WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological research survey

  1. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  2. Biological research survey for the efficient conversion of biomass to biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Michael Stuart; Andrews, Katherine M. (Computational Biosciences)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this four-week late start LDRD was to assess the current status of science and technology with regard to the production of biofuels. The main focus was on production of biodiesel from nonpetroleum sources, mainly vegetable oils and algae, and production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. One goal was to assess the major technological hurdles for economic production of biofuels for these two approaches. Another goal was to compare the challenges and potential benefits of the two approaches. A third goal was to determine areas of research where Sandia's unique technical capabilities can have a particularly strong impact in these technologies.

  3. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  4. EHRA research network surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos;

    2015-01-01

    of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over...

  5. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: yamil@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  6. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    advances (summarized in Section 4) that could facilitate or at least inspire the pursuit of biological warfare capabilities. We share the opinion that...a)bccdc.ca Infectious Diseases Control Unit of the Direction de la sante publique , Montreal Chest Institute, Montreal Division of Infectious and

  7. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  8. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  9. Advancing vector biology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F.X.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target t

  10. Researchers Discover Plants Biological Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全良

    1996-01-01

    Scientists who created glow-in-the-dark plants by shooting up seedlingswith firefly DNA have identified the first biological clock gene in plants. Discovery of the timepiece gene, which controls such biological rhythmsas daily leaf movements and proe openings, flower-blooming schedules andphotosynthesis cycles, could lead to a host of applications in ornamental horti-culture, agriculture and even human health. Many researchers believe that

  11. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  12. Formative research to optimize respondent-driven sampling surveys among hard-to-reach populations in HIV behavioral and biological surveillance: lessons learned from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Whitehead, Sara; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Kendall, Carl

    2010-06-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely adopted as a method to assess HIV and other sexually transmitted infection prevalence and risk factors among hard-to-reach populations. Failures to properly implement RDS in several settings could potentially have been avoided, had formative research been conducted. However, to date there is no published literature addressing the use of formative research in preparing for RDS studies. This paper uses examples from Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bangkok, Thailand; Podgorica, Montenegro; and St Vincent's and Grenadine Islands, Eastern Caribbean; among populations of men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and injecting drug users to describe how formative research was used to plan, implement, and predict outcomes of RDS surveys and to provide a template of RDS-specific questions for conducting formative research in preparation for RDS surveys. We outline case studies to illustrate how formative research may help researchers to determine whether RDS methodology is appropriate for a particular population and sociocultural context, and to decide on implementation details that lead to successful study outcomes.

  13. Biological Psychiatry, Research And Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this section, we look at how the biological paradigm shift in psychiatry has been aided and abetted by industry for serving its own needs; which stymies other promising approaches; but which, nonetheless, can serve to advance biomedicine if checks and balances are in place. Industry, Biological Psychiatry And Non-pharmacological Advance The larger issue of benefit to society also concerns us when we realize that industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. …a lack of balance in research activities, with a focus mainly on potential medications, is likely to divert talented researchers from the pursuit of profound scientific questions or divert them from the pursuit of questions without market relevance but with an aspect of public good. A company has little incentive to support trials evaluating whether inexpensive, off-patent drugs or whether non-pharmaceutical interventions, could replace their profitable patented drug (Baird, 2003 This is the reason why methods like yoga, psychotherapy, meditation, non-medicated non-mechanised relaxation will not find industry sponsors readily and may never be proved useful apart from anecdotal reporting.In which case to expect industry sponsorship to develop a larger therapeutic armamentarium, especially non-drug based, is wishful thinking. Moreover, non-pharmacological treatment procedures may not get desirable funding. This may not be as much of a problem in other branches of medicine as in psychiatry, wherein non-pharmacological interventions like psychotherapy still hold promise of therapeutic relief.If we do not see rigorous experimental research in psychotherapy or other non-drug modalities to the extent that we should, let us be careful before blaming the researchers for it. Where are the funds? Also, let us note that behind the great thrust towards Biological

  14. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-15

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  15. Biological survey of the Prince Edward Islands, December 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biological survey of the Prince Edward Islands took place in December 2008. The survey repeated an earlier survey of the populations of surface-nesting seabirds on both islands and of fur seals (Arctocephalus spp. and alien plants on Prince Edward Island in December 2001. Observations on burrowing seabirds, macro-invertebrates and plant communities on Prince Edward Island and an oceanographic survey of surrounding waters were also included. The survey confirmed many of the observations made on the earlier survey and permitted an assessment of trends in the abundance and distribution of biota since 2001.

  16. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  17. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  18. A biological survey of Nunivak Island, July 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Results of a biological survey of Nunivak Island, July 2-25, 1985. 755 birds, comprising 24 species were recorded on 12 bird transects. Waterfowl and shorebirds were...

  19. Large Whale Biology Survey (DE9908, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large whale biology survey primarily focuses on right whales in the coastal and continental shelf areas, with the following objectives: 1) Develop a better...

  20. A biological survey of Nunivak Island, June 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Results of a biological survey of Nunivak Island, June 5-30, 1985. 594 birds, comprising 25 species, were recorded on six bird transects. Waterfowl and shorebirds...

  1. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  2. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  3. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  4. Results of a survey of biological drug and device industries inspected by FDA under the Team Biologics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Steve; Gangi, Victor J; Johnson, Anne; Little, Jacqueline; Mendivil, Steven; Trott, Carolyn; Webber, Keith; Weinstein, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Product Quality Research Institute, in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration, conducted an anonymous, electronic survey of the biological products manufacturing industry inspected by Team Biologics, with emphasis in obtaining industry input on inspection and compliance aspects of program operations. Representatives from all of the product-specific manufacturing industries inspected under the Team Biologics Program responded to this survey (vaccines; fractionated plasma proteins and recombinant analogs; allergenics; therapeutics and in-vivo diagnostics; and in-vitro diagnostics, including blood grouping reagents). Data and written feedback was obtained regarding each firm's interactions and experiences of Team Biologics inspections at its facilities over the past three years. The three areas most impacted by Team Biologic inspections were "Production and Process Controls", "Failure Investigations" and "Facility / Equipment Controls". Overall assessment of the program was generally positive with 68% identifying a positive impact on the sites operations and 88% assessed the inspections as being conducted fairly. The findings and conclusions of this report will be utilized by the FDA to evaluate and further assess the impact of the Team Biologics Program and to implement any necessary changes. This report provides useful information to companies currently manufacturing licensed biologic products subject to Team Biologics inspections and also to those companies anticipating these inspections for future product manufacturing.

  5. Using electronic surveys in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-11-01

    Computer and Internet use in businesses and homes in the United States has dramatically increased since the early 1980s. In 2011, 76% of households reported having a computer, compared with only 8% in 1984 (File, 2013). A similar increase in Internet use has also been seen, with 72% of households reporting access of the Internet in 2011 compared with 18% in 1997 (File, 2013). This emerging trend in technology has prompted use of electronic surveys in the research community as an alternative to previous telephone and postal surveys. Electronic surveys can offer an efficient, cost-effective method for data collection; however, challenges exist. An awareness of the issues and strategies to optimize data collection using web-based surveys is critical when designing research studies. This column will discuss the different types and advantages and disadvantages of using electronic surveys in nursing research, as well as methods to optimize the quality and quantity of survey responses.

  6. 2010 Student Survey. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) conducts an annual survey of college students to identify: (1) how students approach the job market as they near graduation; (2) how responsive the market is to the graduating students; (3) the resources students use to seek their first full-time job after getting their degree; and (4) the…

  7. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  8. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  9. Survey practices in dental education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J W; Kuster, C G

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 40 percent of the data-based articles reported in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years have used survey research procedures. This study examines the use of one type of survey procedure, mailed questionnaires, in research on dental education. Specifically, the discussion identifies several factors that dental education researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors. These factors are discussed using examples of adequate and inadequate procedures reported in the method sections of studies in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years.

  10. Survey and Certification - Transplant Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — University of Michigan Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center (UMKECC) is contracted with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to provide research and...

  11. A survey of the teaching and learning of biological sciences on undergraduate nursing courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharrad, H J; Allcock, N; Chapple, M

    1994-12-01

    Curriculum planners developing degree courses in nursing have to decide how much time to allocate to each of the academic disciplines including biological sciences. There is no research-based evidence to suggest what depth and detail of knowledge of biological sciences is required to support nursing practice. There is also some debate about the teaching methods used and who should teach the biological sciences. This paper reports the results of a small survey investigating the teaching of biological sciences on 16 nursing degree courses in the UK. The survey uncovered great variation in the number of hours spent on biological sciences in the different universities and in the science entry requirements of the different universities. Most teachers of biological sciences had a first degree in the subject but few were nurses. The possible implications of these findings are discussed. Problems associated with shared learning and didactic teaching methods are also highlighted. Although the biological sciences input will largely be a matter of institutional preferences, nursing needs to develop a research-based framework to aid curriculum planning.

  12. Survey design research: a tool for answering nursing research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N

    2015-01-01

    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery.

  13. A survey of big data research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions.

  14. Hydrogen production by biological processes: a survey of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debabrata [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Biotechnology, Kharagpur (India); Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States); Veziroglu, T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is the fuel of the future mainly due to its high conversion efficiency, recyclability and nonpolluting nature. Biological hydrogen production processes are found to be more environment friendly and less energy intensive as compared to thermochemical and electrochemical processes. They are mostly controlled by either photosynthetic or fermentative organisms. Till today, more emphasis has been given on the former processes. Nitrogenase and hydrogenase play very important roles. Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria (hydrogenase negative gene) improves the hydrogen generation. The paper presents a survey of biological hydrogen production processes. The micro-organism and biochemical pathways involved in hydrogen generation processes are presented in some detail. Several developmental works are discussed. Immobilised system is found suitable for the continuous hydrogen production. About 28% of energy can be recovered in the form of hydrogen using sucrose as substrate. Fermentative hydrogen production processes have some edge over the other biological processes. (Author)

  15. 75 FR 6651 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and... of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  16. 78 FR 6087 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and.... Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research,...

  17. 77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and... of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  18. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  19. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussinesq M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  20. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  1. Japan sets up program for biological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-05-16

    Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

  2. Computational systems biology for aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Computational modelling is a key component of systems biology and integrates with the other techniques discussed thus far in this book by utilizing a myriad of data that are being generated to quantitatively represent and simulate biological systems. This chapter will describe what computational modelling involves; the rationale for using it, and the appropriateness of modelling for investigating the aging process. How a model is assembled and the different theoretical frameworks that can be used to build a model are also discussed. In addition, the chapter will describe several models which demonstrate the effectiveness of each computational approach for investigating the constituents of a healthy aging trajectory. Specifically, a number of models will be showcased which focus on the complex age-related disorders associated with unhealthy aging. To conclude, we discuss the future applications of computational systems modelling to aging research.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy in molecular structural biology: A historical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Robin

    2015-09-01

    In this personal, historic account of macromolecular transmission electron microscopy (TEM), published data from the 1940s through to recent times is surveyed, within the context of the remarkable progress that has been achieved during this time period. The evolution of present day molecular structural biology is described in relation to the associated biological disciplines. The contribution of numerous electron microscope pioneers to the development of the subject is discussed. The principal techniques for TEM specimen preparation, thin sectioning, metal shadowing, negative staining and plunge-freezing (vitrification) of thin aqueous samples are described, with a selection of published images to emphasise the virtues of each method. The development of digital image analysis and 3D reconstruction is described in detail as applied to electron crystallography and reconstructions from helical structures, 2D membrane crystals as well as single particle 3D reconstruction of icosahedral viruses and macromolecules. The on-going development of new software, algorithms and approaches is highlighted before specific examples of the historical progress of the structural biology of proteins and viruses are presented.

  4. Research Status and Prospect of Biological Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuiying; LIU; Xinsheng; LI; Zhiyong; YANG; Hao; HAN

    2014-01-01

    The concept,research content and direction of biological manufacturing were elaborated in this text. The biological manufacturing progress in China,application situation,development trend and existing problems were analyzed,and the prospect of the development of biological manufacturing was put forward,in order to provide reference and guidance for the manufacture of biological research and industrial development.

  5. Survey of Biology Capstone Courses in American and Canadian Higher Education: Requirement, Content, and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Capstone experiences have high educational impact with various approaches available for biology. However, no information exists regarding the pervasiveness of capstone courses in Canadian and American biology programs. This study surveyed the prevalence and character of biology capstone courses in the USA and Canada. The survey included a majority…

  6. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  7. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  8. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  9. [Research progress of cardiac systems biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Shang, Tong

    2009-04-01

    Systems Biology is one of the most widely discussed fields among emerging post-genomic disciplines. Medical systems biology is an important component of systems biology. The goals of medical systems biology are gaining a complete understanding of human body in normal and disease states. Driven by the great importance of cardiovascular diseases, cardiac systems biology is improving rapidly. This review provides an overview of major themes in the developing field of cardiac systems biology, including some of the high-throughput experiments and strategies used to integrate the datasets, various types of computational approaches used for developing useful quantitative models, and successful examples, future directions of cardiac systems biology.

  10. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  11. Biological data sciences in genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    The last 20 years have been a remarkable era for biology and medicine. One of the most significant achievements has been the sequencing of the first human genomes, which has laid the foundation for profound insights into human genetics, the intricacies of regulation and development, and the forces of evolution. Incredibly, as we look into the future over the next 20 years, we see the very real potential for sequencing more than 1 billion genomes, bringing even deeper insight into human genetics as well as the genetics of millions of other species on the planet. Realizing this great potential for medicine and biology, though, will only be achieved through the integration and development of highly scalable computational and quantitative approaches that can keep pace with the rapid improvements to biotechnology. In this perspective, I aim to chart out these future technologies, anticipate the major themes of research, and call out the challenges ahead. One of the largest shifts will be in the training used to prepare the class of 2035 for their highly interdisciplinary world.

  12. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic.

  13. Impacts of Colonialism: A Research Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ziltener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of colonialism in Africa and Asia have never been compared in a systematic manner for a large sample of countries. This research survey presents the results of a new and thorough assessment of the highly diverse phenomenon - including length ofdomination , violence, partition, proselytization, instrumentalization of ethno-linguistic and religious cleavages, trade, direct investment, settlements, plantations, and migration -organized through a dimensional analysis (political, social, and economic impacts. It is shown that while in some areas, colonial domination has triggered profound changes in economy and social structure, others have remained almost untouched.

  14. A Survey Data Quality Strategy: The Institutional Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to construct a survey data quality strategy for institutional researchers in higher education in light of total survey error theory. It starts with describing the characteristics of institutional research and identifying the gaps in literature regarding survey data quality issues in institutional research. Then it is followed by…

  15. Getting Back to the Basics of Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Because surveys now can be implemented with relative ease and little cost, many researchers are overlooking the basic principles of survey research. This chapter discusses sources of error that researchers should consider when conducting a survey, and gives readers basic suggestions for reducing error. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  16. Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

  17. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

  18. Biological research for the radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})- induced apoptosis, we utilized {alpha}-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

  19. Bibliometric Analysis of Current Web Survey Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; SHAO Peiji; FANG Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with the advancement of information technology and its application in survey activities, web surveys have not only greatly developed, but have also encountered many problems in China. An analysis of domestic research is important for better understanding of web surveys, to guide further research and application. This paper gives a bibliometric analysis of 120 domestic articles on web surveys from 1998 to 2006, on publication growth, author and organization distribution, journal distribution, and research subjects. Research on web surveys in China should make progress comparable with research abroad in comparative studies, specific studies, and technical application studies.

  20. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  1. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  2. New Research Strategies in Lactation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Ogorevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches have been used to study milk related traits in farm animals, reaching from statistical dissection of phenotypic variation to the search of candidate genes with major phenotypic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a new research tool devoted to in vitro studies of physiological pathways responsible for mammary gland development, lactation, remodeling and immune response, supported by a user friendly map based bioinformatics tool for integration of different types of data. We established goat mammary gland derived primary epithelial cell line with predominantly epithelial morphology, responsive to lactogenic hormones and exhibiting regeneration potential in heterologous mouse system. The response of primary epithelial cells to pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae was studied using RNA sequencing approach and 1553 differentially expressed genes were detected 24h post infection. The majority of differentially expressed genes belonged to cell cycle regulating genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and genes involved in lipid metabolism. Bioinformatic analysis of 359 putative target sites for mammary gland expressed miRNAs revealed polymorphic miRNA target sites for bta-miR-199b, -199a-5p, and -361 in the IL1B gene and for -miR-126 in the CYP11B1 gene. Graphical integration of different types of data to DairyVis platform allowed identification of genomic regions with higher number of potential functional elements that deserve further experimental analysis. The newly developed MEC line and integration of bioinformatics tools into DairyVis database represent a promising methodological support for further research in the field of lactation biology.

  3. PRES 2013: Results from the Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Turner, Gosia

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines the results of the "2013 Postgraduate Research Experience Survey" ("PRES"), where 48,401 replies were received from 122 participating institutions. Redeveloped for 2013, our biennial survey is the only national survey to gather insight from postgraduate research students about their learning and…

  4. [Progress in research on the biological reason of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Feng, Tie-jian

    2012-04-01

    Male homosexuality is a complex phenomenon which is universal and with unknown causes. Researchers believe that both biological and environmental factors have played a role in its pathogenesis. Researches focusing on genetics, neurobiology, development and endocrinology have made certain progress. In this paper, we have reviewed the biological causes of male homosexuality, which may provide clues for further research in this field.

  5. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  6. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  7. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. METHODS: The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a socio-demographic data; b perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c knowledge about biological risks; d biological risks in the working environment. The questionnaire was submitted to a convenience sample of workers of an industrial area in Southern Rome. RESULTS: 729 participants entered the study from the following work activities: food, catering, service, farming and breeding, healthcare, school and research (males 57.2%; mean age 37.4 years, SD = 10.9. Significant associations were found between different activity areas with respect to the relevance of the biological risk (p = 0.044 and the perception of the biological risk (p < 0.001. With respect to vehicles of infectious agents, the highest percentages of the most common biological risk exposures were: air and physical contact for the catering and food group, 66.7% and 61.90% respectively; air and blood for the health and research group, with 73.50% and 57.00% respectively; and physical contact and blood for the service group, 63.10 % and 48.30%. Significant difference of proportions were found about the prevalent effect caused by the biological agents was the occurrence of infectious diseases (59.90% food group, 91.60% health and research and 79.30% service group (p < 0.001. The perception of knowledge resulted in a good rank (sufficient, many or complete in the food and catering group, 78.3% with significant difference compared to other professions (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: All participants show good knowledge the effects induced by biological agents and it is significant that almost half of the respondents are aware of the risks concerning allergies

  8. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields.

  9. Genome-wide survey for biologically functional pseudogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjan Svensson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available According to current estimates there exist about 20,000 pseudogenes in a mammalian genome. The vast majority of these are disabled and nonfunctional copies of protein-coding genes which, therefore, evolve neutrally. Recent findings that a Makorin1 pseudogene, residing on mouse Chromosome 5, is, indeed, in vivo vital and also evolutionarily preserved, encouraged us to conduct a genome-wide survey for other functional pseudogenes in human, mouse, and chimpanzee. We identify to our knowledge the first examples of conserved pseudogenes common to human and mouse, originating from one duplication predating the human-mouse species split and having evolved as pseudogenes since the species split. Functionality is one possible way to explain the apparently contradictory properties of such pseudogene pairs, i.e., high conservation and ancient origin. The hypothesis of functionality is tested by comparing expression evidence and synteny of the candidates with proper test sets. The tests suggest potential biological function. Our candidate set includes a small set of long-lived pseudogenes whose unknown potential function is retained since before the human-mouse species split, and also a larger group of primate-specific ones found from human-chimpanzee searches. Two processed sequences are notable, their conservation since the human-mouse split being as high as most protein-coding genes; one is derived from the protein Ataxin 7-like 3 (ATX7NL3, and one from the Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein (ATX1. Our approach is comparative and can be applied to any pair of species. It is implemented by a semi-automated pipeline based on cross-species BLAST comparisons and maximum-likelihood phylogeny estimations. To separate pseudogenes from protein-coding genes, we use standard methods, utilizing in-frame disablements, as well as a probabilistic filter based on Ka/Ks ratios.

  10. 76 FR 8357 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and... Thomassen, Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and...

  11. A quick guide to survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T L; Baxter, M A J; Khanduja, V

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are a very useful survey tool that allow large populations to be assessed with relative ease. Despite a widespread perception that surveys are easy to conduct, in order to yield meaningful results, a survey needs extensive planning, time and effort. In this article, we aim to cover the main aspects of designing, implementing and analysing a survey as well as focusing on techniques that would improve response rates.

