenic mice displayed increased responsiveness in a model of sepsis compared with B6 mice. In total, these data suggest that allelic variation of one or more chromosome 11 genes in addition to Nlrp1b controls the severity of host response to multiple inflammatory stimuli and contributes to resistance to B. anthracis Sterne. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed 25 genes within this region as high priority candidates for contributing to the host response to LT.

  12. Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill K Terra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis. The outcome of infection is influenced by pathogen-encoded virulence factors such as lethal toxin (LT, as well as by genetic variation within the host. To identify host genes controlling susceptibility to anthrax, a library of congenic mice consisting of strains with homozygous chromosomal segments from the LT-responsive CAST/Ei strain introgressed on a LT-resistant C57BL/6 (B6 background was screened for response to LT. Three congenic strains containing CAST/Ei regions of chromosome 11 were identified that displayed a rapid inflammatory response to LT similar to, but more severe than that driven by a LT-responsive allele of the inflammasome constituent NRLP1B. Importantly, increased response to LT in congenic mice correlated with greater resistance to infection by the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. The genomic region controlling the inflammatory response to LT was mapped to 66.36-74.67 Mb on chromosome 11, a region that encodes the LT-responsive CAST/Ei allele of Nlrp1b. However, known downstream effects of NLRP1B activation, including macrophage pyroptosis, cytokine release, and leukocyte infiltration could not fully explain the response to LT or the resistance to B. anthracis Sterne in congenic mice. Further, the exacerbated response in congenic mice is inherited in a recessive manner while the Nlrp1b-mediated response to LT is dominant. Finally, congenic mice displayed increased responsiveness in a model of sepsis compared with B6 mice. In total, these data suggest that allelic variation of one or more chromosome 11 genes in addition to Nlrp1b controls the severity of host response to multiple inflammatory stimuli and contributes to resistance to B. anthracis Sterne. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed 25 genes within this region as high priority candidates for contributing to the host response to LT.

  13. Biomimeticity in tissue engineering scaffolds through synthetic peptide modifications-altering chemistry for enhanced biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejalekshmi, Kumaran G; Nair, Prabha D

    2011-02-01

    Biomimetic and bioactive biomaterials are desirable as tissue engineering scaffolds by virtue of their capability to mimic natural environments of the extracellular matrix. Biomimeticity has been achieved by the incorporation of synthetic short peptide sequences into suitable materials either by surface modification or by bulk incorporation. Research in this area has identified several novel synthetic peptide segments, some of them with cell-specific interactions, which may serve as potential candidates for use in explicit tissue applications. This review focuses on the developments and prospective directions of incorporating short synthetic peptide sequences onto scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on the chemistry of peptide immobilization and subsequent cell responses toward modified scaffolds. The article provides a decision-tree-type flow chart indicating the most probable cellular events on a given peptide-modified scaffold along with the consolidated list of synthetic peptide sequences, supports as well as cell types used in various tissue engineering studies, and aims to serve as a quick reference guide to peptide chemists and material scientists interested in the field.

  14. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  15. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ae KIM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol% of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05 and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  16. Automated postural responses are modified in a functional manner by instruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Laing, A.C.; Robinovitch, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of upright balance after a perturbation relies on highly automated and, to a large extent, stereotyped postural responses. Although these responses occur before voluntary control comes into play, previous research has shown that they can be functionally modulated on the basis of cogn

  17. [Comparative study of the estrogenic activity of modified estrogens based on data of competitive binding analysis and biological assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaia, E V; Ivanenko, T I

    1981-01-01

    A series of bromo- and silyl-derivatives was studied in experiments on immature female rats in vivo and in vitro. All the estrogens studied were conventionally divided into 4 groups according to their ability for concurrent binding with the rat uterus cytosol receptors and their specific bioeffect: equally concurrent and bioeffective compounds (estrone, ethynyl estradiol); slightly concurrent substances with a pronounced uterotropic action (4-silyl estrogens, mestranol); little effective compounds with 4 to 8% of estradiol concurrent activity (2- and 4-bromo-and silyl estradiols, estriol); compounds, not having concurrent and biological effects (2-silyl estrones, 4-bromoestradiol diacetate).

  18. PENGEMBANGAN TES PENGETAHUAN PRAKTIKUM BIOLOGI BERDASARKAN GRADED RESPONSE DAN GENERALIZED PARTIAL CREDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Ridlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini  bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model tes yang cocok  dengan data. Pengembangan item pada penelitian  menggunakan pendekatan teori respons butir politomus (TRBP. Subjek ujicoba diambil dari siswa lima SMP kelas VII akhir mewakili peringkat SMP di Kota Yogyakarta sebanyak 1030 siswa. Hasil Model TRBP yang cocok dipilih berdasarkan hasil parametrisasi menggunakan PARSCALE dan deskripsi hubungan fungsional antara respons peserta tes dengan tingkat kemampuannya yang dinyatakan dalam test information curves (TIC. Penelitian ini menghasilkan 16 butir untuk bank soal dengan karakteristik masing-masing butir memiliki nilai daya beda yang tidak rendah (>0,25 skala logit dan nilai kesulitan butir pada selang -3 sampai +3 skala logit. Berdasarkan informasi yang dihasilkan, kedua macam model penskoran GRM dan GPCM cocok memodelkan penskoran TPPB yang diadministrasikan. GPCM mungkin lebih merefleksikan realitas bagaimana data dihasilkan sehingga dari TIC tampak lebih akurat menaksir kemampuan dibanding GRM. Kata Kunci: tes pengetahuan praktikum biologi, GRM, GPCM ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST OF BIOLOGY PRACTICUM KNOWLEDGE WITH GRADED RESPONSE  AND GENERALIZED PARTIAL CREDIT MODELS Abstract This study aims to generate information to define the polytomous item response models which are more suitable with the data. The items were developed by the polytomous item response theory approach. The tryout participants were 1030 Year VII students selected from five junior high schools in Yogyakarta City. A suitable model was selected based on the result of PARSCALE parameterization  and a description of the functional relationship between the testees’ responses and their ability levels indicated by the test information curves (TIC. The study yields 16 items for the item bank in which the discrimination index of each item is > 0.25 logit scale and the difficulty index ranges from -3 to +3 logit

  19. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the robustness of radiation protection criteria for biota, additional information on the biological impact of radionuclides on non-human biota is needed. In particular the effects of alpha emitting isotopes have been poorly studied within a radioecological contextual though they exhibit a high linear energy transfer which can cause significant biological damage when taken up by organisms. Therefore, it is not only essential to measure alpha radiation toxicity, but also try to understand the underlying mechanisms of this stressor. The current study aimed to contribute to a better knowledge of the fundamental processes regulating alpha radiation stress response mechanisms in higher plants. {sup 241}Am was primarily selected as it is an almost pure alpha emitter and, as a daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, it will become one of the dominant pollutants in plutonium affected areas. The aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor has proven its value in eco-toxicological research as representative of higher aquatic plants (OECD guideline nr. 221) and will be used to analyze alpha radiation stress in plant systems. An individual growth inhibition test was set up by means of single dose-response curve in order to identify the Effective Dose Rates (EDR-values) for frond size and biomass. As the mean path length is small for alpha particles, the accumulation of the radionuclide inside species represents almost exclusively the dosimetry. Therefore, quantification of {sup 241}Am uptake and {sup 241}Am distribution were evaluated separately for roots and fronds taking the activity concentrations of growth medium into account. Taken together with the respective dose conversion coefficients from the ERICA tool, this allowed to construct an accurate dosimetric model to determine internal and external dose rates. Different standard media were tested on growth rate and biomass to analyse the amount of {sup 241}Am taken up by the plants exposed from 2.5 to 100 kBq/L. From these

  20. Investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms and biological pathways associated with response to TNFα inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Sophine B; Palermo, Giuseppe; Johansen, Julia S;

    2012-01-01

    Recently, two genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with the treatment response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to replicate these results and identify SNPs...... and the possible biological pathways associated with the treatment response to TNFα inhibitors....

  1. Wide spectral response and enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} continuous fibers modified with aminosilane coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Nan, E-mail: baonan@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wu, Guolin; Niu, Junjian; Zhang, Qingzhe; He, Sui [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Jin [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • N–Si codoped TiO{sub 2} fibers modified with aminosilane coupling agents were prepared. • N–Si codoping is responsible for a mesostructure and wide spectral response. • γ-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified TiO{sub 2} fibers exhibit a higher photoactivity. • The regenerated TiO{sub 2} fibers can be reused maintaining high photoactivity. - Abstract: N–Si co-doped TiO{sub 2} continuous fibers were prepared by a modified sol–gel method combined with centrifugal spinning. Three aminosilane coupling agents, namely γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AEAPTES), were selected as novel different Si and N dopants. The fibers were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results indicated that Si and N were incorporated into the lattice of TiO{sub 2}. Si doping enhances surface area, delays the phase transformation from anatase to rutile and improves the UV photocatalytic activity, while N doping improves visible light absorption. In the case of APTES as a modifier at a Si/Ti molar ratio of 0.15, TiO{sub 2} fibers with a mixed crystalline phase at an anatase/rutile ratio of 77:23 and the largest Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area were obtained at 900 °C. It displayed the highest wide spectral responsive photoactivity, and the degradation rate of the azo dye reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution reached 96.6% for 90 min and 96.4% for 180 min under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. In addition, the degradation efficiency was still maintained at >90% for 5 cycles. The resulting wide spectral responsive fibers possess enormous advantages in water treatment.

  2. Design, Synthesis and Biological Properties of Seco-D-Ring Modified 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybinski, Marcin; Sektas, Katarzyna; Sicinski, Rafal R; Plum, Lori A; Frelek, Jadwiga; DeLuca, Hector F

    2017-03-08

    As a continuation of our efforts directed to the structure-activity relationship studies of vitamin D compounds, we present in this paper the synthesis of new analogues of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 characterized by numerous structural modifications, especially a cleaved D ring. Total synthesis of the CD fragment required for the construction of the target vitamins was based on the Stork approach. The structure of the key intermediate - bicyclic hydroxy lactone - was established by crystallographic and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectral analysis. Following the attachment of the hydroxyalkyl side chain, the formed D-seco Grundmann ketone was subjected to Wittig-Horner coupling with the corresponding A-ring phosphine oxides providing two desired D-seco analogues of 19-nor-1α,25-(OH)2D3, one without a substituent at C-2 and the other possessing a 2-exomethylene group. Both compounds were biologically tested and the latter was found to be more active in in vitro tests. Despite so many structural changes introduced in its structure, the biological activity of the 2-methylene analogue approached that of the natural hormone. The synthesized D-seco vitamins, however, proved to be inactive on bone and intestine in vivo. High-resolution mass spectra were recorded on LCT (TOF) or Mass Quattro LC spectrometers using electrospray ionization (ESI) technique.

  3. Endocytosis as a biological response in receptor pharmacology: evaluation by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Víctor M; Capilla, Almudena; Varela, María J; de la Rocha, Arlet M Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C; Barreiro, R Belén; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution.

  4. Epigenetic Mechanisms Shape the Biological Response to Trauma and Risk for PTSD: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Heinzelmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately one-quarter of trauma-exposed individuals, leading us and others to question the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous response to trauma. We suggest that the reasons for the heterogeneity relate to a complex interaction between genes and the environment, shaping each individual’s recovery trajectory based on both historical and trauma-specific variables. Epigenetic modifications provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how preexisting risk factors may contribute to PTSD risk through changes in the methylation of DNA. Preexisting risks for PTSD, including depression, stress, and trauma, result in differential DNA methylation of endocrine genes, which may then result in a different biological responses to trauma and subsequently a greater risk for PTSD onset. Although these relationships are complex and currently inadequately described, we provide a critical review of recent studies to examine how differences in genetic and proteomic biomarkers shape an individual’s vulnerability to PTSD development, thereby contributing to a heterogeneous response to trauma.

  5. Endocytosis as a biological response in receptor pharmacology: evaluation by fluorescence microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Campa

    Full Text Available The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution.

  6. An alternative measurement tool for the identification of hysteretic responses in biological joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Sean L; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Masri, Sami F

    2014-11-01

    In structural engineering, sophisticated multi-dimensional analysis techniques, such as the Restoring Force Method (RFM), have been established for complex, nonlinear hysteretic systems. The purpose of the present study was to apply the RFM to quantify nonlinear spine hysteresis responses under applied moments. First, synthetic hysteretic spine responses (n=50) were generated based on representative results from pure moment flexion-extension loading of a human cadaveric lumbar spine segment. Then, the RFM was applied to each hysteresis response to describe the flexion-extension rotation as a function of applied moment and simulated axial displacement using a set of 16 unique coefficients. Range of motion, neutral zone, elastic zone, and stiffness were also measured. The RFM coefficient corresponding to the 1st-order linear dependence of rotation on applied moment was dominant, and paralleled changes in elastic zone. The remaining RFM coefficients were not captured from the traditional biomechanical analysis. Therefore, the RFM may potentially supplement the traditional analysis to develop a more comprehensive, quantitative description of spine hysteresis. The results suggest the potential for more thorough and specific characterization of spine kinematics, and may lead to future applications of such techniques in characterizing biological structures.

  7. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  8. Linear response and modified fluctuation-dissipation relation in random potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuldee, Fattah; Suwanna, Sujin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a physical system described by the Hamiltonian Hω=H0+Vω(t ) consisting of a solvable model H0 and external random and time-dependent potential Vω(t ) is investigated. Under the conditions in which, for each realization, the potential changes smoothly so that the evolution of the system follows the Schrödinger dynamics, and that the average external potential with respect to all realizations is constant in time, an adjusted equilibrium state can be defined as a reference state and the mean dynamics can be derived from taking the average of the equation with respect to the configuration parameter ω . It provides extra contributions from the deviations of the Hamiltonian and evolves the state along the time by the Heisenberg and Liouville-von Neumann equations. Consequently, the Kubo formula and the fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) are modified in the sense that the contribution from the information of randomness and memory effects from the time dependence is also present. The modified Kubo formula now has a contribution from two terms. The first term is an antisymmetric cross correlation between two observables measured by a probe as expected, and the latter term is an accumulation of the propagation of the effects from the randomness. When the considered system is in the adjusted equilibrium state at the time the measurement probe interacts, the latter contribution vanishes, and the standard FDR is recovered.

  9. Linear response and modified fluctuation-dissipation relation in random potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuldee, Fattah; Suwanna, Sujin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a physical system described by the Hamiltonian H(ω)=H(0)+V(ω)(t) consisting of a solvable model H(0) and external random and time-dependent potential V(ω)(t) is investigated. Under the conditions in which, for each realization, the potential changes smoothly so that the evolution of the system follows the Schrödinger dynamics, and that the average external potential with respect to all realizations is constant in time, an adjusted equilibrium state can be defined as a reference state and the mean dynamics can be derived from taking the average of the equation with respect to the configuration parameter ω. It provides extra contributions from the deviations of the Hamiltonian and evolves the state along the time by the Heisenberg and Liouville-von Neumann equations. Consequently, the Kubo formula and the fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) are modified in the sense that the contribution from the information of randomness and memory effects from the time dependence is also present. The modified Kubo formula now has a contribution from two terms. The first term is an antisymmetric cross correlation between two observables measured by a probe as expected, and the latter term is an accumulation of the propagation of the effects from the randomness. When the considered system is in the adjusted equilibrium state at the time the measurement probe interacts, the latter contribution vanishes, and the standard FDR is recovered.

  10. Antimicrobial activities and cellular responses to natural silicate clays and derivatives modified by cationic alkylamine salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Tseng, Hsiang-Jung; Hung, Huey-Shan; Wang, Ming-Chien; Hung, Chiung-Hui; Li, Pei-Ru; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Nanometer-scale silicate platelet (NSP) materials were previously developed by increasing the interlayer space and exfoliation of layered silicate clays such as montmorillonite and synthetic fluorinated mica by the process of polyamine exfoliation. In this study, the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of these nanometer-scale silicate clays were evaluated. The derivatives of NSP (NSP-S) which were modified by C18-fatty amine salts via ionic exchange association exhibited the highest antibacterial activity in the aqueous state among all clays. The high antibacterial activity, however, was accompanied by elevated cytotoxicity. The variations of cell surface markers (CD29 and CD44) and type I collagen expression of fibroblasts treated with the clays were measured to clarify the mechanism of the silicate-induced cytotoxicity. The signal transduction pathway involved the downregulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which appeared to participate in silicate-induced cytotoxicity. This study helped to understand the antibacterial potential of NSP and the interaction of natural and modified clays with cellular activities.

  11. Modified Raman Response Model and Supercontinuum Generation in Flat Dispersion Photonic Crystal Fiber with Two-Zero Dispersion Wavelengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He-Lin; YANG Ai-Jun; LENG Yu-Xin; WANG Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The generation mechanisms of supercontinuum(SC)and the effect of the modified Raman model on SC are further analyzed in a flat dispersion photonic crystal fiber(PCF)with two-zero dispersion wavelengths(TZDWs)by introducing an accurate Raman response function in the scalar nonlinear Scho?dinger equation.The results show that the introduction of Boson peak in the modified Raman gain model not only results in much rapider broadening of SC but also promotes more pump pulse energy transferred to the short wavelength region,which is related to stimulated Raman scattering.Moreover,SC generated from the PCF splits into two spectral bands,and their spectral peaks rapidly separate and broaden with the increase of incidcnt power.Double-band central wavelengths are finally located at about 850 nm and 1220 nm.The pumping energy depletion phenomenon occurs.The simulated results from the modified Raman model are in better agreement with the experimental results than that from the single-Lorentzian moder.

  12. Numerical simulation and experiment of optothermal response of biological tissue irradiated by continuous xenon lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meizhen Huang; Yaxing Tong

    2012-01-01

    A finite element method computation model for analyzing optothermal interaction of polychromatic light and biology tissue is proposed and proven by experiment.A continuous xenon lamp is employed as an example.First,the spectral energy distribution of the xenon lamp is measured and found to be equivalent to a series of quasi-chromatic light with different central wavelengths,different energies,and certain bandwidth.Next,according to the reported thermal and optical parameters of porcine skin and porcine liver,the temporal temperature distributions of these tissues irradiated by each quasi-chromatic light are simulated.Then,the thermal effect is superimposed to obtain the whole optothermal temporal temperature distribution.Moreover,the optothermal response experiments of fresh porcine skin and porcine liver tissues irradiated by continuous xenon lamp are carried out.The results of the simulation and experiment are analyzed and compared,and are found to be commendably matched.

  13. Correlation of proliferation, morphology and biological responses of fibroblasts on LDPE with different surface wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Hee; Ha, Hyun Jung; Ko, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Sun Jung; Rhee, John M; Kim, Moon Suk; Lee, Hai Bang; Khang, Gilson

    2007-01-01

    In order to find a correlation between cell adhesion, growth and biological response with different wettability, NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured on plasma-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film generated with radio frequency. Different surface wettabilities (water contact angle 90-40 degrees ) were created by varying the duration of plasma treatment between 0 and 15 s, respectively. Growth and proliferation rate of cells on LDPE surfaces was evaluated by MTT assay, and cell morphology, by means of spreading and adhesion, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The expression of particular genes in cells contacted on films with different wettability was analyzed by RT-PCR. Using the MTT assay, we confirmed that the amount of cell adhesion was higher on surface of film with a water contact angle of 60 degrees than with other water contact angle. Also, the proliferation rate of cells was highest with a water contact angle of 60 degrees . It was confirmed by SEM that the morphology of cells adhered with a water contact angle of 50-60 degrees was more flattened and activated than on other surfaces. Furthermore, c-fos mRNA in cells showed maximum expression on the film with contact angle range of 50-60 degrees and c-myc mRNA expressed highly on the film with a contact angle of 50 degrees . Finally, p53 gene expression increased as wettability increase. These results indicate that a water contact angle of the polymer surfaces of 50-60 degrees was suitable for cell adhesion and growth, as well as biological responses, and the surface properties play an important role for the morphology of adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells.

  14. A modified Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne: A variant of the standard model with increased biological realism and reduced computational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David

    2016-03-21

    The Wright-Fisher model is an important model in evolutionary biology and population genetics. It has been applied in numerous analyses of finite populations with discrete generations. It is recognised that real populations can behave, in some key aspects, as though their size that is not the census size, N, but rather a smaller size, namely the effective population size, Ne. However, in the Wright-Fisher model, there is no distinction between the effective and census population sizes. Equivalently, we can say that in this model, Ne coincides with N. The Wright-Fisher model therefore lacks an important aspect of biological realism. Here, we present a method that allows Ne to be directly incorporated into the Wright-Fisher model. The modified model involves matrices whose size is determined by Ne. Thus apart from increased biological realism, the modified model also has reduced computational complexity, particularly so when Ne⪡N. For complex problems, it may be hard or impossible to numerically analyse the most commonly-used approximation of the Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne, namely the diffusion approximation. An alternative approach is simulation. However, the simulations need to be sufficiently detailed that they yield an effective size that is different to the census size. Simulations may also be time consuming and have attendant statistical errors. The method presented in this work may then be the only alternative to simulations, when Ne differs from N. We illustrate the straightforward application of the method to some problems involving allele fixation and the determination of the equilibrium site frequency spectrum. We then apply the method to the problem of fixation when three alleles are segregating in a population. This latter problem is significantly more complex than a two allele problem and since the diffusion equation cannot be numerically solved, the only other way Ne can be incorporated into the analysis is by simulation. We have

  15. The p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism Modifies the Cellular Response to Inflammatory Challenge in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Julia I-Ju; Murphy, Maureen E; George, Donna L

    2013-01-01

    The p53 protein is a critical stress-response mediator and signal coordinator in cellular metabolism and environmental exposure to deleterious agents. In human populations, the p53 gene contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affecting codon 72 that determines whether a proline (P72) or an arginine (R72) is present at this amino acid position of the polypeptide. Previous studies carried out using human populations, mouse models, and cell culture analyses have provided evidence that this amino acid difference can alter p53 functional activities, and potentially also can affect clinical presentation of disease. The clinical presentation associated with many forms of liver disease is variable, but few of the responsible underlying genetic factors or molecular pathways have been identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the p53 codon 72 polymorphism influences the cellular response to hepatic stresses. A humanized p53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse model was used to address this issue. Mice expressing either the P72 or R72 normal variation of p53 were given an acute-, intermittent- or a chronic challenge, associated with exposure to lipopolysaccharide, D-galactosamine, or a high-fat diet. The results reveal that the livers of the P72 and R72 mice exhibit notable differences in inflammatory and apoptotic response to these distinct forms of stress. Interestingly the influence of this polymorphism on the response to stress is context dependent, with P72 showing increased response to liver toxins (lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine), but R72 showing increased response to metabolic stress (high fat diet). When taken together, these data point to the p53 codon 72 polymorphism as an important molecular mediator of events contributing to hepatic inflammation and metabolic homeostasis.

  16. MODIFIED CLOSED-FORM NUMERICAL ALGORITHM FOR PERIODIC VIBRATION RESPONSE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jianming; Zhang Ce

    2005-01-01

    A closed-form numerical algorithm (CFNA) is analyzed in detail. CFNA is widely used in mechanical dynamics for periodic solution of second-order original differential equations (SODE) with periodic time-variant coefficients. The principle of the algorithm is to discretize the motion period into many short time intervals, so the coefficient matrices of the equation set are regarded as constant in a time interval. Defects are found in the original algorithm in treating the modal coordinates at the two end-nodes and important modifications to the defects is made for the algorithm.The modified algorithm is finally used to solve the dynamic problem of a three-ring planetary gear transmission.

  17. RELIABILITY AND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE DANISH MODIFIED INTERNATIONAL KNEE DOCUMENTATION COMMITTEE SUBJECTIVE KNEE FORM FOR CHILDREN WITH KNEE DISORDERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Knudsen, Pernille; Fynbo, Charlotte;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The modified international Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (Pedi-IKDC) is a widely used patient-reported tool applicable for children with knee disorders ranging on a scale from 0-100. We aimed to translate the Pedi-IKDC Subjective Knee Form into Danish......, and furthermore to assess its reliability and responsiveness. Material and Methods The Pedi-IKDC Subjective Knee Form was translated to Danish according to international guidelines. Reliability was assessed with Bland Altman plots, standard error of measurement (SEM), Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) and the Intra....... Reliability and responsiveness were assessed in 50 children (median 15 years) referred to hospital due to different knee disorders. Results The SEM was 4.2 points and the MDC was 11.5 points. The ICC was 0.91 (0.9-1.0). The change score of the Pedi-IKDC Subjective Knee form was correlated to the external...

  18. Pharmacological treatment of spondyloarthritis: exploring the effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biological therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Del Puente, Antonio; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Lupoli, Gelsy; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis represents a heterogeneous group of articular inflammatory diseases that share common genetic, clinical and radiological features. The therapy target of spondyloarthritis relies mainly in improving patients’ quality of life, controlling articular inflammation, preventing the structural joints damage and preserving the functional abilities, autonomy and social participation of patients. Among these, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have been demonstrated to be effective in the management of peripheral arthritis; moreover, in the last decade, biological therapies have improved the approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors are currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has failed. The aim of this review is to summarize the current experience and evidence about the pharmacological approach in spondyloarthritis patients. PMID:26568809

  19. Genomic Modifiers of Natural Killer Cells, Immune Responsiveness and Lymphoid Tissue Remodeling Together Increase Host Resistance to Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Alyssa Lundgren; Teoh, Jeffrey; Lee, Heather; Prince, Jessica; Stadnisky, Michael D; Anderson, Monique; Nash, William; Rival, Claudia; Wei, Hairong; Gamache, Awndre; Farber, Charles R; Tung, Kenneth; Brown, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The MHC class I D(k) molecule supplies vital host resistance during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Natural killer (NK) cells expressing the Ly49G2 inhibitory receptor, which specifically binds D(k), are required to control viral spread. The extent of D(k)-dependent host resistance, however, differs significantly amongst related strains of mice, C57L and MA/My. As a result, we predicted that relatively small-effect modifier genetic loci might together shape immune cell features, NK cell reactivity, and the host immune response to MCMV. A robust D(k)-dependent genetic effect, however, has so far hindered attempts to identify additional host resistance factors. Thus, we applied genomic mapping strategies and multicolor flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in naive and virus-infected hosts to identify genetic modifiers of the host immune response to MCMV. We discovered and validated many quantitative trait loci (QTL); these were mapped to at least 19 positions on 16 chromosomes. Intriguingly, one newly discovered non-MHC locus (Cmv5) controlled splenic NK cell accrual, secondary lymphoid organ structure, and lymphoid follicle development during MCMV infection. We infer that Cmv5 aids host resistance to MCMV infection by expanding NK cells needed to preserve and protect essential tissue structural elements, to enhance lymphoid remodeling and to increase viral clearance in spleen.

  20. Modified field enhancement and extinction by plasmonic nanowire dimers due to nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of nonlocal optical response on the optical properties of metallic nanowires, by numerically implementing the hydrodynamical Drude model for arbitrary nanowire geometries. We first demonstrate the accuracy of our frequency-domain finite-element implementation by benchmarking...... in the usual local-response description. For the same geometry at a fixed frequency, the field enhancement and cross section can also be significantly more enhanced in the nonlocal-response model....... it in a wide frequency range against analytical results for the extinction cross section of a cylindrical plasmonic nanowire. Our main results concern more complex geometries, namely cylindrical and bow-tie nanowire dimers that can strongly enhance optical fields. For both types of dimers we find that nonlocal...

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of new series of N-modified analogues of the N/OFQ(1-13)NH2 with aminophosphonate moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Petar T; Mateeva, Polina I; Zamfirova, Rositza N; Pavlov, Nikola D; Naydenova, Emilia D

    2012-09-01

    New series of N-modified analogues of the N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) with aminophosphonate moiety have been synthesized and investigated for biological activity. These peptides were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis-Fmoc-strategy. The N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) analogues were tested for agonistic activity in vitro on electrically stimulated rat vas deferens smooth-muscle preparations isolated from Wistar albino rats. Our study has shown that the selectivity of the peptides containing 1-[(methoxyphosphono)methylamino]cycloalkanecarboxylic acids to the N-side of Phe is not changed-they remain selective agonists of NOP receptors. The derivative with the largest ring (NOC-6) demonstrated efficacy similar to that of N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2), but in a 10-fold higher concentration. The agonistic activity of newly synthesized N-modified analogues of N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) with aminophosphonate moiety was investigated for the first time.