  12. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CBER is the Center within FDA that regulates biological products for human use under applicable federal laws, including the Public Health Service Act and the Federal...

  13. Meta-Research: Broadening the Scope of PLOS Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula; Ferguson, Christine; Ganley, Emma

    2016-01-01

    In growing recognition of the importance of how scientific research is designed, performed, communicated, and evaluated, PLOS Biology announces a broadening of its scope to cover meta-research articles.

  14. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  15. Biological survey of the Al Zubarah buffer zone, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    A survey of names of fish and other marine animals in Qatar Arabic gathered during the field season of 2012 at the Al Zubbara site.......A survey of names of fish and other marine animals in Qatar Arabic gathered during the field season of 2012 at the Al Zubbara site....

  16. It's more than stamp collecting: how genome sequencing can unify biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The availability of reference genome sequences, especially the human reference, has revolutionized the study of biology. However, while the genomes of some species have been fully sequenced, a wide range of biological problems still cannot be effectively studied for lack of genome sequence information. Here, I identify neglected areas of biology and describe how both targeted species sequencing and more broad taxonomic surveys of the tree of life can address important biological questions. I enumerate the significant benefits that would accrue from sequencing a broader range of taxa, as well as discuss the technical advances in sequencing and assembly methods that would allow for wide-ranging application of whole-genome analysis. Finally, I suggest that in addition to 'big science' survey initiatives to sequence the tree of life, a modified infrastructure-funding paradigm would better support reference genome sequence generation for research communities most in need.

  17. Survey research: it's just a few questions, right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alan R; Voepel-Lewis, Terri

    2015-07-01

    While most anesthesiologists and other physician- or nurse-scientists are familiar with traditional descriptive, observational, and interventional study design, survey research has typically remained the preserve of the social scientists. To that end, this article provides a basic overview of the elements of good survey design and offers some rules of thumb to help guide investigators through the survey process.

  18. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  19. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1997; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (J.P.N.)

  20. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (M.N.)

  1. A Survey of Venture Capital Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on or

  2. Cooperative Research Pilot Flatfish Survey (Yellowtail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An industry-based pilot flatfish survey of Georges Bank conducted aboard the F/V Mary K and the F/V Yankee Pride. The surveyed used a two-seam, two-bridle flounder...

  3. Marine Biological Survey, Peacock Point Outfall, Wake Atoll June 1998 (NODC Accession 0000247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC), in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...

  4. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  5. Study area boundary for Hudsonia's biological surveys at the MAVA site.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is part of a project called Biological Surveys at the Martin Van Buren NHS conducted by Hudsonia Ltd. It represents the approximate boundary of the...

  6. How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

  7. [New concepts in molecular biology applied to traslational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, Lourdes

    2013-06-01

    This chapter intends to introduce the new concepts that have been established in molecular biology over the last years and are being applied in translational research. The chapter is divided in four big blocks, which treat the molecular biology concepts and techniques in relation to DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites, respectively. Moreover, we give examples of translational application of these new methodologies described.

  8. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  9. Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) - Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Caron, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters - LED (BRIC-LED) is a biological research system that is being designed to complement the capabilities of the existing BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Unit (PDFU) for the Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) Program. A diverse range of organisms can be supported, including plant seedlings, callus cultures, Caenorhabditis elegans, microbes, and others. In the event of a launch scrub, the entire assembly can be replaced with an identical back-up unit containing freshly loaded specimens.

  10. Synthesis on biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Belnap, Jayne; Buedel, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    In this closing chapter, we summarize the advances in biocrust research made during the last 1.5 decades. In the first part of the chapter, we discuss how in some research fields, such as the microbial diversity of fungi, bacteria, and microfauna; the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants; and in the rehabilitation of biocrusts; particularly large achievements have been made. In other fields, previously established knowledge of overall patterns has been corroborated and refined by additional studies, e.g., in the fields of soil stabilization and disturbance effects. In the second part of the chapter, we outline the research gaps and challenges foreseen by us. We identify multiple knowledge gaps, including many understudied geographic regions, the largely missing link between genetic and morphological species identification data, and the answers to some mechanistic questions, such as the overall role of biocrusts in hydrology and nutrient cycles. With some ideas on promising new research questions and approaches we close this chapter and the overall book.

  11. The Systems Biology Research Tool: evolvable open-source software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Jeremiah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the field of systems biology requires software for a variety of purposes. Software must be used to store, retrieve, analyze, and sometimes even to collect the data obtained from system-level (often high-throughput experiments. Software must also be used to implement mathematical models and algorithms required for simulation and theoretical predictions on the system-level. Results We introduce a free, easy-to-use, open-source, integrated software platform called the Systems Biology Research Tool (SBRT to facilitate the computational aspects of systems biology. The SBRT currently performs 35 methods for analyzing stoichiometric networks and 16 methods from fields such as graph theory, geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. New computational techniques can be added to the SBRT via process plug-ins, providing a high degree of evolvability and a unifying framework for software development in systems biology. Conclusion The Systems Biology Research Tool represents a technological advance for systems biology. This software can be used to make sophisticated computational techniques accessible to everyone (including those with no programming ability, to facilitate cooperation among researchers, and to expedite progress in the field of systems biology.

  12. Perspectives in Biological Nitrogen Fixation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, along with photosynthesis is the basis of all life on earth. Current understanding suggests that no plant fixes its own nitrogen. Some plants (mainly legumes) fix nitrogen via symbiotic anaerobic microorganisms (mainly rhizobia). The nature of biological nitrogen fixation is that the dinitrogenase catalyzes the reaction-splitting triple-bond inert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into organic ammonia molecule (NH3). All known nitrogenases are found to be prokaryotic,multi.complex and normally oxygen liable. Not surprisingly, the engineering of autonomous nitrogen-fixing plants would be a long-term effort because it requires the assembly of a complex enzyme and provision of anaerobic conditions. However,in the light of evolving protein catalysts, the anaerobic enzyme has almost certainly been replaced in many reactions by the more efficient and irreversible aerobic version that uses O2. On the other hand, nature has shown numerous examples of evolutionary convergence where an enzyme catalyzing a highly specific, O2-requiring reaction has an oxygen-independent counterpart, able to carry out the same reaction under anoxic conditions. In this review, I attempt to take the reader on a simplified journey from conventional nitrogenase complex to a possible simplified version of a yet to be discovered Ilght-utilizing nitrogenase.

  13. Ethics Review of Survey Research: A Mandatory Requirement for Publication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicher, Danielle; Wu, Albert W

    2015-12-01

    National regulations governing human subjects research differ with regard to whether they require survey research to be overseen by institutional ethics boards or committees. In cases where ethical review has been waived, or was provided by an individual or group other than an institutional ethics board, journals may question the appropriateness of the waiver or alternative review when making determinations about whether to accept the manuscript for publication. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance for journals to consider when making determinations about the necessity of ethical review for survey research projects. We review the functions of ethics oversight and consider the importance of those functions within the context of survey research. In survey research, no intervention is delivered to research participants. As a result, there is no risk of physical harm to individuals who participate. However, there can be a risk of informational or psychological harms. In situations where there is greater than minimal risk of informational or psychological harms, the survey research should have received institutional ethics oversight. Additionally, survey research projects that enroll vulnerable individuals with diminished autonomy should receive institutional ethics oversight. We hope that this article leads to further guidance on this subject by authoritative group such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

  14. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  15. Who Sends the Email? Using Electronic Surveys in Violence Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Sutherland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Students aged 16–24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Methods: Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols.Results: An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates.Conclusion: The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:363–369.

  16. Survey of cogeneration: Advanced cogeneration research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  17. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  18. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease nurse specialists for patients on biological therapies: a nationwide Italian survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Alessandra; Marinis, Francesca De; Kohn, Anna; Orzes, Nicoletta; D’Incà, Renata; Iannone, Teresa; Giaquinto, Antonella; Rivara, Cinzia; Ridola, Lorenzo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Zullo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. Among the working team, the role of IBD nurse is expected to be particularly relevant when managing patients receiving biological therapies. We performed a survey to assess the presence of IBD nurse in centers where patients were receiving biologics. Methods For this Italian nationwide survey a specific questionnaire was prepared. IBD nurse was defined as a nurse directly involved in all phases of biological therapy, from pre-therapy screening, administration and monitoring during therapy, to follow up performed by a dedicated helpline, completed a specific training on biological therapy therapy, and observed international guidelines. Results A total of 53 Italian IBD centers participated in the survey, and 91 valid questionnaires were collected. Overall, 34 (37.4%) nurses could be classified as IBD specialists. IBD nurses had a significantly higher educational level than other nurses, they were more frequently operating in Central or Southern than in Northern Italy, they were working in an Academic center rather than in a General hospital, and in IBD centers with >25 patients on biological therapy. On the contrary, mean age, gender distribution, years of nursing, and years working in the IBD unit did not significantly differ between IBD and other nurses. Conclusions Our nationwide survey showed that the presence of an IBD nurse is still lacking in the majority of Italian IBD centers where patients receive biological therapies, suggesting a prompt implementation. PMID:27708516

  20. A Survey of Campus Coordinators of Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Interest in supporting undergraduate research programs continues to grow within academic librarianship. This article presents how undergraduate research program coordinators perceive and value library support of their programs. Undergraduate research coordinators from a variety of institutions were surveyed on which elements of libraries and…

  1. Genomics Research: World Survey of Public Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook-Deegan Robert M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. Results One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it. The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Conclusion Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003 – 2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public

  2. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  3. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  6. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...

  7. The policies of ethics committees in the management of biobanks used for research: an Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Corinna; Togni, Elena; Pasqualetti, Patrizio

    2014-02-01

    Gaps in regulations pertaining to the collection and storage of biological materials in a biobank, at least in the European context, have made the writing of local guidelines essential from an ethical point of view. Nevertheless, until recently, the elaboration of local guidelines for the collection, use and storage of biological materials in a biobank has been the exception in Italy and all European countries. In this context, it is of value to know the policies, even if they are unwritten, of local ethics committees (ECs) engaged in the evaluation of research protocols involving biobanks and biological materials. This paper presents the results of a survey carried out among local Italian ECs (229) to document their attitudes and policies regarding the management of the ethical issues related to biobanks and the use of biological materials. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the areas regarded as critical from an ethical-legal point of view: informed consent and information to the subjects; protection of confidentiality; communication of research results; access/transfer of biological materials and related data; ownership of samples and data and intellectual property rights; and subjects' remuneration and benefit sharing. Twenty-six ECs from the Italian Institutes for Research and Care (62%) and 26 other ECs (14%) participated in the survey.

  8. Multimode lasers as analogs of complex biological systems (a survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, O. B.; Rosanov, N. N.; Solov'ev, N. A.; Soms, L. N.

    2016-04-01

    Simulating the activity of complex biological systems, in particular, the human brain, is a topical problem the solution of which is necessary both for understanding their functioning and for developing new classes of computational system based on operating principles of the brain. Some features and analogies that can be found in the operation of laser systems and brain and used for developing new generation computational systems are discussed. The appropriateness of such analogies is justified by the fact that both laser systems and the brain are open (interacting with the environment) dissipative spatially distributed nonlinear systems. Therefore, laser optical systems and, in particular, systems with dissipative optical solitons offer an opportunity to experimentally and theoretically model some important cognitive brain functions. One of particularities of the brain operation is the ability to manipulate images. Proceeding from this, in this work, problems related to generation and amplification with laser of spatial structures (images), as well as to amplification of signals coming to it from outside are discussed.

  9. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  10. Biomimetics for NASA Langley Research Center: Year 2000 Report of Findings From a Six-Month Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Anders, John B., Jr.; Cox, David E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Fox, Robert L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to see if some of the techniques biological systems use to maximize their efficiency can be applied to the problems NASA faces in aeronautics and space exploration. It includes an internal survey of resources available at NASA Langley Research Center for biomimetics research efforts, an external survey of state of the art in biomimetics covering the Materials, Structures, Aerodynamics, Guidance and Controls areas. The Biomimetics Planning team also included ideas for potential research areas, as well as recommendations on how to implement this new program. This six-month survey was conducted in the second half of 1999.

  11. [Survey of research on acupoints compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Ren

    2010-05-01

    The research papers that meet the criteria of evidence-based medicine and randomized controlled trial were retrieved in Chinese journals data bases (CNKI knowledge network) from 1992 to 2009. Twenty-five papers indicate that acupoints compatibility rules are closely related to organism regional anatomy, nerve, the blood vessel and the endocrine gland; acupoints compatibility rules produce synergism, inhibit or antagonistic effect that affect the clinical effectiveness. The acupoints compatibility rules based on experimental researches are applied to clinic practice is the key to improve the acupuncture clinical effectiveness.

  12. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes.

  13. Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is

  14. Survey of cell biology experiments in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on terrestrial cell systems are discussed. With some important exceptions, static cell systems carried aboard U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. space flights have failed to reveal space related anomalies. Some sophisticated devices which were developed for viewing directly, or continuously recording, the growth of cells, tissue cultures and eggs in flight, are described and the results summarized. The unique presence of high energy, multicharged (HZE) particles and full-range ultraviolet irradiation in space prompted evaluation of the response of single cells to these factors. Summary results and general conclusions are presented. Potential areas of research in future space flights are identified.

  15. Graphical methods for analysing feedback in biological networks - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radde, Nicole; Bar, Nadav S.; Banaji, Murad

    2010-01-01

    Observed phenotypes usually arise from complex networks of interacting cell components. Qualitative information about the structure of these networks is often available, while quantitative information may be partial or absent. It is natural then to ask what, if anything, we can learn about the behaviour of the system solely from its qualitative structure. In this article we review some techniques which can be applied to answer this question, focussing in particular on approaches involving graphical representations of model structure. By applying these techniques to various cellular network examples, we discuss their strengths and limitations, and point to future research directions.

  16. Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih'tha'

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided.

  17. The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie M. Dooley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the outcomes of the 2009 OCLC Research survey of 275 research libraries in the United States and Canada regarding the current status of their special collections and archives. The resulting report, Taking Our Pulse: The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, includes detailed analysis of the data and thirteen recommendations for community action. The three most common challenges named by respondents were space, digitization, and born-digital materials. Collections are growing dramatically, use of all types of material has increased, substantial backlogs remain, and 75% of library budgets have been reduced in recent years.

  18. Survey of NASA research on crash dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. G.; Carden, H. D.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ten years of structural crash dynamics research activities conducted on general aviation aircraft by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. Thirty-two full-scale crash tests were performed at Langley Research Center, and pertinent data on airframe and seat behavior were obtained. Concurrent with the experimental program, analytical methods were developed to help predict structural behavior during impact. The effects of flight parameters at impact on cabin deceleration pulses at the seat/occupant interface, experimental and analytical correlation of data on load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations, airplane section test results for computer modeling validation, and data from emergency-locator-transmitter (ELT) investigations to determine probable cause of false alarms and nonactivations are assessed. Computer programs which provide designers with analytical methods for predicting accelerations, velocities, and displacements of collapsing structures are also discussed.

  19. A Survey of European Robotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-27

    The material and operations of the US Navy. information in this report is based on Material will be influenced first--by on-site visits to 21 of the...in Table I these areas will make the acquisition were chosen from the results of a and maintenance of the materials neces- literature review...analysis, and lic actuators. Dr. Burckhardt expected gray level image processing techniques. future robot research in gray scale The Laboratorio per

  20. Abstracts of the 2. survey of research symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The abstracts presented in this issue show scientific accomplishments of scientists working in the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Interest of research teams gradually moved from classic biochemistry and physiological chemistry toward molecular biology. One line of research is focused on repair of DNA damages caused by X-rays and UV.

  1. Bibliographical review on the teaching of Biology and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This review complements another one done by the same author, in 1997, regarding the role of comprehending the concept of cell in the learning of Biology. In addition, some general papers on science education that provide a better understanding of research approaches used in the investigation of this topic have been included. The reviewed papers have been organized into categories according to the object of study, the relevance assigned to the cell concept, and the framework of analysis. The review shows that the concept of cell is very important in the biological conceptualization, however, it also shows the need of additional research on this matter, from theoretical frameworks that pay more attention to the psychological level, in order to provide some guidance to improve the teaching and learning processes of the biological content that presupose the comprehension of living beings.

  2. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  3. Collaborative Core Research Program for Chemical-Biological Warfare Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    Research Center (UC-DDRC, part of UC-MDI). Using an EvoTec robot , single point (10 μM final solution test chemical concentration) 2 measurements...assay on neuroblastoma cell lines. We performed this method, as well as incorporated a novel method developed at US Army Medical Research Institute of...formulations chemists to determine the optimal dose methods. These new CWA countermeasures will be transitioned to the Chemical Biological Medical Systems for

  4. In focus: molecular and cell biology research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuebiao; Li, Dangsheng; Pei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    An interactive, intellectual environment with good funding opportunities is essential for the development and success of basic research. The fast-growing economy and investment in science, together with a visionary plan, have attracted foreign scholars to work in China, motivated world-class Chinese scientists to return and strengthened the country's international collaborations. As a result, molecular and cell biology research in China has evolved rapidly over the past decade.

  5. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  6. The Research Proposal in Biomechanical and Biological Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roger G.; Nollert, Matthias U.; Schmidtke, David W.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.

    2006-01-01

    Students in four biochemical and biological engineering courses for upper-­level undergraduates and graduate students were required to write a research proposal. Breaking the requirements down into segments (such as a summary with specific aims, rough draft, and final draft) due on different dates helped make the assignment more manageable for the…

  7. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  8. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Survey Of Wind Tunnels At Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Report presented at AIAA 14th Aerodynamic Testing Conference on current capabilities and planned improvements at NASA Langley Research Center's major wind tunnels. Focuses on 14 major tunnels, 8 unique in world, 3 unique in country. Covers Langley Spin Tunnel. Includes new National Transonic Facility (NTF). Also surveys Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Addresses resurgence of inexpensive simple-to-operate research tunnels. Predicts no shortage of tools for aerospace researcher and engineer in next decade or two.

  10. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in interdisciplinary research

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Themistocles

    2014-01-01

    This volume consists of chapters written by eminent scientists and engineers from the international community and presents significant advances in several theories, and applications of an interdisciplinary research. These contributions focus on both old and recent developments of Global Optimization Theory, Convex Analysis, Calculus of Variations, and Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, as well as several applications to a large variety of concrete problems, including  applications of computers  to the study of smoothness and analyticity of functions, applications to epidemiological diffusion, networks, mathematical models of elastic and piezoelectric fields, optimal algorithms, stability of neutral type vector functional differential equations, sampling and rational interpolation for non-band-limited signals, recurrent neural network for convex optimization problems, and experimental design.  The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers i...

  11. A SURVEY OF CURRENT RESEARCH ON CAPTCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Khalifa Abdullah Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been playing an increasingly important role in our daily life, with the availability of many web services such as email and search engines. However, these are often threatened by attacks from computer programs such as bots. To address this problem, CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart was developed to distinguish between computer programs and human users. Although this mechanism offers good security and limits automatic registration to web services, some CAPTCHAs have several weaknesses which allow hackers to infiltrate the mechanism of the CAPTCHA. This paper examines recent research on various CAPTCHA methods and their categories. Moreover it discusses the weakness and strength of these types.

  12. Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Elizabeth

    As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models

  13. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Catherine Y; Park, Jin G; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743-D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease.

  14. Systems Biology and Synthetic Biology: A New Epoch for Toxicology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Mc Auley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology and synthetic biology are emerging disciplines which are becoming increasingly utilised in several areas of bioscience. Toxicology is beginning to benefit from systems biology and we suggest in the future that is will also benefit from synthetic biology. Thus, a new era is on the horizon. This review illustrates how a suite of innovative techniques and tools can be applied to understanding complex health and toxicology issues. We review limitations confronted by the traditional computational approaches to toxicology and epidemiology research, using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and their effects on adverse birth outcomes as an illustrative example. We introduce how systems toxicology (and their subdisciplines, genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic toxicology will help to overcome such limitations. In particular, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mathematical frameworks that computationally represent biological systems. Finally, we discuss the nascent discipline of synthetic biology and highlight relevant toxicological centred applications of this technique, including improvements in personalised medicine. We conclude this review by presenting a number of opportunities and challenges that could shape the future of these rapidly evolving disciplines.