  2. Arthroscopic knee surgery does not modify hyperalgesic responses to heat injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Duun, Preben; Kraemer, Otto;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that surgical injury may up- or down-regulate nociceptive function. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of elective arthroscopically assisted knee surgery on nociceptive responses to a heat injury. METHODS: Seventeen patien...

  3. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods...

  4. Manipulation of heart rate variability can modify response to anger-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Penglis, Kathryn M; McDonald, Skye

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiological indicator of the flexibility of the autonomic nervous system and can provide an objective measure of an individual's ability to appropriately match emotional responses to environmental demands. The present study investigated whether angry response to emotional stimuli was related to HRV, and whether manipulation of HRV using biofeedback could change the anger response in a healthy adult population. Fifty-eight participants received HRV biofeedback (n = 29) or an active control condition (n = 29). HRV measures included standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and was recorded across three sessions: baseline, training, and anger induction. The anger induction procedure resulted in increased subjective experience of anger, as well as physiological changes. The biofeedback group had higher HRV than active controls both during the training session (SDNN and LF HRV) and during anger induction (LF HRV). HRV during anger induction was significantly associated with self-reported emotional response for participants receiving biofeedback but not for active controls. Results provide support for HRV as an index of emotion regulation, specifically anger. Further research is needed to determine whether long-term HRV biofeedback can have a lasting effect on managing anger.

  5. Modified field enhancement and extinction by plasmonic nanowire dimers due to nonlocal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2012-02-13

    We study the effect of nonlocal optical response on the optical properties of metallic nanowires, by numerically implementing the hydrodynamical Drude model for arbitrary nanowire geometries. We first demonstrate the accuracy of our frequency-domain finite-element implementation by benchmarking it in a wide frequency range against analytical results for the extinction cross section of a cylindrical plasmonic nanowire. Our main results concern more complex geometries, namely cylindrical and bow-tie nanowire dimers that can strongly enhance optical fields. For both types of dimers we find that nonlocal response can strongly affect both the field enhancement in between the dimers and their respective extinction cross sections. In particular, we give examples of blueshifted maximal field enhancements near hybridized plasmonic dimer resonances that are still large but nearly two times smaller than in the usual local-response description. For the same geometry at a fixed frequency, the field enhancement and cross section can also be significantly more enhanced in the nonlocal-response model.

  6. Improved Detection of Time Windows of Brain Responses in Fmri Using Modified Temporal Clustering Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) has been proposed recently as a method to detect time windows of brain responses in functional MRI (fMRI) studies when the timing and location of the activation are completely unknown. Modifications to the TCA technique are introduced in this report to further improve the sensitivity in detecting brain activation.

  7. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation.

  8. A comprehensive collection of systems biology data characterizing the host response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aevermann, Brian D; Pickett, Brett E; Kumar, Sanjeev; Klem, Edward B; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Askovich, Peter S; Bankhead, Armand; Bolles, Meagen; Carter, Victoria; Chang, Jean; Clauss, Therese R W; Dash, Pradyot; Diercks, Alan H; Eisfeld, Amie J; Ellis, Amy; Fan, Shufang; Ferris, Martin T; Gralinski, Lisa E; Green, Richard R; Gritsenko, Marina A; Hatta, Masato; Heegel, Robert A; Jacobs, Jon M; Jeng, Sophia; Josset, Laurence; Kaiser, Shari M; Kelly, Sara; Law, G Lynn; Li, Chengjun; Li, Jiangning; Long, Casey; Luna, Maria L; Matzke, Melissa; McDermott, Jason; Menachery, Vineet; Metz, Thomas O; Mitchell, Hugh; Monroe, Matthew E; Navarro, Garnet; Neumann, Gabriele; Podyminogin, Rebecca L; Purvine, Samuel O; Rosenberger, Carrie M; Sanders, Catherine J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Shukla, Anil K; Sims, Amy; Sova, Pavel; Tam, Vincent C; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Thomas, Paul G; Tilton, Susan C; Totura, Allison; Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Wen, Ji; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Yang, Feng; Yount, Boyd; Zhang, Qibin; McWeeney, Shannon; Smith, Richard D; Waters, Katrina M; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Baric, Ralph; Aderem, Alan; Katze, Michael G; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    The Systems Biology for Infectious Diseases Research program was established by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to investigate host-pathogen interactions at a systems level. This program generated 47 transcriptomic and proteomic datasets from 30 studies that investigate in vivo and in vitro host responses to viral infections. Human pathogens in the Orthomyxoviridae and Coronaviridae families, especially pandemic H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza A viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), were investigated. Study validation was demonstrated via experimental quality control measures and meta-analysis of independent experiments performed under similar conditions. Primary assay results are archived at the GEO and PeptideAtlas public repositories, while processed statistical results together with standardized metadata are publically available at the Influenza Research Database (www.fludb.org) and the Virus Pathogen Resource (www.viprbrc.org). By comparing data from mutant versus wild-type virus and host strains, RNA versus protein differential expression, and infection with genetically similar strains, these data can be used to further investigate genetic and physiological determinants of host responses to viral infection.

  9. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarjanto, Gatut [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller, Jurg [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: j.keller@awmc.uq.edu.au

    2006-11-02

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required.

  10. Stochastic response surface methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation: Application to environmental and biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P.G. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.]|[Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Comprehensive uncertainty analyses of complex models of environmental and biological systems are essential but often not feasible due to the computational resources they require. Traditional methods, such as standard Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling, for propagating uncertainty and developing probability densities of model outputs, may in fact require performing a prohibitive number of model simulations. An alternative is offered, for a wide range of problems, by the computationally efficient Stochastic Response Surface Methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation. These methods extend the classical response surface methodology to systems with stochastic inputs and outputs. This is accomplished by approximating both inputs and outputs of the uncertain system through stochastic series of well behaved standard random variables; the series expansions of the outputs contain unknown coefficients which are calculated by a method that uses the results of a limited number of model simulations. Two case studies are presented here involving (a) a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for perchloroethylene (PERC) for humans, and (b) an atmospheric photochemical model, the Reactive Plume Model (RPM-IV). The results obtained agree closely with those of traditional Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling methods, while significantly reducing the required number of model simulations.

  11. Data compilation on the biological response to ocean acidification: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of studies on the biological response to ocean acidification over the last few decades has generated a large amount of data. To facilitate data comparison, a data compilation hosted at the data publisher PANGAEA was initiated in 2008 and is updated on a regular basis (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.149999. By January 2015, a total of 581 data sets (over 4 000 000 data points from 539 papers had been archived. Here we present the developments of this data compilation five years since its first description by Nisumaa et al. (2010. Most of study sites from which data archived are still in the Northern Hemisphere and the number of archived data from studies from the Southern Hemisphere and polar oceans are still relatively low. Data from 60 studies that investigated the response of a mix of organisms or natural communities were all added after 2010, indicating a welcomed shift from the study of individual organisms to communities and ecosystems. The initial imbalance of considerably more data archived on calcification and primary production than on other processes has improved. There is also a clear tendency towards more data archived from multifactorial studies after 2010. For easier and more effective access to ocean acidification data, the ocean acidification community is strongly encouraged to contribute to the data archiving effort, and help develop standard vocabularies describing the variables and define best practices for archiving ocean acidification data.

  12. Reverse engineering biological networks :applications in immune responses to bio-toxins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, Anthony A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, Edward Victor; Slepoy, Alexander; Zhang, Zhaoduo; May, Elebeoba Eni; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-12-01

    Our aim is to determine the network of events, or the regulatory network, that defines an immune response to a bio-toxin. As a model system, we are studying T cell regulatory network triggered through tyrosine kinase receptor activation using a combination of pathway stimulation and time-series microarray experiments. Our approach is composed of five steps (1) microarray experiments and data error analysis, (2) data clustering, (3) data smoothing and discretization, (4) network reverse engineering, and (5) network dynamics analysis and fingerprint identification. The technological outcome of this study is a suite of experimental protocols and computational tools that reverse engineer regulatory networks provided gene expression data. The practical biological outcome of this work is an immune response fingerprint in terms of gene expression levels. Inferring regulatory networks from microarray data is a new field of investigation that is no more than five years old. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt that integrates experiments, error analyses, data clustering, inference, and network analysis to solve a practical problem. Our systematic approach of counting, enumeration, and sampling networks matching experimental data is new to the field of network reverse engineering. The resulting mathematical analyses and computational tools lead to new results on their own and should be useful to others who analyze and infer networks.

  13. The biological mechanisms and physicochemical characteristics responsible for driving fullerene toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helinor J; Hutchison, Gary R; Christensen, Frans M; Aschberger, Karin; Stone, Vicki

    2010-04-01

    This review provides a comprehensive critical review of the available literature purporting to assess the toxicity of carbon fullerenes. This is required as prior to the widespread utilization and production of fullerenes, it is necessary to consider the implications of exposure for human health. Traditionally, fullerenes are formed from 60 carbon atoms, arranged in a spherical cage-like structure. However, manipulation of surface chemistry and molecular makeup has created a diverse population of fullerenes, which exhibit drastically different behaviors. The cellular processes that underlie observed fullerene toxicity will be discussed and include oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses. The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes (and the attributes responsible for driving these phenomena) have been considered and encourage their utilization within the treatment of oxidant-mediated disease. A number of studies have focused on improving the water solubility of fullerenes in order to enable their exploitation within biological systems. Manipulating fullerene water solubility has included the use of surface modifications, solvents, extended stirring, and mechanical processes. However, the ability of these processes to also impact on fullerene toxicity requires assessment, especially when considering the use of solvents, which particularly appear to enhance fullerene toxicity. A number of the discussed investigations were not conducted to reveal if fullerene behavior was due to their nanoparticle dimensions but instead addressed the biocompatibility and toxicity of fullerenes. The hazards to human health, associated with fullerene exposure, are uncertain at this time, and further investigations are required to decipher such effects before an effective risk assessment can be conducted.

  14. Biological characteristics of black armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides on genetically modified soybean and corn crops that express insecticide Cry proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the development and reproduction of the black armyworm, Spodoptera cosmioides when larvae fed on leaves of Bt-corn hybrids, expressing a single Cry1F and also Cry1F, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 in pyramided corn and their non-Bt-isoline (hybrid 2B688, as well as on leaves of two soybean isolines expressing the Cry1Ac protein and its non-Bt isoline (A5547-227. We also assessed the effect of these Bt and non-Bt plants on the leaf consumption rate of S. cosmioides larvae. This pest was unable to develop when fed on any of the corn isolines (Bt and non-Bt. When both 1st and 3rd instar larvae were fed on corn leaf, mortality was 100% in both Bt and non-Bt corn. In contrast, when corn leaves were offered to 5th instar larvae, there were survivors. Defoliation and leaf consumption was higher with non-Bt corn than with both of the Bt corn isolines. There was no negative effect of Bt soybean leaves on the development and reproduction of S. cosmioides with respect to all evaluated parameters. Our study indicates that both Bt and non-Bt corn adversely affect the development of S. cosmioides while Bt soybean did not affect its biology, suggesting that this lepidopteran has major potential to become an important pest in Bt soybean crops.

  15. Design of a multi-dopamine-modified polymer ligand optimally suited for interfacing magnetic nanoparticles with biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Ji, Xin; Na, Hyon Bin; Safi, Malak; Smith, Alexandra; Palui, Goutam; Perez, J Manuel; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2014-06-03

    We have designed a set of multifunctional and multicoordinating polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface functionalizing iron oxide and potentially other magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and promoting their integration into biological systems. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling (via nucleophilic addition) several amine-terminated dopamine anchoring groups, poly(ethylene glycol) moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. This design greatly benefits from the highly efficient and reagent-free one-step reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Iron oxide nanoparticles ligand exchanged with these polymer ligands have a compact hydrodynamic size and exhibit enhanced long-term colloidal stability over the pH range of 4-12 and in the presence of excess electrolytes. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity. Finally, the resulting hydrophilic nanoparticles exhibit large and size-dependent r2 relaxivity values.

  16. Attachment of 3T3 and MDBK cells onto poly(EGDMA/HEMA) based microbeads and their biologically modified forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, H; Gürhan, I; Pişkin, E

    2000-03-01

    Poly(EGDMA/HEMA) based microbeads were prepared by suspension polymerization. A comonomer, i.e., 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) was included in the recipe in order to have functional hydroxyl groups on the microbead surfaces. Toluene was used in the polymerization formulations to introduce porosity into the matrix. Hydroxyl groups were first oxidized with NaIO4, and then two biological molecules, namely collagen and fibronectin were immobilized by using glutaraldehyde. A spacer-arm, i.e., hexamethylene diamine, was also used in some cases. More protein molecules were immobilized onto more swellable microbeads using spacer-arm. Higher amounts of collagen were immobilized, more than fibronectin immobilization. Attachment of two cell lines (i.e., 3T3 and MDBK cell lines) on these microbeads with a wide variety of surface properties was studied in vitro culture media. Attachments of both cells even onto the plain microbeads were significant. More cells did attach to more swellable microbeads. Introducing both fibronectin and collagen onto the microbeads caused significant increase in the cell attachment. More cells attached to the microbeads carrying fibronectin covalently attached onto the microbeads through the spacer-arm molecules. Fibronectine was better than collagen for high attachment values. The mathematical model proposed successfully simulated attachment kinetics.

  17. Physicochemical and biological properties of hydrogel/gelatin/hydroxyapatite PAA/G/HAp/AgNPs composites modified with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Malina, Dagmara; Piatkowski, Marek; Krupa-Zuczek, Kinga; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2012-12-01

    Composites comprising biodegradable polymer matrix, bioactive ceramic fillers and metallic nanoparticles can be applied in the substitution of bone tissue and many others medical and dental applications. Recently, fully resorbable composite materials applicable as bone substitutes are the subject of intensive studies in surgical reconstruction and bone tissue engineering. Biological composites, such as bone and teeth, contain hydroxyapatite (HAp), a mineral component with composition Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Silver nanoparticles or silver ions have long been known to have strong inhibitory and bactericidal effects as well as a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. In this study we applied natural origin hydroxyapatite obtained from pork bone sludge. As polymer matrix gelatin and poly(acrylic acid) were used. Composite materials were obtained with the use of microwave irradiation. The influence of metallic nanoparticles presence on the degradation process of composite materials was investigated by pH and conductivity analyses of water filtrates. In vitro tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) and artificial saliva confirmed that it is possible to produce hydroxyapatite/polymer composites doped with silver nanoparticles for medical applications. Tests proved that content of silver nanoparticles in composites had influence on degradation behaviour of HA/Polymer/AgNPs in artificial media such as simulated body fluid and saliva.

  18. Conformational assembly and biological properties of collagen mimetic peptides and their thermally responsive polymer conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ohm Divyam

    2011-12-01

    Collagens are one of the most abundant proteins found in body tissues and organs, endowing structural integrity, mechanical strength, and multiple biological functions. Destabilized collagen inside human body leads to various degenerative diseases (ex. osteoarthritis) and ageing. This has continued to motivate the design of synthetic peptides and bio-synthetic polypeptides to closely mimic the native collagens in terms of triple helix structure and stability, potential for higher order assembly, and biological properties. However, the widespread application of de novo collagens has been limited in part by the need for hydroxylated proline in the formation of stable triple helical structures. To address this continued need, a hydroxyproline-free, thermally stable collagen-mimetic peptide (CLP-Cys) was rationally designed via the incorporation of electrostatically stabilized amino acid triplets. CLP-Cys was synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis. The formation and stability of the triple helical structure were indicated via circular dichroism (CD) experiments and confirmed via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. CLP-Cys also self-assembled into nano-rods and micro-fibrils, as evidenced via a combination of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Given the high thermal stability and its propensity for higher-order assembly, CLP-Cys was further functionalized at both the ends with a thermally responsive polymer, poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate), (PDEGMEMA) to synthesize a biohybrid triblock copolymer. The CD results indicated that the triple helical form is retained, the thermal unfolding is sustained and helix to coil transition is reversible in the triblock hybrid context. The LCST of PDEGMEMA homopolymer (26 °C) is increased (to 35 °C) upon conjugation to the hydrophilic collagen peptide domain. Further, a combination of static light scattering, Cryo-SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy elucidated that the

  19. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Ibieta, F; Serrano, A; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2016-07-01

    Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response. The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0.018 to 0.035mg/L of dissolved cobalt (0.24-0.65mg total cobalt/L), reaching improvements up to 23% and 30% in the methane production rate and the methane yield coefficient, respectively. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions.

  20. Voltammetric Response of Epinephrine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; TANG Ping; ZHAO Fa-qiong; ZENG Bai-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of epinephrine at activated glassy carbon electrode and carbon nanotube-coated glassy carbon electrode was studied. Epinephrine could exhibit an anodic peak at about 0.2 V (vs. SCE) at bare glassy carbon electrode, but it was very small.However, when the electrode was activated at certain potential (i. e. 1.9V) or modified with carbon nanotube, the peak became more sensitive,resulting from the increase in electrode area in addition to the electrostatic attraction. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to epinephrine concentration in the range of 3.3 × 10-7-1.1 × 10-5mol/L at activated glassy carbon electrode and in the range of 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-5 mol/L at carbon nanotube-coated electrode. The correlation coefficients were 0. 998 and 0. 997, respectively. The determination limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L. The two electrodes have been successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in adrenaline hydrochloride injection with recovery of 95%-104%.

  1. Methods to actively modify the dynamic response of cm-scale FWMAV designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H. J.; Goosen, J. F. L.; van Keulen, F.

    2016-05-01

    Lightweight vibrating structures (such as flapping wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) designs) often require some form of control. To achieve controllability, local structural property changes (e.g., damping and stiffness changes) might be induced in an active manner. The stroke-averaged lift force production of a FWMAV wing can be modified by changing the structural properties of that wing at carefully selected places (e.g., changing the properties of the elastic hinge at the wing root as studied in this work). To actively change the structural properties, we investigate three different methods which are based on: (1) piezoelectric polymers, (2) electrorheological fluids, and (3) electrostatic softening. This work aims to gain simple yet insightful ways to determine the potential of these methods without focusing on the precise modeling. Analytical models of FWMAV wing designs that include control approaches based on these three methods are used to calculate the achievable lift force modifications after activating these methods. The lift force production as a result of a wing flapping motion is determined using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model. Both piezoelectric polymers and electrostatic softening are found to be promising in changing the structural properties and, hence, the lift force production of FWMAV wings. For the control of lightweight FWMAV designs, numerical simulations reveal a promising roll maneuverability due to the induced lift force difference between a pair of opposite wings. Although applied to a specific FWMAV design, this work is relevant for control of small, lightweight, possible compliant, vibrating structures in general.

  2. Photo-response behavior of electrospun nanofibers based on spiropyran-cyclodextrin modified polymer†

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Frederico B.; Guerreiro, João D. T.; Ma, Minglin; Anderson, Daniel G.; Drum, Chester L.; Sinisterra, Rubén D.; Langer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Tunable and durable photochromic materials are a rapidly expanding area of interest, with applications ranging from biomedical devices to industrial-fields. Here we examine electrospun poly (methacrylic acid) PMAA nanofibers covalently modified with the highly photochromic molecule, spiropyran (SP) or a derivate SP which is firstly coupled to a cyclodextrin molecule (βCDSP). The photochromic properties of the starting materials and of the nanofibers were investigated. βCDSP, PMAASP and PMAA-βCDSP polymers exhibited a reverse photochromism. The kinetic results revealed a faster isomerization process for the βCDSP molecule, than that for the PMAA-βCDSP and for the PMAASP, the slowest one. The fastest isomerization is attributed to the presence of a large number of hydroxyl groups of the βCD which stabilizes the merocyanine form via hydrogen bonding, and the slowest isomerization is related to the PMAA chain structure that stabilizes the spiropyran form. Thus, combining the PMAA and βCD properties the photo-isomerization can be modulated. The photoreversibility of this material was verified by UV-visible measurements cycling visible and UV light. Infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle were used for the nanofiber surface characterization, demonstrating the presence of the spiropyran on the mats surface and also showing a minimal effect on nanofiber size and shape when compared to PMAA fiber.

  3. CC-122, a pleiotropic pathway modifier, mimics an interferon response and has antitumor activity in DLBCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Patrick R; Man, Hon-Wah; Fontanillo, Celia; Wang, Maria; Couto, Suzana; Breider, Mike; Bjorklund, Chad; Havens, Courtney G; Lu, Gang; Rychak, Emily; Raymon, Heather; Narla, Rama Krishna; Barnes, Leo; Khambatta, Gody; Chiu, Hsiling; Kosek, Jolanta; Kang, Jian; Amantangelo, Michael D; Waldman, Michelle; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Cai, Ti; Pourdehnad, Michael; Trotter, Matthew; Daniel, Thomas O; Schafer, Peter H; Klippel, Anke; Thakurta, Anjan; Chopra, Rajesh; Gandhi, Anita K

    2015-08-06

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the Cullin 4 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, is the target of the immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide. Recently, it was demonstrated that binding of these drugs to CRBN promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of 2 common substrates, transcription factors Aiolos and Ikaros. Here we report that CC-122, a new chemical entity termed pleiotropic pathway modifier, binds CRBN and promotes degradation of Aiolos and Ikaros in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and T cells in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, resulting in both cell autonomous as well as immunostimulatory effects. In DLBCL cell lines, CC-122-induced degradation or short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Aiolos and Ikaros correlates with increased transcription of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes independent of IFN-α, -β, and -γ production and/or secretion and results in apoptosis in both activated B-cell (ABC) and germinal center B-cell DLBCL cell lines. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the cell-of-origin independent antilymphoma activity of CC-122, in contrast to the ABC subtype selective activity of lenalidomide.

  4. Systems Cancer Biology and the Controlling Mechanisms for the J-Shaped Cancer Dose Response: Towards Relaxing the LNT Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, In Chio; Zhao, Yuchao; Wu, Yingjie; Ricci, Paolo F

    2012-01-01

    The hormesis phenomena or J-shaped dose response have been accepted as a common phenomenon regardless of the involved biological model, endpoint measured and chemical class/physical stressor. This paper first introduced a mathematical dose response model based on systems biology approach. It links molecular-level cell cycle checkpoint control information to clonal growth cancer model to predict the possible shapes of the dose response curves of Ionizing Radiation (IR) induced tumor transformation frequency. J-shaped dose response curves have been captured with consideration of cell cycle checkpoint control mechanisms. The simulation results indicate the shape of the dose response curve relates to the behavior of the saddle-node points of the model in the bifurcation diagram. A simplified version of the model in previous work of the authors was used mathematically to analyze behaviors relating to the saddle-node points for the J-shaped dose response curve. It indicates that low-linear energy transfer (LET) is more likely to have a J-shaped dose response curve. This result emphasizes the significance of systems biology approach, which encourages collaboration of multidiscipline of biologists, toxicologists and mathematicians, to illustrate complex cancer-related events, and confirm the biphasic dose-response at low doses.

  5. Beller Lectureship Talk: Active response of biological cells to mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. We present a simple and generic theoretical model for the active response of biological cells to mechanical stress. The theory includes cell activity and mechanical forces as well as random forces as factors that determine the polarizability that relates cell orientation to stress. This allows us to explain the puzzling observation of parallel (or sometimes random) alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency and compare the theory with recent experiments. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material distinguishes cells whose activity is controlled by stress from those controlled by strain. We have extended the theory to generalize the treatment of elastic inclusions in solids to ''living'' inclusions (cells) whose active polarizability, analogous to the polarizability of non-living matter, results in the feedback of cellular forces that develop in response to matrix stresses. We use this to explain recent observations of the non-monotonic dependence of stress-fiber polarization in stem cells on matrix rigidity. These findings provide a mechanical correlate for the existence of an optimal substrate elasticity for cell differentiation and function. [3pt] *In collaboration with R. De (Brown University), Y. Biton (Weizmann Institute), and A. Zemel (Hebrew University) and the experimental groups: Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart: S. Jungbauer, R. Kemkemer, J. Spatz; University of Pennsylvania: A. Brown, D. Discher, F. Rehfeldt.

  6. Biological responses to disturbance from simulated deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Sweetman, Andrew K.; Smith, Craig R.; Menot, Lenaick; Vink, Annemiek; Trueblood, Dwight; Greinert, Jens; Billett, David S. M.; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Radziejewska, Teresa; Singh, Ravail; Ingole, Baban; Stratmann, Tanja; Simon-Lledó, Erik; Durden, Jennifer M.; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial-scale mining for polymetallic nodules could have a major impact on the deep-sea environment, but the effects of these mining activities on deep-sea ecosystems are very poorly known. The first commercial test mining for polymetallic nodules was carried out in 1970. Since then a number of small-scale commercial test mining or scientific disturbance studies have been carried out. Here we evaluate changes in faunal densities and diversity of benthic communities measured in response to these 11 simulated or test nodule mining disturbances using meta-analysis techniques. We find that impacts are often severe immediately after mining, with major negative changes in density and diversity of most groups occurring. However, in some cases, the mobile fauna and small-sized fauna experienced less negative impacts over the longer term. At seven sites in the Pacific, multiple surveys assessed recovery in fauna over periods of up to 26 years. Almost all studies show some recovery in faunal density and diversity for meiofauna and mobile megafauna, often within one year. However, very few faunal groups return to baseline or control conditions after two decades. The effects of polymetallic nodule mining are likely to be long term. Our analyses show considerable negative biological effects of seafloor nodule mining, even at the small scale of test mining experiments, although there is variation in sensitivity amongst organisms of different sizes and functional groups, which have important implications for ecosystem responses. Unfortunately, many past studies have limitations that reduce their effectiveness in determining responses. We provide recommendations to improve future mining impact test studies. Further research to assess the effects of test-mining activities will inform ways to improve mining practices and guide effective environmental management of mining activities. PMID:28178346

  7. Differential orientation effect in the neural response to interacting biological motion of two agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakigi Ryusuke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent behavioral study demonstrated that the meaningful interaction of two agents enhances the detection sensitivity of biological motion (BM, however, it remains unclear when and how the 'interaction' information of two agents is represented in our neural system. To clarify this point, we used magnetoencephalography and introduced a novel experimental technique to extract a neuromagnetic response relating to two-agent BM perception. We then investigated how this response was modulated by the interaction of two agents. In the present experiment, we presented two kinds of visual stimuli (interacting and non-interacting BM with two orientations (upright and inverted. Results We found a neuromagnetic response in the bilateral occipitotemporal region, on average 300 – 400 ms after the onset of a two-agent BM stimulus. This result showed that interhemispheric differences were apparent for the peak amplitudes. For the left hemisphere, the orientation effect was manifest when the two agents were made to interact, and the interaction effect was manifest when the stimulus was inverted. In the right hemisphere, the main effects of both orientation and interaction were significant, suggesting that the peak amplitude was attenuated when the visual stimulus was inverted or made to interact. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the 'interaction' information of two agents can affect the neural activities in the bilateral occipitotemporal region, on average 300 – 400 ms after the onset of a two-agent BM stimulus, however, the modulation was different between hemispheres: the left hemisphere is more concerned with dynamics, whereas the right hemisphere is more concerned with form information.

  8. The modifying effect of anesthetic technique on the metabolic and endocrine responses to anesthesia and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1988-01-01

    and the widespread use of the term "stress free anesthesia" in surgery is therefore not valid. However, continuous administration of local anesthetic agents in the epidural space is the most effective technique in so far as reduction of the stress response is concerned. The clinical implication of a variable...... reduction in the stress response to surgery by different anesthetic techniques remains largely unsettled, since only few controlled studies have been published on the clinical effects of pain relief and general anesthesia. However, a vast amount of data exist from controlled studies comparing regional...... anesthesia with local anesthetics and general anesthesia. The cumulative experience from these studies have demonstrated an advantageous effect on postoperative morbidity parameters such as blood loss, postoperative thromboembolic complications, pulmonary infective complications, gastrointestinal motility...

  9. Stimuli-responsive cellulose modified by epoxy-functionalized polymer nanoparticles with photochromic and solvatochromic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Amin; Rad, Jaber Keyvan; Mahdavian, Ali Reza

    2016-10-05

    Photoresponsive papers are among the fast and simple tools for detection of polarity by solvatochromic and photochromic behaviors upon UV irradiation. Here, a new, green and facile modification strategy was employed to prepare novel stimuli-responsive cellulose materials containing spiropyran by mixing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), as a model compound, with epoxy-functionalized photochromic latex. FTIR analysis, thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were used to confirm the microstructral properties. Crystallographic analysis revealed a decrease in crystallinity of cellulose matrix and approved the incorporation of photochromic copolymer. Then stimuli-responsive papers were prepared by using pulp paper as the cellulosic matrix and their smart characteristics were studied under UV irradiation while dried or immersed into some polar and non-polar solvents. Different color changes were observed and investigated by solid-state UV-vis spectroscopy. These significant results were attributed to the efficient chemical modification and confirmed by SEM, EDX and nitrogen mapping analyses.