  15. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  16. The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

  17. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

  18. Trident Biological Surveys: Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Washington (1979, 1980 & 1981) Summary Report. Supplement 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-15

    Relationships in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) to Detect Heavy Metal Pollution, Water Research, vol 7, p 451 -460, 1973 43Jenkins, DW...Metal Pollution, Water Research, vol 7, p 451 -460, 1973. 86 43. Jenkins, DW, Biological Monitoring of Toxic Trace Metals: Biological Monitoring and...when water temperatures are favorably warm (usually about 67 degrees Farenheit ). For normal growth of oyster larvae during the fast several weeks of

  19. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  20. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  1. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  2. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  3. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiran Govender

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The article is part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  4. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  5. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.

  6. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  7. Survey on Agricultural Biological Resources and Traditional Cultural Knowledge of Hani People in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqin; ZHANG; Hong; LUO; Wenjie; LONG; Yongtao; LEI; Qing; CAI; Mei; LAN; Li; ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    In 2007- 2008,a systematic survey,collection and arrangement was carried out for agricultural biological resources and traditional cultural knowledge of Hani People in 8 counties,15 towns,and 23 village committees of Yunnan Province. A total of 299 samples were obtained about agricultural biological resources related to production and living of Hani People. According to purpose of utilization,samples were divided into grain crops,medicinal plants,vegetables,fruit trees,and oil crops,taking up 48. 2%,21. 7%,18. 4%,7. 7%,and 2. 0% of the samples respectively. The survey indicated that planting industry and breeding industry take up the dominant role in rural social economy of Hani People,so agricultural biological resources are the fundamental means of production maintaining rural social development of Hani People.The current situation of agricultural biological resources of Hani People in Yunnan,reasons for growth and decline were analyzed,and the utilization,protection and development of agricultural biological resources were discussed.

  8. Adaptation of the methodology of sample surveys for marketing researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataev Andrey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the theory of adaptation of sample survey for the purposes of marketing, that allows to answer the fundamental question of any marketing research – how many objects should be studied for drawing adequate conclusions.

  9. A Survey of Instructional Support for Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate research and other high-impact educational practices simulate real-world learning environments and present an opportunity for high-level information literacy teaching to be better incorporated into the curriculum. The purpose of this survey is to examine efforts of libraries currently offering IL instruction to undergraduate research…

  10. A Survey on Educational Data Mining and Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Jindal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational Data Mining (EDM is an emerging fieldexploring data in educational context by applyingdifferent Data Mining (DM techniques/tools. It provides intrinsic knowledge of teaching and learningprocess for effective education planning. In this survey work focuses on components, research trends (1998to 2012 of EDM highlighting its related Tools, Techniques and educational Outcomes. It also highlightsthe Challenges EDM.

  11. A Survey on Educational Data Mining and Research Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Jindal; Malaya Dutta Borah

    2013-01-01

    Educational Data Mining (EDM) is an emerging fieldexploring data in educational context by applyingdifferent Data Mining (DM) techniques/tools. It provides intrinsic knowledge of teaching and learningprocess for effective education planning. In this survey work focuses on components, research trends (1998to 2012) of EDM highlighting its related Tools, Techniques and educational Outcomes. It also highlightsthe Challenges EDM.

  12. Response to ERIS 2014 States' Research Needs Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is ORD’s response to the states’ needs and priorities, as identified in the 2014 survey. ORD identified existing methods, models, tools and databases on these topics, as well as near-term research and development efforts, that could assist states in thei...

  13. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsar, Katharine; Knight, Jennifer K; Birol, Gülnur; Smith, Michelle K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a newly adapted instrument for measuring novice-to-expert-like perceptions about biology: the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology (CLASS-Bio). Consisting of 31 Likert-scale statements, CLASS-Bio probes a range of perceptions that vary between experts and novices, including enjoyment of the discipline, propensity to make connections to the real world, recognition of conceptual connections underlying knowledge, and problem-solving strategies. CLASS-Bio has been tested for response validity with both undergraduate students and experts (biology PhDs), allowing student responses to be directly compared with a consensus expert response. Use of CLASS-Bio to date suggests that introductory biology courses have the same challenges as introductory physics and chemistry courses: namely, students shift toward more novice-like perceptions following instruction. However, students in upper-division biology courses do not show the same novice-like shifts. CLASS-Bio can also be paired with other assessments to: 1) examine how student perceptions impact learning and conceptual understanding of biology, and 2) assess and evaluate how pedagogical techniques help students develop both expertise in problem solving and an expert-like appreciation of the nature of biology.

  14. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tőzsér

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences.

  15. United States Biological Survey: A compendium of its history, personalities, impacts, and conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidly, David J.; Tydeman, W. E.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2016-01-01

    In 1885, a small three-person unit was created in the U.S. Department of Agriculture to gather and analyze information on bird migrations. Originally called the Section of Economic Ornithology, over the next 55 years this unit underwent three name changes and accumulated ever-increasing responsibilities for the nation’s faunal resources. Transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1939, this agency was merged with the Bureau of Fisheries in 1940 to create the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The following account details the chronology, directorship, and growth of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey up to its renovation as the FWS. This account also profiles some employees of the Biological Survey.

  16. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  17. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  18. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  19. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  20. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  1. 77 FR 47676 - Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey AGENCY... Research Jurisdictional Survey Evaluation for the National Science Foundation. OMB Number: 3145-NEW. Type... strengthen science and engineering research potential and education at all levels throughout the...

  2. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  3. Life lines: An art history of biological research around 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Around 1800, the scientific "illustrator" emerged as a new artistic profession in Europe. Artists were increasingly sought after in order to picture anatomical dissections and microscopic observations and to translate drawings into artworks for books and journals. By training and technical expertise, they introduced a particular kind of knowledge into scientific perception that also shaped the common image of nature. Illustrations of scientific publications, often undervalued as a biased interpretation of facts and subordinate to logic and description, thus convey an 'art history' of science in its own right, relevant both for the understanding of biological thought around 1800 as well as for the development of the arts and their historiography. The article is based on an analysis of botanical treatises produced for the Göttingen Society of Sciences in 1803, during an early phase of microscopic cell research, in order to determine the constitutive role of artistic knowledge and the media employed for the visualization and conceptualization of biological issues.

  4. Systems biology and bioinformatics in aging research: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuellen, Georg; Dengjel, Jörn; Hoeflich, Andreas; Hoeijemakers, Jan; Kestler, Hans A; Kowald, Axel; Priebe, Steffen; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Schmeck, Bernd; Schmitz, Ulf; Stolzing, Alexandra; Sühnel, Jürgen; Wuttke, Daniel; Vera, Julio

    2012-12-01

    In an "aging society," health span extension is most important. As in 2010, talks in this series of meetings in Rostock-Warnemünde demonstrated that aging is an apparently very complex process, where computational work is most useful for gaining insights and to find interventions that counter aging and prevent or counteract aging-related diseases. The specific topics of this year's meeting entitled, "RoSyBA: Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Ageing Research," were primarily related to "Cancer and Aging" and also had a focus on work funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The next meeting in the series, scheduled for September 20-21, 2013, will focus on the use of ontologies for computational research into aging, stem cells, and cancer. Promoting knowledge formalization is also at the core of the set of proposed action items concluding this report.

  5. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  6. Nationwide survey on barriers for dental research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundendu Arya Bishen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research in the dental field is progressing at mightier speed worldwide, but an unfortunately representation of India at this platform is negligible. The present study was undertaken to unearth the barriers for dental research among dental professionals in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on 1514 participant′s (Master of Dental Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery staff and postgraduates in 40 dental colleges of India selected by multistage random sampling. The response rate was 75.7%. The survey was undertaken from July 2013 to December 2013. The survey instrument was 24-item, investigator developed, self-structured, close-ended, and self-administered questionnaire grouped into four categories that are, institutional/departmental support related barriers, financial/training support related barriers, time-related barriers, and general barriers. Results: Among all respondents 47.23% informed that they are administrative and educational work rather than research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 57.53% of study participants reported lack of administrative and technical support for research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 64.9% reported meager college funding was the barrier (P < 0.001. Overall 61.5% respondents reported lack of time to do research work due to clinical and teaching responsibilities (P < 0.001 was the barrier for research. Largely 80.25% agreed that, the lack of documentation and record maintenance are an obvious barrier for research (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Present study unearths certain barriers for research in an Indian scenario, which includes administrative overburden, lack of funds, and lack of documentation of the dental data. Governing authorities of dentistry in India have to make major interventions to make research non-intensive environment to research-friendly environment.

  7. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1995-04-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  9. Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2006-01-01

    The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994, when Xenopus eggs were successfully fertilized for the first time in space during the Japanese Spacelab mission STS-47 and developed in microgravity to vital tadpoles. Most Xenopus studies were related to embryogenesis and development. Observations during and after altered gravity revealed changes such as the thickening of the blastocoel roof, the dorsalization of the tail, and modifications of vestibular reflexes, fictive and freely swimming. Many changes were reversible even during microgravity exposure. Studies about the vestibuloocular reflex or synapse formation revealed an age-related sensitivity to altered gravity. Xenopus offers useful tools for studies about microgravity effects on living systems. Its oocyte is a suitable model to study ion channel function in space; the dorsalization model can be used to analyse growth factor sensibilities. Hardware for life support of adults, tadpoles and embryos (cf. SUPPLY unit in combination with miniaquaria) as well as for controlled experiments in space are prerequisites for an extension of research with Xenopus. The application aspect is based on the fact that fundamental research per se brings benefit to man.

  10. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  11. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  12. Intercalibration of research survey vessels on Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, J.T.; Johnson, T.B.; Knight, C.T.; Bur, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fish abundance indices obtained from annual research trawl surveys are an integral part of fisheries stock assessment and management in the Great Lakes. It is difficult, however, to administer trawl surveys using a single vessel-gear combination owing to the large size of these systems, the jurisdictional boundaries that bisect the Great Lakes, and changes in vessels as a result of fleet replacement. When trawl surveys are administered by multiple vessel-gear combinations, systematic error may be introduced in combining catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data across vessels. This bias is associated with relative differences in catchability among vessel-gear combinations. In Lake Erie, five different research vessels conduct seasonal trawl surveys in the western half of the lake. To eliminate this systematic bias, the Lake Erie agencies conducted a side-by-side trawling experiment in 2003 to develop correction factors for CPUE data associated with different vessel-gear combinations. Correcting for systematic bias in CPUE data should lead to more accurate and comparable estimates of species density and biomass. We estimated correction factors for the 10 most commonly collected species age-groups for each vessel during the experiment. Most of the correction factors (70%) ranged from 0.5 to 2.0, indicating that the systematic bias associated with different vessel-gear combinations was not large. Differences in CPUE were most evident for vessels using different sampling gears, although significant differences also existed for vessels using the same gears. These results suggest that standardizing gear is important for multiple-vessel surveys, but there will still be significant differences in catchability stemming from the vessel effects and agencies must correct for this. With standardized estimates of CPUE, the Lake Erie agencies will have the ability to directly compare and combine time series for species abundance. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  13. Translational Research: From Biological Discovery to Public Benefit (or Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Emmert-Buck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in biology are occurring at a breathtaking pace today, from genetic insights facilitated by the Human Genome Project and next generation DNA sequencing technologies, to global nucleic acid and proteomic expression measurement using new high-throughput methods. Less publicized in recent years, yet still the central driver of progress, are the steadily proceeding biological insights gained through tried and true hypothesis-driven investigation into the complex worlds of metabolism, growth, development, and regulation. Certainly, the basic science ecosystem is productive and this portends well for the myriad new applications that will benefit mankind; drugs, vaccines, devices, and related economic growth—or perhaps not—in stark contrast to the generation of fundamental biological knowledge are inefficiencies in applying this information to real-world problems, especially those of the clinic. While investigation hums along at light speed, translation often does not. The good news is that obstacles to progress are tractable. The bad news, however, is that these problems are difficult. The present paper examines translational research from multiple perspectives, beginning with a historical account and proceeding to the current state of the art. Included are descriptions of successes and challenges, along with conjecture on how the field may need to evolve in the future.

  14. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  15. Report on the fiscal 1996 research cooperation promotion project, `the research cooperation diagnosis survey`; 1996 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo `kenkyu kyoryoku shindan chosa` hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A diagnosis survey was conducted for Japan to cooperate in researching subjects on technical development in developing countries. In fiscal 1996, surveys were made on the following: (1) establishment of the industrial base (Vietnam), (2) preservation of biological diversification and the continuous utilization (Brazil), (3) fostering of the industry of automobile parts (Thailand), (4) finding out of items on environment related fields (India), (5) environmental response type system for effective use of water resource (the Philippines), (6) small size geothermal exploration in remote islands (Indonesia). (1) is research cooperation for welding technology, powder metallurgy technology, hypoid gear manufacturing technology, and iron making technology by the direct reduction method. In (2), research/development are conducted in cooperation with research institutes in Brazil on survey/identification/utilization of bioactive substances from biological resources in Brazil. In (4), an examination was made of the seeds for research cooperation in technical fields such as environment and energy. Having a strong relation with the industrial circle, SCIR is carrying out researches on aerospace, petrochemical, biology, electronics, medicines/drug, etc., which indicated fulfillment of intellectual infrastructure in India. 52 figs.

  16. BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.

    1995-02-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  17. Engaging Students in Survey Research Projects across Research Methods and Statistics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovekamp, William E.; Soboroff, Shane D.; Gillespie, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    One innovative way to help students make sense of survey research has been to create a multifaceted, collaborative assignment that promotes critical thinking, comparative analysis, self-reflection, and statistical literacy. We use a short questionnaire adapted from the Higher Education Research Institute's Cooperative Institutional Research…

  18. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  19. 2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angela Wilks

    2010-07-30

    The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

  20. Global biology - An interdisciplinary scientific research program at NASA, Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Colin, L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  1. Global Biology: An Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.; Colin, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  2. Systems biology driven software design for the research enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killcoyne Sarah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In systems biology, and many other areas of research, there is a need for the interoperability of tools and data sources that were not originally designed to be integrated. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of systems biology, and its association with high throughput experimental platforms, there is an additional need to continually integrate new technologies. As scientists work in isolated groups, integration with other groups is rarely a consideration when building the required software tools. Results We illustrate an approach, through the discussion of a purpose built software architecture, which allows disparate groups to reuse tools and access data sources in a common manner. The architecture allows for: the rapid development of distributed applications; interoperability, so it can be used by a wide variety of developers and computational biologists; development using standard tools, so that it is easy to maintain and does not require a large development effort; extensibility, so that new technologies and data types can be incorporated; and non intrusive development, insofar as researchers need not to adhere to a pre-existing object model. Conclusion By using a relatively simple integration strategy, based upon a common identity system and dynamically discovered interoperable services, a light-weight software architecture can become the focal point through which scientists can both get access to and analyse the plethora of experimentally derived data.

  3. "Biology Education"--An Emerging Interdisciplinary Area of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of faculty positions in biology education, the formation of professional societies focused specifically on biology education, and the increasing number of publications in biology education over the past decade

  4. Green Cellular Networks: A Survey, Some Research Issues and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Ziaul; Bhargava, Vijay K

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency in cellular networks is a growing concern for cellular operators to not only maintain profitability, but also to reduce the overall environment effects. This emerging trend of achieving energy efficiency in cellular networks is motivating the standardization authorities and network operators to continuously explore future technologies in order to bring improvements in the entire network infrastructure. In this article, we present a brief survey of methods to improve the power efficiency of cellular networks, explore some research issues and challenges and suggest some techniques to enable an energy efficient or "green" cellular network. Since base stations consume a maximum portion of the total energy used in a cellular system, we will first provide a comprehensive survey on techniques to obtain energy savings in base stations. Next, we discuss how heterogenous network deployment based on micro, pico and femto-cells can be used to achieve this goal. Since cognitive radio and cooperative rela...

  5. Relationships between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and self-reported research practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R

    2013-09-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one's university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals' deviations from these shared perceptions. Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior.

  6. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical...... knowledge and practical research competencies among orthopaedic nurses and their interest and motivation to increase these in everyday practice. A newly developed questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 87 orthopaedic nurses. Forty three orthopaedic nurses (49.4%) completed the questionnaire....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  7. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  8. Polymer matrix composites research: A survey of federally sponsored programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report identifies research conducted by agencies of the federal government other than the Department of Energy (DOE) in the area of advanced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). DOE commissioned the report to avoid duplicating other agencies' efforts in planning its own research program for PMCs. PMC materials consist of high-strength, short or continuous fibers fused together by an organic matrix. Compared to traditional structural metals, PMCs provide greater strength and stiffness, reduced weight and increased heat resistance. The key contributors to PMC research identified by the survey are the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The survey identified a total of 778 projects. More than half of the total projects identified emphasize materials research with a goal toward developing materials with improved performance. Although an almost equal number of identified materials projects focus on thermosets and thermoplastics receive more attention because of their increased impact resistance and their easy formability and re-formability. Slightly more than one third of projects identified target structures research. Only 15 percent of the projects identified focus on manufacturing techniques, despite the need for efficient, economical methods manufacturing products constructed of PMCs--techniques required for PMCs to gain widespread acceptance. Three issues to be addressed concerning PMCs research are economy of use, improvements in processing, and education and training. Five target technologies have been identified that could benefit greatly from increased use of PMCs: aircraft fuselages, automobile frames, high-speed machinery, electronic packaging, and construction.

  9. A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.

  10. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  11. Using biological samples in epidemiological research on drugs of abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjerde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood, oral fluid (saliva, urine and hair are the most commonly used biological matrices for drug testing in epidemiological drug research. Other biological matrices may also be used for selected purposes. Blood reflects recent drug intake and may be used to assess impairment. Oral fluid reflects drug presence in blood and thereby also recent intake, but drug concentrations in this matrix cannot be used to accurately estimate concentrations in blood. Urine reflects drug use during the last few days and in some cases for a longer period, but does not indicate the dose size or frequency of use. Hair reflects drug use during several months, but is a poor matrix for detecting use of cannabis. If using a single drug dose, this can be detected in blood and urine if the sample is taken within the detection timeframes, in most cases also in oral fluid. Single drug use is most often insufficient for producing a positive test result in a sample of hair. For cocaine and amphetamine, weekly use may be needed, while for cannabis a positive result is not guaranteed even after daily use. Refusal rates are lowest for oral fluid and highest for blood and hair samples. The analytical costs are lowest for urine and highest for hair. Combined use of questionnaires/interviews and drug testing detects more drug use than when using only one of those methods and is therefore expected to give more accurate data.

  12. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations

  13. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  14. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another. Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms from a wider assortment of lineages on the tree of life. There are many model organisms, such as viruses (e.g., Phage lambda virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, etc., bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio fischeri, etc., algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Emiliania huxleyi, etc., molds (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, etc., yeasts (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, etc., higher plants (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Lemna gibba, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabaccum, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, Zea mays, etc. and animals (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, dog, frog, Hydra, Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, fish, etc..

  15. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  16. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  17. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  18. Refinement of Research Surveying in Software Methodologies by Analogy: finding your patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Doroshenko

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance research surveying in software methodologies, a model is introduced that can indicate field maturity based on vocabulary and relevant literature. This model is developed by drawing analogies with software methodologies. Two analogies are used: software models and software life cycles or processes. How this model can reduce research surveying problems for researchers is described using extracts from application results as examples. Although the model does support research surveying activities, it cannot choose the subject for the researcher.

  19. Systems Biology and Synthetic Biology: A New Epoch for Toxicology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mark T. Mc Auley; Hyunok Choi; Kathleen Mooney; Emily Paul; Miller, Veronica M.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology and synthetic biology are emerging disciplines which are becoming increasingly utilised in several areas of bioscience. Toxicology is beginning to benefit from systems biology and we suggest in the future that is will also benefit from synthetic biology. Thus, a new era is on the horizon. This review illustrates how a suite of innovative techniques and tools can be applied to understanding complex health and toxicology issues. We review limitations confronted by the traditiona...

  20. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  1. A Survey: Recent Advances and Future Trends in Honeypot Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Bringer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on recent advances in honeypot research from a review of 80+ papers on honeypots and related topics mostly published after year 2005. This paper summarizes 60 papers that had significant contribution to the field. In reviewing the literature, it became apparent that the research can be broken down into five major areas:  new types of honeypots to cope with emergent new security threats,  utilizing honeypot output data to improve the accuracy in threat detections,  configuring honeypots to reduce the cost of maintaining honeypots as well as to improve the accuracy in threat detections,  counteracting honeypot detections by attackers, and  legal and ethical issues in using honeypots. Our literature reviews indicate that the advances in the first four areas reflect the recent changes in our networking environments, such as those in user demography and the ways those diverse users use new applications. Our literature reviews on legal and ethical issues in using honeypots reveals that there has not been widely accepted agreement on the legal and ethical issues about honeypots, which must be an important agenda in future honeypot research.

  2. A survey of patients' attitudes to clinical research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, A

    2011-04-01

    Every year hundreds of patients voluntarily participate in clinical trials across Ireland. However, little research has been done as to how patients find the experience. This survey was conducted in an attempt to ascertain clinical trial participants\\' views on their experience of participating in a clinical trial and to see and how clinical trial participation can be improved. One hundred and sixty-six clinical trial participants who had recently completed a global phase IV cardiovascular endpoint clinical trial were sent a 3-page questionnaire. Ninety-one (91%) respondents found the experience of participating in a clinical trial a good one with 85 (84.16%) respondents saying they would recommend participating in a clinical trial to a friend or relative and eighty-five (87.63%) respondents feeling they received better healthcare because they had participated in a clinical trial.

  3. A new era for GPCR research: structures, biology anddrug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Eric XU; Rui-ping XIAO

    2012-01-01

    Cells in a living organism must communicate with each other through continuously sending and receiving messages.G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of communicating molecules at the cell surface.They transmit diverse extracellular signals,ranging from light and small chemical hormones to large peptide and protein hormones,and as such they play crucial roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes.More importantly,GPCRsare the most successful class of drug targets that are relevant to many major diseases,including cancer,heart failure,and inflammatory diseases.Over 50% of currently used drugs are targeted to GPCRs.However,these drugs target only 50-60 GPCRs,leaving the majority of human GPCRs,exceeding 800,unexplored for drug discovery.Given the prominent roles of GPCRs in biology and their successful track records as drug targets,GPCRs have become a hot frontier in basic research of life science and therapeutic discovery of translational medicines.

  4. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636

  5. GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

    2010-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

  6. A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Army Research Laboratory A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) by Sidney C Smith ARL-TR-7093 September 2014...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5067 ARL-TR-7093 September 2014 A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) Sidney C...A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) ARL-TR-7093 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. August

  7. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Patuxent Research Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Patuxent Research Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to...

  8. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  9. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  10. Research Progression on Biological Mechanism of Post-stroke Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Facai; Huang Dehong

    2014-01-01

    The biological mechanism of post-stroke depression (PSD) is still unclear. However, there are two hypothesises including primary endogenous mechanism and reactive mechanism. This study mainly reviewed the biological mechanism of PSD from the aspects of neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter, neuroendocrinology, inlfammatory response, neurtrophin and neuropeptide.

  11. Research on Bacteria in the Mainstream of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magasanik, Boris

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the importance of investigating bacterial mechanisms to discover clues for a greater understanding of cells. Cites examples of study areas of biological significance which may reveal information about the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and lead to a comprehensive theory of cell biology. (RT)

  12. Comparison of the National Survey of Compensation with other surveys of research and development professionals. Final report on universe update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborg, J.; Spurgeon, M.; Price, B.; Evans, P.

    1981-10-01

    The National Survey of Compensation Paid Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development (NSC) has been conducted for the Department of Energy since 1967. During this time the NSC has come to be considered the most comprehensive survey of its kind available in the United States. Its methodology and results are reliable and highly useful to compensation personnel in research and development (R and D) establishments. Each year project staff pinpoint areas of improvement which are necessary and desirable. The three tasks that are the subject of this report have been undertaken to maintain and improve the NSC and increase its usefulness to participants. The three tasks are: an update of the universe listing; comparison of NSC survey methodology and results with other surveys of research and development professionals; and development of a methodology to project salaries for the near-term. Each task is described.

  13. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  14. Total Survey Error & Institutional Research: A Case Study of the University Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Total Survey Error (TSE) is a component of Total Survey Quality (TSQ) that supports the assessment of the extent to which a survey is "fit-for-purpose". While TSQ looks at a number of dimensions, such as relevance, credibility and accessibility, TSE is has a more operational focus on accuracy and minimising errors. Mitigating survey…

  15. A Geological and Biological Survey of the Ritidian Point Coastal Region of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Scope of work included: Provide background environmental data; conduct a survey of beaches and coastal terraces adjacent to the survey area; conduct a survey of...

  16. Why Don't Our Students Respond? Understanding Declining Participation in Survey Research among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschepikow, William K.

    2012-01-01

    Declining response rates among college students threaten the effectiveness of survey research at institutions of higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the conditions that promote participation in survey research among this population. The researcher identified three themes through this study. First, participants…

  17. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  18. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Supplementary survey on research and development of carbon dioxide fixation and effective utilization technologies utilizing bacteria and algae (the survey on feasibility of bio-technologies to create economic effects, such as the biological CO2 fixation technology); 1999 nendo saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu futai chosa. Keizaiteki koka wo soshutsusuru seibutsuteki CO{sub 2} koteigijutsu nado no biotechnology no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Bio-technologies including the biological CO2 fixation technology, or the green bio-technologies (GBT) are the technologies indispensable in realizing the change to a resource circulating and environment harmonizing society that accompanies economical growth, or in other words, the 'sustainable development'. In quantifying the feasibility of these technologies, the GBTs that contribute to creating Japan's international competitive power and employment were specified, and an approach to establish the realization target in 2010 was adopted, upon identifying the general condition of the related markets inside and outside the country. The GBT is the technology that makes the best use of Japan's independent strength created by combining the enzyme engineering and fermentation engineering with the 'genome science' (HEART). The targets are to substitute four million kiloliters of petroleum with a resource circulation type energy generated by the bio-technology; apply the bio-technology to about 30% of products and processes produced or used in Japan's chemical industries; and aim at creating markets by using environmental measurement and analysis, treatment of hard-to-decompose substances, and supports on tree planting as the three pillars. A simulation on return on investment in GBT business suggests the effect of promoting PFI. (NEDO)

  19. Researchers Reveal Ecological Roles of Biological Soil Crusts in Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Biological soil crust is a complex organic integrity of cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens and mosses, fungi, and other bacteria. This is a common and widespread phenomenon in desert areas all over the world. Biologically,this kind of soil crust differs a lot from physical ones in terms of physical and chemical properties, and become important biological factors in vegetation succession. Despite its unassuming appearance, the crust plays a significant role in the desert ecosystem, involving the process of soil formation, stability and fertility,the prevention of soil erosion by water or wind, the increased possibility of vascular plants colonization, and the stabilization of sand dunes.

  20. Soft Robotics: Biological Inspiration, State of the Art, and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Trivedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional robots have rigid underlying structures that limit their ability to interact with their environment. For example, conventional robot manipulators have rigid links and can manipulate objects using only their specialised end effectors. These robots often encounter difficulties operating in unstructured and highly congested environments. A variety of animals and plants exhibit complex movement with soft structures devoid of rigid components. Muscular hydrostats (e.g. octopus arms and elephant trunks are almost entirely composed of muscle and connective tissue and plant cells can change shape when pressurised by osmosis. Researchers have been inspired by biology to design and build soft robots. With a soft structure and redundant degrees of freedom, these robots can be used for delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. This paper discusses the novel capabilities of soft robots, describes examples from nature that provide biological inspiration, surveys the state of the art and outlines existing challenges in soft robot design, modelling, fabrication and control.

  1. Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    The ability of powerful and well-funded interest groups to steer scientific research in ways that advance their goals has become a significant social concern. This steering ability is increasingly being recognized in the peer-reviewed scientific literature and in findings of deliberative scientific bodies. This paper provides a case study that illustrates some of the major strategies that can be used to structure and advance a controversial research field. It focuses on hormesis, described as a type of dose-response relationship in toxicology and biology showing low-dose stimulation but high-dose inhibition, or the reverse. Hormesis proponents tout its significance, arguing that substances toxic at high doses and beneficial at lower doses should be regulated less stringently. We identify five strategies employed by hormesis proponents to foster its acceptance: (1) creating institutions focused on supporting hormesis; (2) developing terminology, study designs, and data interpretations that cast it in a favorable light; (3) using bibliometric techniques and surveys to attract attention; (4) aggressively advocating for the phenomenon and challenging critics; and (5) working with outside interest groups to apply the hormesis phenomenon in the economic and political spheres. We also suggest a number of oversight strategies that can be implemented to help promote credible and socially responsible research in cases like this one.

  2. Diversity and importance of filamentous bacteria in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plants – a worldwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Ziegler, Anja Sloth; McIlroy, Simon Jon;

    bacteria in full-scale nutrient removal WWTPs. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied to survey 24 Danish and 30 worldwide full-scale biological nutrient removal WWTPs (total of >550 samples), where all known bacterial genera possessing filamentous morphology were investigated. Candidatus Microthrix...

  3. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  4. A survey of animal welfare needs in Soweto : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic phase of an interactive research evaluation model was used in the investigation of the animal welfare needs of a low-income urban community in South Africa. Data were gathered by means of a structured interview and direct observations by animal welfare officers. During the survey of 871 animal owners in Soweto, it was found that dogs were owned by 778 households and cats by 88 households. The dog to human ratio was estimated at 1:12.4. Respondents were asked whether they enjoyed owning animals and 96.1 % said that they did. Only 26.3 % mentioned that they had problems with their own animals and 16.6 % had problems with other people's animals. Treatment of sick animals (29.7 % was seen as a priority. However, less than 1 % (n = 6 used the services of private veterinarians. Others took their animals to welfare organisations or did not have them treated. Perceptions of affordable costs of veterinary treatments were also recorded. In addition to treatment, respondents indicated a need for vaccination (22.5 %, sterilisation (16.5 %, control of internal (3.7 % and external (8.8 % parasites, education and extension (6.6 %, prevention of cruelty to animals (3.2 % and expansion of veterinary clinics to other parts of Soweto (1.3 %.

  5. Survey on research and development of reconfigurable modular robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive survey of reconfigurable modular robots, which covers the origin, history, the state of the art, key technologies, challenges, and applications of reconfigurable modular robots. An elaborative classification of typical reconfigurable modular robots is proposed based on the characteristics of the modules and the reconfiguration mechanism. As the system characteristics of reconfigurable modular robots are mainly dependent on the functions of modules, the mechanical and electrical design features of modules of typical reconfigurable modular robots are discussed in detail. Furthermore, an in-depth comparison analysis is conducted, which encompasses discussions of module shape, module degrees of freedom, module attribute, connection mechanisms, interface autonomy, locomotion modes, and workspace. Meanwhile, many reconfigurable modular robot researches focus on the study of self-X capabilities (i.e. self-reconfiguration, self-assembly, self-adaption, etc., which embodies autonomy performance of reconfigurable modular robots in certain extent. An evolutionary cobweb evaluation model is proposed in this article to evaluate the autonomy level of reconfigurable modular robots. Although various reconfigurable modular robots have been developed and some of them have been put into practical applications such as search and rescue missions, there still exist many open theoretical, technical, and practical challenges in this field. This work is hopefully to offer a reference for the further developments of reconfigurable modular robots.

  6. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  7. Interdisciplinary Biomathematics: Engaging Undergraduates in Research on the Fringe of Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen; Luttman, Aaron; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    The US National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Undergraduate Biology and Mathematics (UBM) program significantly increased undergraduate research in the biomathematical sciences. We discuss three UBM-funded student research projects at Clarkson University that lie at the intersection of not just mathematics and biology, but also other…

  8. Construction of an 8-mm time-lapse camera for biological research

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the construction of an 8mm camera for biological research. A time-lapse camera for use in biological research can be constructed from a super 8-mm...

  9. Getting from neuron to checkmark: Models and methods in cognitive survey research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Holleman; J.M.J. Murre

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1980s much work has been done in the field of Cognitive Survey Research. In an interdisciplinary endeavour, survey methodologists and cognitive psychologists (as well as social psychologists and linguists) have worked to unravel the cognitive processes underlying survey responses: to impro

  10. National databases and rheumatology research II: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Krishnan, Eswar

    2004-11-01

    Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were conducted in the United States between 1971 and 1994 to provide data on the nutritional and health status of the population and on specific target conditions. This article describes features of the surveys and provides examples of research on musculoskeletal disorders that used the survey data.

  11. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  12. Systems Biology Toolbox for MATLAB: a computational platform for research in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Henning; Jirstrand, Mats

    2006-02-15

    We present a Systems Biology Toolbox for the widely used general purpose mathematical software MATLAB. The toolbox offers systems biologists an open and extensible environment, in which to explore ideas, prototype and share new algorithms, and build applications for the analysis and simulation of biological and biochemical systems. Additionally it is well suited for educational purposes. The toolbox supports the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) by providing an interface for import and export of SBML models. In this way the toolbox connects nicely to other SBML-enabled modelling packages. Models are represented in an internal model format and can be described either by entering ordinary differential equations or, more intuitively, by entering biochemical reaction equations. The toolbox contains a large number of analysis methods, such as deterministic and stochastic simulation, parameter estimation, network identification, parameter sensitivity analysis and bifurcation analysis.

  13. The role and importance of victim surveys in criminal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kenan Gül

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rates, insufficient policies and the limitations of the official statistics, victim surveys are being used as an alternative crime measurement technique. These types of surveys are inspired most of the criminological theories and regarded as a data source especially in shaping the crime policies of the Anglo-Saxon countries. Even though they have developed over time, victim surveys have limitations which create an obstacle in measuring crime. However, these surveys could be used as a useful data source in analyzing victims, their needs and behaviors. The recent victim surveys, which were conducted in Turkey, revealed significant findings. In the future, it is inevitable to use victim surveys as a management instrument in the field of security policies in Turkey. This study first examines the birth and development of the victim surveys, then it discusses the theoretical and methodological problems and the victim surveys conducted in Turkey. In conclusion section, this article provides recommendations related to the topic.

  14. 2011 Internship & Co-Op Survey. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers' (NACE's) "2011 Internship & Co-op Survey" indicates that internships are an integral and ever-important part of the college recruiting scene. The survey finds that employers expect to increase internship hiring by about 7 percent this year and co-op positions by nearly 9 percent. Furthermore,…

  15. Research of the Mechanism of Enhancing Biological Treatment by Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; QIN Bing; CHEN Dong-hui

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan of different molecular weight (M. W. ) was added into SBR bioreactor to treat domestic wastewater. From comparison of treatment efficiency, sludge activity, sludge structure etc., we revealed the mechanism that chitosan enhanced the biological treatment function of activated sludge. The results proved that, chitosan is certain to restrain the reaction of activated sludge, but it do improve the structure of sludge fiocs and increase the treatment efficiency of activated sludge. The bigger the M. W. of chitosan is, the better the efficiency of enhancing biological treatment can be.

  16. [Research of genetics teaching in biological teacher-training specialty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu

    2008-02-01

    Genetics is an essential subject of life science, at the same time, it is a required course in the major of biology. Some colleges such as: agriculture, forest, animals, medicine, teacher-training and general college all offer genetics, because of the difference in specialized character and aim of training, genetics has the distinction in the system of knowledge and laying particular emphasis on content. The author seeks how to make genetics well in teaching content, method and so on in biological teacher-training specialty, and puts views.

  17. Survey of locomotion control of legged robots inspired by biological concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiDi; LIU ChengJu; ZHANG JiaQi; CHEN QiJun

    2009-01-01

    Compared with wheeled mobile robots, legged robots can easily step over obstacles and walk through rugged ground. They have more flexible bodies and therefore, can deal with complex environment. Nev-ertheless, some other issues make the locomotion control of legged robots a much complicated task, such as the redundant degree of freedoms and balance keeping. From literatures, locomotion control has been solved mainly based on programming mechanism. To use this method, walking trajectories for each leg and the gaits have to be designed, and the adaptability to an unknown environment cannot be guaranteed. From another aspect, studying and simulating animals' walking mechanism for engi-neering application is an efficient way to break the bottleneck of locomotion control for legged robots. This has attracted more and more attentions. Inspired by central pattern generator (CPG), a control method has been proved to be a successful attempt within this scope. In this paper, we will review the biological mechanism, the existence evidences, and the network properties of CPG. From the en-gineering perspective, we will introduce the engineering simulation of CPG, the property analysis, and the research progress of CPG inspired control method in locomotion control of legged robots. Then, in our research, we will further discuss on existing problems, hot issues, and future research directions in this field.

  18. Survey of Postdoctorates at FFRDCs: Final Report [Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulrow, Jeri

    2010-06-30

    The 2009 FFRDC survey collected the total number of postdocs employed by FFRDCs in the United States—categorized by source of support, citizenship, sex, and field of research—as of October 1, 2009. The universe for the 2009 GSS-FFRDC survey was the Master Government List of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers. The 2009 survey also contacted the NIH’s Intramural Research Program because it employs the largest number of postdocs in the federal government. The FFRDC survey collected data via a web instrument. Topics included the type of support the postdocs received (federal and nonfederal), their sex, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and field of research.

  19. Advances in Biological Water-saving Research: Challenge and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Shan; Xiping Deng; Suiqi Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of water use by crops continues to escalate as a topic of concern because drought is a restrictive environmental factor for crop productivity worldwide. Greater yield per unit rainfall is one of the most important challenges in water-saving agriculture. Besides water-saving by irrigation engineering and conservation tillage, a good understanding of factors limiting and/or regulating yield now provides us with an opportunity to identify and then precisely select for physiological and breeding traits that increase the efficiency of water use and drought tolerance under water-limited conditions, biological water-saving is one means of achieving this goat. A definition of biological water-saving measures is proposed which embraces improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, by genetic improvement and physiological regulation. The preponderance of biological water-saving measures is discussed and strategies identified for working within natural resource constraints. The technology and future perspectives of biological water saving could provide not only new water-saving techniques but also a scientific base for application of water-saving irrigation and conservation tillage.

  20. MICROWAVE SYSTEM FOR RESEARCH BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON LABORATORY ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  1. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  2. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  3. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women.

  4. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken ...

  5. A survey of the effects of brand value on customer satisfaction in pharmaceutical and biological industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour, A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available . The purpose of this study was to describe how companies in pharmaceutical and biological sectors can ensure their position in different markets by relying on sustainable, competitive advantages, resulting from the use of a well-defined marketing model with particular emphasis on brand improvement. As competition becomes more intense among companies and phenomena such as global marketing grow in importance, domestic industries in each country become obliged to improve their competitive advantages in order to survive from a marketing perspective. Customer satisfaction is among factors which could lead to the success and profitability of a company. The present research examined the relationship between brand value and customer behavioral intention. Accordingly, 80 questionnaires were distributed among customers, selected through random sampling in Tehran, Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS. Based on descriptive statistics, two aspects of customer behavioral intention included “product introduction” and “repeat purchase”, while two aspects of brand equity were “brand awareness” and “product introduction”. The research findings showed that factors such as “brand awareness” and “brand loyalty” directly affect customer behavioral intention and satisfaction.

  6. Survey of organizational research climates in three research intensive, doctoral granting universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James A; Thrush, Carol R; Martinson, Brian C; May, Terry A; Stickler, Michelle; Callahan, Eileen C; Klomparens, Karen L

    2014-12-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is a new instrument that assesses dimensions of research integrity climate, including ethical leadership, socialization and communication processes, and policies, procedures, structures, and processes to address risks to research integrity. We present a descriptive analysis to characterize differences on the SOuRCe scales across departments, fields of study, and status categories (faculty, postdoctoral scholars, and graduate students) for 11,455 respondents from three research-intensive universities. Among the seven SOuRCe scales, variance explained by status and fields of study ranged from 7.6% (Advisor-Advisee Relations) to 16.2% (Integrity Norms). Department accounted for greater than 50% of the variance explained for each of the SOuRCe scales, ranging from 52.6% (Regulatory Quality) to 80.3% (Integrity Inhibitors). It is feasible to implement this instrument in large university settings across a broad range of fields, department types, and individual roles within academic units. Published baseline results provide initial data for institutions using the SOuRCe who wish to compare their own research integrity climates.

  7. A Survey of Research Performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Impact Dynamics Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K. E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) is a 240-ft-high gantry structure located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The facility was originally built in 1963 as a lunar landing simulator, allowing the Apollo astronauts to practice lunar landings under realistic conditions. The IDRF was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 based on its significant contributions to the Apollo Program. In 1972, the facility was converted to a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft. Since that time, the IDRF has been used to perform a wide variety of impact tests on full-scale aircraft and structural components in support of the General Aviation (GA) aircraft industry, the US Department of Defense, the rotorcraft industry, and NASA in-house aeronautics and space research programs. The objective of this paper is to describe most of the major full-scale crash test programs that were performed at this unique, world-class facility since 1974. The past research is divided into six sub-topics: the civil GA aircraft test program, transport aircraft test program, military test programs, space test programs, basic research, and crash modeling and simulation.