  10. Extrinsic contribution and non-linear response in lead-free KNN-modified piezoceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, D A; Garcia, J E; Perez, R; Gomis, V; Albareda, A [Department of Applied Physics, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Rubio-Marcos, F; Fernandez, J F, E-mail: jose@fa.upc.ed [Department of Electroceramics, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-21

    Finding lead-free ceramics with good piezoelectric properties is nowadays one of the most important challenges in materials science. The (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta, Sb)O{sub 3} system is one of the most promising candidates as a lead-free ceramic for transducer applications and is currently the object of important research work. In this paper, (K{sub 0.44}Na{sub 0.52}Li{sub 0.04})(Nb{sub 0.86}Ta{sub 0.10}Sb{sub 0.04})O{sub 3} was prepared by a conventional ceramic processing route. For this composition, orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition was observed at temperatures very close to room temperature. As a consequence, good room temperature electromechanical properties were observed, displaying good thermal stability. We show that the most important contribution to dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic response comes from extrinsic effects, as was observed in other perovskite based materials. Nonlinearities in electromechanical properties induced by high electric field or mechanical stress were studied. Non-linear dielectric response was found to be less important than for soft PZT ceramics and was analysed within the Rayleigh framework. The results reveal that the non-linear response at room temperature in this material is mainly due to the irreversible wall domain movement.

  11. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p 1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.

  12. A novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in modified vaccinia virus ankara drives very early gene expression and potent immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia T Wennier

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has been shown to be suitable for the generation of experimental vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases, eliciting strong humoral and cellular immune responses. In viral vectored vaccines, strong recombinant antigen expression and timing of expression influence the quantity and quality of the immune response. Screening of synthetic and native poxvirus promoters for strong protein expression in vitro and potent immune responses in vivo led to the identification of the MVA13.5L promoter, a unique and novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in MVA composed of two 44 nucleotide long repeated motifs, each containing an early promoter element. The MVA13.5L gene is highly conserved across orthopoxviruses, yet its function is unknown. The unique structure of its promoter is not found for any other gene in the MVA genome and is also conserved in other orthopoxviruses. Comparison of the MVA13.5L promoter activity with synthetic poxviral promoters revealed that the MVA13.5L promoter produced higher levels of protein early during infection in HeLa cells and particularly in MDBK cells, a cell line in which MVA replication stops at an early stage before the expression of late genes. Finally, a recombinant antigen expressed under the control of this novel promoter induced high antibody titers and increased CD8 T cell responses in homologous prime-boost immunization compared to commonly used promoters. In particular, the recombinant antigen specific CD8 T cell responses dominated over the immunodominant B8R vector-specific responses after three vaccinations and even more during the memory phase. These results have identified the native MVA13.5L promoter as a new potent promoter for use in MVA vectored preventive and therapeutic vaccines.

  13. Species effects on ecosystem processes are modified by faunal responses to habitat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Dyson, Kirstie E; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Luque, Patricia; Pierce, Graham J; Raffaelli, Dave; Paterson, David M; White, Piran C L

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of natural environments, and the spatial distribution and movement of individual species is primarily driven by resource requirements. In laboratory experiments designed to explore how different species drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient release, habitat heterogeneity is often seen as something which must be rigorously controlled for. Most small experimental systems are therefore spatially homogeneous, and the link between environmental heterogeneity and its effects on the redistribution of individuals and species, and on ecosystem processes, has not been fully explored. In this paper, we used a mesocosm system to investigate the relationship between habitat composition, species movement and sediment nutrient release for each of four functionally contrasting species of marine benthic invertebrate macrofauna. For each species, various habitat configurations were generated by selectively enriching patches of sediment with macroalgae, a natural source of spatial variability in intertidal mudflats. We found that the direction and extent of faunal movement between patches differs with species identity, density and habitat composition. Combinations of these factors lead to concomitant changes in nutrient release, such that habitat composition effects are modified by species identity (in the case of NH4-N) and by species density (in the case of PO4-P). It is clear that failure to accommodate natural patterns of spatial heterogeneity in such studies may result in an incomplete understanding of system behaviour. This will be particularly important for future experiments designed to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem processes, where the complex interactions reported here for single species may be compounded when species are brought together in multi-species combinations.

  14. Emotions predictably modify response times in the initiation of human motor actions: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Garrett F; Cranley, Nicole M; Carnaby, Giselle; Janelle, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Emotions motivate individuals to attain appetitive goals and avoid aversive consequences. Empirical investigations have detailed how broad approach and avoidance orientations are reflected in fundamental movement attributes such as the speed, accuracy, and variability of motor actions. Several theoretical perspectives propose explanations for how emotional states influence the speed with which goal directed movements are initiated. These perspectives include biological predisposition, muscle activation, distance regulation, cognitive evaluation, and evaluative response coding accounts. A comprehensive review of literature and meta-analysis were undertaken to quantify empirical support for these theoretical perspectives. The systematic review yielded 34 studies that contained 53 independent experiments producing 128 effect sizes used to evaluate the predictions of existing theories. The central tenets of the biological predisposition (Hedges' g = -0.356), distance regulation (g = -0.293; g = 0.243), and cognitive evaluation (g = -0.249; g = -0.405; g = -0.174) accounts were supported. Partial support was also identified for the evaluative response coding (g = -0.255) framework. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that substantiate existing theoretical perspectives, and provide potential direction for conceptual integration of these independent perspectives. Recommendations for future empirical work in this area are discussed.

  15. Cancer associated aberrant protein O-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC class I and II molecules. The effect of GalNAc O-glycosylation was monitored with a model system based on ovalbumin (OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides (+/- glycosylation loaded onto dendritic cells co-cultured with IL-2 secreting OVA peptide-specific T cell hybridomas. To evaluate the in vivo response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-γ release, and antibody induction. GalNAc-glycosylation promoted presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class II molecules and the MUC1 antigen elicited specific Ab production and T cell proliferation in both Balb/c and HLA-A2 transgenic mice. In contrast, GalNAc-glycosylation inhibited the presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class I and abolished MUC1 specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. GalNAc glycosylation of MUC1 antigen therefore facilitates uptake, MHC class II presentation, and antibody response but might block the antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells.

  16. Cancer associated aberrant protein o-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Petersen, Cecilie; Lavrsen, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing...... response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB)-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D)2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic) mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-¿ release, and antibody induction. Gal...

  17. Recommendations for managing a suboptimal response to biologics for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: A Belgian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Brassinne, Michel; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo L W; Lambert, Julien; Segaert, Siegfried; Willaert, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, biologics have become the gold standard in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis for patients who have failed or who have contraindications to traditional systemic treatments. However, although practical recommendations on how to treat a suboptimal response to biologics exist in other chronic inflammatory diseases, they are only just beginning to emerge for psoriasis. This article aims to formulate recommendations in the case of a suboptimal response of psoriasis to biologics in the Belgian setting. A Belgian taskforce of psoriasis experts was convened to review the results of a literature search and formulate recommendations based on the available evidence and provide expert opinion to address gaps in the evidence. The taskforce has proposed a treatment algorithm for patients with a primary non-response or a secondary loss of response to help address an unmet need. Expert recommendations have been developed to address treatment strategies in case of a primary or secondary suboptimal response to biologics in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Belgium.

  18. Study on drug release of and biological response to UHMWPE wear debris carrying estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Shuxin, E-mail: qushuxin@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu Aiqin; Liu Xiaomin; Bai Yinlong; Weng Jie [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) to treat osteolysis after artificial joint replacement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the in vitro release of E2 and the cell biological response to UHMWPE-E2 wear debris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in vitro E2 release included three stages during the release process: initial burst release, celerity release and steady release. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UHMWPE-E2 wear debris could promote the proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts and inhibit the expression of IL-6 of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The E2 in UHMWPE-E2 would play a role in the treatment of the osteolysis after artificial hip joint replacement. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro release of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2), the potential drug to treat osteolysis, and the biological response to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene loaded with E2 (UHMWPE-E2) wear debris. The osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and macrophages (RAW264.7) were co-cultured with UHMWPE-E2 wear debris via inversion culture technique, respectively. MTT, ALP and ELISA assay were employed to evaluate the cell proliferation, ALP activity and the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6). In vitro E2 release included: initial burst release, celerity release and steady release. The E2 released steadily after 40 d and lasted more than 60 d. The E2 in UHMWPE-E2 wear debris promoted the proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells at the high debris dosages of 8-10 mg. In particular, the UHMWPE-E2 wear debris inhibited the expression of IL-6 of osteoblasts at all dosages in the present study. RAW264.7 cells cultured with UHMWPE-E2 and UHMWPE wear debris exhibited large sizes about 100 {mu}m in diameter. The small size wear debris presented inside of cells indicated that the wear debris activated the phagocytosis of macrophages. The results indicated

  19. Drug diffusion and biological responses of arteries using a drug-eluting stent with nonuniform coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito N

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Noboru Saito, Yuhei Mori, Sayaka Uchiyama Terumo Corporation R&D Center, Inokuchi, Nakai-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a nonuniform coating, abluminal-gradient coating (AGC, which leaves the abluminal surface of the curves and links parts of the stent free from the drug coating, on the diffusion direction of the drug and the biological responses of the artery to drug-eluting stent (DES by comparing the AGC-sirolimus stent and the conventional full-surface coating (CFC sirolimus stent. The study aimed to verify whether the AGC approach was appropriate for the development of a safer DES, minimizing the risks of stent thrombosis due to delayed endothelialization by the drug and distal embolization due to cracking of the coating layer on the hinge parts of the DES on stent expansion. In the in vitro local drug diffusion study, we used rhodamine B as a model drug, and rhodamine B released from the AGC stent diffused predominantly into the abluminal side of the alginate artery model. Conversely, rhodamine B released from the CFC stent quickly spread to the luminal side of the artery model, where endothelial cell regeneration is required. In the biological responses study, the luminal surface of the iliac artery implanted with the AGC-sirolimus stent in a rabbit iliac artery for 2 weeks was completely covered with endothelial-like cells. On the other hand, the luminal surface of the iliac artery implanted with the CFC-sirolimus stent for 2 weeks only showed partial coverage with endothelial-like cells. While thrombosis was observed in two of the three CFC-sirolimus stents, it was observed in only one of the three AGC-sirolimus stents. Taken together, these findings indicate that the designed nonuniform coating (AGC is an appropriate approach to ensure a safer DES. However, the number of studies is limited and a larger study should be conducted to reach a statistically

  20. Postnatal maternal separation modifies the response to an obesogenic diet in adulthood in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I; Ramírez, María J; Martínez, J Alfredo; Campión, Javier

    2012-09-01

    An early-life adverse environment has been implicated in the susceptibility to different diseases in adulthood, such as mental disorders, diabetes and obesity. We analyzed the effects of a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 35 days in adult female rats that had experienced 180 minutes daily of maternal separation (MS) during lactancy. Changes in the obesity phenotype, biochemical profile, levels of glucocorticoid metabolism biomarkers, and the expression of different obesity- and glucocorticoid-metabolism-related genes were analyzed in periovaric adipose tissue. HFS intake increased body weight, adiposity and serum leptin levels, whereas MS decreased fat pad masses but only in rats fed an HFS diet. MS reduced insulin resistance markers but only in chow-fed rats. Corticosterone and estradiol serum levels did not change in this experimental model. A multiple gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of adiponutrin (Adpn) was increased owing to MS, and an interaction between HFS diet intake and MS was observed in the mRNA levels of leptin (Lep) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a). These results revealed that early-life stress affects the response to an HFS diet later in life, and that this response can lead to phenotype and transcriptomic changes.

  1. Postnatal maternal separation modifies the response to an obesogenic diet in adulthood in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paternain

    2012-09-01

    An early-life adverse environment has been implicated in the susceptibility to different diseases in adulthood, such as mental disorders, diabetes and obesity. We analyzed the effects of a high-fat sucrose (HFS diet for 35 days in adult female rats that had experienced 180 minutes daily of maternal separation (MS during lactancy. Changes in the obesity phenotype, biochemical profile, levels of glucocorticoid metabolism biomarkers, and the expression of different obesity- and glucocorticoid-metabolism-related genes were analyzed in periovaric adipose tissue. HFS intake increased body weight, adiposity and serum leptin levels, whereas MS decreased fat pad masses but only in rats fed an HFS diet. MS reduced insulin resistance markers but only in chow-fed rats. Corticosterone and estradiol serum levels did not change in this experimental model. A multiple gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of adiponutrin (Adpn was increased owing to MS, and an interaction between HFS diet intake and MS was observed in the mRNA levels of leptin (Lep and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a. These results revealed that early-life stress affects the response to an HFS diet later in life, and that this response can lead to phenotype and transcriptomic changes.

  2. Sleep fragmentation alters brain energy metabolism without modifying hippocampal electrophysiological response to novelty exposure

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2016-05-03

    © 2016 European Sleep Research Society. Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs cognitive functions. Intriguingly, sleep fragmentation, despite normal total sleep duration, has a similar cognitive impact, and in this paper we ask the question of whether it may also impair brain energy metabolism. To this end, we used a recently developed mouse model of 2 weeks of sleep fragmentation and measured 2-deoxy-glucose uptake and glycogen, glucose and lactate concentration in different brain regions. In order to homogenize mice behaviour during metabolic measurements, we exposed them to a novel environment for 1 h. Using an intra-hippocampal electrode, we first showed that hippocampal electroencephalograph (EEG) response to exploration was unaltered by 1 or 14 days of sleep fragmentation. However, after 14 days, sleep fragmented mice exhibited a lower uptake of 2-deoxy-glucose in cortex and hippocampus and lower cortical lactate levels than control mice. Our results suggest that long-term sleep fragmentation impaired brain metabolism to a similar extent as total sleep deprivation without affecting the neuronal responsiveness of hippocampus to a novel environment.

  3. Oxidation and pH responsive nanoparticles based on ferrocene-modified chitosan oligosaccharide for 5-fluorouracil delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqian; Wang, Liang; Li, Ya-Kun; Wang, Cai-Qi

    2014-12-19

    Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles based on biodegradable and biocompatible saccharides are potentially superior carriers under different physical conditions. In this study, we present a detailed investigation on the oxidation and pH responses of ferrocene-modified chitosan oligosaccharide (FcCOS) nanoparticles for 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) Delivery. The dispersion of FcCOS nanoparticles depends strongly on pH change. NaClO, H2O2 and oxygen, as oxidant models, in a weak acid solution displayed varying accelerations as the disassembly progressed. 5-FU, as a drug model, is efficiently uploaded in FcCOS nanoparticle (approximately 238 nm). The in vitro release of 5-FU from FcCOS nanoparticles studies show that the accumulative release increased with the decrease of pH under bubbled N2. Interestingly, the sample under bubbled air has a higher accumulative release up to 59.64% at pH 3.8, compared with samples under bubbled N2 just 49.02%. The results suggested that FcCOS nanoparticles disassembled faster and the release of drug molecules was accelerated because of the synergistic effect of oxidative agent and low pH. Thus, FcCOS can be developed as an effective pH and oxidation dual-responsive carrier to enhance drug efficacy for cancer treatment.

  4. Systemic and mucosal immune response induced by transcutaneous immunization using Hepatitis B surface antigen-loaded modified liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dinesh; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Dubey, Vaibhav; Nahar, Manoj; Dabadghao, Sunil; Jain, N K

    2008-04-23

    We have evaluated the efficiency of novel modified liposomes (ethosomes) for transcutaneous immunization (TCI) against Hepatitis B. Antigen-loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for shape, lamellarity, fluidity, size distribution, and entrapment efficiency. Spectral bio-imaging and flow cytometric studies showed efficient uptake of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-loaded ethosomes by murine dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, reaching a peak by 180 min. Transcutaneous delivery potential of the antigen-loaded system using human cadaver skin demonstrated a much higher skin permeation of the antigen in comparison to conventional liposomes and soluble antigen preparation. Topically applied HBsAg-loaded ethosomes in experimental mice showed a robust systemic and mucosal humoral immune response compared to intramuscularly administered alum-adsorbed HBsAg suspension, topically applied plain HBsAg solution and hydroethanolic (25%) HBsAg solution. The ability of the antigen-pulsed DCs to stimulate autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes was demonstrated by BrdU assay and a predominantly TH1 type of immune response was observed by multiplex cytometric bead array analysis. HBsAg-loaded ethosomes are able to generate a protective immune response and their ability to traverse and target the immunological milieu of the skin may find a potential application in the development of a transcutaneous vaccine against Hepatitis B virus (HBV).

  5. Induction of antibody responses to African horse sickness virus (AHSV in ponies after vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Chiam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African horse sickness virus (AHSV causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2. MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen-specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable.

  6. Tissue response to experimental dental cements prepared from a modified powder glass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Bertolini, Marcio José; Padovani, Gislaine Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Brancini; Zaghete, Maria Aparecida; de Oliveira Júnior, Osmir Batista; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2012-01-01

    The present work seeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of experimental glass ionomer cements (GIC) prepared from niobium-calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass powder and two commercial GICs. The GICs were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of sixty rats. The rats were sacrificed during four varying time periods: 7, 15, 30, and 60 days and histopathological examinations were then performed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate any significant differences between the materials. Additionally, multiple comparisons of the mean rank were also carried out using the Dunn test (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed that one GIC was superior to the other. The tissue response for all of the GICs tested was similar in all the periods examined.

  7. Phytoplankton response to winter warming modified by large-bodied zooplankton: an experimental microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While several field investigations have demonstrated significant effects of cool season (winter or spring warming on phytoplankton development, the role played by large-bodied zooplankton grazers for the responses of phytoplankton to winter warming is ambiguous. We conducted an outdoor experiment to compare the effect of winter warming (heating by 3°C in combination with presence and absence of Daphnia grazing (D. similis on phytoplankton standing crops and community structure under eutrophic conditions. When Daphnia were absent, warming was associated with significant increases in phytoplankton biomass and cyanobacterial dominance. In contrast, when Daphnia were present, warming effects on phytoplankton dynamics were offset by warming-enhanced grazing, resulting in no significant change in biomass or taxonomic dominance. These results emphasize that large-bodied zooplankton like Daphnia spp. may play an important role in modulating the interactions between climate warming and phytoplankton dynamics in nutrient rich lake ecosystems.

  8. Tunable plasmonic response of metallic nanoantennna heterodimer arrays modified by atomic-layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambold, Raymond A.; Borst, Benjamin D.; Qi, Jie; Weisel, Gary J.; Willis, Brian G.; Zimmerman, Darin T.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of tunable, plasmon extinction characteristics of arrays of nanoscale antennas that have potential use as sensors, energy-harvesting devices, catalytic converters, in near-field optical microscopy, and in surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Each device is composed of a palladium triangular-prism antenna and a flat counter-electrode. Arrays of devices are fabricated on silica using electron-beam lithography, followed by atomic-layer deposition of copper. Optical extinction is measured by employing a broadband light source in a confocal, transmission arrangement. We characterize the plasmon resonance behavior by examining the dependence on device length, the gap spacing between the electrodes, material properties, and the device array density, all of which contribute in varying degrees to the measured response. We employ finite-difference time-domain simulations to demonstrate good qualitative agreement between experimental trends and theory and use scanning electron microscopy to correlate plasmonic extinction characteristics with changes in morphology.

  9. Dynamic Response Analysis of Bird Strike on Aircraft Windshield Based on Damage-modified Nonlinear Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinjun; Feng Zhenzhou; Wang Fusheng; Yue Zhufeng

    2007-01-01

    Damage-modified nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation and failure criterion are introduced and the three-dimensional incremental forms are deduced based on the updated Lagrangian approach. A simple tensile test model and a split Hopkinson pressure bar model are built to verify the accuracy of the subroutine implemented within the non-linear finite element program LS-DYNA. A numerical model of bird strike on windshield is established to study the responses of windshield under three different bird velocities at three sites. The bird is represented by a cylinder with a hemisphere at each end and the contact-impact coupling algorithm is used in this study. It is found that the implemented subroutine can properly describe the mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate under low and high strain rates and large deformation, and can be used validly.

  10. Soil Nitrogen Status Modifies Rice Root Response to Nematode-Bacteria Interactions in the Rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Cheng

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that faunal activity in the rhizosphere influences root growth via an auxin-dependent pathway. In this study, two methods were used to adjust nematode and bacterial populations within experimental soils. One is "exclusion", where soil mixed with pig manure was placed in two bags with different mesh sizes (1mm and 5μm diameter, and then surrounded by an outer layer of unamended soil resulting in soil with a greater populations of bacterial-feeding nematodes (1mm and a control treatment (5μm. The second method is "inoculation", whereby autoclaved soil was inoculated with bacteria (E. coli and Pseudomonas and Nematodes (Cephalobus and C. elegans. In order to detect the changes in the rice's perception of auxin under different nutrient and auxin conditions in the presence of soil bacterial-feeding nematodes, responses of soil chemistry (NH4+, NO3- and indole acetic acid (IAA, rice root growth and the expression of an auxin responsive gene GH3-2 were measured. Results showed that, under low soil nutrient conditions (exclusion, low NO3- correlated with increased root branching and IAA correlated with increased root elongation and GH3-2 expression. However, under high soil nutrient conditions (inoculation, a high NH4+ to NO3- ratio promoted an increase in root surface area and there was an additional influence of NH4+ and NO3- on GH3-2 expression. Thus it was concluded that soil bacterial-feeding nematodes influenced soil nutritional status and soil IAA content, promoting root growth via an auxin dependent pathway that was offset by soil nitrogen status.

  11. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  12. Soil Nitrogen Status Modifies Rice Root Response to Nematode-Bacteria Interactions in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanhong; Jiang, Ying; Wu, Yue; Valentine, Tracy A; Li, Huixin

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that faunal activity in the rhizosphere influences root growth via an auxin-dependent pathway. In this study, two methods were used to adjust nematode and bacterial populations within experimental soils. One is "exclusion", where soil mixed with pig manure was placed in two bags with different mesh sizes (1mm and 5μm diameter), and then surrounded by an outer layer of unamended soil resulting in soil with a greater populations of bacterial-feeding nematodes (1mm) and a control treatment (5μm). The second method is "inoculation", whereby autoclaved soil was inoculated with bacteria (E. coli and Pseudomonas) and Nematodes (Cephalobus and C. elegans). In order to detect the changes in the rice's perception of auxin under different nutrient and auxin conditions in the presence of soil bacterial-feeding nematodes, responses of soil chemistry (NH4+, NO3- and indole acetic acid (IAA)), rice root growth and the expression of an auxin responsive gene GH3-2 were measured. Results showed that, under low soil nutrient conditions (exclusion), low NO3- correlated with increased root branching and IAA correlated with increased root elongation and GH3-2 expression. However, under high soil nutrient conditions (inoculation), a high NH4+ to NO3- ratio promoted an increase in root surface area and there was an additional influence of NH4+ and NO3- on GH3-2 expression. Thus it was concluded that soil bacterial-feeding nematodes influenced soil nutritional status and soil IAA content, promoting root growth via an auxin dependent pathway that was offset by soil nitrogen status.

  13. Ethanol Metabolism and Osmolarity Modify Behavioral Responses to Ethanol in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Joseph T.; Davis, Scott J.; Song, Sam S.; Burnette, Christopher R.; Grotewiel, Mike; Shelton, Keith L.; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by a two-step process in which alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Although variation in ethanol metabolism in humans strongly influences the propensity to chronically abuse alcohol, few data exist on the behavioral effects of altered ethanol metabolism. Here, we used the nematode C. elegans to directly examine how changes in ethanol metabolism alter behavioral responses to alcohol during an acute exposure. Additionally, we investigated ethanol solution osmolarity as a potential explanation for contrasting published data on C. elegans ethanol sensitivity. Methods We developed a gas chromatography assay and validated a spectrophotometric method to measure internal ethanol in ethanol-exposed worms. Further, we tested the effects of mutations in ADH and ALDH genes on ethanol tissue accumulation and behavioral sensitivity to the drug. Finally, we tested the effects of ethanol solution osmolarity on behavioral responses and tissue ethanol accumulation. Results Only a small amount of exogenously applied ethanol accumulated in the tissues of C. elegans and consequently their tissue concentrations were similar to those that intoxicate humans. Independent inactivation of an ADH-encoding gene (sodh-1) or an ALDH-encoding gene (alh-6 or alh-13) increased the ethanol concentration in worms and caused hypersensitivity to the acute sedative effects of ethanol on locomotion. We also found that the sensitivity to the depressive effects of ethanol on locomotion is strongly influenced by the osmolarity of the exogenous ethanol solution. Conclusions Our results indicate that ethanol metabolism via ADH and ALDH has a statistically discernable but surprisingly minor influence on ethanol sedation and internal ethanol accumulation in worms. In contrast, the osmolarity of the medium in which ethanol is delivered to the animals has a more substantial effect on

  14. Biological characteristics of the cerebral venous system and its hemodynamic response to intracranial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; WANG Xi-ming; LUAN Li-ming; CHAO Bao-ting; PANG Bo; SONG Hui; PANG Qi

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of the cerebral venous system (CVS) in intracranial pressure (ICP) regulation remains largely unclear.In the present study,the interaction between ICP and the cerebral venous system and its possible mechanism were investigated with respect to the biological characteristics of the cerebral venous system and its hemodynamic response under increased ICP.@@Methods We created intracranial hypertension animal model,measured and calculated the venous flow velocity and diameter of the outflow terminal of the CVS with color ultrasonic system and recorded the vascular morphology by 3-dimensional anatomical microscopy.Patients who suffered from raised ICP underwent MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examination to show the length in the vertical direction of the wall of the bridging vein representing the diameter value.Pathological autopsy was performed from bodies of patients who had died from non-cerebral causes to observe the juncture part between the venous sinuses and tributary vertical brain veins.@@Results Under increased ICP conditions,venous drainage through the outlet cuff segment,a unique structure between the bridge vein and sinus,was obstructed and in turn venous blood became congested.Therefore,the increased blood volume worsened the pre-existing ICP according to the well-accepted theory regarding volume-pressure relationship.This phenomenon was described as concurrent “Venogenic intracranial hypertension”,which is characterized by intracranial venous blood stasis responsive to and together with the original increased ICP.@@Conclusions The existence of this special pathophysiological process is prevalent,rather than rare,in various intracranial disorders.This finding would definitely provide new insight into the area of cerebral venous system research.

  15. IL-10 Gene Modified Dendritic Cells Inhibit T Helper Type 1-Mediated Alloimmune Responses and Promote Immunological Tolerance in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huifen Zhu; Feili Gong; Wenhong Qiu; Ping Lei; Wei Zhou; Xue Wen; Fengrong He; Li Li; Hong Dai; Guanxin Shen

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs)have the potency to regulate the outcome of autoimmunity through the modulation of immune responses. The induction of antigen specific tolerance is critical for prevention and treatment of allograft rejection. In the present Study, we transfected IL-10 gene into DCs and investigated their effect on inhibition of lymphocyte activity in vitro and induction of immune tolerance on islet allograft in mice. An IDDM c57BL, 6 mouse model was induced by streptozotocin. The islet cells isolated from the BALB/c mice were transplanted into the kidney capules of the model mice followed by injection of IL-10 modified DCs(mDCs).The results showed that mDCs could significantly inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation mediated by aliotype cells and induce its apoptosis, whereas, unmodified DCs(umDCs)could promote the murine lymphocyte proliferation markedly. The injection of mDCs could prolong the survival of allotype islet transplanted IDDM mice. The average plasma glucose(PG)level in mDCs treated mice returned to normal within 3 days and lasted for about 2 weeks. The rejection response in control mice occurred for 5 days after transplantation. The level of IFN-γ was lower while IL-4 Was higher in mDCs treated mice than that in umDCs treated mice. which indicated that Thl/Th2 deviation occurred.Our studies suggest that IL. 10 gene modified DCs can induce the immune tolerance to islet graft and prolong survival of the recipients by the inhibiting of T cell proliferation in allotype mice. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(1):41-46.