  8. FAIRDOMHub: a repository and collaboration environment for sharing systems biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Katherine; Krebs, Olga; Snoep, Jacky L.; Stanford, Natalie J.; Bacall, Finn; Golebiewski, Martin; Kuzyakiv, Rostyk; Nguyen, Quyen; Owen, Stuart; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Straszewski, Jakub; van Niekerk, David D.; Williams, Alan R.; Malmström, Lars; Rinn, Bernd; Müller, Wolfgang; Goble, Carole

    2017-01-01

    The FAIRDOMHub is a repository for publishing FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) Data, Operating procedures and Models (https://fairdomhub.org/) for the Systems Biology community. It is a web-accessible repository for storing and sharing systems biology research assets. It enables researchers to organize, share and publish data, models and protocols, interlink them in the context of the systems biology investigations that produced them, and to interrogate them via API interfaces. By using the FAIRDOMHub, researchers can achieve more effective exchange with geographically distributed collaborators during projects, ensure results are sustained and preserved and generate reproducible publications that adhere to the FAIR guiding principles of data stewardship. PMID:27899646

  9. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers.

  10. The countries and languages that dominate biological research at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, 2005 Traditionally, studies of scientific productivity are biased in two ways: they are based on Current Contents, an index centered in British and American journals, and they seldom correct for population size, ignoring the relative effort that each society places in research. We studied national productivity for biology using a more representative index, the Biological Abstracts, and analyze...

  11. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT FATAL CONSEQUENCES OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smelyanskaya MV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosis of viral myocarditis, based on the evidence base, is still one of the key problems of the heart disease. The presence of morphological features of the inflammatory process makes it possible to confirm the diagnosis of myocarditis, but, at the same time, the absence of these features is not sufficient to remove this diagnosis. In routine postmortem study of deaths in multidisciplinary (non-infectious hospital myocarditis is stated as a cause of death in 0.2-0.4% of all the autopsies. Mortality in myocarditis depends on the severity of the underlying disease, premorbid background, age and sex composition of the patients. According to different authors, it is very different and ranges from 0.03 to 26%. The aim of the work was to carry out histological and molecular biological studies postmortem material for confirming the etiologic role of herpesviruses with fatal consequences of infectious myocarditis during the observation period 2015-2016 years. Material & methods. The material of pathological heart, vascular endothelium, nerve ganglia, kidneys, liver and pancreas were investigated. Viral antigen detection was performed by fluorescent antibody technique with specific sera labeled with FITC (Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA and detection of the viral genome by PCR (in SYNEVO Laboratory. Morphological studies have been conducted in the post-mortem offices of the Kharkov clinical hospitals. Detection of viral genome was performed by PCR using certified commercial kits for detection of nucleotide sequences of herpesviruses «HSV I, II-EPh», «VZV-FL», «EBV-EPh», «CMV-EPh», «HHV VI-Eph», («AmpliSens». Diagnosis was made in «real time» using modern six-channel thermocycler «Rotor Gene 6000» (Qiagen, Germany. The first group consisted of 19 people who died from infectious myocarditis (group 1. The second group (group 2 consisted of 22 dead from complications of other cardiovascular disease. Pathoanatomical

  12. 2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith Berman

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  13. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Judith [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  14. Student Use of Communication Technologies--Parent/Guardian Survey Report. Survey Research Center Report 2010/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julka, Ashley; Stehr, Grady; Parks, Denise; Trechter, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how middle school students and their parents are using technologies and what programs citizens of Wisconsin might need with respect to these technologies. During the month of February 2010, staff from the Survey Research Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, Lori…

  15. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research. PMID:25574289

  16. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  17. Current research on biological effects of low-level exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    Rather substantial numbers of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and radiation display U-shaped or seemingly paradoxical dose-response relationships. A limited listing of studies providing examples of data fitting the U-shaped curve has been published. This array suggests that the U-shaped response is broadly generalizable and therefore potentially of considerable significance in the toxicological and public health domains. In fact, in 1992 and 1993, three conferences (Japan, United States, and China) were held exclusively on the topic of the biological effects of low doses of chemicals and radioactivity with articular emphasis on U-shaped curves. Substantial efforts have been made at understanding this observation.

  18. The use of the Delphi survey as a research tool in understanding church trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Elkington

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the practical theological research process, as in most disciplines, extant literature is vital in assisting a researcher to formulate a foundational understanding of the topic under review. A literature review is also valuable in understanding the meta-theoretical aspects of the research topic. What does a researcher do, though, if there is little current literature on the topic under scrutiny? If there is a small corpus of literature around a subject, the Delphi method can serve as an extremely helpful research tool. This article discussed the use of the Delphi survey in a practical theological research endeavour and surveyed its history from inception to current usage. The article also reviewed the various types of Delphi survey and supported the use of the Lockean Delphi survey in this particular example of practical theological research. The article finished with an actual Delphi survey of Canadian Evangelical church pastors as an example of how the Delphi method can be used as a research tool in practical theology. The article concluded that the Delphi survey is an extremely useful research tool across the wide domain of social science research.

  19. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  20. Engaging Biology Undergraduates in the Scientific Process through Writing a Theoretical Research Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jennifer S.; Duwel, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that research experiences are an important element that should be included in all undergraduate Biology curricula. This is a difficult suggestion to accommodate due to issues with cost, space and time. We addressed this challenge through development of a capstone project in which Biology majors work in groups to develop novel…

  1. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE BIOLOGICAL STAGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C MOGA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a model for the oxygen concentration profiles in a mobile bed biofilm reactor (MBBR is proposed. By using a material with a large specific surface area (m2/m3 high biological activity can be maintained using a relatively small reactor volume. Small parts made of special materials with density close to the water density, are immersed in the bioreactors. The biofilm carriers are kept in suspension and even mixed with the help of air bubbles generated by the aeration system. Water oxygenation is a mass transfer process of oxygen from gas/air to the liquid mass. It can be used in wastewater treatment in order to remove the organic matter, in the biological stage. The functioning of aerobic processes depends on the availability of sufficient quantities of oxygen. In wastewater treatment plants, submerged bubbles aeration is most frequently accomplished by dispersing air bubbles in the liquid. The main purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen using mathematical modeling and numerical simulations. The aim of the study is to find the optimum dimension and position of the aeration pipes for maintaining the oxygen concentration in the limits indicated in the literature. Experimental determinations (measurements of the DO concentration have also been realized. The oxygen profile concentration, in a MBBR reactor, was determined.

  2. Advanced cogeneration research study. Survey of cogeneration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-five facilities that consumed substantial amounts of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil were surveyed by telephone in 1983. The primary objective of the survey was to estimate the potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology. An estimated 3667 MW sub e could potentially be generated using cogenerated technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2569 MW sub p and advanced technology could provide 1098 MW sub e. Approximately 1611 MW sub t was considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  3. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research:a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cui; Yan-Chun Liang; Ying Xu

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6,2012 in Changchun,China.The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer,and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation,progression,diagnosis,and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  4. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  5. Neutron Imaging at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Application to Biological Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Cekanova, Maria [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bilheux, Jean-Christophe [ORNL; Bailey, William Barton [ORNL; Keener, Wylie S [ORNL; Davis, Larry E [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD) has recently installed a neutron imaging beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold guide hall. The CG-1D beamline supports a broad range of user research spanning from engineering to material research, energy storage, additive manufacturing, vehicle technologies, archaeology, biology, and plant physiology. The beamline performance (spatial resolution, field of view, etc.) and its utilization for biological research are presented. The NScD is also considering a proposal to build the VENUS imaging beamline (beam port 10) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Unlike CG-1D which provides cold neutrons, VENUS will offer a broad range of neutron wavelengths, from epithermal to cold, and enhanced contrast mechanisms. This new capability will also enable the imaging of thicker biological samples than is currently available at CG-1D. A brief overview of the VENUS capability for biological research is discussed.

  6. SATELLITE GRAVITY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH OF EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Jinsheng

    2003-01-01

    This is a summarized paper. Two topics are discussed: Firstly, the concept, development and application of four kinds of satellite gravity surveying technology are introduced; Secondly, some problems of theory and method, which must be considered in the study of the Earth's gravity field based on satellite gravity data, are expounded.

  7. Macro-trends in research on the central dogma of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Sepehr

    2013-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, formulated more than five decades ago, compartmentalized information exchange in the cell into the DNA, RNA and protein domains. This formalization has served as an implicit thematic distinguisher for cell biological research ever since. However, a clear account of the distribution of research across this formalization over time does not exist. Abstracts of >3.5 million publications focusing on the cell from 1975 to 2011 were analyzed for the frequency ...

  8. Recent advances in operations research in computational biology, bioinformatics and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Türkay, Metin; Felici, Giovanni; Szachniuk, Marta; Lukasiak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The EURO Working Group on Operations Research in Computational Biology, Bioinformatics and Medicine held its fourth conference in Poznan-Biedrusko, Poland, June 26-28, 2014. The editorial board of RAIRO-OR invited submissions of papers to a special issue on Recent Advances in Operations Research in Computational Biology, Bioinformatics and Medicine. This special issue includes nine papers that were selected among forty presentations and included in this special issue after two rounds of revie...

  9. Geothermal Research Program of the US Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, W.A.; Guffanti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The beginning of the Geothermal Research Program, its organization, objectives, fiscal history, accomplishments, and present emphasis. The projects of the Geothermal Research Program are presented along with a list of references.

  10. 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education: Compendium of Tables for High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horizon Research, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education was designed to provide up-to-date information and to identify trends in the areas of teacher background and experience, curriculum and instruction, and the availability and use of instructional resources. This compendium, one of a series, details the results of a survey of high school…

  11. Definition of spectrally separable classes for soil survey research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, J. E.; Swain, P. H.; Gill, J. H.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Kristof, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for defining spectral classes such that the differences between classes can be quantified. It also facilitates determination of a number of classes such that the classes are spectrally discriminable. This is accomplished by partitioning the data into many classes and then combining similar spectral classes on the basis of appropriate criteria. Multispectral data were collected over a 12-mile flightline in White County, Indiana, in connection with the 1971 Corn Blight Watch Experiment. Data were collected in May by the University of Michigan airborne scanning spectrometer at an altitude of 5000 feet. Spectral maps resulting from the analysis were compared to existing soil surveys of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The method should help determine the extent to which spectral properties of soil surfaces can be associated with morphologic and topographic differences of interest to soil surveyors engaged in operational soil mapping.

  12. Student Opinion Survey, 1976. Research Report: BCC 1-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Norman

    A student opinion survey was administered to a sample of 1,100 students at Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1976. Respondent ethnicity distribution was 46.2% black, 29.1% hispanic, 17.0% white, 1.5% Oriental, and 6.3% other. More than half of the respondents were in either liberal arts and music (42.8%) or business curricula (21.8%). Results…

  13. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  14. Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Adnan A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health information needs of developing countries increasingly include population-based estimates determined by biological and physiological measures. Collection of data on these biomarkers requires careful reassessment of ethical standards and procedures related to issues of safety, informed consent, reporting, and referral policies. This paper reviews the survey practices of health examination surveys that have been conducted in developed nations and discusses their application to similar types of surveys proposed for developing countries. Discussion The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries. Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed. Summary The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.

  15. Polyhydroyalkanoates: from Basic Research and Molecular Biology to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd alFattah Amara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, an intracellular biodegradable microbial polymer. PHAs is formed from different types of three hydroxyalkanoic acids monomers, each unit forms an ester bond with the hydroxyl group of the other one and the hydroxyl substituted carbon has R configuration. The C-3 atom in β position is branched with at least one carbon atom in the form of methyl group (C1 to thirteen carbons in the form of tridecyl (C13. This alkyl side chain is not necessarily saturated. PHAs are biosynthesized through regulated pathways by specific enzymes. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reducing equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by PHAs depolymerases and the degraded materials enter various metabolic pathways. Until now, four classes of enzymes responsible for PHAs polymerization are known. PHAs were well studied regarding their promising applications, physical, chemical and biological properties. PHAs are biodegradable, biocompatible, have good material properties, renewable and can be used in many applications. The most limiting factor in PHAs commercialization is their high cost compared to the petroleum plastics. This review highlights the new knowledge and that established by the pioneers in this field as well as the factors, which affect PHAs commercialization.

  16. Survey Team On: Conceptualisation of the Role of Competencies, Knowing and Knowledge in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Mogens; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria; Turner, Ross; Villa-Ochoa, Jhony Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on "Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research". It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master mathematics, focusing on notions such as…

  17. Surveying the Field: The Research Model of Women in Librarianship, 1882-1898

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Women who promoted library services to children in the United States in the late nineteenth century introduced the systematic use of survey research on library practice to the field of professional librarianship. They created a series of qualitative survey-based reports, the "Reading of the Young" reports, which were presented at ALA conferences…

  18. A Survey of Video Game Players in a Public, Urban Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, M. O.; Vilchez, Manuel; Abreu, Liala; Ledesma, Cyntianna; Lopez, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in a public, research university located in a large and diverse metropolitan area in the southeastern part of the USA. The purpose of the survey was to determine both the positive and negative personal, educational, social, and work related consequences of playing video games. Nearly two-thirds of the 203 participants in…

  19. Researching the Family: A Guide to Survey and Statistical Data on U.S. Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas, Ed.; Daily, Margaret, Ed.

    This guide catalogs and describes over 60 major survey and statistical databases containing useful information about the characteristics, experiences, and behavior of U.S. families and is designed to assist researchers in locating suitable databases. The surveys described deal with substantive issues, including health, education, employment and…

  20. Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Cochrane, Guy R

    2009-01-01

    The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory comment, we briefly describe some of these new databases and review the principles guiding the selection of databases for inclusion in the Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection. The complete database list and summaries are available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  1. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other indivi...

  2. Intellectual property rights in synthetic biology: an anti-thesis to open access to research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukshmya, Trichi; Chugh, Archana

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Biology is a surging area of contemporary life science based research that is rapidly evolving by virtue of its multidisciplinary composition and applications. Biology never before has seen such a gold rush and demonstrated potential for knowledge based economy. The area of synthetic biology is in a nascent and tender stage, however issues pertaining to open access to research versus the monopolistic intellectual property regime (specifically patents) have already started raising concerns in the emerging bio-based economy. The present study critically analyses the comparative benefits as well as lacunas of open access to research and patenting issues. It is noteworthy that both approaches for synthetic biology development have to co-exist in order to optimally benefit the society at large.

  3. Survey Research in the Forest Science Journals - Insights from Journal Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stevanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Survey research is one of the most commonly applied approaches in the social sciences. In the forest research it has been used for more than five decades. In spite of that or the fact that the amount of survey-based articles in the forest science journals has increased during the last decade, their share in all articles published in 20 forest science journals (9,372 articles, 2005-2014 is quite modest (3.2%. In our paper we look at the opinions and attitudes of forest science journal editors towards survey research, as their perspective might enlarge our understanding of the use of this approach in the field of forestry. Materials and Methods: We selected 20 forest science journals - 15 from the SCI list and five non-SCI journals and contacted editors of these journals with the self-administered e-mail questionnaire. Data were collected in October 2014 and analyzed by descriptive statistics. The overall response rate was 75%. The assumptions for the study were based on the evidence addressing opinions and attitudes of journal editors from other research fields (finance since no similar study was found in the field of forestry. Results: The majority of editors reported the same review process for survey-based articles as for all others. In two journals, articles with the survey-based content are screened more rigorously and in two journals their publishing is generally discouraged. 40% of journal editors hold the view that no difference should be made between survey research and other types of original research, and another 40% think that survey research should in the first place play a complementary role. As the main strength of survey research editors see the possibility to obtain data unavailable from other sources. They perceive adverse selection and the difficulty to generalize results as the main weaknesses. Conclusions: Editors of forest science journals have similar opinion on survey research as those from the

  4. Exploring Pandora's box: potential and pitfalls of low coverage genome surveys for evolutionary biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leese

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing technologies are revolutionizing genetic research. With this "rise of the machines", genomic sequences can be obtained even for unknown genomes within a short time and for reasonable costs. This has enabled evolutionary biologists studying genetically unexplored species to identify molecular markers or genomic regions of interest (e.g. micro- and minisatellites, mitochondrial and nuclear genes by sequencing only a fraction of the genome. However, when using such datasets from non-model species, it is possible that DNA from non-target contaminant species such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other eukaryotic organisms may complicate the interpretation of the results. In this study we analysed 14 genomic pyrosequencing libraries of aquatic non-model taxa from four major evolutionary lineages. We quantified the amount of suitable micro- and minisatellites, mitochondrial genomes, known nuclear genes and transposable elements and searched for contamination from various sources using bioinformatic approaches. Our results show that in all sequence libraries with estimated coverage of about 0.02-25%, many appropriate micro- and minisatellites, mitochondrial gene sequences and nuclear genes from different KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways could be identified and characterized. These can serve as markers for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. A central finding of our study is that several genomic libraries suffered from different biases owing to non-target DNA or mobile elements. In particular, viruses, bacteria or eukaryote endosymbionts contributed significantly (up to 10% to some of the libraries analysed. If not identified as such, genetic markers developed from high-throughput sequencing data for non-model organisms may bias evolutionary studies or fail completely in experimental tests. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the enormous potential of low-coverage genome survey sequences and

  5. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  6. Survey of supersonic combustion ramjet research at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The Hypersonic Propulsion Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has maintained an active research program in supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) and high speed ramjet propulsion since the 1960s. The focus for this research has centered on propulsion for manned reuseable vehicles with cryogenic hydrogen fuel. This paper presents some highlights of this research. The design philosophy of the Langley fixed-geometry airframe-integrated modular scramjet is discussed. The component development and research programs that have supported the successful demonstration of the engine concept using subscale engine module hardware is reviewed and a brief summary of the engine tests presented. An extensive bibliography of research supported by the Langley program is also included.

  7. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: The Use of Person and Item Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. Unfortunately, most survey research today (both published and unpublished) is lacking with regards to quality measurement. Reporting means and standard deviations based on ordinal measures is an inappropriate, yet widespread practice in the…

  8. A survey of core research in information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorova, Anna; Torres, Russell; Johnson, Vess

    2013-01-01

    The Information Systems (IS) discipline was founded on the intersection of computer science and organizational sciences, and produced a rich body of research on topics ranging from database design and the strategic role of IT to website design and online consumer behavior. In this book, the authors provide an introduction to the discipline, its development, and the structure of IS research, at a level that is appropriate for emerging and current IS scholars. Guided by a bibliometric study of all research articles published in eight premier IS research journals over a 20-year period, the author

  9. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote... shall survey the patient or the human research subject and the remote afterloader unit with a...

  10. Recent Progress in DIB Research: Survey of PAHS and DIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of several neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars [1, 2]. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual neutral PAH molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs of various sizes and charge states in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range open the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  11. A Survey of Library Support for Formal Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research is defined by the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) as "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." This study serves as a snapshot of current library practices in relation to formal undergraduate research…

  12. Baseline marine biological survey at the Peacock Point outfall and other point-source discharges on Wake Atoll, Pacific Ocean in 1998-06 (NODC Accession 0000247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...

  13. The application of biological motion research: biometrics, sport, and the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Kylie; Ellem, Eathan; Baxter, David

    2015-02-01

    The body of research that examines the perception of biological motion is extensive and explores the factors that are perceived from biological motion and how this information is processed. This research demonstrates that individuals are able to use relative (temporal and spatial) information from a person's movement to recognize factors, including gender, age, deception, emotion, intention, and action. The research also demonstrates that movement presents idiosyncratic properties that allow individual discrimination, thus providing the basis for significant exploration in the domain of biometrics and social signal processing. Medical forensics, safety garments, and victim selection domains also have provided a history of research on the perception of biological motion applications; however, a number of additional domains present opportunities for application that have not been explored in depth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current applications of biological motion-based research and to propose a number of areas where biological motion research, specific to recognition, could be applied in the future.

  14. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  15. 75 FR 6401 - Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Evaluation and Research; Availability of Summaries of Safety and Effectiveness Data for Premarket Approval... safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This list is intended to inform the public...

  16. Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

  17. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are…

  18. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 7 - pathogenesis and molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the GFRA (Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance) conducted a gap analysis of FMD (Foot-and-Mouth Disease) research. This work has been updated and reported in a series of papers, in this article we report findings in the fields of 1) pathogenesis and 2) molecular biology. The arti...

  19. Highly Adaptable but Not Invulnerable: Necessary and Facilitating Conditions for Research in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Benninghoff, Martin; Lettkemann, Eric; Håkansson, Elias; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology is a highly variable scientific innovation because researchers can adapt their involvement in the innovation to the opportunities provided by their environment. On the basis of comparative case studies in four countries, we link epistemic properties of research tas

  20. Research of resisting of the biological active point for constant and alternative current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Peregudov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Is conducted research of resistance of biologically active point (BAT on a direct and variable current. Research results are presented. The estimation of intercommunication between resistance of skin and by an electromagnetic radiation in BAT is done. Is shown possibility of the use of experimental information for diagnostics of the state of human to the organism.

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), conducted February 29 through March 4, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team members are being provided by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NIPER. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NIPER and interviews with site personnel. 35 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Xenopus laevis - A success story in biological research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, E.

    A feature of sensory, neuronal and motor systems is the existence of a critical period during their development. Environmental modifications, in particular stimulus depri-vation, during this period of life affects development in a long-term manner. For gravity sensory systems, space flights offer the only opportunity for deprivation conditions. Studies in the amphibian Xenopus laevis presented the most complete picture. The presentation demonstrates the importance of Xenopus laevis as an ex-perimental model animal in the past and even for future research in Space. Studies are presented which range from fertilization in Space and anatomical studies during early development under weightlessness up to post-flight studies on the anatomy of the peripheral sense organ, the spinal motor activity and behavior. Gravity depriva-tion induces anatomical as well as behavioral and neurophysiological modifications, which are normalized either during flight (thickening of the blastocoel roof) or after reentry in 1g-conditions (swimming and reflex behavior, spinal motor activity). The physiological changes can be explained by mechanisms of physiological adaptation. However, the studies also revealed stages which were insensitive to gravity depriva-tion; they point to the existence of a critical period. Observations on morphological mal-formations are described which are reversible after termination of microgravity and which are linked to a depression of vestibular reflex behavior. They might be caused by a competition between dorsalization and ventralization inducing growth factors. This observation offers the possibility for a genetic approach in finding ba-sics for microgravity effects on the development of Xenopus, and in a general frame, on the development of vertebrates including men. At the present stage of research, it remains open whether adaptive processes during exposure to altered gravity or the existence of a critical period in vestibular development are responsible for

  3. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  4. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  5. 2012 PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 15-20, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  6. Survey of research on unsteady aerodynamic loading of delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, H.; Vaneck, T.; Katz, J.; Jarrah, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    For aeronautical applications, there has been recent interest in accurately determining the aerodynamic forces and moments experienced by low-aspect-ratio wings performing transient maneuvers which go to angles of attack as high as 90 deg. Focusing on the delta planform with sharp leading edges, the paper surveys experimental and theoretical investigations dealing with the associated unsteady flow phenomena. For maximum angles above a value between 30 and 40 deg, flow details and airloads are dominated by hysteresis in the 'bursting' instability of intense vortices which emanate from the leading edge. As examples of relevant test results, force and moment histories are presented for a model series with aspect ratios 1, 1.5 and 2. Influences of key parameters are discussed, notably those which measure unsteadiness. Comparisons are given with two theories: a paneling approximation that cannot capture bursting but clarifies other unsteady influences, and a simplified estimation scheme which uses measured bursting data.

  7. Survey of Clustering based Financial Fraud Detection Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sorin SABAU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the current global economic context, increasing efforts are being made to both prevent and detect fraud. This is a natural response to the ascendant trend in fraud activities recorded in the last couple of years, with a 13% increase only in 2011. Due to ever increasing volumes of data needed to be analyzed, data mining methods and techniques are being used more and more often. One domain data mining can excel at, suspicious transaction monitoring, has emerged for the first time as the most effective fraud detection method in 2011. Out of the available data mining techniques, clustering has proven itself a constant applied solution for detecting fraud. This paper surveys clustering techniques used in fraud detection over the last ten years, shortly reviewing each one.

  8. Research on Geological Survey Data Management and Automatic Mapping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The data management of a large geological survey is not an easy task. To efficiently store and manage the huge datasets, a database of geological information on the basis of Microsoft Access has been created. By using the database of geological information, we can make easily and scientifically store and manage the large geological information. The geological maps—borehole diagrams, the rose diagrams for the joint trends, and joint isointensity diagrams—are traditionally drawn by hand, which is not efficient way; next, it is not easily possible to modify. Therefore, to solve those problems, the automatic mapping method and associated interfaces have been developed by using VS2010 and geological information database; these developments are presented in this article. This article describes the theoretical basis of the new method in detail and provides a case study of practical engineering to demonstrate its application.

  9. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration.

  10. Using smartphones in survey research: a multifunctional tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nathalie Sonck; Henk Fernee

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones and apps offer an innovative means of collecting data from the public. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP has been engaged in one of the first experiments involving the use of a smartphone app to collect time use data recorded by means of an electronic diary. Is it feasi

  11. Horizon 2020 Priorities in Clinical Mental Health Research: Results of a Consensus-Based ROAMER Expert Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Elfeddali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of three challenges in the field of clinical mental health research: (1 the development of new, safe and effective interventions for mental disorders; (2 understanding the mechanisms of disease in order to be able to develop such new interventions; and (3 defining outcomes (an improved set of outcomes, including alternative outcomes to use for clinical mental health research evaluation. Proposed actions involved increasing the utilization of tailored approaches (personalized medicine, developing blended eHealth/mHealth decision aids/guidance tools that help the clinician to choose between various treatment modalities, developing specific treatments in order to better target comorbidity and (further development of biological, psychological and psychopharmacological interventions. The experts indicated that addressing these priorities will result in increased efficacy and impact across Europe; with a high probability of success, given that Europe has important strengths, such as skilled academics and a long research history. Finally, the experts stressed the importance of creating funding and coordinated networking as essential action needed in order to target the variety of challenges in clinical mental health research.

  12. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework.

  14. 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education: Status of High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kiira M.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education was designed to provide up-to-date information and to identify trends in the areas of teacher background and experience, curriculum and instruction, and the availability and use of instructional resources. A total of 7,752 science and mathematics teachers in schools across the United…

  15. Empirical research on dictionary use in foreign-language learning: survey and discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Atkins, B.T.S.; Atkins, B.T.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief survey, in the form of a classified bibliography of research into dictionary use. A discussion follows of the type of research required in order to increase one's insight into the cognitive processes involved in using a dictionary; the principal factors which affect th

  16. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  17. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  18. A Survey of Research on Service-Spacecraft Orbit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; ZHANG Jian-xin; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Xiao-peng

    2013-01-01

    On-orbit service spacecraft orbit problem has been addressed for decades. The research of on-orbit service spacecraft orbit can be roughly divided into orbit design and orbit optimization. The paper mainly focuses on the orbit design problem. We simply summarize of the previous works, and point out the main content of the on-orbit service spacecraft orbit design. We classify current on-orbit service spacecraft orbit design problem into parking-orbit design, maneuvering-orbit design and servicing-orbit design. Then, we give a detail description of the three specific orbits, and put forward our own ideas on the existed achievements. The paper will provide a meaningful reference for the on-orbit service spacecraft orbital design research.

  19. Osteoarticular infections in Belgian children: a survey of clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmont, Quentin; Yombi, Jean-Cyr; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to report the pathogens which were found most frequently to be responsible for osteo-articular infections in infants and children in Belgium, and to propose an appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy applicable before identification of the responsible pathogen. Clinical presentation, imaging and blood biology are also reviewed and analysed. Fifty-six cases of osteo-articular infections (acute/subacute osteomyelitis, osteo-arthritis, septic arthritis, spondylodiscitis, sacro-iliitis) treated between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on clinical, biological, microbiological and radiological data. Septic arthritis, acute osteomyelitis, septic osteoarthritis and sacro-iliitis often have a loud clinical (fever, pain, inflammatory signs) and biological presentation. Subacute osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis are almost asymptomatic, but for functional impairment. The responsible pathogen was isolated in 38% of the cases. The most frequent pathogen was Staphylococcus Aureus, followed by Pneumococcus, Streptococcus A and B, Kingella Kingae, and Haemophilus. None of them were resistant to usual antibiotics. Functional impairment is the only constant symptom of osteo-articular infections. Other clinical and biological symptoms may be absent, making diagnosis often difficult. We recommend oxacillin (> 5 years) or a combination of oxacillin with cefotaxime (< 5 years) in the empirical treatment of osteo-articular infection, and a total of 4 weeks of treatment.

  20. A Survey of Astronomical Research: An Astronomy for Development Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, V A R M; Cardenas-Avendano, A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed research research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a Gross National Income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in `astronomy development' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop astronomy it should invest in outside expert visits, send their staff abroad to study and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  1. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Weatherwax, Sharlene [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  2. Interdisciplinary training in mathematical biology through team-based undergraduate research and courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason E; Walston, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by BIO2010 and leveraging institutional and external funding, Truman State University built an undergraduate program in mathematical biology with high-quality, faculty-mentored interdisciplinary research experiences at its core. These experiences taught faculty and students to bridge the epistemological gap between the mathematical and life sciences. Together they created the infrastructure that currently supports several interdisciplinary courses, an innovative minor degree, and long-term interdepartmental research collaborations. This article describes how the program was built with support from the National Science Foundation's Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biology and Mathematics program, and it shares lessons learned that will help other undergraduate institutions build their own program.

  3. Fact-finding survey of actual garbage discharged from dormitory and its biological anaerobic-aerobic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Ukita, M; Sekine, M; Fukagawa, M; Nakanishi, H

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find a possibility of complete treatment of garbage and resource recovery (production of methane from available utility of carbon resource in garbage) by biological treatment process. As the first step, a fact-finding survey of actual garbage discharged from the dormitory of the Ube National College of Technology (equivalent to 300 population) was carried out. Second, the combined biological anaerobic-aerobic treatment, i.e. combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process and aerobic membrane bioreactor (AMB) process, was applied to the garbage treatment. The applicability and efficiency of this system were investigated in this study. The survey results showed that the composition and quantity of garbage from a student dormitory changed slightly during a week due to the change of the menu, however, they remained almost unchanged during the entire experimental period. The experimental results showed high biodegradability of the garbage, and demonstrated its suitability for methane production. The soluble nitrogen removal was high: over 97%. No excess sludge was wasted from the system. A high treatment efficiency of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen was obtained. The possibility of complete treatment of garbage with this process has been positively demonstrated by this study.

  4. Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.

  5. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M. [4115 Allen Dr., Kingsville, TX (United States); Knight, P.J. [Marron and Associates, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  6. Improving the sampling strategy of the Joint Danube Survey 3 (2013) by means of multivariate statistical techniques applied on selected physico-chemical and biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamchevici, Carmen; Udrea, Ion

    2013-11-01

    The concept of basin-wide Joint Danube Survey (JDS) was launched by the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) as a tool for investigative monitoring under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with a frequency of 6 years. The first JDS was carried out in 2001 and its success in providing key information for characterisation of the Danube River Basin District as required by WFD lead to the organisation of the second JDS in 2007, which was the world's biggest river research expedition in that year. The present paper presents an approach for improving the survey strategy for the next planned survey JDS3 (2013) by means of several multivariate statistical techniques. In order to design the optimum structure in terms of parameters and sampling sites, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis were applied on JDS2 data for 13 selected physico-chemical and one biological element measured in 78 sampling sites located on the main course of the Danube. Results from PCA/FA showed that most of the dataset variance (above 75%) was explained by five varifactors loaded with 8 out of 14 variables: physical (transparency and total suspended solids), relevant nutrients (N-nitrates and P-orthophosphates), feedback effects of primary production (pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen) and algal biomass. Taking into account the representation of the factor scores given by FA versus sampling sites and the major groups generated by the clustering procedure, the spatial network of the next survey could be carefully tailored, leading to a decreasing of sampling sites by more than 30%. The approach of target oriented sampling strategy based on the selected multivariate statistics can provide a strong reduction in dimensionality of the original data and corresponding costs as well, without any loss of information.

  7. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, W.H.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, M. R.; Schoonyan, A. L.; Stewart, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS) successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Fish Community Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and Lower Trophic Level Assessment (see Forage and Coldwater Task Group reports). In 2015, LEBS also initiated a Lake Erie Central Basin Trawling survey in response to the need for forage fish data from Management Unit 3 (as defined by the Yellow Perch Task Group). Results from these surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Fish Community Goals and Objectives. Our 2015 vessel operations were initiated in early April and continued into late November. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 121 bottom trawls covering 83.2 ha of lake-bottom and catching 105,600 fish totaling 4,065 kg during four separate trawl surveys in the western and central basins of Lake Erie. We deployed and lifted 9.5 km of gillnet, which caught an additional 805 fish, 100 (337 kg) of which were the native coldwater predators Lake Trout, Burbot, and Lake Whitefish (these data are reported in the 2016 Coldwater Task Group report). We also conducted 317 km of hydroacoustic survey transects (reported in the 2016 Forage Task Group report), collected 114 lower trophic (i.e. zooplankton and benthos) samples, and obtained 216 water quality observations (e.g., temperature profiles, and water samples). The LEBS also assisted CLC member agencies with the maintenance and expansion of GLATOS throughout all three Lake Erie sub-basins. Within the following report sections, we describe results from three trawl surveys – the spring and autumn Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and the East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment – and

  8. Some New Bases and Needs for Interior Design from Environmental Research. A Preliminary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Walter, Jr.

    Research which can form new bases for interior design is being greatly accelerated. Investigations in psychology, anthropology, psychiatry, and biology, as well as interdisciplinary projects, turn up literally hundreds of studies, the results of which will vitally affect interior design. This body of research falls into two parts--(1) human…

  9. Alaska Native people's perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design. Stratified focus groups. Methods. Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n = 178 were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples’ perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions. Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens.

  10. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  11. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. [ed.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  12. A survey on intelligence approaches that may be useful for information and communication technology research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yi-xin

    2008-01-01

    The concepts on information and communicationtechnology (ICT) and "intelligence" are defined firstly and theanalyses on the environment and requirements for ICT are thenfollowed. Based on the definitions and the analyses, a survey onintelligence approaches that may be useful for ICT is thus made.The conclusion drawn from the survey is a recommendation bysaying that intelligence approaches have been one of the keysfor further development of the entirety of ICT and thereforeshould receive much more attentions from ICT researchers inthe years to come.

  13. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR-2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and...voltage phenomena where the verification power level is chosen such that the maximum instantaneous operational voltage in the component is excited . In...analysis methods under investigation for multicarrier excitation threshold prediction based on a survey of the research literature. In general, this

  14. Historical Survey of Research in Physics Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.

    2017-01-01

    There have been efforts to provide specialized preparation for prospective physics teachers for over 100 years, both in the U.S. and elsewhere. However, systematic research investigations of these efforts are much more scarce, particularly in the U.S. I will review some highlights of research in physics teacher preparation reported in the U.S. and in several other countries as early as the 1920s. The more recent investigations (beginning around 1970) reveal a pattern of teacher preparation practices emphasizing multiple, extended experiences in analyzing physical systems-and making and testing hypotheses of experimental outcomes-by developing and reflecting on laboratory-based physics activities that are often subsequently taught (as simulated ``micro-teaching'' or in actual classrooms), all under close guidance and intensive coaching from expert physics-teacher educators. Outcomes reported include improvements in the quality of experiment design (emphasizing student-generated explanations rather than rote procedures), and in ability to communicate, better awareness of physics teachers' pedagogical knowledge, and improved learning gains by the teachers' students on tests of conceptual understanding. Supported in part by NSF DUE #1256333.

  15. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  16. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed.

  17. Trends in Food Research and Development: A Survey of the Commercial Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    industry need to be identified. This report documents a mail survey on food research and development in the commercial food industry . The data...conclusions: (1) food industry research and development budgets are increasing; (2) new product development and new process development remain the thrust...behind research and development in the food industry ; (3) plastic packaging and aseptic packaging of particulates will play major roles in the food

  18. Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan: Survey Lines Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    clearinghouse tool using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) Geoportal technology . Once the XML metadata is loaded into the Metadata Manager ...ER D C/ CH L SR -1 6- 4 Coastal Ocean Data Systems Program Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan...Systems Program ERDC/CHL SR-16-4 August 2016 Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan Survey Lines Dataset Michael F

  19. Application of Bio-informatics in Biology Research%生物信息学在生物学研究领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟双; 徐冲; 陈丽媛; 陈杰

    2011-01-01

    The effects of bio-informatics on biological research were summarized in this article. The application survey of bio-informatics in bio-technology, bio-medicine, agriculture, food, environment, energy, and other research fields was also introduced. The significance of bio-informatics to serve the biological scientific research was elaborated as well.%综合叙述了生物信息学对生物学科研工作的影响,介绍了生物信息学在生物技术、生物医学、农业、食品、环境、能源等研究领域的应用概况,阐述了生物信息学为生物科研工作服务的意义.

  20. Desegregating undergraduate mathematics and biology--interdisciplinary instruction with emphasis on ongoing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable advances in the field of biology in the last decade, specifically in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, have demonstrated how critically important mathematical models and methods are in addressing questions of vital importance for these disciplines. There is little doubt that the need for utilizing and developing mathematical methods for biology research will only grow in the future. The rapidly increasing demand for scientists with appropriate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge, however, is not being reflected in the way undergraduate mathematics and biology courses are structured and taught in most colleges and universities nationwide. While a number of institutions have stepped forward and addressed this need by creating and offering interdisciplinary courses at the juncture of mathematics and biology, there are still many others at which there is little, if any, interdisciplinary interaction between the curricula. This chapter describes an interdisciplinary course and a textbook in mathematical biology developed collaboratively by faculty from Sweet Briar College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine. The course and textbook are designed to provide a bridge between the mathematical and biological sciences at the lower undergraduate level. The course is developed for and is being taught in a liberal arts setting at Sweet Briar College, Virginia, but some of the advanced modules are used in a course at the University of Virginia for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The individual modules are relatively independent and can be used as stand-alone projects in conventional mathematics and biology courses. Except for the introductory material, the course and textbook topics are based on current biomedical research.

  1. Fundamentals of space biology research on cells, animals, and plants in space

    CERN Document Server

    DeLorenzo, Michael L; Slenzka, K

    2006-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview at an undergraduate or early university level and describes the effects of spaceflight at cellular and organism levels. Past, current, and future research on the effects of gravity - or its absence - and ionizing radiation on the evolution, development, and function of living organisms is presented in layman's terms by researchers who have been active in this field. The purpose is to enlighten science and non-science readers to the benefits of space biology research for conducting basic and applied research to support human exploration of space and to take

  2. BIO2010 and beyond: What undergraduate physics does the next generation of molecular biology researchers need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon

    2004-03-01

    What fundamental skills in mathematics, chemistry, physics, computer science and engineering are required at the undergraduate level to prepare the next generation of biology majors who will become research scientists? To address this question, Bruce Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences, established BIO2010, a committee of the National Research Council (USA), chaired by Lubert Stryer. The report of the committee was published in 2003 as BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (National Academies Press, Washington DC, www.national-academies.com). I will summarize the recommendations of the Physics and Engineering Panel that was chaired by John Hopfield and give my own views of what physics is essential for researchers in cell and molecular biology.

  3. Biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Klein, Nicola P; Dekker, Cornelia L; Edwards, Kathryn M; Marchant, Colin D; Vellozzi, Claudia; Fireman, Bruce; Sejvar, James J; Halsey, Neal A; Baxter, Roger

    2012-12-17

    In immunization safety research, individuals are considered at risk for the development of certain adverse events following immunization (AEFI) within a specific period of time referred to as the risk interval. These intervals should ideally be determined based on biologic plausibility considering features of the AEFI, presumed or known pathologic mechanism, and the vaccine. Misspecification of the length and timing of these intervals may result in introducing bias in epidemiologic and clinical studies of immunization safety. To date, little work has been done to formally assess and determine biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research. In this report, we present a systematic process to define biologically plausible and evidence-based risk interval estimates for two specific AEFIs, febrile seizures and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In addition, we review methodologic issues related to the determination of risk intervals for consideration in future studies of immunization safety.

  4. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling of the biological shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the dismantling of the inactive and activated areas of the biological shield of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf. The calculation of the parameters determining the activated areas at the shield (reference nuclide, nuclide vector in the barite concrete and horizontal and vertical reduction behaviors of activity concentration and the activation profiles within the biological shield for unrestricted release, release restricted to permanent deposit and radioactive waste are presented. Considerations of located activation anomalies in the shield, e.g. in the vicinities of the beam-tubes, were made according to the reactor's operational history. Finally, an overview of the materials removed from the biological shield is given.