  16. Modeling marrow damage from response data: Morphallaxis from radiation biology to benzene toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Hasan, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling of toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between {approximately} 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments with 851 doseresponse groups, in which doses were protracted by rate and/or fractionation, were used to simultaneously estimate all rate constants by maximum-likelihood methods. Data used represented 18,940 test animals distributed according to: (mice, 12,827); (rats, 2,925); (sheep, 1,676); (swine, 829); (dogs, 479); and (burros, 204). Although a long-term, repopulating hematopoietic stem cell is ancestral to all lineages needed to restore normal homeostasis, the dose-response data from the protracted irradiations indicate clearly that the particular lineage that is ``critical`` to hematopoietic recovery does not resemble stem-like cells with regard to radiosensitivity and repopulation rates. Instead, the weakest link in the chain of hematopoiesis was found to have an intrinsic radioresistance equal to or greater than stromal cells and to repopulate at the same rates. Model validation has been achieved by predicting the LD{sub 50} and/or fractional group mortality in 38 protracted-dose experiments (rats and mice) that were not used in the fitting of model coefficients.

  17. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    to zygotic genome activation, the large mRNA program initiated at compaction, ion pumping required for cavitation, the differentiation of the first lineages, integration with the uterine environment at implantation, rapid proliferation of stem cells, and production of certain lineages which require the highest energy and are most sensitive to mitochondrial inhibition. Stress response mechanisms insure that stem cells for the early embryo and placenta survive at lower stress exposures, and that the organism survives through compensatory and prioritized stem cell differentiation, at higher stress exposures. These servomechanisms include a small set of stress enzymes from the 500 protein kinases in the kinome; the part of the genome coding for protein kinases that hierarchically regulate the activity of other proteins and enzymes. Important protein kinases that mediate the stress response of embryos and their stem cells are SAPK, p38MAPK, AMPK, PI3K, Akt, MEK1/2, MEKK4, PKA, IRE1 and PERK. These stress enzymes have cytosolic function in cell survival at low stress exposures and nuclear function in modifying transcription factor activity at higher stress exposures. Some of the transcription factors (TFs) that are most important in the stress response are JunC, JunB, MAPKAPs, ATF4, XBP1, Oct1, Oct4, HIFs, Nrf2/KEAP, NFKB, MT1, Nfat5, HSF1/2 and potency-maintaining factors Id2, Cdx2, Eomes, Sox2, Nanog, Rex1, and Oct4. Clearly the stress enzymes have a large number of cytosolic and nuclear substrates and the TFs regulate large numbers of genes. The interaction of stress enzymes and TFs in the early embryo and its stem cells are a continuing central focus of research. In vitro regulation of TFs by stress enzymes leads to reprogramming of the stem cell when stress diminishes stem cell accumulation. Since more differentiated product is produced by fewer cells, the process compensates for fewer cells. Coupled with stress-induced compensatory differentiation of stem cells is a

  18. The Personal Response: A Novel Writing Assignment to Engage First Year Students in Large Human Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of highly valued scientific writing skills in the first year of university is challenging. This report describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel written assignment, "The Personal Response" and accompanying Peer Review, in the course, Human Biology (BIOL1015) at The University of Queensland. These assignments were…

  19. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose response (BBDR) Model***

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the 1-IPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model...

  20. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (BPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the HPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model p...

  1. Assessment of the Effects of Student Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes over a Broad Range of Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W.; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B.; Shuster, Michele

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six…

  2. Optimizing adsorption of fluoride from water by modified banana peel dust using response surface modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Ria; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present work highlighted the effective application of banana peel dust (BPD) for removal of fluoride (F-) from aqueous solution. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, agitation speed and temperature were analysed using response surface methodology. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance and t test statistics. Experimental results revealed that BPD has higher F- adsorption capacity (17.43, 26.31 and 39.5 mg/g). Fluoride adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model with high correlation of coefficient value (0.998). On the other hand, thermodynamic data suggest that adsorption is favoured at lower temperature, exothermic in nature and enthalpy driven. The adsorbents were characterised through scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and point of zero charges (pHZPC) ranges from pH 6.2-8.2. Finally, error analysis clearly demonstrates that all three adsorbents are well fitted with Langmuir isotherm compared to the other isotherm models. The reusable properties of the material support further development for commercial application purpose.

  3. FRET Response of a Modified Ribose Receptor Expressed in the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hanna

    2011-08-26

    The ability to insert complex proteins into silica has many applications including biosensing. Previous research has demonstrated how to direct proteins to the biosilica of diatoms [1]. Here, we show that a complex fusion protein that includes an enzyme, a bacterial ribose periplasmic binding protein, flanked by fluorescent proteins constituting a FRET pair can remain functional in the frustules of living diatoms. A Sil3 tag is attached to the N-terminal end to localize the fusion protein to frustules of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. When ribose was applied, a larger decrease in FRET response was seen in transformed cells than in untransformed cells. Multiple forms of the expression vector were tested to find the optimal system; specifically, a one-vector system was compared to a two-vector system and the gDNA version of the Sil3 localization tag was compared to the cDNA version. The optimal system was found to be a one-vector system with the genomic version of the Sil3 tag to direct the protein to the frustules. Localization of the enzyme to the frustules was further confirmed through cell fluorescence imaging.

  4. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches.

  5. Surface Modified Multifunctional and Stimuli Responsive Nanoparticles for Drug Targeting: Current Status and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siafaka, Panoraia I.; Üstündağ Okur, Neslihan; Karavas, Evangelos; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocarriers, due to their unique features, are of increased interest among researchers working with pharmaceutical formulations. Polymeric nanoparticles and nanocapsules, involving non-toxic biodegradable polymers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and inorganic–organic nanomaterials, are among the most used carriers for drugs for a broad spectrum of targeted diseases. In fact, oral, injectable, transdermal-dermal and ocular formulations mainly consist of the aforementioned nanomaterials demonstrating promising characteristics such as long circulation, specific targeting, high drug loading capacity, enhanced intracellular penetration, and so on. Over the last decade, huge advances in the development of novel, safer and less toxic nanocarriers with amended properties have been made. In addition, multifunctional nanocarriers combining chemical substances, vitamins and peptides via coupling chemistry, inorganic particles coated by biocompatible materials seem to play a key role considering that functionalization can enhance characteristics such as biocompatibility, targetability, environmental friendliness, and intracellular penetration while also have limited side effects. This review aims to summarize the “state of the art” of drug delivery carriers in nanosize, paying attention to their surface functionalization with ligands and other small or polymeric compounds so as to upgrade active and passive targeting, different release patterns as well as cell targeting and stimuli responsibility. Lastly, future aspects and potential uses of nanoparticulated drug systems are outlined. PMID:27589733

  6. Transcranial electrical stimulation modifies the neuronal response to psychosocial stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Andrea; Fischer, Thomas; Saiote, Catarina; Miller, Robert; Chaieb, Leila; Wang, Danny J J; Plessow, Franziska; Paulus, Walter; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-08-01

    Stress is a constant characteristic of everyday life in our society, playing a role in triggering several chronic disorders. Therefore, there is an ongoing need to develop new methods in order to manage stress reactions. The regulatory function of right medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is frequently reported by imaging studies during psychosocial stress situations. Here, we examined the effects of inhibitory and excitatory preconditioning stimulation via cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on psychosocial stress related behavioral indicators and physiological factors, including the cortisol level in the saliva and changes in brain perfusion. Twenty minutes real or sham tDCS was applied over the right mPFC of healthy subjects before the performance of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during stimulation and after TSST, using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL). Comparing the effect of the different stimulation conditions, during anodal stimulation we found higher rCBF in the right mPFC, compared to the sham and in the right amygdala, superior PFC compared to the cathodal condition. Salivary cortisol levels showed a decrease in the anodal and increase in cathodal groups after completion of the TSST. The behavioral stress indicators indicated the increase of stress level, however, did not show any significant differences among groups. In this study we provide the first insights into the neuronal mechanisms mediating psychosocial stress responses by prefrontal tDCS.

  7. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (pGamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  8. HOX genes: Major actors in resistance to selective endocrine response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kideok; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-04-01

    Long term treatment with therapies aimed at blocking the estrogen- (ER) or androgen receptor (AR) action often leads to the development of resistance to selective modulators of the estrogen receptor (SERMs) in ERα-positive breast cancer, or of the androgen receptor (SARMs) in AR-positive prostate cancer. Many underlying molecular events that confer resistance are known, but a unifying theme is yet to be revealed. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such EGFR, ERBB2 and IGF1R are major mediators that can directly alter cellular response to the SERM, tamoxifen, but the mechanisms underlying increased expression of RTKs are not clear. A number of HOX genes and microRNAs and non-coding RNAs residing in the HOX cluster, have been identified as important independent predictors of endocrine resistant breast cancer. Recently, convincing evidence has accumulated that several members belonging to the four different HOX clusters contribute to endocrine therapy resistant breast cancer, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In this article, we have reviewed recent progress in understanding of the functioning of HOX genes and regulation of their expression by hormones. We also discuss, in particular, the contributions of several members of the HOX gene family to endocrine resistant breast cancer.

  9. Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments1, 2, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making3. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30 × 30 m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 km2 of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  10. Polyfunctional Specific Response to Echinococcus Granulosus Associates to the Biological Activity of the Cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Petrone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a complex disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus (E.granulosus, and its immunophatogenesis is still not clearly defined. A peculiar feature of chronic CE is the coexistence of Th1 and Th2 responses. It has been suggested that Th1 cytokines are related to disease resistance, whereas Th2 cytokines are related to disease susceptibility and chronicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by multi-parametric flow cytometry (FACS, the presence of CE specific immune signatures.We enrolled 54 subjects with suspected CE; 42 of them had a confirmed diagnosis, whereas 12 were classified as NO-CE. Based on the ultrasonography images, CE patients were further categorized as being in "active stages" (25 and "inactive stages" (17. The ability of CD4+ T-cells to produce IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, Th2 cytokines or IL-10 was assessed by FACS on antigen-specific T-cells after overnight stimulation with Antigen B (AgB of E.granulosus. Cytokine profiles were evaluated in all the enrolled subjects. The results show that none of the NO-CE subjects had a detectable AgB-specific response. Among the CE patients, the frequency and proportions of AgB-specific CD4+ T-cells producing IL-2+TNF-α+Th2+ or TNF-α+Th2+ were significantly increased in the "active stages" group compared to the "inactive stages" group. Moreover, an increased proportion of the total polyfunctional subsets, as triple-and double-functional CD4 T-cells, was found in CE patients with active disease. The response to the mitogen, used as a control stimulus to evaluate the immune competence status, was characterized by the same cytokine subsets in all the subjects enrolled, independent of CE.We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that polyfunctional T-cell subsets as IL-2+TNF-α+Th2+ triple-positive and TNF-α+Th2+ double-positive specific T-cells associate with cyst biological activity. These results contribute to increase knowledge of CE immunophatogenesis and

  11. Relative binding affinity does not predict biological response to xenoestrogens in rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunck, E; Stemmann, N; Hopert, A; Wünsche, W; Frank, K; Vollmer, G

    2000-10-01

    RUCA-I cells represent a valuable endometrial derived model system to assess the relative potencies and the molecular mode of action of environmental estrogens in vitro. Our results further show that no intimate correlation exists between the relative binding affinity and the biological response of these compounds. Therefore, data obtained from single-parametric analyses may result in misleading conclusions. On the other hand, the presented in vitro data will provide us with tools to study the activity of xenoestrogens in vivo and thus carry risk assessment one step further.

  12. Enhancement in biological response of Ag-nano composite polymer membranes using plasma treatment for fabrication of efficient bio materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Tamanna Kumari; Chauhan, Manish; Agarwal, Ravi; Vijay, Y. K.; Swami, K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials are nonviable material used in medical devices, intended to interact with biological systems, which are becoming necessary for the development of artificial material for biological systems such as artificial skin diaphragm, valves for heart and kidney, lenses for eye etc. Polymers having novel properties like antibacterial, antimicrobial, high adhesion, blood compatibility and wettability are most suitable for synthesis of biomaterial, but all of these properties does not exist in any natural or artificial polymeric material. Nano particles and plasma treatment can offer these properties to the polymers. Hence a new nano-biomaterial has been developed by modifying the surface and chemical properties of Ag nanocomposite polymer membranes (NCPM) by Argon ion plasma treatment. These membranes were characterized using different techniques for surface and chemical modifications occurred. Bacterial adhesion and wettability were also tested for these membranes, to show direct use of this new class of nano-biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  13. Orchiectomy modifies the antidepressant-like response of nicotine in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Limón-Morales, O; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-González, M; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Vázquez-Palacios, G

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that nicotine (NIC) exhibits antidepressant-like effects. In addition, it has been suggested that sexual hormones participate in the antidepressant actions of antidepressives. The present study was designed to analyze the effect of orchiectomy and the supplementation of testosterone propionate (TP) or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on the antidepressant properties of NIC using the forced swimming test (FST), as well as to determine possible changes in the FST during different time periods after orchiectomy. In order to evaluate the influences of orchiectomy on the effects of NIC, the study first evaluated the effects of different time periods on orchiectomized rats (15, 21, 30, 45 and 60 days) that were subjected to the FST. Then, different doses of NIC (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg/kg, sc) were administered for 14 days to both intact and orchiectomized rats (after 21 day) which were then also subjected to the FST. Finally, the influence of the TP or E(2) supplementation on the antidepressant-like effect of NIC on orchiectomized rats (after 21 days) was also analyzed. Results reveal that orchiectomy significantly increased immobility behavior and decreased swimming and climbing up to 60 days after castration. In contrast, NIC decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming in intact rats; whereas orchiectomy suppressed this antidepressant effect of NIC. Only with E(2) supplementation was it possible to restore the sensitivity of the castrated rats to NIC. These results suggest that E(2) was able to facilitate the antidepressant response of NIC in orchiectomized rats.

  14. Visible Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified Ti02 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, paul; Clausen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The method of photocatalysis utilizing titanium dioxide, TiO2, as the catalyst has been widely studied for trace contaminant control for both air and water applications because of its low energy consumption and use of a regenerable catalyst. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors and are a setback for the technology for space application due to the possibility of Hg contamination. The development of a visible light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst could lead to the use of solar energy in the visible region (approx.45% of the solar spectrum lies in the visible region; > 400 nm) or highly efficient LEDs (with wavelengths > 400 nm) to make PCO approaches more efficient, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts; those that are available still have poor activity in the visible region compared to that in the UV region. Thus, this study was aimed at the further development of VLR catalysts by a new method - coupling of quantum dots (QD) of a narrow band gap semiconductor (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) to the TiO2 by two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications, using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems serve as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of preparation method, type of quantum dots, and dosage of quantum dots.

  15. Enhanced Antifungal Activity by Ab-Modified Amphotericin B-Loaded Nanoparticles Using a pH-Responsive Block Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Dai, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhi; Xie, Chunmei; Yao, Aixia; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Li; Jiang, Qinglin; Wang, Shulei; Liang, Yong; Xu, Congjing

    2015-06-01

    Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B (AMB), with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal drug, but its clinical toxicities mainly nephrotoxicity and poor solubility limit its wide application in clinical practice. The fungal metabolism along with the host immune response usually generates acidity at sites of infection, resulting in loss of AMB activity in a pH-dependent manner. Herein, we developed pH-responsive AMB-loaded and surface charge-switching poly( d, l-lactic- co-glycolic acid)- b-poly( l-histidine)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG) nanoparticles for resolving the localized acidity problem and enhance the antifungal efficacy of AMB. Moreover, we modified AMB-encapsulated PLGA-PLH-PEG nanoparticles with anti- Candida albicans antibody (CDA) (CDA-AMB-NPs) to increase the targetability. Then, CDA-AMB-NPs were characterized in terms of physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, stability, drug encapsulation efficiency, and toxicity. Finally, the targetability and antifungal activity of CDA-AMB-NPs were investigated in vitro /in vivo. The result demonstrated that CDA-AMB-NPs significantly improve the targetability and bioavailability of AMB and thus improve its antifungal activity and reduce its toxicity. These NPs may become a good drug carrier for antifungal treatment.

  16. Foxj1 regulates floor plate cilia architecture and modifies the response of cells to sonic hedgehog signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Catarina; Ribes, Vanessa; Kutejova, Eva; Cayuso, Jordi; Lawson, Victoria; Norris, Dominic; Stevens, Jonathan; Davey, Megan; Blight, Ken; Bangs, Fiona; Mynett, Anita; Hirst, Elizabeth; Chung, Rachel; Balaskas, Nikolaos; Brody, Steven L.; Marti, Elisa; Briscoe, James

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog signalling is essential for the embryonic development of many tissues including the central nervous system, where it controls the pattern of cellular differentiation. A genome-wide screen of neural progenitor cells to evaluate the Shh signalling-regulated transcriptome identified the forkhead transcription factor Foxj1. In both chick and mouse Foxj1 is expressed in the ventral midline of the neural tube in cells that make up the floor plate. Consistent with the role of Foxj1 in the formation of long motile cilia, floor plate cells produce cilia that are longer than the primary cilia found elsewhere in the neural tube, and forced expression of Foxj1 in neuroepithelial cells is sufficient to increase cilia length. In addition, the expression of Foxj1 in the neural tube and in an Shh-responsive cell line attenuates intracellular signalling by decreasing the activity of Gli proteins, the transcriptional mediators of Shh signalling. We show that this function of Foxj1 depends on cilia. Nevertheless, floor plate identity and ciliogenesis are unaffected in mouse embryos lacking Foxj1 and we provide evidence that additional transcription factors expressed in the floor plate share overlapping functions with Foxj1. Together, these findings identify a novel mechanism that modifies the cellular response to Shh signalling and reveal morphological and functional features of the amniote floor plate that distinguish these cells from the rest of the neuroepithelium. PMID:21098568

  17. A Modified Alderman-Grant Coil makes possible an efficient cross-coil probe for high field solid-state NMR of lossy biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christopher V.; Yang, Yuan; Glibowicka, Mira; Wu, Chin H.; Park, Sang Ho; Deber, Charles M.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2009-11-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a cross-coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR experiments on lossy biological samples at high magnetic fields are described. The outer coil is a Modified Alderman-Grant Coil (MAGC) tuned to the 1H frequency. The inner coil consists of a multi-turn solenoid coil that produces a B 1 field orthogonal to that of the outer coil. This results in a compact nested cross-coil pair with the inner solenoid coil tuned to the low frequency detection channel. This design has several advantages over multiple-tuned solenoid coil probes, since RF heating from the 1H channel is substantially reduced, it can be tuned for samples with a wide range of dielectric constants, and the simplified circuit design and high inductance inner coil provides excellent sensitivity. The utility of this probe is demonstrated on two electrically lossy samples of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) that are particularly difficult for conventional NMR probes. The 72-residue polypeptide embedding the transmembrane helices 3 and 4 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) (residues 194-241) requires a high salt concentration in order to be successfully reconstituted in phospholipid bicelles. A second application is to paramagnetic relaxation enhancement applied to the membrane-bound form of Pf1 coat protein in phospholipid bicelles where the resistance to sample heating enables high duty cycle solid-state NMR experiments to be performed.

  18. A scoping review of the use of non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in the management of large vessel vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Sharma, Aman; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Negi, Vir Singh

    2017-02-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) and Giant cell arteritis (GCA) comprise the large vessel vasculitides (LVV). Patients with LVV are treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), both conventional (cDMARDs) and biologic (bDMARDs). We undertook a scoping review to assess the effectiveness of cDMARDs in TA and GCA. We could identify 11 studies in TA and 18 studies in GCA. There were only 3 randomized controlled trials on methotrexate, one on hydroxychloroquine and two on cyclosporine in GCA, the others being case series (including all studies on TA). Most of these studies had small patient numbers (median 15 in TA and 27 in GCA). Outcome measures reported in different studies were heterogenous. Overall, methotrexate, leflunomide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide were effective in TA (low quality of evidence). Methotrexate (high quality of evidence), hydroxychloroquine and cyclosporine (moderate quality of evidence) appeared to be ineffective in GCA. Azathioprine (moderate quality of evidence), leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide and dapsone (low quality of evidence) were effective in GCA. There exists a paucity of high quality evidence to guide use of cDMARDs in TA and GCA. There is an unmet need to conduct large multi-centric randomized placebo-controlled trials to accurately assess the utility on cDMARDs in LVV.

  19. Experimental verification of regression to the mean in redox biology: differential responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Dipla, Konstantina; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Panayiotou, George; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-01-01

    An important methodological threat when selecting individuals based on initial values for a given trait is the "regression to the mean" artifact. This artifact appears when a group with an extreme mean value during a first measurement tends to obtain a less extreme value (i.e. tends toward the mean) on a subsequent measurement. The main aim was to experimentally confirm the presence of this artifact in the responses of the reference oxidative stress biomarker (F2-isoprostanes) after exercise. Urine samples were collected before and immediately following acute exercise in order to determine the level of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Afterwards, participants were arranged into three groups based on their levels of exercise-induced oxidative stress (low, moderate and high oxidative stress groups; n = 12 per group). In order to verify the existence of the regression to the mean artifact, the three groups were subjected to a second exercise trial one week after the first trial. This study confirmed the regression to the mean artifact in a redox biology context and showed that this artifact can be minimized by performing a duplicate pretreatment measurement after completing a nonrandom sorting based on the first assessment. This study also indicated that different individuals experience high oxidative stress or reductive stress (or no stress) to the same exercise stimulus even after adjusting for regression to the mean. This finding substantiates the methodological choice to divide individuals based on their degree of exercise-induced oxidative stress in future experiments to investigate the role of reactive species in exercise adaptations.

  20. Solid phase immobilization of optically responsive liposomes insol-gel materials for chemical and biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Stacey A.; Charych, Deborah H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.

    1997-04-01

    Liposomes enhanced with surface recognition groups have previously been found to have high affinity for heavy metal ions and virus particles with unique fluorescent and colorimetric responses, respectively. These lipid aggregate systems have now been successfully immobilized in a silica matrix via the sol-gel method, affording sensor materials that are robust, are easily handled, and offer optical clarity. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of preformed liposomes without modification of the aggregate structure. Lipid extraction studies of immobilized nonpolymerized liposomes showed no lipid leakage in aqueous solution over a period of 3 months. Heavy metal fluorescent sensor materials prepared with 5 percent N-[8-[1-octadecyl-2-(9-(1-pyrenyl)nonyl)-rac-glyceroyl]-3,6-dioxaoctyl]imino acid/distearylphosphatidylcholineliposomes exhibited a 4-50-fold enhancement in sensitivity to various metal ions compared to that of the liposomes in free solution. Through ionic attraction the anionic silicate surface, at the experimental pH of 7.4, may act as a preconcentrator of divalent metal ions, boosting the gel's internal metal concentration. Entrapped sialic acid-coated polydiacetylene liposomes responded with colorimetric signaling to influenza virus X31, although slower than the free liposomes in solution. The successful transport of the virus (50-100 nm diameter) reveals a large pore diameter of the gel connecting the liposome to the bulk solution. The porous and durable silica matrix additionally provides a protective barrier to biological attack (bacterial, fungal) and allows facile recycling of the liposome heavy metal sensor.

  1. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  2. Time-Motion and Biological Responses in Simulated Mixed Martial Arts Sparring Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor S; Ramos, Solange de P; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2016-08-01

    Coswig, VS, Ramos, SdP, and Del Vecchio, FB. Time-motion and biological responses in simulated mixed martial arts sparring matches. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2156-2163, 2016-Simulated matches are a relevant component of training for mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. This study aimed to characterize time-motion responses and investigate physiological stress and neuromuscular changes related to MMA sparring matches. Thirteen athletes with an average age of 25 ± 5 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 9.5 kg, height of 176.2 ± 5.5 cm, and time of practice in MMA of 39 ± 25 months participated in the study. The fighters executed three 5-minute rounds with 1-minute intervals. Blood and salivary samples were collected and physical tests and psychometric questionnaires administered at 3 time points: before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 hours after the combat (48 h). Statistical analysis applied analysis of variance for repeated measurements. In biochemical analysis, significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between PRE and POST (glucose: 80.3 ± 12.7 to 156.5 ± 19.1 mg·ml; lactate: 4 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 4.8 mmol·dl), POST and 48 hours (glucose: 156.5 ± 19.1 to 87.6 ± 15.5 mg·ml; lactate: 15.6 ± 4.8 to 2.9 ± 3.5 mmol·dl; urea: 44.1 ± 8.9 to 36.3 ± 7.8 mg·ml), and PRE and 48 hours (creatine kinase [CK]: 255.8 ± 137.4 to 395.9 ± 188.7 U/L). In addition, time-motion analyses showed a total high:low intensity of 1:2 and an effort:pause ratio of 1:3. In conclusion, simulated MMA sparring matches feature moderate to high intensity and a low degree of musculoskeletal damage, which can be seen by absence of physical performance and decrease in CK. Results of the study indicate that sparring training could be introduced into competitive microcycles to improve technical and tactical aspects of MMA matches, due to the high motor specificity and low muscle damage.

  3. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CELLRAD)": Hardware and biological system tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CELLRAD, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CELLRAD in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  4. [THE USE OF "REAMBERIN" AS BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE MODIFIER TO INCREASE THE NATURAL KILLER CELLS' CYTOTOXICITY IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG TUBERCULOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholamov, A I; Mirzomogomedova, V G; Chernoshey, D A; Lizunov, E S

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the drug "Reamberin" cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells (EC) in an experimental model in the blood samples of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy donors. Simulation acute systemic inflammation by adding to the culture medium of BCG. After 48 hours, selection was performed mononuclear peripheral blood by gradient centrifugation tests set cytotoxic tumor cell line K-562. Revealed the stimulating effect of the drug "Reamberin" cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells. Metabolic Correction has had a positive impact on the energy metabolism of blood natural killer cells, to increase their survial and cytotoxicity.

  5. Scientific perspectivism: A philosopher of science's response to the challenge of big data biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callebaut, Werner

    2012-03-01

    Big data biology-bioinformatics, computational biology, systems biology (including 'omics'), and synthetic biology-raises a number of issues for the philosophy of science. This article deals with several such: Is data-intensive biology a new kind of science, presumably post-reductionistic? To what extent is big data biology data-driven? Can data 'speak for themselves?' I discuss these issues by way of a reflection on Carl Woese's worry that "a society that permits biology to become an engineering discipline, that allows that science to slip into the role of changing the living world without trying to understand it, is a danger to itself." And I argue that scientific perspectivism, a philosophical stance represented prominently by Giere, Van Fraassen, and Wimsatt, according to which science cannot as a matter of principle transcend our human perspective, provides the best resources currently at our disposal to tackle many of the philosophical issues implied in the modeling of complex, multilevel/multiscale phenomena.

  6. Dynamic transcriptional signatures and network responses for clinical symptoms in influenza-infected human subjects using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linel, Patrice; Wu, Shuang; Deng, Nan; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that human blood transcriptional signatures may be used to support diagnosis and clinical decisions for acute respiratory viral infections such as influenza. In this article, we propose to use a newly developed systems biology approach for time course gene expression data to identify significant dynamically response genes and dynamic gene network responses to viral infection. We illustrate the methodological pipeline by reanalyzing the time course gene expression data from a study with healthy human subjects challenged by live influenza virus. We observed clear differences in the number of significant dynamic response genes (DRGs) between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and also identified DRG signatures for symptomatic subjects with influenza infection. The 505 common DRGs shared by the symptomatic subjects have high consistency with the signature genes for predicting viral infection identified in previous works. The temporal response patterns and network response features were carefully analyzed and investigated.

  7. A cell-based systems biology assessment of human blood to monitor immune responses after influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Kristen L; Samir, Parimal; Howard, Leigh M; Niu, Xinnan; Prasad, Nripesh; Galassie, Allison; Liu, Qi; Allos, Tara M; Floyd, Kyle A; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Levy, Shawn E; Joyce, Sebastian; Edwards, Kathryn M; Link, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to comprehensively study complex interactions within a biological system. Most published systems vaccinology studies have utilized whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to monitor the immune response after vaccination. Because human blood is comprised of multiple hematopoietic cell types, the potential for masking responses of under-represented cell populations is increased when analyzing whole blood or PBMC. To investigate the contribution of individual cell types to the immune response after vaccination, we established a rapid and efficient method to purify human T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), monocytes, and neutrophils from fresh venous blood. Purified cells were fractionated and processed in a single day. RNA-Seq and quantitative shotgun proteomics were performed to determine expression profiles for each cell type prior to and after inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. Our results show that transcriptomic and proteomic profiles generated from purified immune cells differ significantly from PBMC. Differential expression analysis for each immune cell type also shows unique transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiles as well as changing biological networks at early time points after vaccination. This cell type-specific information provides a more comprehensive approach to monitor vaccine responses.

  8. Serum anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody titers are correlated with the response to biological agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Takahashi, Sakiko Isojima, Masayu Umemura, Yoko Miura, Nao Oguro, Syo Ishii, Shinya Seki, Takahiro Tokunaga, Hiroyuki Tsukamoto, Hidekazu Furuya, Ryo Yanai, Tsuyoshi KasamaDivision of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine,Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA is known as an important indicator for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Our aim was to examine the relationship between the serum ACPA titer at baseline and responsiveness to biological agents (antagonists of either tumor necrosis factor or interleukin 6 in patients with RA. ACPA was measured using second-generation chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity scores 28. Fifty-seven RA patients with biological agents were enrolled, and the median ACPA titer at baseline was 110.0 U/mL. The median ACPA titer was 23.3 U/mL and 183.0 U/mL in the good and moderate response groups, respectively, which were significantly lower than in the no response group (404.0 U/mL. In addition, 69.2% and 26.9% of patients with low (<100 U/mL and moderate (100–499 U/mL basal ACPA titers showed a moderate to good response. Of the patients with higher (≥500 U/mL basal ACPA titers, only 14.0% and 42.5% showed a good or moderate response, respectively. The remission rate was 77.8% in the ACPA-negative, which was significantly higher than the rate of 25% in the ACPA-positive patients. The results suggest that the ACPA titers are correlated with the efficacy of the biological agents used in patients with RA.Keywords: biological agents, remission

  9. Gene Knockdown in Human Rhinovirus 1B Using 2'-OMe-modified siRNAs Results in the Reactivation of the Interferon Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang Cheng; Zhang, Qing; Pang, Li Li; Li, Dan Di; Jin, Miao; Li, Hui Ying; Xu, Zi Qian; Kong, Xiang Yu; Wang, Hong; Lu, Shan; Duan, Zhao Jun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knockdown efficiency of 2'-O-methylated (2'-OMe)-modified small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on human rhinovirus 1B (HRV1B) replication and the interferon response. Thus, 24 2'-OMe-modified siRNAs were designed to target HRV1B. The RNA levels of HRV1B, Toll-like receptor 3, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, retinoic acid inducible gene-I, and interferons were determined in HRV1B-infected HeLa and BEAS-2B epithelial cells transfected with 2'-OMe-modified siRNAs. The results revealed that all 2'-OMe-modified siRNAs interfered with the replication of HRV1B in a cell-specific and transfection efficiency-dependent manner. Viral activation of Toll-like receptor 3, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, retinoic acid inducible gene-I, and the interferon response was detected. In conclusion, the 2'-OMe-modified siRNAs used in this study could interfere with HRV1B replication, possibly leading to the reactivation of the interferon response.

  10. How do precision medicine and system biology response to human body's complex adaptability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing

    2016-12-01

    In the field of life sciences, although system biology and "precision medicine" introduce some complex scientifific methods and techniques, it is still based on the "analysis-reconstruction" of reductionist theory as a whole. Adaptability of complex system increase system behaviour uncertainty as well as the difficulties of precise identifification and control. It also put systems biology research into trouble. To grasp the behaviour and characteristics of organism fundamentally, systems biology has to abandon the "analysis-reconstruction" concept. In accordance with the guidelines of complexity science, systems biology should build organism model from holistic level, just like the Chinese medicine did in dealing with human body and disease. When we study the living body from the holistic level, we will fifind the adaptability of complex system is not the obstacle that increases the diffificulty of problem solving. It is the "exceptional", "right-hand man" that helping us to deal with the complexity of life more effectively.

  11. Fungal stress biology: a preface to the Fungal Stress Responses special edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Alder-Rangel, Alene; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Finlay, Roger D; Kupiec, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Braga, Gilberto U L; Corrochano, Luis M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-08-01

    There is currently an urgent need to increase global food security, reverse the trends of increasing cancer rates, protect environmental health, and mitigate climate change. Toward these ends, it is imperative to improve soil health and crop productivity, reduce food spoilage, reduce pesticide usage by increasing the use of biological control, optimize bioremediation of polluted sites, and generate energy from sustainable sources such as biofuels. This review focuses on fungi that can help provide solutions to such problems. We discuss key aspects of fungal stress biology in the context of the papers published in this Special Issue of Current Genetics. This area of biology has relevance to pure and applied research on fungal (and indeed other) systems, including biological control of insect pests, roles of saprotrophic fungi in agriculture and forestry, mycotoxin contamination of the food-supply chain, optimization of microbial fermentations including those used for bioethanol production, plant pathology, the limits of life on Earth, and astrobiology.

  12. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malling, H.V. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  13. Dietary oils modify the host immune response and colonic tissue damage following Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatdoost, Azita; Wu, Xiujuan; Morampudi, Vijay; Innis, Sheila M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2013-05-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an intestinal inflammatory disorder of multifactorial origin, in which diets that favor high n-6 and low n-3 fatty acids have been implicated. The present study addressed whether dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids alter colonic mucosal response to Citrobacter rodentium (C. rodentium) infection. Mice were fed diets identical except for fatty acids, with an energy percentage of 15% 18:2n-6 and <0.06% 18:3n-3, 4.2% 18:2n-6 and 1.9% 18:3n-3, or 1.44% 20:5n-3, 4.9% 22:6n-3, 0.32% 18:2n-6, and 0.12% 18:3n-3 from safflower, canola, or fish oil, respectively for 3 wk before infection. Dietary oils had no effect on colonic C. rodentium growth but altered colon 20:4n-6/(20:5n-3+22:6n-3) with 9.40 ± 0.06, 1.94 ± 0.08, and 0.32 ± 0.03% in colon phosphatidylcholine and 3.82 ± 0.18, 1.14 ± 0.02, and 0.30 ± 0.02% in phosphatidylethanolamine of mice fed safflower, canola, or fish oil, respectively. At 10 days postinfection, histological damage, F4/80-positive macrophages, and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in colonic mucosa were higher in infected mice fed safflower than fish oil. Colon gene transcripts for macrophage inflammatory protein 2, keratinocyte cytokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression were significantly higher in infected mice fed safflower than canola or fish oil; IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17A expression were significantly elevated in mice fed safflower rather than fish oil; and IL-10 was significantly higher in mice fed fish oil rather than canola or safflower oil. This study demonstrates that oils high in 18:2n-6 with minimal n-3 fatty acids exacerbate mucosal immune response, whereas oils high in n-3 fatty acids attenuate mucosal immune response to C. rodentium. These studies implicate dietary oils as environmental modifiers of intestinal inflammation in response to infection.

  14. Anti-tumor response induced by immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and laser irradiation using rat mammary tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Fefian; Liu, Hong; Howard, Eric W.; Bullen, Liz C.; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is being developed as a treatment modality for metastatic cancer which can destroy primary tumors and induce effective systemic anti-tumor responses by using a targeted treatment approach in conjunction with the use of a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC). In this study, Non-invasive Laser Immunotherapy (NLIT) was used as the primary treatment mode. We incorporated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into the treatment regimen to boost the tumor-killing effect of LIT. SWNTs and GC were conjugated to create a completely novel, immunologically modified carbon nanotube (SWNT-GC). To determine the efficacy of different laser irradiation durations, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, a series of experiments were performed. Rats were inoculated with DMBA-4 cancer cells, a highly aggressive metastatic cancer cell line. Half of the treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 10 minutes survived without primary or metastatic tumors. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 5 minutes had no survivors. Thus, Laser+SWNT-GC treatment with 10 minutes of laser irradiation proved to be effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity.

  15. Molecular phenology in plants: in natura systems biology for the comprehensive understanding of seasonal responses under natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Phenology refers to the study of seasonal schedules of organisms. Molecular phenology is defined here as the study of the seasonal patterns of organisms captured by molecular biology techniques. The history of molecular phenology is reviewed briefly in relation to advances in the quantification technology of gene expression. High-resolution molecular phenology (HMP) data have enabled us to study phenology with an approach of in natura systems biology. I review recent analyses of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a temperature-responsive repressor of flowering, along the six steps in the typical flow of in natura systems biology. The extensive studies of the regulation of FLC have made this example a successful case in which a comprehensive understanding of gene functions has been progressing. The FLC-mediated long-term memory of past temperatures creates time lags with other seasonal signals, such as photoperiod and short-term temperature. Major signals that control flowering time have a phase lag between them under natural conditions, and hypothetical phase lag calendars are proposed as mechanisms of season detection in plants. Transcriptomic HMP brings a novel strategy to the study of molecular phenology, because it provides a comprehensive representation of plant functions. I discuss future perspectives of molecular phenology from the standpoints of molecular biology, evolutionary biology and ecology.

  16. Gated supramolecular chemistry in hybrid mesoporous silica nanoarchitectures: controlled delivery and molecular transport in response to chemical, physical and biological stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Sebastián; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2015-04-11

    This review presents and discusses recent advances in the emerging field of "gated nanochemistry", outlining the substantial progress made so far. The development of hybrid mesoporous silica with complex tailored pore nanoarchitectures bridges the gap between molecular materials and the requirements of nanodevices for controlled nanoscale chemistry. In the last decade, membranes, particles and thin film porous architectures have been designed, synthesized and selectively modified by molecular, polymeric, organometallic or biologically active groups. The exquisite manipulation of mesopore morphology and interconnection combined with molecular or supramolecular functionalities, and the intrinsic biological compatibility of silica have made these materials a potential platform for selective sensing and drug delivery. The wide répertoire of these hard-soft architectures permit us to envisage sophisticated intelligent nano-systems that respond to a variety of external stimuli such as pH, redox potential, molecule concentration, temperature, or light. Transduction of these stimuli into a predefined response implies exploiting spatial and physico-chemical effects such as charge distribution, steric constraints, equilibria displacements, or local changes in ionic concentration, just to name a few examples. As expected, this "positional mesochemistry" can be only attained through the concerted control of assembly, surface tailoring and, confinement conditions, thus giving birth to a new class of stimuli-responsive materials with modulable transport properties. As a guiding framework the emerging field of "gated nanochemistry" offers methodologies and tools for building up stimuli-sensitive porous architectures equipped with switchable entities whose transport properties can be triggered at will. The gated nanoscopic hybrid materials discussed here not only herald a new era in the integrative design of "smart" drug delivery systems, but also give the reader a perspective of

  17. Modified ionic liquid cold-induced aggregation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with spectrofluorimetry for trace determination of ofloxacin in pharmaceutical and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, M.; Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Ofloxacin is a quinolone synthetic antibiotic, which acts against resistant mutants of bacteria by inhibiting DNA gyrase. This antibacterial agent is widely used in the treatment of respiratory tract, urinary tract and tissue-based infections, which are caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, an efficient modified ionic liquid cold-induced aggregation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (M-IL-CIA-DLLME) was combined with spectrofluorimetry for trace determination of ofloxacin in real samples. Methods In this microextraction method, hydrophobic 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim] [PF6]) ionic liquid (IL) as a microextraction solvent was dispersed into a heated sample solution containing sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) (as a common ion) and the analyte of interest. Afterwards, the resultant solution was cooled in an ice-water bath and a cloudy condition was formed due to a considerable decrease of IL solubility. After centrifuging, the enriched phase was introduced to the spectrofluorimeter for the determination of ofloxacin. Results and major conclusion In this technique, the performance of the microextraction method was not influenced by variations in the ionic strength of the sample solution (up to 30% w/v). Furthermore, [Hmim][PF6] IL was chosen as a green microextraction phase and an alternative to traditional toxic organic solvents. Different parameters affecting the analytical performance were studied and optimized. At optimum conditions, a relatively broad linear dynamic range of 0.15-125 µg l-1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.029 µg l-1 were obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained for the determination of five replicates of the 10 ml solution containing 50 µg l-1 ofloxacin was 2.7%. Finally, the combined methodology was successfully applied to ofloxacin determination in actual pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. PMID

  18. Modified Ionic Liquid Cold-Induced Aggregation Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Spectrofluorimetry for Trace Determination of Ofloxacin in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Norouzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Ofloxacin is a quinolone synthetic antibiotic, which acts against resistant mutants of bacteria by inhibiting DNA gyrase. This antibacterial agent is widely used in the treatment of respiratory tract, urinary tract and tissue-based infections, which are caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, an efficient modified ionic liquid cold-induced aggregation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (M-IL-CIA-DLLME was combined with spectrofluorimetry for trace determination of ofloxacin in real samples.Methods: In this microextraction method, hydrophobic 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim] [PF6] ionic liquid (IL as a microextraction solvent was dispersed into a heated sample solution containing sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6 (as a common ion and the analyte of interest. Afterwards, the resultant solution was cooled in an ice-water bath and a cloudy condition was formed due to a considerable decrease of IL solubility. After centrifuging, the enriched phase was introduced to the spectrofluorimeter for the determination of ofloxacin.Results and major conclusion: In this technique, the performance of the microextraction method was not influenced by variations in the ionic strength of the sample solution (up to 30% w/v. Furthermore, [Hmim][PF6] IL was chosen as a green microextraction phase and an alternative to traditional toxic organic solvents. Different parameters affecting the analytical performance were studied and optimized. At optimum conditions, a relatively broad linear dynamic range of 0.15-125 μg l-1 and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.029 μg l-1 were obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D. obtained for the determination of five replicates of the 10 ml solution containing 50 μg l-1 ofloxacin was 2.7%. Finally, the combined methodology was successfully applied to ofloxacin determination in actual pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples.

  19. IMPACT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF A FERRICYNIDE PROBE AT TEMPLATE-MODIFIED SELF ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS ON GOLD ELECTRODES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of pyrene on the electrochemical response of the ferricyanide probe using Self Assembled Monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrodes was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV). These results suggest the feasibility of using SAMs, par...

  20. Invention of stimulus-responsive peptide-bond-cleaving residue (Spr) and its application to chemical biology tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenaga, Akira; Yamamoto, Jun; Kohiki, Taiki; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Otaka, Akira

    2017-01-19

    Elucidation of biological functions of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding peptide/protein-related biological events and developing drugs. Caged peptides and proteins that release a parent active peptide/protein by photo-irradiation have successfully been employed to elucidate the functions. Whereas the usual caged peptide/protein enables conversion of an inactive form to an active form (OFF-to-ON conversion) by photo-induced deprotection, photo-triggered main chain cleavage is reported to be applicable to ON-to-OFF conversion. These peptides and proteins are photo-responsive; however, if peptides and proteins could respond to other stimuli such as disease-related environment or enzymes, their range of application should be widened. To convert the photo-responsive peptide/protein into other stimulus-responsive peptide/protein, quite laborious de novo design and synthesis of the stimulus-responsive unit are required. In this context, we designed a stimulus-responsive peptide-bond-cleaving residue (Spr) in which the stimuli available for the main chain cleavage vary according to the choice of protecting groups on the residue. In this review, design and synthesis of Spr are introduced, and challenges to apply Spr to other fields to enable, for example, functional control, localization control, delivery of cargos, labeling of a protein of interest in living cells, and identification of target proteins of bioactive ligands are discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Modified super-long down-regulation protocol improves fertilization and pregnancy in patients with poor ovarian responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-juan; SONG Xue-ru; L(U) Rui; XUE Feng-xia

    2012-01-01

    Background The successful end-point of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is for a woman to give live birth.This outcome is based on various factors including adequate number of retrieved eggs.Failure to recruit adequate follicles,from which the eggs are retrieved,is called a "poor response".How to improve the clinical pregnancy rates of poor responders was one of the tough problems for IVF.Methods The study involved 51 patients who responded poorly to high dose gonadotropin treatment in their previous cycles at our reproductive center,between April 2010 and February 2012.The previous cycle (group A) received routine long protocol; the subsequent cycle (group B) received modified super-long down-regulation protocol.The primary outcome of the study was the number of oocytes fertilized.The increase in the pregnancy rate was the secondary outcome.Differences between the groups were assessed by using Student's t test and x2 test where appropriate.Results The patients' average age was (36.64±3.85) years.The mean duration of ovarian stimulation cycles of the group A patients was longer than those of the group B patients.The total dose of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was significantly lower in the subsequent cycle.The peak value of serum estradiol on human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) day was lower in group A as compared with group B.The number of metaphase Ⅱ oocytes recovered was significantly higher in group B.The cleavage rate in group A was significantly lower than in group B,49 patients in group B reached embryo transfer stage,while 46 patients in group A reached this stage.Patients in group B received significantly more embryos per transfer as compared with group A.More pregnancies and more clinical pregnancies with fetal heart activity were achieved in group B.Conclusions This comparative trial shows that poor responder women undergoing repeated assisted reproduction treatment using modified super-long down-regulation protocol achieve more oocytes

  2. Chemistry and biology of reactive oxygen species in signaling or stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Bryan C; Chang, Christopher J

    2011-07-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a family of molecules that are continuously generated, transformed and consumed in all living organisms as a consequence of aerobic life. The traditional view of these reactive oxygen metabolites is one of oxidative stress and damage that leads to decline of tissue and organ systems in aging and disease. However, emerging data show that ROS produced in certain situations can also contribute to physiology and increased fitness. This Perspective provides a focused discussion on what factors lead ROS molecules to become signal and/or stress agents, highlighting how increasing knowledge of the underlying chemistry of ROS can lead to advances in understanding their disparate contributions to biology. An important facet of this emerging area at the chemistry-biology interface is the development of new tools to study these small molecules and their reactivity in complex biological systems.

  3. Lecture-Free High School Biology Using an Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    Audience Response Systems (ARS) represent a powerful new tool for increasing student engagement. ARS technology (known variously as electronic voting systems, personal response systems, interactive student response systems, and classroom performance systems) includes one hand-held remote per student, a receiver (infrared or radio frequency,…

  4. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  5. Synthesis by anodic-spark deposition of Ca- and P-containing films on pure titanium and their biological response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banakh, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.banakh@he-arc.ch [Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie (HES-SO), Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Journot, Tony; Gay, Pierre-Antoine; Matthey, Joël; Csefalvay, Catherine [Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie (HES-SO), Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Kalinichenko, Oleg [Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology (SHEI), Gagarin av. 8, Dnepropetrovsk, UA-49005 (Ukraine); Sereda, Olha [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM), Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Moussa, Mira; Durual, Stéphane [Laboratory of Biomaterials, University of Geneva, rue Barthelemy Menn 19, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Snizhko, Lyubov [Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology (SHEI), Gagarin av. 8, Dnepropetrovsk, UA-49005 (Ukraine)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • ​CP-4 Ti was treated by anodic spark oxidation in the electrolyte containing Ca and P ions by varying process time and electrolyte concentration. • Ca/P ratio in layers is 0.23–0.47, much lower than in hydroxyapatites (1.67). It means coatings should be resorbable in a biological medium • After immersion in SBF, Ca and P content in layers decrease. Ca and P loss occurs faster in thin layers than in thicker coatings. • The biological response of the samples suggests their excellent biocompatibility and even stimulating effects on osteoblasts proliferation. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to characterize the anodized layers formed on titanium by anodic-spark deposition in an electrolyte containing Ca and P ions, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, studied for the first time. The oxidation experiments were performed at different periods of time and using different concentrations of electrolyte. The influence of the process parameters (time of electrolysis and electrolyte concentration) on the surface morphology and chemical composition of the anodized layers was studied. It has been found that it is possible to incorporate Ca and P into the growing layer. A response of the anodized layers in a biological medium was evaluated by their immersion in a simulated body fluid. An enrichment of titanium and a simultaneous loss of calcium and phosphorus in the layer after immersion tests indicate that these coatings should be bioresorbable in a biological medium. Preliminary biological assays were performed on some anodized layers in order to assess their biocompatibility with osteoblast cells. The cell proliferation on one selected anodized sample was assessed up to 21 days after seeding. The preliminary results suggest excellent biocompatibility properties of anodized coatings.

  6. Manufacturing and Shear Response Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Modified CFRP Using the Out-of-Autoclave-Vacuum-Bag-Only Cure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. McDonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testingwas used to study the in-plane shear performance of [±45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  7. Manufacturing and shear response characterization of carbon nanofiber modified CFRP using the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only cure process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E; Wallace, Landon F; Hickman, Gregory J S; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testing was used to study the in-plane shear performance of [± 45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  8. Vaccinations in adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease: Immunization schedule and recommendations for patients taking synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Jacques; Czitrom, Séverine Guillaume; Mallick, Auriane; Sellam, Jérémie; Sibilia, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The risk of infection associated with autoimmune diseases is further increased by the use of biotherapies. Recommendations to minimize this risk include administering the full complement of vaccines on the standard immunization schedule, as well as the pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease (IJD) may receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, as well as a live attenuated vaccine against recurrent herpes zoster, recently licensed by European regulatory authorities. Live attenuated vaccines can be given only after an interval without immunosuppressant and/or glucocorticoid therapy. The effectiveness of vaccines, as assessed based on titers of protective antibodies, varies across vaccine types and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Thus, methotrexate and rituximab are usually associated with decreased vaccine responses. The risks associated with vaccines are often considerably exaggerated by the media, which serve lobbies opposed to immunizations and make some patients reluctant to accept immunizations. Increasing immunization coverage may diminish the risk of treatment-related infections. A physician visit dedicated specifically to detecting comorbidities in patients with chronic IJD may result in improved immunization coverage. In this review, we discuss immunizations for adults with chronic IJD based on the treatments used, as well as immunization coverage. Many questions remain unanswered and warrant investigation by studies coordinated by the French networks IREIVAC (Innovative clinical research network in vaccinology) and IMIDIATE (Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease Alliance for Translational and Clinical Research).

  9. After the disaster: the hydrogeomorphic, ecological, and biological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Crisafulli, Charlie; Bishop, John

    2009-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens caused instantaneous landscape disturbance on a grand scale. On 18 May 1980, an ensemble of volcanic processes, including a debris avalanche, a directed pyroclastic density current, voluminous lahars, and widespread tephra fall, abruptly altered landscape hydrology and geomorphology, and created distinctive disturbance zones having varying impacts on regional biota. Response to the geological and ecological disturbances has been varied and complex. In general, eruption-induced alterations in landscape hydrology and geomorphology led to enhanced stormflow discharge and sediment transport. Although the hydrological response to landscape perturbation has diminished, enhanced sediment transport persists in some basins. In the nearly 30 years since the eruption, 350 million (metric) tons of suspended sediment has been delivered from the Toutle River watershed to the Cowlitz River (roughly 40 times the average annual preeruption suspended-sediment discharge of the Columbia River). Such prodigious sediment loading has wreaked considerable socioeconomic havoc, causing significant channel aggradation and loss of flood conveyance capacity. Significant and ongoing engineering efforts have been required to mitigate these problems. The overall biological evolution of the eruption-impacted landscape can be viewed in terms of a framework of survivor legacies. Despite appearances to the contrary, a surprising number of species survived the eruption, even in the most heavily devastated areas. With time, survivor “hotspots” have coalesced into larger patches, and have served as stepping stones for immigrant colonization. The importance of biological legacies will diminish with time, but the intertwined trajectories of geophysical and biological successions will influence the geological and biological responses to the 1980 eruption for decades to come.

  10. Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater is an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne es...

  11. Photoelectric properties of cystine-modified nano-TiO{sub 2} with visible-light response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Xiuwen [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Xuefu Road 74, Nangang District, Harbin 150080, Heilongjiang Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Huanghe Road 73, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Huanghe Road 73, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Yu Xiujuan, E-mail: yuxjuan@hit.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Xuefu Road 74, Nangang District, Harbin 150080, Heilongjiang Province (China); Xing Zipeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Xuefu Road 74, Nangang District, Harbin 150080, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cystine modified TiO{sub 2} was prepared by the addition of biomolecule cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth of crystallite sizes was greatly inhibited by modification with cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The light absorption was red shifted to visible region by modification with cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoinduced charge carriers of TiO{sub 2} were improved by modification with cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoelectrical property of TiO{sub 2} modification with cystine was discussed. - Abstract: Visible light responsible TiO{sub 2} nano-particles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) were prepared through sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate and biomolecule cystine as raw materials. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and electric field induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy (EFISPS). The XRD results showed that the addition of cystine could effectively retard the phase transformation of TiO{sub 2} from anatase to rutile and the growth of crystallite sizes. DRS results indicated that the light absorption edge of TiO{sub 2} was significantly red-shifted to visible region with the addition of biomolecule cystine. SPS results exhibited that the separation efficiency of the photoinduced charge carriers of TiO{sub 2} were effectively improved. In addition, EFISPS indicated that TiO{sub 2} nano-particles modification with biomolecule cystine were still n-type semiconductor.

  12. Adaptive infinite impulse response system identification using modified-interior search algorithm with Lèvy flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Aggarwal, Apoorva

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new meta-heuristic optimization technique, called interior search algorithm (ISA) with Lèvy flight is proposed and applied to determine the optimal parameters of an unknown infinite impulse response (IIR) system for the system identification problem. ISA is based on aesthetics, which is commonly used in interior design and decoration processes. In ISA, composition phase and mirror phase are applied for addressing the nonlinear and multimodal system identification problems. System identification using modified-ISA (M-ISA) based method involves faster convergence, single parameter tuning and does not require derivative information because it uses a stochastic random search using the concepts of Lèvy flight. A proper tuning of control parameter has been performed in order to achieve a balance between intensification and diversification phases. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, mean square error (MSE), computation time and percentage improvement are considered as the performance measure. To validate the performance of M-ISA based method, simulations has been carried out for three benchmarked IIR systems using same order and reduced order system. Genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), cat swarm optimization (CSO), cuckoo search algorithm (CSA), differential evolution using wavelet mutation (DEWM), firefly algorithm (FFA), craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO), harmony search (HS) algorithm, opposition based harmony search (OHS) algorithm, hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (HPSO-GSA) and ISA are also used to model the same examples and simulation results are compared. Obtained results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  14. The effects of natural and modified clinoptilolite on intestinal barrier function and immune response to LPS in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu Jue; Zhou, Yan Min; Wu, Ya Nan; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2013-05-15

    The protection of intestinal barrier function and the anti-inflammatory effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were investigated in broilers that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 288 1-d-old broiler chicks were divided equally into three treatment groups: control, NCLI-treated (2%) and MCLI-treated (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250μg/kg body weight, administered orally) at 16, 18 and 21d of age. The results indicated that, prior to LPS challenge, the diet had no effect on bird growth performance (P>0.05). The oral administration of LPS was also not associated with any significant changes in poultry performance (P>0.05). In LPS-challenged birds that were pretreated with NCLI (2%) or MCLI (2%), the LPS-induced increases in the plasma and intestinal mucosa concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, significant decreases in the plasma d-lactic acid and diamine oxidase (DAO) levels were found in birds that were pretreated with NCLI or MCLI. Furthermore, both NCLI and MCLI reduced the sICAM-1 concentration in the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, NCLI and MCLI are able to prevent the LPS-induced intestinal mucosa damage and inflammatory response in vivo. These beneficial effects suggest that NCLI and MCLI act as anti-inflammatory agents in part by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and hyperactivation and by suppressing the secretion of various plasma and intestinal mucosa inflammatory mediators.

  15. Interaction of Saccharomyces boulardii with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium protects mice and modifies T84 cell response to the infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano S Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella pathogenesis engages host cells in two-way biochemical interactions: phagocytosis of bacteria by recruitment of cellular small GTP-binding proteins induced by the bacteria, and by triggering a pro-inflammatory response through activation of MAPKs and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Worldwide interest in the use of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria for health promotion and disease prevention has increased significantly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast used as a probiotic in infectious diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we reported that S. boulardii (Sb protected mice from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST-induced death and prevented bacterial translocation to the liver. At a molecular level, using T84 human colorectal cancer cells, we demonstrate that incubation with Sb before infection totally abolished Salmonella invasion. This correlates with a decrease of activation of Rac1. Sb preserved T84 barrier function and decreased ST-induced IL-8 synthesis. This anti-inflammatory effect was correlated with an inhibitory effect of Sb on ST-induced activation of the MAPKs ERK1/2, p38 and JNK as well as on activation of NF-kappaB. Electron and confocal microscopy experiments showed an adhesion of bacteria to yeast cells, which could represent one of the mechanisms by which Sb exerts its protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Sb shows modulating effects on permeability, inflammation, and signal transduction pathway in T84 cells infected by ST and an in vivo protective effect against ST infection. The present results also demonstrate that Sb modifies invasive properties of Salmonella.