  5. Building Consensus in Science: Resources for Intertextual Dialog in Biology Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iliana A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the way article writers bring prior texts into biology research articles. It studies the functional moves in which citations occur and their formal features, providing a better understanding of the linguistic resources that are used to construct intertextuality in science. The results show the functions of citations were…

  6. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes. T

  7. Infusing Bioinformatics and Research-Like Experience into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week laboratory project designed for a sophomore level molecular biology course is described. Small groups of students (3-4 per group) choose a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) or an oncogene for this project. Each group researches the role of their TSG/oncogene from primary literature articles and uses bioinformatics engines to find the gene…

  8. Connecting Biology and Organic Chemistry Introductory Laboratory Courses through a Collaborative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an…

  9. Considerations for the use of human participants in vector biology research: a tool for investigators and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achee, Nicole L; Youngblood, Laura; Bangs, Michael J; Lavery, James V; James, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    A thorough search of the existing literature has revealed that there are currently no published recommendations or guidelines for the interpretation of US regulations on the use of human participants in vector biology research (VBR). An informal survey of vector biologists has indicated that issues related to human participation in vector research have been largely debated by academic, national, and local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in the countries where the research is being conducted, and that interpretations and subsequent requirements made by these IRBs have varied widely. This document is intended to provide investigators and corresponding scientific and ethical review committee members an introduction to VBR methods involving human participation and the legal and ethical framework in which such studies are conducted with a focus on US Federal Regulations. It is also intended to provide a common perspective for guiding researchers, IRB members, and other interested parties (i.e., public health officials conducting routine entomological surveillance) in the interpretation of human subjects regulations pertaining to VBR.

  10. Sensing and Virtual Worlds - A Survey of Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Worlds (VWs) have been used effectively in live and constructive military training. An area that remains fertile ground for exploration and a new vision involves integrating various traditional and now non-traditional sensors into virtual worlds. In this paper, we will assert that the benefits of this integration are several. First, we maintain that virtual worlds offer improved sensor deployment planning through improved visualization and stimulation of the model, using geo-specific terrain and structure. Secondly, we assert that VWs enhance the mission rehearsal process, and that using a mix of live avatars, non-player characters, and live sensor feeds (e.g. real time meteorology) can help visualization of the area of operations. Finally, tactical operations are improved via better collaboration and integration of real world sensing capabilities, and in most situations, 30 VWs improve the state of the art over current "dots on a map" 20 geospatial visualization. However, several capability gaps preclude a fuller realization of this vision. In this paper, we identify many of these gaps and suggest research directions

  11. Promoting synergistic research and education in computational biology and drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesneck, Jonathan L; Yang, Jack Y

    2008-01-01

    Supported by US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (ISIBM), the IEEE 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering at Harvard Medical School was designed dynamically in response to the cutting edge synergistic research and education. One of the key components of this academic event is the poster presentation focusing on specific topics to foster collaboration between the computational biology and drug design domains. The Harvard meeting attracted over five hundred scientists, researchers and medical doctors world-wide to present, discuss and exchange their research. The synergies between computational biology and drug design research had been well observed by participants. The poster sessions had been designed to be responsive to the need for synergistic inter/multidisciplinary research and education. A panel of judges was formed to decide the best posters. The papers in this special issue were selected for runners-up of the best poster award by a panel of judges. Authors were then invited to expand their posters into full research papers. Submitted papers were required to contain significant additional scientific detail and were rigorously reviewed by at least three external reviewers. Detailed information regarding the academic event can be found at the White Paper of the IEEE 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering at Harvard Medical School at BMC Genomics http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/9/S2/I1.

  12. Attributes of researchers and their strategies to recruit minority populations: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B

    2012-11-01

    Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship.

  13. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  14. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  15. Calibrated peer review for computer-assisted learning of biological research competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Kari L; Gundlach, Ellen; Pelaez, Nancy J

    2010-09-01

    Recently, both science and technology faculty have been recognizing biological research competencies that are valued but rarely assessed. Some of these valued learning outcomes include scientific methods and thinking, critical assessment of primary papers, quantitative reasoning, communication, and putting biological research into a historical and broader social context. This article presents examples of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) assignments that illustrate a computer-assisted method to help students achieve biological research competencies. A new release of CPR is appropriate for engaging students online in reading and writing about investigations. A participant perception inventory was designed for use as a repeated measure to discriminate among beginning, middle, and ending student perceptions. Examples are provided to demonstrate how to assess student perceptions of what they gain from instruction related to science research competencies. Results suggest that students in a large enrollment class consider CPR to be useful for helping them learn about quantitative and categorical research variables; the use of the experimental method to test ideas; the use of controls; analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data; and how to critically read primary papers.

  16. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  17. A Research Project-Based and Self-Determined Teaching System of Molecular Biology Techniques for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping

    2008-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques play a very important role in understanding the biological activity. Students who major in biology should know not only how to perform experiments, but also the reasons for performing them. Having the concept of conducting research by integrating various techniques is especially important. This paper introduces a…

  18. 1990 National Compensation Survey of Research and Development Scientists and Engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.

  19. A Survey of the Impact of Deyolking on Biological Processes Covered by Shotgun Proteomic Analyses of Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlouni, Fatima; Szarka, Szabolcs; Shulaev, Vladimir; Prokai, Laszlo

    2015-12-01

    Deyolking, the removal of the most abundant protein from the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, is a common technique for in-depth exploration of proteome-level changes in vivo due to various environmental stressors or pharmacological impacts during embryonic stage of development. However, the effect of this procedure on the remaining proteome has not been fully studied. Here, we report a label-free shotgun proteomics survey on proteome coverage and biological processes that are enriched and depleted as a result of deyolking. Enriched proteins are involved in cellular energetics and development pathways, specifically implicating enrichment related to mitochondrial function. Although few proteins were removed completely by deyolking, depleted molecular pathways were associated with calcium signaling and signaling events implicating immune system response.

  20. The Enzymology of Organic Transformations: A Survey of Name Reactions in Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-I; McCarty, Reid M; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2017-03-20

    Chemical reactions that are named in honor of their true, or at least perceived, discoverers are known as "name reactions". This Review is a collection of biological representatives of named chemical reactions. Emphasis is placed on reaction types and catalytic mechanisms that showcase both the chemical diversity in natural product biosynthesis as well as the parallels with synthetic organic chemistry. An attempt has been made, whenever possible, to describe the enzymatic mechanisms of catalysis within the context of their synthetic counterparts and to discuss the mechanistic hypotheses for those reactions that are currently active areas of investigation. This Review has been categorized by reaction type, for example condensation, nucleophilic addition, reduction and oxidation, substitution, carboxylation, radical-mediated, and rearrangements, which are subdivided by name reactions.

  1. Research overview of biological and chemical conversion methods and identification of key research areas for SERI. Final task report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Connolly, J. S.; Inman, R. E.; Reed, T. B.; Seibert, M.

    1978-09-01

    A qualitative overview of the current and future research areas of the Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch is presented. The goals of the Branch and the general areas of Branch activities are mapped out: energy and petrochemical substitutes from biomass, thermochemical conversion, and photoconversion. Each of these three areas in some detail are discussed in some detail in a general overview. Specific parts of the three major areas which have been selected are discussed in the context of present Department of Energy sponsored research including the Fuels from Biomass and Office of Basic Energy Sciences programs, for initial SERI in-house research emphasis. Finally, the Branch research efforts planned through FY 79 are outlined.

  2. Fluidized bed combustion research and development in Sweden: A historical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckner Bo.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on research and development related to fluidized bed boilers in Sweden during the past two decades, where several Swedish enterprises took part: Generator, Götaverken, Stal Laval (ABB Carbon and Studsvik. Chalmers University of Technology contributed in the field of research related to emissions, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, and some results from this activity are briefly summarized.

  3. Teaching Historical Skills through JSTOR: An Online Research Project for Survey Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruswick, Brent J.

    2011-01-01

    As a new Ph.D. preparing for his first university appointment in June 2006, the author began constructing World History I and II surveys for which his graduate training left him feeling underprepared. Among the myriad challenges, he sought to create a research assignment for general education students that would address a diverse range of…

  4. Does ICT influence supply chain management and performance? A review of survey-based research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xuan; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; van der Vaart, Taco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and classify survey-based research connecting information and communication technology (ICT), supply chain management (SCM), and supply chain (SC) performance. The review evaluates present empirical results and aims at detecting explanations for simil

  5. Reconceptualizing and Operationalizing Context in Survey Research on Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko

    2008-01-01

    Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner…

  6. Community College Fundraising: The Voluntary Support of Education Survey as a Sampling Tool for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Richard L.; Besikof, Rudolph J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Voluntary Support for Education (VSE) Survey, an instrument created by the Council for Aid to Education. Our objective is to explain VSE's potential value as a tool to inform both institutional and academic research regarding fund-raising activities at community colleges. Of particular interest is how the data available…

  7. Rancho Santiago College Climate Survey Report. Research, Planning and Resource Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie; And Others

    In February 1990, a study was conducted by the Rancho Santiago College (RSC) Research Committee and Planning Council to assess institutional effectiveness, using college climate as one correlate of RSC's success. A staff morale survey instrument, distributed to all full- and part-time faculty and staff, yielded an overall response rate of 36%, and…

  8. Support Services for Higher Degree Research Students: A Survey of Three Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pujitha; Woodman, Karen; Taji, Acram; Travelyan, James; Samani, Shamim; Sharda, Hema; Narayanaswamy, Ramesh; Lucey, Anthony; Sahama, Tony; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted across three Australian universities to identify the types and format of support services available for higher degree research (HDR, or MA and Ph.D.) students. The services were classified with regards to availability, location and accessibility. A comparative tool was developed to help institutions categorise their services…

  9. Recent Research on Geometry Education: An ICME-13 Survey Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; de Villiers, Michael; Jones, Keith; Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Leung, Allen; Owens, Kay

    2016-01-01

    This survey on the theme of Geometry Education (including new technologies) focuses chiefly on the time span since 2008. Based on our review of the research literature published during this time span (in refereed journal articles, conference proceedings and edited books), we have jointly identified seven major threads of contributions that span…

  10. Reliability of the diagnosis of impairments in survey research in the field of chiropody.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.J.W.M. van; Dekker, J.; Zuijderduin, W.

    1993-01-01

    Chiropody is a rather unknown paramedical profession in The Netherlands. A chiropodist treats foot and nail problems or postural deviations which may be corrected by means of remedial foot therapy. There is no history of scientific research on chiropody. A necessary first step is a survey on profess

  11. Accurate treatments of electrostatics for computer simulations of biological systems: A brief survey of developments and existing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sha-Sha; Pan, Cong; Hu, Zhong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Modern computer simulations of biological systems often involve an explicit treatment of the complex interactions among a large number of molecules. While it is straightforward to compute the short-ranged Van der Waals interaction in classical molecular dynamics simulations, it has been a long-lasting issue to develop accurate methods for the longranged Coulomb interaction. In this short review, we discuss three types of methodologies for the accurate treatment of electrostatics in simulations of explicit molecules: truncation-type methods, Ewald-type methods, and mean-field-type methods. Throughout the discussion, we brief the formulations and developments of these methods, emphasize the intrinsic connections among the three types of methods, and focus on the existing problems which are often associated with the boundary conditions of electrostatics. This brief survey is summarized with a short perspective on future trends along the method developments and applications in the field of biological simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91127015 and 21522304) and the Open Project from the State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, and the Innovation Project from the State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials.

  12. Molecular communication among biological nanomachines: a layered architecture and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Suda, Tatsuya; Okaie, Yutaka; Moore, Michael J; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2014-09-01

    Molecular communication is an emerging communication paradigm for biological nanomachines. It allows biological nanomachines to communicate through exchanging molecules in an aqueous environment and to perform collaborative tasks through integrating functionalities of individual biological nanomachines. This paper develops the layered architecture of molecular communication and describes research issues that molecular communication faces at each layer of the architecture. Specifically, this paper applies a layered architecture approach, traditionally used in communication networks, to molecular communication, decomposes complex molecular communication functionality into a set of manageable layers, identifies basic functionalities of each layer, and develops a descriptive model consisting of key components of the layer for each layer. This paper also discusses open research issues that need to be addressed at each layer. In addition, this paper provides an example design of targeted drug delivery, a nanomedical application, to illustrate how the layered architecture helps design an application of molecular communication. The primary contribution of this paper is to provide an in-depth architectural view of molecular communication. Establishing a layered architecture of molecular communication helps organize various research issues and design concerns into layers that are relatively independent of each other, and thus accelerates research in each layer and facilitates the design and development of applications of molecular communication.

  13. Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ana M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions.

  14. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants; Kartlaeggning av vittrings- och korrosionsskador paa biologiska behandlingsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios; Aakesson, Urban (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Problems regarding that leachate from food waste have been corroding vehicles and concrete slabs has been reported by Biogas- and composting plants. This is an issue that has been reported to Swedish Waste Management more often within the same pace as the volume of food waste gathering is increasing all around Sweden. The problem has also been addressed at inspections according to SPCR 120 Biogoedsel and SPCR 152 Kompost, where several plants have requested guidance/support/investigation to help solve their specific issue. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., has earlier completed some investigations which have been ordered by private plant owners/municipalities and the result from these investigations have often proved that the exposure classification has not been adjusted for its purpose. There is no clear definition regarding construction of concrete that is meant for usage in a receiving hall for food waste. It is likely that concrete for Biogas- and Composting plants are built to meet the demands of agricultural environments. The project will examine the magnitude of the problem regarding corrosion- and weathering damage on concrete slabs and cisterns at biological treatment plants. The project will also culminate to actual solutions for plants that are hit and to give advice to those in the danger zone and those who plan for new constructions. Through a survey handed to Biogas- and composting plants around the country, the width of the problem has been examined and what solutions plants have found and executed to solve this issue. A literature review has been implemented to find specific demands regarding concrete that is meant for a certain environment. Another four treatment plants have been examined. The studies that have been made are chemical analysis of leachate from food waste, analysis of drill cores and analysis of reinforcement corrosion. The results from this project show that concrete doesn't have enough resistance in these

  15. Survey on astrobiology research and teaching activities within the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Burchell, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    While astrobiology is apparently growing steadily around the world, in terms of the number of researchers drawn into this interdisciplinary area and teaching courses provided for new students, there have been very few studies conducted to chart this expansion quantitatively. To address this deficiency, the Astrobiology Society of Britain (ASB) conducted a questionnaire survey of universities and research institutions nationwide to ascertain the current extent of astrobiology research and teaching in the UK. The aim was to provide compiled statistics and an information resource for those who seek research groups or courses of study, and to facilitate new interdisciplinary collaborations. The report here summarizes details gathered on 33 UK research groups, which involved 286 researchers (from undergraduate project students to faculty members). The survey indicates that around 880 students are taking university-level courses, with significant elements of astrobiology included, every year in the UK. Data are also presented on the composition of astrobiology students by their original academic field, which show a significant dominance of physics and astronomy students. This survey represents the first published systematic national assessment of astrobiological academic activity and indicates that this emerging field has already achieved a strong degree of penetration into the UK academic community.

  16. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  17. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 1999-045-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2002-013-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2003-003-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2002-012-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. JPEG images of boomer seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2002-013-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. JPEG images of boomer seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2001-005-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2004-003-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2001-005-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. JPEG images of boomer seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 2002-012-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. JPEG images of boomer seismic data from inner shelf U.S. Geological Survey research cruise 1999-045-FA collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  7. SINGLE MOLECULE APPROACHES TO BIOLOGY, 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 27-JULY 2, 2010, ITALY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor William Moerner

    2010-07-09

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in

  8. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  9. Characterizing researchers by strategies used for retaining minority participants: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Quinn, Sandra C; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Thomas, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    Limited attention has been given to the optimal strategies for retaining racial and ethnic minorities within studies and during the follow-up period. High attrition limits the interpretation of results and reduces the ability to translate findings into successful interventions. This study examined the retention strategies used by researchers when retaining minorities in research studies. From May to August 2010, we conducted an online survey with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) and examined their use of seven commonly used retention strategies. The number and type of retention strategies used, how these strategies differ by researcher type, and other characteristics (e.g., funding) were explored. We identified three clusters of researchers: comprehensive retention strategy researchers - utilized the greatest number of retention strategies; moderate retention strategy researchers - utilized an average number of retention strategies; and limited retention strategy researchers - utilized the least number of retention strategies. The comprehensive and moderate retention strategy researchers were more likely than the limited retention strategy researchers to conduct health outcomes research, work with a community advisory board, hire minority staff, use steps at a higher rate to overcome retention barriers, develop new partnerships with the minority community, modify study materials for the minority population, and allow staff to work flexible schedules. This study is a novel effort to characterize researchers, without implying a value judgment, according to their use of specific retention strategies. It provides critical information for conducting future research to determine the effectiveness of using a combination of retention strategies.

  10. International Trends in Biology Education Research from 1997 to 2014: A Content Analysis of Papers in Selected Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive content analysis of biology education research papers published in eight major academic journals indexed in Social Science Citation Index [SSCI] of Thomson Reuters® from 1997 to 2014. Total of 1376 biology education research [BER] papers were examined. The findings indicated that most of the papers were published…

  11. Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, David J

    2003-01-01

    The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.

  12. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  13. Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, A.; Baliga, N.; Braam, J.; Church, G.; Collins, J; ; Cottingham, R.; Ecker, J.; Gerstein, M.; Gilna, P.; Greenberg, J.; Handelsman, J.; Hubbard, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Liao, J.; Looger, L.; Meyerowitz, E.; Mjolness, E.; Petsko, G.; Sayler, G.; Simpson, M.; Stacey, G.; Sussman, M.; Tiedje, J.; Bader, D.; Cessi, P.; Collins, W.; Denning, S.; Dickinson, R.; Easterling, D.; Edmonds, J.; Feddema, J.; Field, C.; Fridlind, A.; Fung, I.; Held, I.; Jackson, R.; Janetos, A.; Large, W.; Leinen, M.; Leung, R.; Long, S.; Mace, G.; Masiello, C.; Meehl, G.; Ort, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.; Randall, D.; Rasch, P.; Schneider, E.; Shugart, H.; Thornton, P.; Washington, W.; Wildung, R.; Wiscombe, W.; Zak, D.; Zhang, M.; Bielicki, J.; Buford, M.; Cleland, E.; Dale, V.; Duke, C.; Ehleringer, J.; Hecht, A.; Kammen, D.; Marland, G.; Pataki, D.; Riley, M. Robertson, P.; Hubbard, S.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions and feedbacks among plants, animals, microbes, humans, and the environment ultimately form the world in which we live. This world is now facing challenges from a growing and increasingly affluent human population whose numbers and lifestyles are driving ever greater energy demand and impacting climate. These and other contributing factors will make energy and climate sustainability extremely difficult to achieve over the 20-year time horizon that is the focus of this report. Despite these severe challenges, there is optimism that deeper understanding of our environment will enable us to mitigate detrimental effects, while also harnessing biological and climate systems to ensure a sustainable energy future. This effort is advanced by scientific inquiries in the fields of atmospheric chemistry and physics, biology, ecology, and subsurface science - all made possible by computing. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science has a long history of bringing together researchers from different disciplines to address critical national needs in determining the biological and environmental impacts of energy production and use, characterizing the interplay of climate and energy, and collaborating with other agencies and DOE programs to improve the world's most powerful climate models. BER science focuses on three distinct areas: (1) What are the roles of Earth system components (atmosphere, land, oceans, sea ice, and the biosphere) in determining climate? (2) How is the information stored in a genome translated into microbial, plant, and ecosystem processes that influence biofuel production, climate feedbacks, and the natural cycling of carbon? (3) What are the biological, geochemical, and physical forces that govern the behavior of Earth's subsurface environment? Ultimately, the goal of BER science is to support experimentation and modeling that can reliably predict the

  14. Interdisciplinary research and education at the biology-engineering-computer science interface: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Brigitta; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    Progress in the life sciences, including genome sequencing and high-throughput experimentation, offers an opportunity for understanding biology and medicine from a systems perspective. This 'new view', which complements the more traditional component-based approach, involves the integration of biological research with approaches from engineering disciplines and computer science. The result is more than a new set of technologies. Rather, it promises a fundamental reconceptualization of the life sciences based on the development of quantitative and predictive models to describe crucial processes. To achieve this change, learning communities are being formed at the interface of the life sciences, engineering and computer science. Through these communities, research and education will be integrated across disciplines and the challenges associated with multidisciplinary team-based science will be addressed.

  15. [Research progress and trend analysis of biology and chemistry of Taxus medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Huo, Li

    2012-07-01

    Taxus is the source plant of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursor, analogs and derivatives, which has been studying for decades. There are many endemic Taxus species in China, which have been studied in the field of multiple disciplines. Based on the recent studies of the researchers, this review comments on the study of Taxus biology and chemistry. The bibliometric method is used to quantify the global scientific production of Taxus-related research, and identify patterns and tendencies of Taxus-related articles. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Taxus and their endophytic fungi. Systems biology and various omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades.