  16. Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and Modifies Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Responses to Insulin in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Ledee, Dolena; Ning, Xue-Han; Ge, Ming; Portman, Michael A.

    2010-07-02

    Aging presumably initiates shifts in substrate oxidation mediated in part by changes in insulin sensitivity. Similar shifts occur with cardiac hypertrophy and may contribute to contractile dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with microtipped pressure transducers in the left ventricle from control (4–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice. Cardiac function was also measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate and anaplerotic fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle (CAC) by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate, lactate, and unlabeled glucose. Stroke volume and cardiac output were diminished in aged mice in vivo, but pressure development was preserved. Systolic and diastolic functions were maintained in aged isolated hearts. Insulin prompted an increase in systolic function in aged hearts, resulting in an increase in cardiac efficiency. FFA and ketone flux were present but were markedly impaired in aged hearts. These changes in myocardial substrate utilization corresponded to alterations in circulating lipids, thyroid hormone, and reductions in protein expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)4. Insulin further suppressed FFA oxidation in the aged. Insulin stimulation of anaplerosis in control hearts was absent in the aged. The aged heart shows metabolic plasticity by accessing multiple substrates to maintain function. However, fatty acid oxidation capacity is limited. Impaired insulin-stimulated anaplerosis may contribute to elevated cardiac efficiency, but may also limit response to acute stress through depletion of CAC intermediates.

  17. Poorer functionality is related to better quality of life response following the use of biological drugs: 6-month outcomes in a prospective cohort from the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Haliton Alves; dos Santos, Jéssica Barreto; Acurcio, Francisco Assis; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Alvares, Juliana; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Duarte; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2015-06-01

    We aim to analyze factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) response of individuals with rheumatic diseases treated by the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Data from 428 patients using bDMARDs were collected using a standardized form at baseline and 6 months after the onset of treatment. The average reduction of the scores on EuroQol-five dimension was 0.11 ± 0.18 6 months after the onset of treatment with bDMARDs, denoting significant improvement of the participants' QOL. All the investigated types of disease exhibited significant improvement at the 6-month assessment, without any difference among them (p = 0.965). The participants with baseline poorest functionality and best QOL exhibited the best QOL outcomes after 6 months of treatment. Our study showed that the use of biological drugs induced considerable improvement in the participants' QOL.

  18. Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Biological Responses to Direct Current Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Lorena M.; Montealegre, Stephania; Chaverra, Zumara; Mojica, Luis; Espinosa, Carlos; Almanza, Alejandro; Correa, Ricardo; Stoute, José A.; Gittens, Rolando A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of resistance to insecticides by the vector of malaria and the increasingly faster appearance of resistance to antimalarial drugs by the parasite can dangerously hamper efforts to control and eradicate the disease. Alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. Here we evaluate the in vitro effect of direct current (DC) capacitive coupling electrical stimulation on the biology and viability of Plasmodium falciparum. We designed a system that exposes infected erythrocytes to different capacitively coupled electric fields in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum. The effect on growth of the parasite, replication of DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of reactive oxygen species after exposure to electric fields demonstrate that the parasite is biologically able to respond to stimuli from DC electric fields involving calcium signaling pathways. PMID:27537497

  19. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  20. Metabolomics identifies a biological response to chronic low-dose natural uranium contamination in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Eric; Banzet, Nathalie; Defoort, Catherine; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2013-01-01

    Because uranium is a natural element present in the earth's crust, the population may be chronically exposed to low doses of it through drinking water. Additionally, the military and civil uses of uranium can also lead to environmental dispersion that can result in high or low doses of acute or chronic exposure. Recent experimental data suggest this might lead to relatively innocuous biological reactions. The aim of this study was to assess the biological changes in rats caused by ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water with a mean daily intake of 2.7 mg/kg for 9 months and to identify potential biomarkers related to such a contamination. Subsequently, we observed no pathology and standard clinical tests were unable to distinguish between treated and untreated animals. Conversely, LC-MS metabolomics identified urine as an appropriate biofluid for discriminating the experimental groups. Of the 1,376 features detected in urine, the most discriminant were metabolites involved in tryptophan, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. In particular, N-methylnicotinamide, which was found at a level seven times higher in untreated than in contaminated rats, had the greatest discriminating power. These novel results establish a proof of principle for using metabolomics to address chronic low-dose uranium contamination. They open interesting perspectives for understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and designing a diagnostic test of exposure.

  1. Use of Constructed-Response Questions to Support Learning of Cell Biology during Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong May Yeong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of class-response systems such as the Clickers to promote active-learning during lectures has been wide-spread. However, the often-used MCQ format in class activities as well as in assessments for large classes might lower students’ expectations and attitudes towards learning. Here, I describe my experience converting MCQs to constructed-response questions for in-class learning activities by removing cues from the MCQs. From the responses submitted, students seemed capable of providing answers without the need for cues. Using class-response systems such as Socrative for such constructed-response questions could be useful to challenge students to express their ideas in their own words. Moreover, by constructing their own answers, mis-conceptions could be revealed and corrected in a timely manner.

  2. Transcriptional responses to loss or gain of function of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene uncover biological processes modulated by LRRK2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V.; Xiong, Yulan; Tanis, Keith Q.; Dawson, Valina L.; Vogel, Robert L.; Finney, Eva M.; Stone, David J.; Reynolds, Ian J.; Kern, Jonathan T.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) and cause both autosomal dominant familial and sporadic PD. Currently, the physiological and pathogenic activities of LRRK2 are poorly understood. To decipher the biological functions of LRRK2, including the genes and pathways modulated by LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo, we assayed genome-wide mRNA expression in the brain and peripheral tissues from LRRK2 knockout (KO) and kinase hyperactive G2019S (G2019S) transgenic mice. Subtle but significant differences in mRNA expression were observed relative to wild-type (WT) controls in the cortex, striatum and kidney of KO animals, but only in the striatum in the G2019S model. In contrast, robust, consistent and highly significant differences were identified by the direct comparison of KO and G2019S profiles in the cortex, striatum, kidney and muscle, indicating opposite effects on mRNA expression by the two models relative to WT. Ribosomal and glycolytic biological functions were consistently and significantly up-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S compared with LRRK2 KO tissues. Genes involved in membrane-bound organelles, oxidative phosphorylation, mRNA processing and the endoplasmic reticulum were down-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S mice compared with KO. We confirmed the expression patterns of 35 LRRK2-regulated genes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These findings provide the first description of the transcriptional responses to genetically modified LRRK2 activity and provide preclinical target engagement and/or pharmacodynamic biomarker strategies for LRRK2 and may inform future therapeutic strategies for LRRK2-associated PD. PMID:21972245

  3. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  4. Hydrology modifies ecosystem responses to warming through interactions between soil, leaf and canopy processes in a high Arctic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Welker, J. M.; Lett, C.; Czimczik, C. I.; Lupascu, M.; Seibt, U. H.

    2013-12-01

    . Net carbon and water fluxes in the elevated temperature plots were similar to the control plots, as enhanced soil respiration offset the increased photosynthetic uptake. The T2 plants also had the highest leaf N content and specific leaf area (SLA), whereas watering, both in combination with higher temperatures and alone, reduced leaf SLA and leaf N relative to control plots. Warming increases soil N availability, but this is allocated differently depending on the precipitation regime. Where water limitation prevents increased canopy development the plants direct the N towards increasing the photosynthetic capacity of larger, thinner leaves, increasing leaf-level light use efficiency. However, with additional water, the distribution of N over a larger total leaf area results in overall greater productivity gains. Hydrology clearly modifies the response to warming in high Arctic ecosystems, through soil-plant interactions affecting both leaf and canopy scale processes. Our results provide a unique data set with which to parameterize and test models of ecosystem responses in the coming century.

  5. Phytotoxicity effects and biological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad

    2014-06-01

    Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants. Their bioaccumulation in the food chain makes dioxins a considerable risk for human health. The use of plants for removing toxic organic compounds, including dioxins, is a safe and efficient strategy. Herein we studied the toxicity effects and the biological responses in Arabidopsis thaliana to 2',3',7',8'-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. First, TCDD-induced toxicity was demonstrated using several parameters including, a decrease in seed germination, a loss in fresh weight with a striking decrease in chlorophyll content, but not in carotenoids, and an augmentation in the biomass of the lateral roots system, but not in the elongation of the primary root. Uptake of TCDD by Arabidopsis was confirmed. Responses to TCDD-exposure were marked by an enhanced level of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 production and a massive stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme activities. Moreover, a significant variation in the transcript level of transcription factor genes, bHLH, MYB and AP2-EREBP was detected in Arabidopsis shoot and an up-regulation of WRKY, MYB and IAA was observed in the root. Our results illustrate the TCDD-induced toxicity effects and the biological responses of Arabidopsis to TCDD. Better understanding of the plants ability to detoxifydioxins would help to improve their use as a safe bioremediators.

  6. Improvement of the electrochromic response of a low-temperature sintered dye-modified porous electrode using low-resistivity indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Watanabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An indium tin oxide (ITO nanoparticle-based porous electrode sintered at low temperatures was investigated as a transparent electrode for electrochromic displays (ECDs. The electrochromic (EC response of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C, which exhibited a generally low resistivity, was markedly superior to that of a conventional dye-modified TiO2 porous electrode sintered at the same temperature. Moreover, the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C were better than those of the high-temperature (450 °C sintered conventional dye-modified TiO2 porous electrode. These improvements in the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode are attributed to its lower resistivity than that of the TiO2 porous electrodes. In addition to its sufficiently low resistivity attained under the sintering conditions required for flexible ECD applications, the ITO porous film had superior visible-light transparency and dye adsorption capabilities. We conclude that the process temperature, resistivity, optical transmittance, and dye adsorption capability of the ITO porous electrode make it a promising transparent porous electrode for flexible ECD applications.

  7. Biological responses of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to Sr-M-Si (M = Zn, Mg) silicate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meili; Wu, Chengtie; Lin, Kaili; Fan, Wei; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Yin; Chang, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), and silicon (Si) are reported to be essential trace elements for the growth and mineralization of bone. We speculated that the combination of these bioactive elements in bioceramics may be effective to regulate the osteogenic property of bone-forming cells. In this study, two Sr-containing silicate bioceramics, Sr(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) (SZS) and Sr(2)MgSi(2)O(7) (SMS), were prepared. The biological response of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to the two bioceramics (in the forms of powders and dense ceramic bulks) was systematically studied. In powder form, the effect of powder extracts on the viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of BMSCs was investigated. In ceramic disc form, both direct and indirect coculture of BMSCs with ceramic discs were used to investigate their biological response, including attachment, proliferation, ALP activity, and bone-related genes expression. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and akermanite (Ca(2)MgSi(2)O(7), CMS) were used as control materials. The results showed that the Sr, Zn, and Si (or Sr, Mg, and Si)-containing ionic products from SZS and SMS powders enhanced ALP activity of BMSCs, compared to those from β-TCP. Both SZS and SMS ceramic discs supported the growth of BMSCs, and most importantly, significantly enhanced the ALP activity and bone-related genes expression of BMSCs as compared to β-TCP. The results suggest that the specific combination of bioactive ions (Sr, Zn, Si, e.g.) in bioceramics is a viable way to improve the biological performance of biomaterials, and the form of materials and surface properties were nonnegligible factors to influence cell response.

  8. Biologic response of inguinal hernia prosthetics: a comparative study of conventional static meshes versus 3D dynamic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Giuseppe; Romano, Giorgio; Agrusa, Antonino; Marasa, Salvatore; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Gulotta, Gaspare; Goetze, Thorsten; Puleio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in prosthetics and surgical techniques, the rate of complications following inguinal hernia repair remains high. Among these, discomfort and chronic pain have become a source of increasing concern among surgeons. Poor quality of tissue ingrowth, such as thin scar plates or shrinking scars-typical results with conventional static implants and plugs-may contribute to these adverse events. Recently, a new type of 3D dynamically responsive implant was introduced to the market. This device, designed to be placed fixation-free, seems to induce ingrowth of viable and structured tissue instead of regressive fibrotic scarring. To elucidate the differences in biologic response between the conventional static meshes and this 3D dynamically responsive implant, a histological comparison was planned. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of tissue incorporation in both types of implants excised after short, medium, and long periods post-implantation. The results showed large differences in the biologic responses between the two implant types. Histologically, the 3D dynamic implant showed development of tissue elements more similar to natural abdominal wall structures, such as the ingrowth of loose and well-hydrated connective tissue, well-formed vascular structures, elastic fibers, and mature nerves, with negligible or absent inflammatory response. All these characteristics were completely absent in the conventional static implants, where a persistent inflammatory reaction was associated with thin, hardened, and shrunken fibrotic scar formation. Consequently, as herniation is a degenerative process, the 3D dynamic implants, which induce regeneration of the typical groin components, seem to address its pathogenesis.

  9. Mechanisms Responsible for High Energy Radiation Induced Damage to Single-Stranded DNA Modified by Radiosensitizing 5-Halogenated Deoxyuridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoushan; Zhao, Peiwen; Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2016-03-17

    Experimental studies showed that high energy radiation induced base release and DNA backbone breaks mainly occur at the neighboring 5' nucleotide when a single-stranded DNA is modified by radiosensitizing 5-halogenated deoxyuridines. However, no mechanism can be used to interpret these experimental observations. To better understand the radiosensitivity of 5-halogenated deoxyuridines, mechanisms involving hydrogen abstraction by the uracil-5-yl radical from the C2' and C3' positions of an adjacent nucleotide separately followed by the C3'-O3' or N-glycosidic bond rupture and the P-O3' bond breakage are investigated in the DNA sequence 5'-TU(•)-3' employing density functional theory calculations in the present study. It is found that hydrogen abstractions from both positions are comparable with the one from the C2' site slightly more favorable. The N-glycosidic bond cleavage in the neighboring 5' nucleotide following the internucleotide C2'-Ha abstraction is estimated to have the lowest activation free energies, indicating that the adjacent 5' base release dominates electron induced damage to single-stranded DNA incorporated by 5-halogenated deoxyuridines. Relative to the P-O3' bond breakage after the internucleotide C3'-H abstraction, the C3'-O3' bond rupture in the neighboring 5' nucleotide following the internucleotide C2'-Ha abstraction is predicted to have a lower activation free energy, implying that single-stranded DNA backbone breaks are prone to occur at the C3'-O3' bond site. The 5'-TU(•)-3' species has substantial electron affinity and can even capture a hydrated electron, forming the 5'-TU(-)-3' anion. However, the electron induced C3'-O3' bond rupture in 5'-TU(-)-3' anion via a pathway of internucleotide proton abstraction is only minor in both the gas phase and aqueous solution. The present theoretical predictions can interpret rationally experimental observations, thereby demonstrating that the mechanisms proposed here are responsible for high

  10. Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

    2013-04-01

    The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula × Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes

  11. Cellular Interactions and Biological Responses to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B Cells: Role of Cell Culture Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the composition of the biological medium used in vitro can affect the cellular interaction and biological response of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in human lung epithelial cells. However, it is unclear if these effects are co...

  12. Study on the mechanical and biological property of PMMA bone cement modified with ultra fine glass fibers and nano-hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qisheng; CHENG Futao; WEI Wuji

    2007-01-01

    In this study,polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA)bone cement (BC) was modified with ultra-fine glass fibers (UFGF)and nano-hydroxapatite(nano-HAP) synthesized by hydrothermal method.The results show that when the contents of both UFGF and nano-HAP powders are about 5%,the ultimate tensile strength(UTS),ultimate impact toughness (UIT),tensile strain(TS),and elastic modulus(EM)have been promoted a lot.The interface bond was improved by silicane treatment.Pre-grinding mixture of PMMA,UFGF,and nano-HAP can largely improve the mechanical property of PMMA.The PMMA modified with UFGF and HAP has better bioactivity than that modified with pure UFGF when they share the same content.Nano-HAP powder and modified PMMA were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR).

  13. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  14. Biological response to climate change in the Arctic Ocean: The view from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Cronin, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing rapid climatic changes including higher ocean temperatures, reduced sea ice, glacier and Greenland Ice Sheet melting, greater marine productivity, and altered carbon cycling. Until recently, the relationship between climate and Arctic biological systems was poorly known, but this has changed substantially as advances in paleoclimatology, micropaleontology, vertebrate paleontology, and molecular genetics show that Arctic ecosystem history reflects global and regional climatic changes over all timescales and climate states (103–107 years). Arctic climatic extremes include 25°C hyperthermal periods during the Paleocene-Eocene (56–46 million years ago, Ma), Quaternary glacial periods when thick ice shelves and sea ice cover rendered the Arctic Ocean nearly uninhabitable, seasonally sea-ice-free interglacials and abrupt climate reversals. Climate-driven biological impacts included large changes in species diversity, primary productivity, species’ geographic range shifts into and out of the Arctic, community restructuring, and possible hybridization, but evidence is not sufficient to determine whether or when major episodes of extinction occurred.

  15. Random Forest Segregation of Drug Responses May define Regions of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim eBukhari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess brain responses in unsupervised manner based on fMRI measure has remained a challenge. Here we have applied the Random Forest (RF method to detect differences in the pharmacological MRI (phMRI response in rats to treatment with an analgesic drug (buprenorphine as compared to control (saline. Three groups of animals were studied: two groups treated with different doses of the opioid buprenorphine, low (LD and high dose (HD, and one receiving saline. PhMRI responses were evaluated in 45 brain regions and RF analysis was applied to allocate rats to the individual treatment groups. RF analysis was able to identify drug effects based on differential phMRI responses in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, superior colliculus and the lateral and posterior thalamus for drug vs. saline. These structures have high levels of mu opioid receptors. In addition these regions are involved in aversive signaling, which is inhibited by mu opioids. The results demonstrate that buprenorphine mediated phMRI responses comprise characteristic features that allow an unsupervised differentiation from placebo treated rats as well as the proper allocation to the respective drug dose group using the RF method, a method that has been successfully applied in clinical studies.

  16. Random Forest Segregation of Drug Responses May Define Regions of Biological Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Qasim; Borsook, David; Rudin, Markus; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess brain responses in unsupervised manner based on fMRI measure has remained a challenge. Here we have applied the Random Forest (RF) method to detect differences in the pharmacological MRI (phMRI) response in rats to treatment with an analgesic drug (buprenorphine) as compared to control (saline). Three groups of animals were studied: two groups treated with different doses of the opioid buprenorphine, low (LD), and high dose (HD), and one receiving saline. PhMRI responses were evaluated in 45 brain regions and RF analysis was applied to allocate rats to the individual treatment groups. RF analysis was able to identify drug effects based on differential phMRI responses in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, superior colliculus, and the lateral and posterior thalamus for drug vs. saline. These structures have high levels of mu opioid receptors. In addition these regions are involved in aversive signaling, which is inhibited by mu opioids. The results demonstrate that buprenorphine mediated phMRI responses comprise characteristic features that allow a supervised differentiation from placebo treated rats as well as the proper allocation to the respective drug dose group using the RF method, a method that has been successfully applied in clinical studies.

  17. Gene Selection Integrated with Biological Knowledge for Plant Stress Response Using Neighborhood System and Rough Set Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Luan, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    Mining knowledge from gene expression data is a hot research topic and direction of bioinformatics. Gene selection and sample classification are significant research trends, due to the large amount of genes and small size of samples in gene expression data. Rough set theory has been successfully applied to gene selection, as it can select attributes without redundancy. To improve the interpretability of the selected genes, some researchers introduced biological knowledge. In this paper, we first employ neighborhood system to deal directly with the new information table formed by integrating gene expression data with biological knowledge, which can simultaneously present the information in multiple perspectives and do not weaken the information of individual gene for selection and classification. Then, we give a novel framework for gene selection and propose a significant gene selection method based on this framework by employing reduction algorithm in rough set theory. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of plant stress response. Experimental results on three data sets show that the proposed method is effective, as it can select significant gene subsets without redundancy and achieve high classification accuracy. Biological analysis for the results shows that the interpretability is well.

  18. The response of Isidorella newcombi to copper exposure: Using an integrated biological framework to interpret transcriptomic responses from RNA-seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubrihien, Rodney P; Ezaz, Tariq; Taylor, Anne M; Stevens, Mark M; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Maher, William A

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the transcriptomic response of the Australian endemic freshwater gastropod Isidorella newcombi exposed to 80±1μg/L of copper for 3days. Analysis of copper tissue concentration, lysosomal membrane destabilisation and RNA-seq were conducted. Copper tissue concentrations confirmed that copper was bioaccumulated by the snails. Increased lysosomal membrane destabilisation in the copper-exposed snails indicated that the snails were stressed as a result of the exposure. Both copper tissue concentrations and lysosomal destabilisation were significantly greater in snails exposed to copper. In order to interpret the RNA-seq data from an ecotoxicological perspective an integrated biological response model was developed that grouped transcriptomic responses into those associated with copper transport and storage, survival mechanisms and cell death. A conceptual model of expected transcriptomic changes resulting from the copper exposure was developed as a basis to assess transcriptomic responses. Transcriptomic changes were evident at all the three levels of the integrated biological response model. Despite lacking statistical significance, increased expression of the gene encoding copper transporting ATPase provided an indication of increased internal transport of copper. Increased expression of genes associated with endocytosis are associated with increased transport of copper to the lysosome for storage in a detoxified form. Survival mechanisms included metabolic depression and processes associated with cellular repair and recycling. There was transcriptomic evidence of increased cell death by apoptosis in the copper-exposed organisms. Increased apoptosis is supported by the increase in lysosomal membrane destabilisation in the copper-exposed snails. Transcriptomic changes relating to apoptosis, phagocytosis, protein degradation and the lysosome were evident and these processes can be linked to the degradation of post-apoptotic debris. The study

  19. [Biological risk in health. Risk to third parties: medical-legal focus. Responsible behavior of the competent physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The responsibility of the occupational physician (OP) is discussed within the particular topic of biological risk generated by health care workers (HCW) versus third parties in health care settings. The present contribution offers keys of interpretation regarding current Italian legislation and passed sentences, taking into account principles of occupational medicine, the ICOH code of ethics for occupational health professionals, as well as duties and tasks of OP, employers and employees. Most of the responsibilities stand on employers, but OP has a primary duty of information and to judge fitness for work. It is underlined the difficult interpretation of the current legislation and indications. Behaviour of the OP could be censored in case of particular fitness for work or in case of inadequate information, as well as if the comprehension of information is not verified or when indication to minimize the risk are not controlled.

  20. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  1. Previous exposure to biologics and C-reactive protein are associated with the response to tacrolimus in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago Rodríguez-Lago

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Tacrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor used in the prophylaxis of rejection after a solid organ transplant. There is some evidence for its use in inflammatory bowel disease, although there is a lack of information about the patients who will benefit the most with this drug and the prognostic factors for a favorable response. Material and Methods: We performed a multicentric retrospective study evaluating all the patients who have received tacrolimus in the last 10 years as a treatment for IBD in our area. Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 with Crohn's disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis, were included in four hospitals. The two most common indications were steroid-dependency and fistulizing Crohn's disease. The median time receiving tacrolimus was 11 months. In 12 patients the treatment was stopped. The main reasons for drug withdrawal were absence or loss of response. The median clinical follow-up was 35.5 months. Overall, a 25% achieved clinical remission and 40% were in partial response. Biologic-naïve patients demonstrated a significantly better remission rate as compared with those that were not (80 vs. 7%. Patients who achieved remission were more likely to have a significant reduction in C-reactive protein values 1 month after starting the drug. Seven patients required surgery during the follow- up period. Conclusions: Patients naïve to biologics showed a significantly better response to tacrolimus. A reduction in C-reactive protein one month after starting this drug was associated with clinical remission.

  2. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    -B was demonstrated to decrease photosynthesis and shift carbon allocation from shoots to roots. Moreover, ambient UV-B increased plant stress with detrimental effects on electron processing in the photosynthetic apparatus. Plant responses did not lead to clear changes in the amount of fungal root symbionts...... on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg...

  3. Approximate solution of a model of biological immune responses incorporating delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C

    1981-01-01

    A model of the humoral immune response, proposed by Dibrov, Livshits and Volkenstein (1977b), in which the antibody production by a constant target cell population depends on the antigenic stimulation at earlier times, is considered from an analytic standpoint. A method of approximation based on a consideration of the asymptotic limit of "large" delay in the antibody response is shown to be applicable, and to give results similar to those obtained numerically by the above authors. The relevance of this type of approximation to other systems exhibiting "outbreak" phenomena is discussed.

  4. Culture medium type affects endocytosis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in BEAS-2B cells and subsequent biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniu, Hisao; Saito, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Maruyama, Kayo; Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Takanashi, Seiji; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Nomura, Hiroki; Okamoto, Masanori; Shimizu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    We examined the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the resulting cytokine secretion in BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in two types of culture media (Ham's F12 containing 10% FBS [Ham's F12] and serum-free growth medium [SFGM]). Cellular uptake of MWCNT was observed by fluorescent microscopy and analyzed using flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated whether MWCNT uptake was suppressed by 2 types of endocytosis inhibitors. We found that BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM showed similar biological responses, but BEAS-2B cells cultured in SFGM did not internalize MWCNTs, and the 50% inhibitory concentration value, i.e., the cytotoxicity, was increased by more than 10-fold. MWCNT uptake was suppressed by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor and a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor in BEAS-2B cells cultured in Ham's F12 and HBEpCs cultured in SFGM. In conclusion, we suggest that BEAS-2B cells cultured in a medium containing serum should be used for the safety evaluation of nanomaterials as a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, the culture medium composition may affect the proteins that are expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane, which may influence the biological response to MWCNTs.

  5. Effects of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surface Modification and Purification on Bovine Serum Albumin Binding and Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been used to improve solubility in aqueous systems and for further functionalization with biologically active moieties for biomedical uses. An important consideration is that oxidation debris is generated during the process of carboxylation, which can be removed by base washing. We hypothesized that surface modification as well as purification by debris removal may alter physicochemical properties of MWCNTs and their ability to bind proteins. We utilized pristine MWCNT, carboxylated MWCNTs (F-MWCNTs, and base-washed carboxylated MWCNTs (BW-F-MWCNTs to examine formation of a bovine serum albumin (BSA protein corona and impact on biological responses. We found that carboxylation increased the capability of F-MWCNTs to bind BSA, and base washing further increased this binding. Functionalization increased cellular uptake by rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC and mouse macrophages (RAW264.7, while base washing showed results similar to the functionalized analog. Interestingly, BSA binding downregulated mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1 in RAEC cells but upregulated the expression of IL-6 and Hmox1 in RAW264.7 cells. Overall, our study demonstrated that surface modification as well as further purification impacted the interaction of MWCNTs with proteins and subsequent cellular responses.

  6. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  7. A genome-wide screen for ethylene-induced ethylene response factors (ERFs) in hybrid aspen stem identifies ERF genes that modify stem growth and wood properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, Jorma; Felten, Judith; Love, Jonathan; Gorzsás, András; Gerber, Lorenz; Lamminmäki, Airi; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Sundberg, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are a large family of transcription factors that mediate responses to ethylene. Ethylene affects many aspects of wood development and is involved in tension wood formation. Thus ERFs could be key players connecting ethylene action to wood development. We identified 170 gene models encoding ERFs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. The transcriptional responses of ERF genes to ethylene treatments were determined in stem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) by qPCR. Selected ethylene-responsive ERFs were overexpressed in wood-forming tissues and characterized for growth and wood chemotypes by FT-IR. Fifty ERFs in Populus showed more than five-fold increased transcript accumulation in response to ethylene treatments. Twenty-six ERFs were selected for further analyses. A majority of these were induced during tension wood formation. Overexpression of ERFs 18, 21, 30, 85 and 139 in wood-forming tissues of hybrid aspen modified the wood chemotype. Moreover, overexpression of ERF139 caused a dwarf-phenotype with altered wood development, and overexpression of ERF18, 34 and 35 slightly increased stem diameter. We identified ethylene-induced ERFs that respond to tension wood formation, and modify wood formation when overexpressed. This provides support for their role in ethylene-mediated regulation of wood development.

  8. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  9. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  10. What is human in humans? Responses from biology, anthropology, and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Genomics has brought biology, medicine, agriculture, psychology, anthropology, and even philosophy to a new threshold. In this new context, the question about "what is human in humans" may end up being answered by geneticists, specialists of technoscience, and owners of biotech companies. The author defends, in this article, the idea that humanity is at risk in our age of genetic engineering, biotechnologies, and market-geared genetic research; he also argues that the values at the very core of our postgenomic era bring to its peak the science-based ideology that has developed since the time of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Harvey; finally, it shows that the bioindustry has invented a new genomythology that goes against the scientific evidence produced by the research in human sciences in which life is interpreted as a language.

  11. Integrating Responsible Conduct of Research Education into Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Tamara L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these…

  12. Computational Systems Biology and Dose Response Modeling Workshop, September 22-26, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently published National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century” recommends a new approach to toxicity testing, based on evaluating cellular responses in a suite of toxicity pathway assays in human cells or cells lines in vitro. Such a parad...

  13. Towards quantifying the response of the oceans’ biological pump to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wallace Boyd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological pump makes a major global contribution to the sequestration of carbon-rich particles in the oceans’ interior. This pump has many component parts from physics to ecology that together control its efficiency in exporting particles. Hence, the influence of climate change on the functioning and magnitude of the pump is likely to be complex and non-linear. Here, I employ a published 1-D coupled surface-subsurface Particulate Organic Carbon (POC export flux model to systematically explore the potential influence of changing oceanic conditions on each of the pump’s ‘moving parts’, in both surface and subsurface waters. These simulations were run for typical high (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll, HNLC and low (Low Nutrient Low Chlorophyll, LNLC latitude sites. Next, I couple pump components that have common drivers, such as temperature, to investigate more complex scenarios involving concurrent climate-change mediated alteration of multiple ‘moving parts’ of the pump. Model simulations reveal that in the surface ocean, changes to algal community structure (i.e., a shift towards small cells has the greatest individual influence (decreased flux on downward POC flux in the coming decades. In subsurface waters, a shift in zooplankton community structure has the greatest single effect on POC flux (decreased in a future ocean. More complex treatments, in which up to ten individual factors (across both surface and subsurface processes were concurrently altered, ~ halved the POC flux at both high and low latitudes. In general climate-mediated changes to surface ocean processes had a greater effect on the magnitude of POC flux than alteration of subsurface processes, some of which negated one another. This relatively simple 1-D model provides initial insights into the most influential processes that may alter the future performance of this pump, and more importantly reveals many knowledge gaps that require urgent attention before we can

  14. Influence of Core-Shell Grains on the Internal Stress State and Permittivity Response of Zirconia Modified Barium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    by the Office of Naval research’m Metalurgy and Ceramics Program Department of the NavyU Production in whole or in art is permitted for* -o .,any...multilayer capacitor formulations based on BaTiO 3 can be chemically or physically modified to exhibit temperature-stable dielectric behavior (less than

  15. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (PHOSLOCK®)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, B.M.; Mackay, E.; Yasseri, S.; Gunn, I.D.M.; Waters, K.E.; Andrews, C.; Cole, S.; Ville, de M.; Kelly, M.; Meis, S.; Moore, A.L.; Nurnberg, G.K.; Oosterhout, van Frank; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its potential t

  16. Assessment of UV biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Titta; Venäläinen, Tuulia; Tegelberg, Riitta; Lindfors, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sutinen, Sirkka; O'Hara, Robert B; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum. We monitored effects of UV radiation on the concentration of individual UV absorbing metabolites and chlorophyll concentrations in leaves and growth responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. Experiments were conducted outdoors using plastic films attenuating different parts of the UV spectrum. Chlorophyll concentrations and growth were not affected by the UV treatments. The response to UV radiation varied between and within groups of phenolics. In general, the observed responses of phenolic groups and individual flavonoids were best predicted by action spectra extending into the UV-A region with moderate effectiveness.

  17. Biological Characterization of Gene Response to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Emery

    Full Text Available Glucose is the most important metabolic substrate of the retina and maintenance of normoglycemia is an essential challenge for diabetic patients. Chronic, exaggerated, glycemic excursions could lead to cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. We recently showed that hypoglycemia induced retinal cell death in mouse via caspase 3 activation and glutathione (GSH decrease. Ex vivo experiments in 661W photoreceptor cells confirmed the low-glucose induction of death via superoxide production and activation of caspase 3, which was concomitant with a decrease of GSH content. We evaluate herein retinal gene expression 4 h and 48 h after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Microarray analysis demonstrated clusters of genes whose expression was modified by hypoglycemia and we discuss the potential implication of those genes in retinal cell death. In addition, we identify by gene set enrichment analysis, three important pathways, including lysosomal function, GSH metabolism and apoptotic pathways. Then we tested the effect of recurrent hypoglycemia (three successive 4h periods of hypoglycemia spaced by 48 h recovery on retinal cell death. Interestingly, exposure to multiple hypoglycemic events prevented GSH decrease and retinal cell death, or adapted the retina to external stress by restoring GSH level comparable to control situation. We hypothesize that scavenger GSH is a key compound in this apoptotic process, and maintaining "normal" GSH level, as well as a strict glycemic control, represents a therapeutic challenge in order to avoid side effects of diabetes, especially diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Biology of lithium response in bipolar disorder : genetic mechanisms and telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Martinsson, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder is a common, chronic and severe mental illness, causing suffering and large costs. Lithium treatment is the golden standard and works in 2/3 of patients, of which 50% are called lithium responders. There is strong evidence that both bipolar disorder and the degree of lithium response are highly heritable, although many mechanisms are unknown. Short telomere length has been found in both somatic and psychiatric disorders, but little is known about te...

  19. A system biology approach highlights a hormonal enhancer effect on regulation of genes in a nitrate responsive "biomodule"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nero Damion

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrate-induced reprogramming of the transcriptome has recently been shown to be highly context dependent. Herein, a systems biology approach was developed to identify the components and role of cross-talk between nitrate and hormone signals, likely to be involved in the conditional response of NO3- signaling. Results Biclustering was used to identify a set of genes that are N-responsive across a range of Nitrogen (N-treatment backgrounds (i.e. nitrogen treatments under different growth conditions using a meta-dataset of 76 Affymetrix ATH1 chips from 5 different laboratories. Twenty-one biclusters were found to be N-responsive across subsets of this meta-dataset. N-bicluster 9 (126 genes was selected for further analysis, as it was shown to be reproducibly responsive to NO3- as a signal, across a wide-variety of background conditions and datasets. N-bicluster 9 genes were then used as "seed" to identify putative cross-talk mechanisms between nitrate and hormone signaling. For this, the 126 nitrate-regulated genes in N-bicluster 9 were biclustered over a meta-dataset of 278 ATH1 chips spanning a variety of hormone treatments. This analysis divided the bicluster 9 genes into two classes: i genes controlled by NO3- only vs. ii genes controlled by both NO3- and hormones. The genes in the latter group showed a NO3- response that is significantly enhanced, compared to the former. In silico analysis identified two Cis-Regulatory Elements candidates (CRE (E2F, HSE potentially involved the interplay between NO3- and hormonal signals. Conclusion This systems analysis enabled us to derive a hypothesis in which hormone signals are proposed to enhance the nitrate response, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the link between nitrate signaling and the control of plant development.

  20. Biological cost of pyocin production during the SOS response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep K; Walker, Graham C

    2014-09-01

    LexA and two structurally related regulators, PrtR and PA0906, coordinate the Pseudomonas aeruginosa SOS response. RecA-mediated autocleavage of LexA induces the expression of a protective set of genes that increase DNA damage repair and tolerance. In contrast, RecA-mediated autocleavage of PrtR induces antimicrobial pyocin production and a program that lyses cells to release the newly synthesized pyocin. Recently, PrtR-regulated genes were shown to sensitize P. aeruginosa to quinolones, antibiotics that elicit a strong SOS response. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which PrtR-regulated genes determine antimicrobial resistance and genotoxic stress survival. We found that induction of PrtR-regulated genes lowers resistance to clinically important antibiotics and impairs the survival of bacteria exposed to one of several genotoxic agents. Two distinct mechanisms mediated these effects. Cell lysis genes that are induced following PrtR autocleavage reduced resistance to bactericidal levels of ciprofloxacin, and production of extracellular R2 pyocin was lethal to cells that initially survived UV light treatment. Although typically resistant to R2 pyocin, P. aeruginosa becomes transiently sensitive to R2 pyocin following UV light treatment, likely because of the strong downregulation of lipopolysaccharide synthesis genes that are required for resistance to R2 pyocin. Our results demonstrate that pyocin production during the P. aeruginosa SOS response carries both expected and unexpected costs.

  1. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.

  2. Knowlege of, attitudes toward, and acceptance of genetically modified organisms among prospective teachers of biology, home economics, and grade school in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Jana

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of the importance of education about genetically modified organism (GMO) items and their potential significance for society. Through cluster analysis, we recognized four clusters of GMOs, separated by degree of genetically modified acceptability. GM plants and microorganisms which are recognized as useful are accepted. They are undecided about organisms used in research or medicine and reject organisms used for food consumption and for fun. There are only weak correlations between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and acceptance of GMOs, and a strong correlation between attitudes and acceptance. The appropriate strategies and actions for improving university courses in biotechnology are discussed.

  3. Biologics or tofacitinib for rheumatoid arthritis in incomplete responders to methotrexate or other traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Hossain, Alomgir; Tanjong Ghogomu, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    comparator (RR 2.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36 to 3.10); absolute benefit 24% more patients (95% CI 19% to 29%), number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) = 5 (4 to 6). NMA estimates for ACR50 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologic+MTX/DMARD (RR 3.23 (95% credible interval...... (Crl) 2.75 to 3.79), non-TNF biologic+MTX/DMARD (RR 2.99; 95% Crl 2.36 to 3.74), and anakinra + MTX/DMARD (RR 2.37 (95% Crl 1.00 to 4.70) were similar to the direct estimates.Based on direct evidence of moderate quality (downgraded for inconsistency), biologic+MTX/DMARD was associated with a clinically...... estimates for TNF biologic+MTX/DMARD (absolute benefit, -10.3% (95% Crl -14% to -6.7%) and non-TNF biologic+MTX/DMARD (absolute benefit, -7.3% (95% Crl -13.6% to -0.67%) were similar to respective direct estimates.Based on direct evidence of moderate quality (downgraded for inconsistency), biologic...

  4. Fluorescence response of hypocrellin B to the environmental changes in a mimic biological membrane--liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xuanye; ZHAO Yuewei; XIE Jie; ZHAO Jingquan

    2004-01-01

    Liposome is well known as not only a drug-delivery system but also a simple model for biological membranes. It was reported that fluorescence properties of hypocrellins were changeable over some extreme pH values. In the current work, the effects of the microenvironments on the fluorescence properties of HB in liposome, including approximately physiological range of pH values pH = 6.0-8.0, concentration of cholesterols and ionic strength of the solution, were studied. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of HB was sensitive to and also regulated by the microenvironments. When concentration of cholesterols and ionic strength keep invariable in PBS solution, there exists the maximum for the fluorescence of HB-liposome at pH 7.4 while the minimum for that of HB at pH 7.0. In addition, when pH value keeps constant (7.2), there exists the maximum at the ionic strength of 0.12 mol/kg while that at the concentration of 6x10-4 mol/L for cholesterols. On the other hand, in PBS solution, the lower the ionic strength is, the higher the fluorescence intensity is. The environment-sensitive fluorescence may be potentially applicable to probe some specific environmental features in cells or tissues.

  5. Cholesterol metabolism: A review of how ageing disrupts the biological mechanisms responsible for its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A E; Mooney, K M; Wilkinson, S J; Pickles, N A; Mc Auley, M T

    2016-05-01

    Cholesterol plays a vital role in the human body as a precursor of steroid hormones and bile acids, in addition to providing structure to cell membranes. Whole body cholesterol metabolism is maintained by a highly coordinated balancing act between cholesterol ingestion, synthesis, absorption, and excretion. The aim of this review is to discuss how ageing interacts with these processes. Firstly, we will present an overview of cholesterol metabolism. Following this, we discuss how the biological mechanisms which underpin cholesterol metabolism are effected by ageing. Included in this discussion are lipoprotein dynamics, cholesterol absorption/synthesis and the enterohepatic circulation/synthesis of bile acids. Moreover, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathological progression of atherosclerosis and also discuss how cholesterol biosynthesis is effected by both the mammalian target of rapamycin and sirtuin pathways. Next, we examine how diet and alterations to the gut microbiome can be used to mitigate the impact ageing has on cholesterol metabolism. We conclude by discussing how mathematical models of cholesterol metabolism can be used to identify therapeutic interventions.

  6. The force generated by biological membranes on a polymer rod and its response: Statics and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, D. R.; Turner, M. S.

    2004-10-01

    We propose a theory for the force exerted by a fluctuating membrane on a polymer rod tip. Using statistical mechanical methods, the expression for the generated force is written in terms of the distance of the rod tip from the membrane "frame." We apply the theory in calculating the stall force and membrane displacement required to cease the growth of a growing fiber induced by membrane fluctuations, as well as the membrane force and membrane displacement required for rod/fiber buckling. We also consider the dynamics of a growing fiber tip under the influence of a fluctuation-induced membrane force. We discuss the importance of our results in various biological contexts. Finally, we present a method to simultaneously extract both the rigidity of the semiflexible rod and the force applied by, e.g., the membrane from the measurements of the bending fluctuations of the rod. Such a measurement of the force would give information about the thermodynamics of the rod polymerization that involves the usual Brownian ratchet mechanism.

  7. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation in barrier function, video microscopy studies and Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing technology were used to probe very subtle changes in primary human vascular endothelium.  Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers exhibit a transient, statistically significant decrease (P = 0.017 in monolayer resistance 3 h after irradiation with 5.0 Gy of g rays.  Radiation induced perturbations in HUVEC monolayer permeability are similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in coronary arterial endothelium.  Therefore, at least two types of vasculature respond to radiation on ECIS arrays with an early transient disruption in permeability.  The finding supports the use of early passage HUVECs for use in bioelectric dosimetry studies of vasculature and suggests that permeability of vessels could potentially serve as a biological dosimetry tool.

  8. Biological responses of silver-coated thermosets: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsich, E; Travan, A; Donati, I; Turco, G; Kulkova, J; Moritz, N; Aro, H T; Crosera, M; Paoletti, S

    2013-02-01

    Bisphenol A glycidylmethacrylate (BisGMA)/triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) thermosets are biomaterials commonly employed for orthopedic and dental applications; for both these fields, bacterial adhesion to the surface of the implant represents a major issue for the outcome of the surgical procedures. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of a nanocomposite coating formed by polysaccharide 1-deoxylactit-1-yl chitosan (Chitlac) and silver nanoparticles (nAg) on methacrylate thermosets were studied. The Chitlac-nAg system showed good anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity although its biocidal properties can be moderately, albeit significantly, inhibited by serum proteins. In vitro studies on the silver release kinetic in physiological conditions showed a steady metal release associated with a gradual loss of antimicrobial activity. However, after 3weeks there was still effective protection against bacterial colonization which could be accounted for by the residual silver. This time-span could be considered adequate to confer short-term protection from early peri-implant infections. Preliminary in vivo tests in a mini-pig animal model showed good biological compatibility of Chitlac-nAg-coated materials when implanted in bony tissue. The comparison was made with implants of titanium Ti6Al4V alloy and with a Chitlac-coated thermoset. Bone healing patterns and biocompatibility parameters observed for nAg-treated material were comparable with those observed for control implants.

  9. Panels of chemically-modified heparin polysaccharides and natural heparan sulfate saccharides both exhibit differences in binding to Slit and Robo, as well as variation between protein binding and cellular activity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR chemical shift characterisation of modified heparins, protein sequence alignment methodology and data, protein binding and activity assay dose-response curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00432f Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yassir A.; Yates, Edwin A.; Moss, Diana J.; Loeven, Markus A.; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard; Turnbull, Jeremy E.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans are required for Slit–Robo cellular responses. Evidence exists for interactions between each combination of Slit, Robo and heparin/HS and for formation of a ternary complex. Heparin/HS are complex mixtures displaying extensive structural diversity. The relevance of this diversity has been studied to a limited extent using a few select chemically-modified heparins as models of HS diversity. Here we extend these studies by parallel screening of structurally diverse panels of eight chemically-modified heparin polysaccharides and numerous natural HS oligosaccharide chromatographic fractions for binding to both Drosophila Slit and Robo N-terminal domains and for activation of a chick retina axon response to the Slit fragment. Both the polysaccharides and oligosaccharide fractions displayed variability in binding and cellular activity that could not be attributed solely to increasing sulfation, extending evidence for the importance of structural diversity to natural HS as well as model modified heparins. They also displayed differences in their interactions with Slit compared to Robo, with Robo preferring compounds with higher sulfation. Furthermore, the patterns of cellular activity across compounds were different to those for binding to each protein, suggesting that biological outcomes are selectively determined in a subtle manner that does not simply reflect the sum of the separate interactions of heparin/HS with Slit and Robo. PMID:27502551

  10. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  11. Physical and biological response of the Arabian sea to tropical cyclone Phyan and its implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Byju, P.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    , 1979). Once formed the strong wind-stress curl associated with the cyclone drives the upward Ekman-pumping and the resultant entrainment and mixing cools the upper ocean (Price, 1981; Pudov, 1992; DeMaria and Kaplan, 1994; Sadhuram, 2004). Ocean... earlier by several authors (Price 1981; 4 Pudov, 1992; Sadhuram, 2004). Price (1981) attributed this right-side bias of SST reduction to non- linear mixed-layer current response and the stronger winds located on the right side of the storm track due...

  12. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes......-B was demonstrated to decrease photosynthesis and shift carbon allocation from shoots to roots. Moreover, ambient UV-B increased plant stress with detrimental effects on electron processing in the photosynthetic apparatus. Plant responses did not lead to clear changes in the amount of fungal root symbionts...

  13. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis for response to Eimeria maxima in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Hérault, Frédéric;

    2015-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and which caused by protozoans from the genus of Eimeria. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high...... costs for development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the present control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics for improvement of the host’s response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500...

  14. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    -arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes...

  15. Vanguards of Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology: Radiation-Induced Adaptive and Bystander Responses

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUMOTO, Hideki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. In oth...

  16. Biology of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in oligotrophic environments: survival responses and virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Santander, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora es una bacteria fitopatógena de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, responsable del fuego bacteriano de las rosáceas. Los efectos destructivos de este patógeno sobre frutos, flores y prácticamente todos los órganos de las plantas hospedadoras afectadas constituyen una amenaza importante para la producción de pera y manzana, y suponen graves pérdidas económicas anuales en todo el mundo. E. amylovora está clasificada como un organismo de cuarentena en la Unión Europea y en otros pa...

  17. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    of conventional treatments or the prescription of innovative treatments. Trials including first-episode psychoses are few in number. Most of the available data focused on pharmacogenetics markers with so far only preliminary results. To date, these studies yielded-beside markers for metabolism of antipsychotics......-no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been...

  18. Modified Maxium Likelihood Estimation Method for Completely Separated and Quasi-Completely Separated Data for a Dose-Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...quasi-completely separated, the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method generates infinite estimates. The bias -reduction (BR) method...which is a variant of the bias -correction method, removes the first-order bias term by applying a modified score function, and it always produces

  19. Targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin to cancer cells using multifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shihui; Liu, Hui; Cai, Hongdong; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2013-09-01

    We report the use of multifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and folic acid (FA) were covalently linked to acid-treated MWCNTs, followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines to neutralize the positive surface potential. The formed multifunctional MWCNTs (MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA) were characterized via different techniques. Then, the MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA was used to load DOX for targeted and pH-responsive delivery to cancer cells overexpressing high-affinity folic acid receptors (FAR). We showed that the MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA enabled a high drug payload and encapsulation efficiency both up to 97.8% and the formed DOX/MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA complexes displayed a pH-responsive release property with fast DOX release under acidic environment and slow release at physiological pH conditions. Importantly, the DOX/MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA complexes displayed effective therapeutic efficacy, similar to that of free DOX, and were able to target to cancer cells overexpressing high-affinity FAR and effectively inhibit the growth of the cancer cells. The synthesized multifunctional dendrimer-modified MWCNTs may be used as a targeted and pH-responsive delivery system for targeting therapy of different types of cancer cells.

  20. Dose Response Association between Physical Activity and Biological, Demographic, and Perceptions of Health Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few population-based studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health status, and we do not have a clear understanding of the dose-response relationship among these variables. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to examine the dose-response relationship between objectively measured PA and metabolic syndrome (and its individual cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health. After exclusions, 5,538 participants 18 years or older were included in the present study, with 2,538 participants providing fasting glucose and 2,527 providing fasting triglyceride data. PA was categorized into deciles. Results: Overall, the health benefits showed a general pattern of increase with each increasing levels of PA. Of the ten PA classifications examined, participants in the highest moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA category (at least 71 min/day had the lowest odds of developing metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: At a minimum, sedentary adults should strive to meet current PA guidelines (i.e., 150 min/week of MVPA, with additional positive benefits associated with engaging in three times this level of PA.

  1. Statistical mechanics of tuned cell signalling: sensitive collective response by synthetic biological circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voliotis, M.; Liverpool, T. B.

    2017-03-01

    Living cells sense and process environmental cues through noisy biochemical mechanisms. This apparatus limits the scope of engineering cells as viable sensors. Here, we highlight a mechanism that enables robust, population-wide responses to external stimulation based on cellular communication, known as quorum sensing. We propose a synthetic circuit consisting of two mutually repressing quorum sensing modules. At low cell densities the system behaves like a genetic toggle switch, while at higher cell densities the behaviour of nearby cells is coupled via diffusible quorum sensing molecules. We show by systematic coarse graining that at large length and timescales that the system can be described using the Ising model of a ferromagnet. Thus, in analogy with magnetic systems, the sensitivity of the population-wide response, or its ‘susceptibility’ to a change in the external signal, is highly enhanced for a narrow range of cell–cell coupling close to a critical value. We expect that our approach will be used to enhance the sensitivity of synthetic bio-sensing networks.

  2. Response of bacteriophage T7 biological dosimeter to dehydration and extraterrestrial solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, M.; Fekete, A.; Módos, K.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, Gy.; Lammer, H.; Panitz, C.

    2007-02-01

    The experiment "Phage and uracil response" (PUR) will be accommodated in the EXPOSE facility of the ISS. Bacteriophage T7/isolated T7 DNA will be exposed to different subsets of extreme environmental parameters in space, in order to study the Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment (ROSE). Launch into orbit is preceded by EXPOSE Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) to optimize the methods and the evaluation. Bacteriophage T7/isolated T7 DNA thin layers were exposed to vacuum ( 10-6Pa), to monochromatic (254 nm) and polychromatic (200-400 nm) UV radiation in air as well as in simulated space vacuum. Using neutral density (ND) filters dose-effect curves were performed in order to define the maximum doses tolerated. The effect of temperature fluctuation in vacuum was also studied. The structural/chemical effects on bacteriophage T7/isolated T7 DNA were analyzed by spectroscopic and microscopical methods. Characteristic changes in the absorption spectrum and in the electrophoretic pattern of phage/DNA have been detected indicating the damage of isolated and intraphage DNA. DNA damage was also determined by quantitative PCR (QPCR) using 555 and 3826 bp fragments of T7 DNA. We obtained substantial evidence that DNA lesions (e.g. strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, cyclobutane pirimidine dimers (CPDs) etc.) accumulate throughout exposure. Preliminary results suggest a synergistic action of space vacuum and UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.

  3. Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide simetryne in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Yi; Jia, Lin Xian; Lin, Jing Ling; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Lin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The rotation of rice and wheat is widely used and highly endorsed, and simetryne (s-triazine herbicide) is one of the principal herbicides widely used in this rotation for weed and grass control. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the ecological and physiological effects of simetryne on wheat crops. In this study, we performed a comprehensive investigation of crop response to simetryne to elucidate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of the herbicide in wheat crops. Wheat plants exposed to 0.8 to 8.0mgkg(-1) simetryne for 7 d exhibited suppressed growth and decreased chlorophyll content. With simetryne concentration in the soil varied from 0.8mgkg(-1) to 8.0mgkg(-1), simetryne was progressively accumulated by the wheat plants. The accumulation of simetryne in the wheat plants not only induced the over production of ROS and injured the membrane lipids but also stimulated the production of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A test of enzymatic activity and gene expression illustrated that the wheat plants were wise enough to motivate the antioxidant enzymes through both molecular and physiological mechanisms to alleviate the simetryne-induced stress. This study offers an illuminating insight into the effective adaptive response of the wheat plants to the simetryne stress.

  4. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh [NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO{sub 4} . 7H{sub 2}O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  5. The response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to nitrogen deprivation: a systems biology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Jin; Wang, Hongxia; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Deshpande, Rahul R; Skepper, Jeremy N; Holguin, F Omar; Juergens, Matthew T; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Hicks, Leslie M; Gang, David R

    2015-02-01

    Drastic alteration in macronutrients causes large changes in gene expression in the photosynthetic unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Preliminary data suggested that cells follow a biphasic response to this change hinging on the initiation of lipid accumulation, and we hypothesized that drastic repatterning of metabolism also followed this biphasic modality. To test this hypothesis, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolite changes that occur under nitrogen (N) deprivation were analyzed. Eight sampling times were selected covering the progressive slowing of growth and induction of oil synthesis between 4 and 6 h after N deprivation. Results of the combined, systems-level investigation indicated that C. reinhardtii cells sense and respond on a large scale within 30 min to a switch to N-deprived conditions turning on a largely gluconeogenic metabolic state, which then transitions to a glycolytic stage between 4 and 6 h after N depletion. This nitrogen-sensing system is transduced to carbon- and nitrogen-responsive pathways, leading to down-regulation of carbon assimilation and chlorophyll biosynthesis, and an increase in nitrogen metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. For example, the expression of nearly all the enzymes for assimilating nitrogen from ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, urea, formamide/acetamide, purines, pyrimidines, polyamines, amino acids and proteins increased significantly. Although arginine biosynthesis enzymes were also rapidly up-regulated, arginine pool size changes and isotopic labeling results indicated no increased flux through this pathway.

  6. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Nisumaa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additionally, carbonate system variables are often reported in different units, calculated using different sets of dissociation constants and on different pH scales. Hence the direct comparison of experimental results has been problematic and often misleading. The need was identified to (1 gather data on carbonate chemistry, biological and biogeochemical properties, and other ancillary data from published experimental data, (2 transform the information into common framework, and (3 make data freely available. The present paper is the outcome of an effort to integrate ocean carbonate chemistry data from the literature which has been supported by the European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis (EUR-OCEANS and the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A total of 185 papers were identified, 100 contained enough information to readily compute carbonate chemistry variables, and 81 data sets were archived at PANGAEA – The Publishing Network for Geoscientific & Environmental Data. This data compilation is regularly updated as an ongoing mission of EPOCA.

    Data access: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.735138

  7. EQ-5D utility, response and drug survival in rheumatoid arthritis patients on biologic monotherapy: A prospective observational study of patients registered in the south Swedish SSATG registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Turesson, Carl; Kapetanovic, Meliha; Englund, Martin; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Christensen, Robin; Bliddal, Henning; Geborek, Pierre; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Biologic agents have dramatically changed treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date only scarce head-to-head data exist especially when the biological therapies are given as monotherapy without concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs). Thus the objective of the current study is to evaluate treatment response of all available biological therapies with special focus on utility (EQ-5D-3L) and drug survival of biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) prescribed as monotherapy in RA patients in southern Sweden. Materials and methods All RA patients registered in a regional database as initiating bDMARD as monotherapy, i.e. without concomitant conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs), from 1st of January 2006 through 31st of December 2012, were included. Patients were followed from initiation of the first dose of bDMARD monotherapy treatment until withdrawal from treatment, loss of follow-up or 31st of December 2012. Descriptive statistics for utility (EQ-5D-3L), effectiveness, and drug survival of bDMARD monotherapy were calculated. Results During the study period, a total of 554 patients were registered in SSATG as initiating bDMARD monotherapy. Most of the patients were women (81%), with a mean age of 57 years. The average disease duration was more than 12 years, and on average the patients had previously been treated with approximately four different csDMARDs. Fifty-five percent of the patients were initiating their first bDMARD, 26% their second, and 19% their third or more. At baseline the average EQ-5D-3L was 0.34. Most patients had moderate to high disease activity, with a mean DAS28 of 5.0, and were substantially disabled, with an average HAQ score of 1.4. At 6 months´ follow-up, the EQ-5D-3L in patients still on the biologic drug had increased by mean 0.23 (SD 0.4) with no differences between type of bDMARD (p = 0.49). The mean change in EQ-5D-3L ranged from 0.11 (rituximab and infliximab) to 0.42 (tocilizumab). Although the changes were numerically

  8. Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Ayllón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells. The results showed tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and revealed differentiated regulation of apoptosis pathways. The impact of bacterial infection was more pronounced in tick nymphs and midguts than in salivary glands, probably reflecting bacterial developmental cycle. All apoptosis pathways described in other organisms were identified in I. scapularis, except for the absence of the Perforin ortholog. Functional characterization using RNA interference showed that Porin knockdown significantly increases tick colonization by A. phagocytophilum. Infection with A. phagocytophilum produced complex tissue-specific alterations in transcript and protein levels. In tick nymphs, the results suggested a possible effect of bacterial infection on the inhibition of tick immune response. In tick midguts, the results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection inhibited cell apoptosis to facilitate and establish infection through up-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Bacterial infection inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tick salivary glands by down-regulating Porin expression that resulted in the inhibition of Cytochrome c release as the anti-apoptotic mechanism to facilitate bacterial infection. However, tick salivary glands may promote apoptosis to limit bacterial infection through induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. These dynamic

  9. Biological response of Sr-containing coating with various surface treatments on titanium substrate for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ping [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzer-Min, E-mail: tmlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lui, Truan-Sheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sr-containing coating prepared by plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation process, respectively. • MAO coating stimulated high ECM-like structures of cells on early stage. • Sr-containing specimens had high cell responses on late stage. • Sr-MAO coating is a desirable implant surface treatment for clinical applications. - Abstract: An implant requires a suitable surface to trigger osteointegration. The surface characteristics and chemical composition are important factors in this process. Plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation can be used to fabricate rough and porous structures for medical applications. Strontium (Sr) has been shown to prevent osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo. However, few scientists have evaluated the biological response of Sr-containing coatings on different surface treatments. In this study, a sand-blasted (SB) surface (as the control), plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and Sr-substituted HA coatings (HAPS and SrHAPS, respectively), calcium phosphate and Sr-containing calcium phosphate micro-arc oxidation surface (CPM and SrCPM, respectively) were analyzed in terms of human osteoblastic cell (MG63) response. Sr was confirmed to be incorporated into the surface. SrHAPS and SrCPM specimens had higher cell responses than those of the HAPS and CPM groups, respectively. The cells cultured on SrCPM and SrHAPS specimens exhibited high proliferation and differentiation. However, CPM and SrCPM specimens stimulated more ECM-like structures than other specimens. The results show that Sr-containing coatings have good characteristics that enhance cell response. The SrCPM coating is a suitable implant surface treatment for clinical applications.

  10. Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Acceptance of Genetically Modified Organisms among Prospective Teachers of Biology, Home Economics, and Grade School in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrozic-Dolinsek, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of…

  11. The Molecular Crosstalk between the MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and the DNA Damage ResponseBiological and Clinical Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medová, Michaela, E-mail: michaela.medova@dkf.unibe.ch; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Zimmer, Yitzhak, E-mail: michaela.medova@dkf.unibe.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, DKF, MEM-E807, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-12-19

    Radiation therapy remains an imperative treatment modality for numerous malignancies. Enduring significant technical achievements both on the levels of treatment planning and radiation delivery have led to improvements in local control of tumor growth and reduction in healthy tissue toxicity. Nevertheless, resistance mechanisms, which presumably also involve activation of DNA damage response signaling pathways that eventually may account for loco-regional relapse and consequent tumor progression, still remain a critical problem. Accumulating data suggest that signaling via growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, which are aberrantly expressed in many tumors, may interfere with the cytotoxic impact of ionizing radiation via the direct activation of the DNA damage response, leading eventually to so-called tumor radioresistance. The aim of this review is to overview the current known data that support a molecular crosstalk between the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase MET and the DNA damage response. Apart of extending well established concepts over MET biology beyond its function as a growth factor receptor, these observations directly relate to the role of its aberrant activity in resistance to DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, which are routinely used in cancer therapy and advocate tumor sensitization towards DNA damaging agents in combination with MET targeting.

  12. Distinct human antibody response to the biological warfare agent Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, John J; Vigil, Adam; DeShazer, David; Waag, David M; Felgner, Philip; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-10-01

    The genetic similarity between Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) had led to the general assumption that pathogenesis of each bacterium would be similar. In 2000, the first human case of glanders in North America since 1945 was reported in a microbiology laboratory worker. Leveraging the availability of pre-exposure sera for this individual and employing the same well-characterized protein array platform that has been previously used to study a large cohort of melioidosis patients in southeast Asia, we describe the antibody response in a human with glanders. Analysis of 156 peptides present on the array revealed antibodies against 17 peptides with a > 2-fold increase in this infection. Unexpectedly, when the glanders data were compared with a previous data set from B. pseudomallei infections, there were only two highly increased antibodies shared between these two infections. These findings have implications in the diagnosis and treatment of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei infections.

  13. Biological effects and oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana following exposure to uranium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horemans, N.; Saenen, E.; Vandenhove, H.; Vanhoudt, N.; Wannijn, J.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Vangronsveld, J.; Cuypers, A. [Hasselt University (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    Since organisms are almost always exposed to multiple stressors, it is important to investigate the toxicity effects in plants in a multiple stressor context to provide a more realistic estimate of environmental risks. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of U and Cu individually and in combination. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were exposed during 3 days to 25 μM U, 2.5 μM Cu or 12.5 μM U + 1.25 μM Cu at pH 7.5. The concentrations of U and Cu administered to the plants were the derived EC30 values for plant growth reduction based on the single-dose response curves. When plants were exposed to U or Cu, this resulted in an increased metal concentration in both roots and shoots as compared to the control plants. The increased Cu content of the plant, led to a significant decrease in leaf and root growth, while U exposure did not affect plant growth. By exposing plants to both metals, it seems that Cu interferes with the translocation of U from the roots to the leaves. In addition, U interferes with the Cu uptake, since less Cu was found in the roots than expected. This can probably be explained by the fact that U causes a shift in the Cu speciation in our medium. As such, the percentage of the bioavailable fractions of Cu decreased, while the percentage Cu-EDTA (i.e. non-available fraction) increased. No effects on plant growth were observed by exposing plants to U+Cu. Exposing plants to heavy metals can lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). After U or Cu exposure, the transcript levels of different ROS-producing enzymes (NADPH oxidases and lipoxygenases (LOX)) were up-regulated in the roots. Furthermore, exposing plants to U+Cu resulted in a 20-fold increase in the expression of LOX1 as compared to the single stressor conditions. This possibly indicates an enhanced ROS production. In addition, the increased expression of LOX1 can also indicate an increased production of oxylipins, important molecules in inter-organ signalling. In the

  14. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  15. Wireless platform for controlled nitric oxide releasing optical fibers for mediating biological response to implanted devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Michael A; Nielsen, Matthew; Smeenge, David M; Romanowicz, Genevieve E; Frost, Megan C

    2012-12-01

    Despite the documented potential to leverage nitric oxide generation to improve in vivo performance of implanted devices, a key limitation to current NO releasing materials tested thus far is that there has not been a means to modulate the level of NO release after it has been initiated. We report the fabrication of a wireless platform that uses light to release NO from a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) optical fiber coated with an S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine derivatized polydimethylsiloxane (SNAP-PDMS). We demonstrate that a VAOL-5GSBY4 LED (λ(dominant)=460 nm) can be used as a dynamic trigger to vary the level of NO released from 500 μm diameter coated PMMA. The ability to generate programmable sequences of NO flux from the surface of these coated fibers offers precise spatial and temporal control over NO release and provides a platform to begin the systematic study of in vivo physiological response to implanted devices. NO surface fluxes up to 3.88 ± 0.57 × 10(-10)mol cm(-2)min(-1) were achieved with -100 μm thick coatings on the fibers and NO flux was pulsed, ramped and held steady using the wireless platform developed. We demonstrate the NO release is linearly proportional to the drive current applied to the LED (and therefore level of light produced from the LED). This system allow the surface flux of NO from the fibers to be continuously changed, providing a means to determine the level and duration of NO needed to mediate physiological response to blood contacting and subcutaneous implants and will ultimately lead to the intelligent design of NO releasing materials tailored to specific patterns of NO release needed to achieve reliable in vivo performance for intravascular and subcutaneous sensors and potentially for a wide variety of other implanted biomedical devices.

  16. Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1α (HIF-1α)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival.

  17. Eco-evolutionary responses of Bromus tectorum to climate change: implications for biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikova, Tamara J.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Wertin, Timothy M.; Fettig, Christa; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    How plant populations, communities, and ecosystems respond to climate change is a critical focus in ecology today. The responses of introduced species may be especially rapid. Current models that incorporate temperature and precipitation suggest that future Bromus tectorum invasion risk is low for the Colorado Plateau. With a field warming experiment at two sites in southeastern Utah, we tested this prediction over 4 years, measuring B. tectorum phenology, biomass, and reproduction. In a complimentary greenhouse study, we assessed whether changes in field B. tectorum biomass and reproductive output influence offspring performance. We found that following a wet winter and early spring, the timing of spring growth initiation, flowering, and summer senescence all advanced in warmed plots at both field sites and the shift in phenology was progressively larger with greater warming. Earlier green-up and development was associated with increases in B. tectorum biomass and reproductive output, likely due early spring growth, when soil moisture was not limiting, and a lengthened growing season. Seeds collected from plants grown in warmed plots had higher biomass and germination rates and lower mortality than seeds from ambient plots. However, in the following two dry years, we observed no differences in phenology between warmed and ambient plots. In addition, warming had a generally negative effect on B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in dry years and this negative effect was significant in the plots that received the highest warming treatment. In contrast to models that predict negative responses of B. tectorum to warmer climate on the Colorado Plateau, the effects of warming were more nuanced, relied on background climate, and differed between the two field sites. Our results highlight the importance of considering the interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, and site-specific characteristics such as soil texture, on plant demography and have direct

  18. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B [Laboratory of Ultrasound, Directory of Scientific and Industrial Metrology (DIMCI), National Institute of Metrology, Standardization, and Industrial Quality (Inmetro), Av. Nossa Sra das Gracas, 50 Predio 1, Duque de Caxias, RJ, ZIP 25250-020 (Brazil); Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L, E-mail: rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br [Laboratory of Muscle Differentiation and Cytoskeleton, Biomedical Sciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, ZIP 21949-590 (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  19. Porous alumina, zirconia and alumina/zirconia for bone repair: fabrication, mechanical and in vitro biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Buyakov, Ales; Buyakova, Svetlana; Kulkov, Sergey; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-04-23

    Zirconia (ZrO2) and alumina (Al2O3) based ceramics are widely used for load-bearing applications in bone repair due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. They are often regarded as bioinert since no direct bone-material interface is created unless a porous structure intercedes, leading to better bone bonding. In this regard, investigating interactions between cells and porous ceramics is of great interest. In the present study, we report on the successful fabrication of sintered alumina A-61, zirconia Z-50 and zirconia/alumina composite ZA-60 ceramics with medium porosities of 61, 50 and 60%, respectively, indicating a bimodal pore size distribution and good interconnectivity. They exhibit elastic moduli of 3-10 GPa and compressive strength values of 60-240 MPa, similar to those of human cortical bone.We performed in vitro cell-material investigations comparing the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mouse pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 on the three porous materials. While all three ceramics demonstrate a strong cell attachment, better cell spreading is observed on zirconia-containing substrates. Significantly higher cell growth was quantified on the latter ceramics, revealing an increased alkaline phosphatase activity, higher collagen production and increased calcium biomineralization compared to A-61. Hence, these porous zirconia-containing ceramics elicit superior biological responses over porous alumina of similar porosity, promoting enhanced biological interaction, with potential use as non-degradable bone grafts or as implant coatings.

  20. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and arsenic-induced changes in biological responses of model aquatic organisms exposed to iron-based nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Verónica; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Zhou, Zuo; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Pina, Francisca; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of zero-valent iron particles used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater has, with the emergence of nanotechnology, stimulated interest on the use of nano-size particles to take advantage of high-specific surface area and reactivity characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). Accordingly, engineered iron-NPs are among the most widely used nanomaterials for in situ remediation. However, while several ecotoxicity studies have been conducted to investigate the adverse impacts of these NPs on aquatic organisms, research on the implications of spent iron-based NPs is lacking. In this study, a comparative approach is used, in which the biological effects of three iron-based NPs (Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 NPs with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm, and Fe0-NPs with an average particle size of 40 nm) on Raphidocelis subcapitata (formely known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and Daphnia magna were investigated using both as-prepared and pollutant-doped Fe-based NPs. For the latter, arsenic (As) was used as example sorbed pollutant. The results show that improved degree of NP dispersion by use of polyvinylpyrrolidone overlapped with both increased arsenic adsorption capacity and toxicity to the tested organisms. For R. subcapitata, Fe-oxide NPs were more toxic than Fe0-NPs, due primarily to differences in the degree of NPs aggregation and ability to produce reactive oxygen species. For the invertebrate D. magna, a similar trend of biological responses was observed, except that sorption of As to Fe0-NPs significantly increased the toxic response when compared to R. subcapitata. Overall, these findings point to the need for research on downstream implications of NP-pollutant complexes generated during water treatment by injection of NPs into aquatic systems.

  1. Fluorescence response of hypocrellin B to the environmental changes in a mimic biological membrane--liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Xuanye; ZHAO; Yuewei; XIE; Jie; ZHAO; Jingquan

    2004-01-01

    , Photochem.Photobiol., 2001, 73 (5): 482-488.[13]Mang, T. S., Dougherty, T. J., Potter, W. R. et al., Photobleaching of porphyrins used in photodynamic therapy and implications for therapy, Photochem. Photobiol., 1987, 45: 501-506.[14]Shoko, Y., Tadahiro, T., Masahiko, A., Preparation of ganglioside GM3 liposomes and their membrane properties, Colloid Surface B, 2002, 27: 181-187.[15]Murakami, S., Packer, L., The role of cations in the organization of chloroplast membranes, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1971, 146:337-347.[16]Angeli, N. G., Lagorio, M. G., San Román, E. et al., Meso-substituted cationic porphyrins of biological interest, Photophysical and physicochemical properties in solution and bound to liposomes,Photochem. Photobiol., 2000, 72(1 ): 49-56.

  2. Biological response of zebrafish embryos after short-term exposure to thifluzamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Wenxian; Mu, Xiyan; Qi, Suzhen; Fu, Bin; Wang, Chengju

    2016-12-01

    Thifluzamide is a new amide fungicide, and its extensive application may have toxic effects on zebrafish. To better understand the underlying mechanism, we investigated in detail the potential toxic effects of thifluzamide on zebrafish embryos. In the present study, embryos were exposed to 0, 0.19, 1.90, and 2.85 mg/L thifluzamide for 4 days. Obvious pathological changes were found upon a histological exam, and negative changes in mitochondrial structure were observed under Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which qualitatively noted the toxic effects of thifluzamide on embryos. Moreover, we quantitatively evaluated the enzyme activities [succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), caspases], the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the expression levels of the related genes. This study suggests that the negative changes in mitochondrial structure and SDH activity might be responsible for oxidative damage, cell apoptosis and inflammation, which would facilitate the action of these factors in cell death and might play a crucial role during toxic events. In addition to providing the first description of the mechanism of the toxic effects of thifluzamide on embryos, this study also represents a step towards using embryos to assess mitochondrial metabolism and disease.

  3. Biological responses to space: results of the experiment ``exobiological unit'' of ERA on EURECA I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.; Eschweiler, U.; Reitz, G.; Wehner, J.; Willimek, R.; Strauch, K.

    Spores of different strains of Bacillus subtilis and the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 were exposed to selected conditions of space (space vacuum and/or defined wavebands and intensities of solar ultraviolet radiation) in the experiment ER 161 ``Exobiological Unit'' of the Exobiology Radiation Assembly (ERA) on board of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). After the approximately 11 months lasting mission, their responses were studied in terms of survival, mutagenesis in the his (B. subtilis) or lac locus (pUC19), induction of DNA strand breaks, efficiency of DNA repair systems, and the role of external protective agents. The data were compared with those of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. The survival of spores treated with the vacuum of space, however shielded against solar radiation, is substantially increased, if they are exposed in multilayers and/or in the presence of glucose as protective, whereas all spores in ``artificial meteorites'', i.e. embedded in clays or simulated Martian soil, are killed. Vacuum treatment leads to an increase of mutation frequency in spores, but not in plasmid DNA. Extraterrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation is mutagenic, induces strand breaks in the DNA and reduces survival substantially; however, even at the highest fluences, i.e. 3 x 10^8 Jm^-2, a small but significant fraction of spores survives the insolation. Action spectroscopy confirms results of previous space experiments of a synergistic action of space vacuum and solar UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.

  4. The biology of developmental plasticity and the Predictive Adaptive Response hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick; Gluckman, Peter; Hanson, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Many forms of developmental plasticity have been observed and these are usually beneficial to the organism. The Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR) hypothesis refers to a form of developmental plasticity in which cues received in early life influence the development of a phenotype that is normally adapted to the environmental conditions of later life. When the predicted and actual environments differ, the mismatch between the individual's phenotype and the conditions in which it finds itself can have adverse consequences for Darwinian fitness and, later, for health. Numerous examples exist of the long-term effects of cues indicating a threatening environment affecting the subsequent phenotype of the individual organism. Other examples consist of the long-term effects of variations in environment within a normal range, particularly in the individual's nutritional environment. In mammals the cues to developing offspring are often provided by the mother's plane of nutrition, her body composition or stress levels. This hypothetical effect in humans is thought to be important by some scientists and controversial by others. In resolving the conflict, distinctions should be drawn between PARs induced by normative variations in the developmental environment and the ill effects on development of extremes in environment such as a very poor or very rich nutritional environment. Tests to distinguish between different developmental processes impacting on adult characteristics are proposed. Many of the mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity involve molecular epigenetic processes, and their elucidation in the context of PARs and more widely has implications for the revision of classical evolutionary theory.

  5. Subcellular Spatial Correlation of Particle Traversal and Biological Response in Clinical Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas, Martin, E-mail: m.niklas@dkfz.de [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium, National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, Amir [German Cancer Consortium, National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Akselrod, Mark S. [Stillwater Crystal Growth Division, Landauer Inc, Stillwater, Oklahoma (United States); Debus, Jürgen [German Cancer Consortium, National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jäkel, Oliver [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium, National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report on the spatial correlation of physical track information (fluorescent nuclear track detectors, FNTDs) and cellular DNA damage response by using a novel hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD). Methods and Materials: The FNTDs were coated with a monolayer of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549) cells and irradiated with carbon ions (270.55 MeV u{sup −1}, rising flank of the Bragg peak). Phosphorylated histone variant H2AX accumulating at the irradiation-induced double-strand break site was labeled (RIF). The position and direction of ion tracks in the FNTD were registered with the location of the RIF sequence as an ion track surrogate in the cell layer. Results: All RIF sequences could be related to their corresponding ion tracks, with mean deviations of 1.09 μm and −1.72 μm in position and of 2.38° in slope. The mean perpendicular between ion track and RIF sequence was 1.58 μm. The mean spacing of neighboring RIFs exhibited a regular rather than random spacing. Conclusions: Cell-Fit-HD allows for unambiguous spatial correlation studies of cell damage with respect to the intracellular ion traversal under therapeutic beam conditions.

  6. Biological responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.

  7. A systems biology approach to the analysis of subset-specific responses to lipopolysaccharide in dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Hancock

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are critical for regulating CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity, controlling Th1, Th2, and Th17 commitment, generating inducible Tregs, and mediating tolerance. It is believed that distinct DC subsets have evolved to control these different immune outcomes. However, how DC subsets mount different responses to inflammatory and/or tolerogenic signals in order to accomplish their divergent functions remains unclear. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS provides an excellent model for investigating responses in closely related splenic DC subsets, as all subsets express the LPS receptor TLR4 and respond to LPS in vitro. However, previous studies of the LPS-induced DC transcriptome have been performed only on mixed DC populations. Moreover, comparisons of the in vivo response of two closely related DC subsets to LPS stimulation have not been reported in the literature to date. We compared the transcriptomes of murine splenic CD8 and CD11b DC subsets after in vivo LPS stimulation, using RNA-Seq and systems biology approaches. We identified subset-specific gene signatures, which included multiple functional immune mediators unique to each subset. To explain the observed subset-specific differences, we used a network analysis approach. While both DC subsets used a conserved set of transcription factors and major signalling pathways, the subsets showed differential regulation of sets of genes that 'fine-tune' the network Hubs expressed in common. We propose a model in which signalling through common pathway components is 'fine-tuned' by transcriptional control of subset-specific modulators, thus allowing for distinct functional outcomes in closely related DC subsets. We extend this analysis to comparable datasets from the literature and confirm that our model can account for cell subset-specific responses to LPS stimulation in multiple subpopulations in mouse and man.

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(glycine) modified carbon paste electrode for the determination of dopamine in biological fluids and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tony; Mascarenhas, Ronald J; Swamy, B E Kumara; Martis, Praveen; Mekhalif, Zineb; Sherigara, B S

    2013-10-01

    A modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for the selective detection of dopamine (DA) in presence of large excess of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at physiological pH has been fabricated by bulk modification of CPE with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) followed by electropolymerization of glycine (Gly). The surface morphology is compared using SEM images. The presence of nitrogen was confirmed by the energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicating the polymerization of Gly on the surface of the modified electrode. The impedance study indicates a better charge transfer kinetics for DA at CPE modified with MWCNT/polyglycine electrode. The presence of MWCNTs in carbon paste matrix triggers the extent of electropolymerization of Gly and imparts more selectivity towards DA by electrochemically not sensing AA below a concentration of 3.1×10(-4)M. Due to the exclusion of the signal for AA, the interference of AA in the determination of DA is totally ruled out by DPV method which is used for its detection at lower concentrations. Large peak separation, good sensitivity, reproducibility and stability allow this modified electrode to analyze DA individually and simultaneously along with AA and UA. Detection limit of DA was determined from differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) study and found to be 1.2×10(-8)M with a linear dynamic range of 5.0×10(-7)M to 4.0×10(-5)M. The practical analytical application of this electrode was demonstrated by measurement of DA content in dopamine hydrochloride injection and human blood serum.

  9. Ecological responses to UV radiation: interactions between the biological effects of UV on plants and on associated organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nigel D; Moore, Jason P; McPherson, Martin; Lambourne, Cathryn; Croft, Patricia; Heaton, Joanna C; Wargent, Jason J

    2012-08-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a wide range of effects on terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of how UV-B influences the complex interactions of plants with pest, pathogen and related microorganisms remains limited. Here, we report the results of a series of experiments in Lactuca sativa which aimed to characterize not only key plant responses to UV radiation in a field environment but also consequential effects for plant interactions with a sap-feeding insect, two model plant pathogens and phylloplane microorganism populations. Three spectrally modifying filters with contrasting UV transmissions were used to filter ambient sunlight, and when compared with our UV-inclusive filter, L. sativa plants grown in a zero UV-B environment showed significantly increased shoot fresh weight, reduced foliar pigment concentrations and suppressed population growth of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Plants grown under a filter which allowed partial transmission of UV-A radiation and negligible UV-B transmission showed increased density of leaf surface phylloplane microbes compared with the UV-inclusive treatment. Effects of UV treatment on the severity of two plant pathogens, Bremia lactucae and Botrytis cinerea, were complex as both the UV-inclusive and zero UV-B filters reduced the severity of pathogen persistence. These results are discussed with reference to known spectral responses of plants, insects and microorganisms, and contrasted with established fundamental responses of plants and other organisms to solar UV radiation, with particular emphasis on the need for future integration between different experimental approaches when investigating the effects of solar UV radiation.

  10. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  11. Bioactivity of food peptides: biological response of rats to bovine milk whey peptides following acute exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Risso, Eder Muller; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH. All animals were submitted to acute exercise, except for control. Results: lle-Leu stimulated immune response, hepatic and muscle glycogen and HSP60 expression, whereas Leu-Val enhanced HSP90 expression. All dipeptides reduced glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, no changes were observed on leptin. All peptides inhibited NF-kB expression. The plasma amino acid time-course showed peptide-specific and isomer-specific metabolic features, including increases of the BCAAs. Conclusion: The data indicate that lle-Leu was effective to attenuate immune-suppression exercise-induced, promoted glycogen content and stimulated anti-stress effect (HSP). Furthermore, Leu-Val increased HSP90, p-4EBP1, p-mTOR and p-AMPK expression. The data suggest the involvement of these peptides in various beneficial functions of WPH consumption. PMID:28326005

  12. Penetration Capacity, Color Alteration and Biological Response of Two In-office Bleaching Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; Ferreira, Luciana Louzada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Ervolino, Edilson; Gallinari, Marjorie de Oliveira; Rahal, Vanessa; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) penetrates into the dental hard tissues causing color alteration but also alterations in pulpal tissues. Hard-tissue penetration, color alteration and the pulp response alterations were evaluated for two in-office bleaching protocols with H2O2. For trans-enamel/dentin penetration and color alteration, discs of bovine teeth were attached to an artificial pulp chamber and bleached according to the groups: BLU (20% H2O2 - 1x50 min, Whiteness HP Blue); MAX (35% H2O2 - 3x15 min, Whiteness HP Maxx); Control (1x50 min, placebo). Trans-enamel/dentin penetration was quantified based on the reaction of H2O2 with leucocrystal violet and the color analyzed by CIELab System. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into two groups (BLU and MAX) and their maxillary right molars were treated according to the same protocols of the in vitro study; the maxillary left molars were used as controls. After 2 days, the animals were killed and their maxillae were examined by light microscopy. The inflammation of pulp tissue was scored according to the inflammatory infiltrate (1, absent; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe/necrosis). Data were analyzed by statistical tests (α=0.05). MAX showed higher trans-enamel/dentinal penetration of H2O2 (p0.05), and different when compared to Control group (p<0.05). MAX showed severe inflammation in the upper thirds of the coronal pulp, and BLU showed moderate inflammation (p<0.05). In-office bleaching protocols using lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide should be preferred due to their reduced trans-enamel/dentinal penetration since they cause less pulp damage and provide same bleaching efficiency.

  13. Biological responses of the coral Montastraea annularis to the removal of filamentous turf algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidy P Cetz-Navarro

    Full Text Available Coral reef degradation increases coral interactions with filamentous turf algae (FTA and macroalgae, which may result in chronic stress for the corals. We evaluated the effects of short (2.5 month and long (10 month periods of FTA removal on tissue thickness (TT, zooxanthellae density (ZD, mitotic index (MI, and concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a in Montastraea annularis at the beginning and end of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes within a colony consistently surrounded by FTA and ramets surrounded by crustose coralline algae (CCA were used as controls. FTA removal reduced coral stress, indicated by increased TT and ZD and lower MI. The measured effects were similar in magnitude for the short and long periods of algal removal. Ramets were more stressed at the end of gametogenesis compared with the beginning, with lower ZD and Chl a cm(-2, and higher MI. However, it was not possible to distinguish the stress caused by the presence of FTA from that caused by seasonal changes in seawater temperature. Ramets surrounded by CCA showed less stress in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA: with higher TT, Chl a cm(-2 and ZD, and lower MI values. Coral responses indicated that ramets with FTA suffered the most deleterious effects and contrasted with those measured in ramets surrounded by CCA. According to published studies and our observations, there could be at least six mechanisms associated to FTA in the stress caused to M. annularis by FTA. Owing to the high cover of FTA (in contrast to macroalgae and CCA in the Caribbean, the chronic stress, the overgrowth and mortality that this functional algal group can cause on M. annularis species complex, a further decline of this important reef-building coral in the Caribbean is expected.

  14. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  15. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj, E-mail: aa8381@gmail.com [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston MA 02115 (United States); Geranpayeh, Tanya [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Chu, Wei Kan [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Otteson, Deborah C. [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Basic and Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  16. Investigation on the role of IGF-1 signal transduction in the biological radiation responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Oh, Soo Jin; Cho, Eun Hee; Eom, Hyun Soo; Ju, Eun Jin

    2009-05-15

    Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the IGF-1 related gene expressions and activations in various cell lines - Various expression patterns of IGF-1 and IGF-1R following {gamma}-irradiation were observed according to the cell lines - The increased expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were observed in Balb/3