  16. Research Projects for Interrogations of Biological Systems: Training for the Development of Novel Radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Lever, Susan Z. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Robertson, J. David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-10-04

    This grant was situated at the University of Missouri to train Ph.D. scientists in radiochemistry and synthetic chemistry in conjunction with Faculty from the Interdisciplinary Plant Group, Division of Biological Sciences, the MU Research Reactor Center, Molecular Biology and the Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute. This project was collaborative with Brookhaven National Laboratory (Richard Ferrieri, PI). Projects for the Ph.D. candidates included novel probe development for peptides, nucleosides, small molecules or radiometals, the direct use of radiometals as probes, or nuclear techniques for analysis. The projects for the postdoctoral fellow involved synthetic chemistry for the preparation of precursors for novel tracers that will be radiolabeled with 18F or other appropriate radionuclides. The skill sets of our team members allowed us to prepare probes with positron or single photon emitters, as well as ones that are dual-labeled (fluorescent and radiolabeled). We focused our technical advances to those that will be broadly applicable to any research field.

  17. Survey of the biological effects of refractory ceramic fibres: overload and its possible consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Bellmann, B; Muhle, H; Davis, J M G; Maxim, L D

    2005-06-01

    This paper summarizes the biological effects of refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs). RCFs are aluminosilicate glass insulation wools with similar chemical properties to other synthetic vitreous fibres (SVFs) or 'man-made vitreous fibres' (MMVFs). There is concern that RCFs could be significantly more pathogenic than other SVFs. This paper critically reviews the data on which this perception is based. Morbidity studies on workers in RCF manufacturing indicated that, in the United states, RCF exposure was associated with an increased incidence of pleural plaques and in both the united states and Europe with statistically significant changes in some measures of lung function (though not at present exposure levels). No interstitial fibrosis was found. An ongoing mortality study of limited statistical power has failed to indicate any increased incidence of lung cancer or mesothelioma. Findings in several early animal studies led to a large series of inhalation studies where rats exposed to high levels of RCF developed fibrosis and tumours but not those exposed to other SVFs. Similarly hamsters exposed to one sample (RCF1) developed mesothelioma. Subsequent analyses of the data indicated that the RCF used in these experiments had a significantly greater proportion of non-fibrous particles than those present in the other types of SVFs tested or in workplace air. Short-term studies indicated that pulmonary overload occurred at the same as RCF tissue burdens as those in the long-term animal bioassay. When RCFs were prepared in the same way as the other SVFs, a sample resulted with a more representative ratio of particles to fibres; this sample did not produce overload in short-term tests. SVFs have various abilities to persist in the lung tissue and thus accumulate to varying degrees. It is suggested that biopersistence is a key property. While RCFs are among the more persistent they are similar to many other fibre types. The scientific and regulatory implications of these

  18. A vital legacy: Biological and environmental research in the atomic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. [ed.

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes `Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology`. The conclusion is titled `An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future`.

  19. A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology. The conclusion is titled An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future.

  20. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations.

  1. A Comprehensive Survey of Data Mining-based Fraud Detection Research

    CERN Document Server

    Phua, Clifton; Smith, Kate; Gayler, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This survey paper categorises, compares, and summarises from almost all published technical and review articles in automated fraud detection within the last 10 years. It defines the professional fraudster, formalises the main types and subtypes of known fraud, and presents the nature of data evidence collected within affected industries. Within the business context of mining the data to achieve higher cost savings, this research presents methods and techniques together with their problems. Compared to all related reviews on fraud detection, this survey covers much more technical articles and is the only one, to the best of our knowledge, which proposes alternative data and solutions from related domains.

  2. Progress of biological invasions research in China over the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjen Shih

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As one of the five major global environmental problems, invasive species have posed serious threats to native ecosystems, public health, and regional economies. Although much progress has been madein the field of biological invasions research in China over the last decade, there are still large knowledge gaps. This paper reviews progress in the field of biological invasions research since 2000 as it relates to China, covering the diversity, colonization and immigration patterns of invasive species, mechanisms and ecological effects of biological invasions, and management and control of invasive species. In China, 529 invasive alien species have been identified, which originated primarily from South and North America, and the major taxa included terrestrial plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and microorganisms. We found a higher prevalence of invasive species in the eastern and southern provinces, compared to the western and northern provinces in China. This pattern is likely due to the differences in the level of economic development and environmental suitability between the two regions. Moreover, with further economic development, China may face more serious biological invasions in the future. These invasions of alien species are largely the combined results of the interactions between the intrinsic traits of these species along with resource opportunities and disturbances by human beings. Many mechanisms are responsible for successful invasionsof alien species, but phenotypic plasticity, adaptive evolution, enemy release, interspecific mutualism or commensalism, and new allelochemicals may be primary causative factors. Biological invasions in China have caused serious impacts on native ecosystems, including biodiversity and ecosystem services, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, threats to agricultural and forestry production, traffic and shipping, environmental safety, and public facilities. China has also made progress in the detection and

  3. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    ventilation, the air from these buildings can be treated in a biofilter. Biofilter are effective to remove most of the odorous compounds. But the biofilter's function must be regularly verified to avoid operational disturbances. Chemical emissions profiles at different places show how complex is the composition of the emission och how it varies from places to places and time to time. The project confirms and underlines that there are many causes to the global odour emitted from waste plants. Some compounds are important to survey, as for example limonene and ammonia in the tanks and biofilter regions and sulphur compounds in the landfills.

  4. SHELTERING FROM AVALANCHES OF BIOLOGICAL DATA: A NEW RESEARCH DIMENSION IN THE POST-GENOMICS ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Niccolai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research in the Post-genomic Era is characterized by huge amounts of data which cannot be manually analyzed soon after their collection, but only stored in data banks for further investigations. Thus, many data banks have been created to keep some order for results obtained from high throughput techniques applied to genomics or to other “omics” studies. Some order is also needed to browse fruitfully biological data among all the available databanks. National Center for Biotechnology Information of USA offers to researchers a powerful interface to achieve this effort, but in a way that is not suitable for the public perception. A Google Earth kind of software would help to sail safely within this data ocean to specific pieces of information, as required both by researchers and by just curious people. Bioinformatics, a new interdisciplinary field that develops and improves on methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data, is emerging as a powerful tool to derive novel perspective of biological processes. In our laboratory, for instance, scanning the Protein Data Bank to analyze amino acids distribution inside protein structures, new scenarios appeared which can account for long distance protein-protein interactions.

  5. Best practice for minimising unmanned aerial vehicle disturbance to wildlife in biological field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Koh, Lian Pin

    2016-05-23

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), colloquially referred to as 'drones', for biological field research is increasing [1-3]. Small, civilian UAVs are providing a viable, economical tool for ecology researchers and environmental managers. UAVs are particularly useful for wildlife observation and monitoring as they can produce systematic data of high spatial and temporal resolution [4]. However, this new technology could also have undesirable and unforeseen impacts on wildlife, the risks of which we currently have little understanding [5-7]. There is a need for a code of best practice in the use of UAVs to mitigate or alleviate these risks, which we begin to develop here.

  6. Current trends and new challenges of databases and web applications for systems driven biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar eSreenivasaiah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapidly evolving nature of systems driven research imposes special requirements on the technology, approach, design and architecture of computational infrastructure including database and web application. Several solutions have been proposed to meet the expectations and novel methods have been developed to address the persisting problems of data integration. It is important for researchers to understand different technologies and approaches. Having familiarized with the pros and cons of the existing technologies, researchers can exploit its capabilities to the maximum potential for integrating data. In this review we discuss the architecture, design and key technologies underlying some of the prominent databases (DBs and web applications. We will mention their roles in integration of biological data and investigate some of the emerging design concepts and computational technologies that are likely to have a key role in the future of systems driven biomedical research.

  7. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Joly

    Full Text Available Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public.Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for

  8. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category) during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category). In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP), Singapore and Taiwan were the most

  9. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okabe Nobuhiko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category. In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP, Singapore and

  10. A survey of planning and scheduling research at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1989-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has a diverse program in planning and scheduling. Some research projects as well as some applications are highlighted. Topics addressed include machine learning techniques, action representations and constraint-based scheduling systems. The applications discussed are planetary rovers, Hubble Space Telescope scheduling, and Pioneer Venus orbit scheduling.

  11. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  12. ISCB Ebola Award for Important Future Research on the Computational Biology of Ebola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Karp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed is of the essence in combating Ebola; thus, computational approaches should form a significant component of Ebola research. As for the development of any modern drug, computational biology is uniquely positioned to contribute through comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Ebola strains as well as 3-D protein modeling. Other computational approaches to Ebola may include large-scale docking studies of Ebola proteins with human proteins and with small-molecule libraries, computational modeling of the spread of the virus, computational mining of the Ebola literature, and creation of a curated Ebola database. Taken together, such computational efforts could significantly accelerate traditional scientific approaches. In recognition of the need for important and immediate solutions from the field of computational biology against Ebola, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB announces a prize for an important computational advance in fighting the Ebola virus. ISCB will confer the ISCB Fight against Ebola Award, along with a prize of US$2,000, at its July 2016 annual meeting (ISCB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology [ISMB] 2016, Orlando, Florida.

  13. The RCCM 2009 Survey: Mapping Doctoral and Postdoctoral CAM Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is widely available in the UK and used frequently by the public, but there is little high quality research to sustain its continued use and potential integration into the NHS. There is, therefore, a need to develop rigorous research in this area. One essential way forward is to train and develop more CAM researchers so that we can enhance academic capacity and provide the evidence upon which to base strategic healthcare decisions. This UK survey identified 80 research active postgraduates registered for MPhils/PhDs in 21 universities and were either current students or had completed their postgraduate degree during the recent UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2001–2008. The single largest postgraduate degree funder was the university where the students registered (26/80. Thirty-two projects involved randomized controlled trials and 33 used qualitative research methods. The UK RAE also indicates a significant growth of postdoctoral and tenured research activity over this period (in 2001 there were three full time equivalents; in 2008 there were 15.5 with a considerable improvement in research quality. This mapping exercise suggests that considerable effort is currently being invested in developing UK CAM research capacity and thus inform decision making in this area. However, in comparative international terms UK funding is very limited. As in the USA and Australia, a centralized and strategic approach by the National Institute of Health Research to this currently uncoordinated and underfunded activity may benefit CAM research in the UK.

  14. Recent surveys and researches on pollinosis in Japan; Kafunsho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shido, T. [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    In this paper, recent investigations and researches on pollinosis are summarized as centering on the investigation entrusted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and executed since 1992, and especially the surveys on Japanese cedar pollinosis during 1995 to 1996. The quantity of pollen surveyed in 1995 is the greatest in the survey history of nationwide flying pollen. Particularly, the quantity of cedar and hinoki pollen is 10 to 40 times as many as that in the year before. Consequently, since the sensitization and onset due to the cedar pollen increased greatly, the objects of the surveys and the researches were mainly in respect to the analysis of onset factors of pollinosis, clarification of its natural process, evaluation on the effectiveness of desensitization therapy, the clinical subjects including the confirmation of pharynx symptom and asthma symptom, and the discovery of naturally sensitizing dog. A fact that the quantity of flying pollen concerns the occurrence and degree of the clinical symptom has already been indicated by a clinical observation carried out for a long period of time. In respect to specific prophylaxis and therapy, for the first time the pollen masks and glasses sold on the market are investigated, and the necessity of the verification thereof is described. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Stem cell research funding policies and dynamic innovation: a survey of open access and commercialization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Maroussia; Kim, Jihyun Rosel; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Plomer, Aurora; Joly, Yann

    2014-08-01

    This article compares and contrasts the pressures of both open access data sharing and commercialization policies in the context of publicly funded embryonic stem cell research (SCR). First, normative guidelines of international SCR organizations were examined. We then examined SCR funding guidelines and the project evaluation criteria of major funding organizations in the EU, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, Canada and the United States. Our survey of policies revealed subtle pressures to commercialize research that include: increased funding availability for commercialization opportunities, assistance for obtaining intellectual property rights (IPRs) and legislation mandating commercialization. In lieu of open access models, funders are increasingly opting for limited sharing models or "protected commons" models that make the research available to researchers within the same region or those receiving the same funding. Meanwhile, there still is need for funding agencies to clarify and standardize terms such as "non-profit organizations" and "for-profit research," as more universities are pursuing for-profit or commercial opportunities.

  16. Survey of the research on dynamic weapon-target assignment problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Huaiping; Liu Jingxu; Chen Yingwu; Wang Hao

    2006-01-01

    The basic concepts and models of weapon-target assignment (WTA) are introduced and the mathematical nature of the WTA models is also analyzed. A systematic survey of research on WTA problem is provided. The present research on WTA is focused on models and algorithms. In the research on models of WTA, the static WTA models are mainly studied and the dynamic WTA models are not fully studied in deed. In the research on algorithms of WTA, the intelligent algorithms are often used to solve the WTA problem. The small scale of static WTA problems has been solved very well, however, the large scale of dynamic WTA problems has not been solved effectively so far. Finally, the characteristics of dynamic WTA are analyzed and directions for the future research on dynamic WTA are discussed.

  17. Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescence (Microscopy Techniques — Illuminating Biological and Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence, the absorption and re-emission of photons with longer wavelengths, is one of those amazing phenomena of Nature. Its discovery and utilization had, and still has, a major impact on biological and biomedical research, since it enables researchers not just to visualize normal physiological processes with high temporal and spatial resolution, to detect multiple signals concomitantly, to track single molecules in vivo, to replace radioactive assays when possible, but also to shed light on many pathobiological processes underpinning disease states, which would otherwise not be possible. Compounds that exhibit fluorescence are commonly called fluorochromes or fluorophores and one of these fluorescent molecules in particular has significantly enabled life science research to gain new insights in virtually all its sub-disciplines: Green Fluorescent Protein. Because fluorescent proteins are synthesized in vivo, integration of fluorescent detection methods into the biological system via genetic techniques now became feasible. Currently fluorescent proteins are available that virtually span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Concomitantly, fluorescence imaging techniques were developed, and often progress in one field fueled innovation in the other. Impressively, the properties of fluorescence were utilized to develop new assays and imaging modalities, ranging from energy transfer to image molecular interactions to imaging beyond the diffraction limit with super-resolution microscopy. Here, an overview is provided of recent developments in both fluorescence imaging and fluorochrome engineering, which together constitute the “fluorescence toolbox” in life science research.

  18. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  19. 2010 CELL AND MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 13-18, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelle Momany

    2010-06-18

    The Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology Conference provides a forum for presentation of the latest advances in fungal research with an emphasis on filamentous fungi. This open-registration scientific meeting brings together the leading scientists from academia, government and industry to discuss current research results and future directions at Holderness School, an outstanding venue for scientific interaction. A key objective of the conference is to foster interaction among scientists working on model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans and scientists working on a variety of filamentous fungi whose laboratory tractability is often inversely proportional to their medical, industrial or ecological importance. Sessions will be devoted to Systems Biology, Fungi and Cellulosic Biomass, Small RNAs, Population Genomics, Symbioses, Pathogenesis, Membrane Trafficking and Polarity, and Cytoskeleton and Motors. A session will also be devoted to hot topics picked from abstracts. The CMFB conference provides a unique opportunity to examine the breadth of fungal biology in a small meeting format that encourages in-depth discussion among the attendees.

  20. Value Relevance of Earnings Information in Japan -- A Survey: The Empirical Findings by Foreign Researchers --

    OpenAIRE

    大日方, 隆

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm how international academicians evaluate the Japanese accounting system. This paper surveys prior studies on the international comparison (including Japan) of accounting information and reexamines the empirical findings on the usefulness of earnings information in Japan, focusing on the value relevance of earnings. Many researchers have pointed out that code law, investor protection in financial regulation environments and Japanese corporate governance, ...

  1. Balkanraum und nördliches Schwarzmeergebiet: Survey of Numismatic Research 2008-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, Ulrike; Stolba, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Dies ist eine vollständigere Liste des Literaturüberblicks zur griechischen Numismatik des Balkanraumes und des nördlichen Schwarzmeergebietes 2008–2013. Eine gekürzte Fassung mit einem auswertenden Textteil ist abgedruckt in: C. ARNOLD BIUCCHI / M. CACCAMO CALTA-BIANO (eds.), Survey of Numismatic...... Research 2008–2013 (Taormina, 2015), International Ass-ciation of Professional Numismatists Special Publication 16, pp. 51–71....

  2. Recent research on geometry education: an ICME-13 survey team report

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; de Villiers, Michael; Jones, Keith; Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Leung, Allen; Owens, Kay

    2016-01-01

    This survey on the theme of Geometry Education (including new technologies) focuses chiefly on the time span since 2008. Based on our review of the research literature published during this time span (in refereed journal articles, conference proceedings and edited books), we have jointly identified seven major threads of contributions as these relate to the early years of learning (pre-school and primary school) through to post-compulsory education and to the issue of mathematics teacher educ...

  3. A Survey Research on Market Orientation and Market Orientation- Performance Relationship in Hotel Companies

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKICI, A.Celil; EREN, Duygu

    2005-01-01

    Market orientation is considered as the implementation of marketing philosophy. From managerial perspective, market orientation has three dimensions: 1) market intelligence, 2) dissemination of intelligence, and 3) responsiveness. In order to determine market orientation level of hotel companies and relationship between market orientation and performance of hotels, a survey research was conducted at four and five star hotels operating in Turkey in 2002. The original MARKOR (market orientation...

  4. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokode Masayuki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. Results A total of 51.5% (310 of 602 of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Conclusions Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

  5. Protoplasts: a useful research system for plant cell biology, especially dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangwei; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Hai-Liang

    2013-12-01

    As protoplasts have the characteristics of no cell walls, rapid population growth, and synchronicity, they are useful tools for research in many fields, especially cellular biology (Table 1). This article is an overview that focuses on the application of protoplasts to investigate the mechanisms of dedifferentiation, including changes in hormone signals, epigenetic changes, and organelle distribution during the dedifferentiation process. The article also emphasizes the wide range of uses for protoplasts in studying protein positions and signaling during different stresses. The examples provided help to show that protoplast systems, for example the mesophyll protoplast system of Arabidopsis, represent promising tools for studying developmental biology. Meanwhile, specific analysis of protoplast, which comes from different tissue, has specific advantages and limitations (Table 2), and it can provide recommendations to use this system.

  6. [Research advances in gene polymorphisms in biological pathways of drugs for asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Xiang-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The studies on gene polymorphisms in biological pathways of the drugs for the treatment of asthma refer to the studies in which pharmacogenetic methods, such as genome-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, genome sequencing, admixture mapping analysis, and linkage disequilibrium, are used to identify, determine, and repeatedly validate the effect of one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms on the efficacy of drugs. This can provide therapeutic strategies with optimal benefits, least side effects, and lowest costs to patients with asthma, and thus realize individualized medicine. The common drugs for asthma are β2 receptor agonists, glucocorticoids, and leukotriene modifiers. This article reviews the research achievements in polymorphisms in biological pathways of the common drugs for asthma, hoping to provide guidance for pharmacogenetic studies on asthma in future and realize individualized medicine for patients with asthma soon.

  7. Plant Molecular Biology 2008 Gordon Research Conference - July 13-18, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Amasino

    2009-08-28

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2008 conference will continue in that tradition. There will be sessions on metabolism; new methods to study genomes, proteomes and metabolomes; plant-microbe interactions; plant hormones; epigenetics. A new topic for the conference this year will be bioenergy. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines to foster the exchange ideas and to permit the participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner.

  8. Research of biological liquid albumin based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Shang-jian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2016-11-01

    There is no corresponding fingerprint characteristic spectrum detecting complex ensemble biological samples in liquid, in the paper, such urine of kidney disease patients as samples of the research, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy emphatically explores response characteristics of the urine albumin in the terahertz spectrum characteristics, and combined with stoichiometric method, we find a certain kind of relationship between terahertz spectrum data and the content of urine albumin, which offsets the defects of other spectroscopy in measuring liquid protein, and in accordance with hospital clinical data. This study established a semi-qualitative method of using terahertz spectroscopy in detecting non-purification of biological liquid sample, which provides a simple, nondestructive, cheap and fast reference method in identifying the early nephropathy for medical test.

  9. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  10. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K

    2013-06-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  11. Plant biology in space: recent accomplishments and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, G; Braun, M

    2014-01-01

    Gravity has shaped the evolution of life since its origin. However, experiments in the absence of this overriding force, necessary to precisely analyse its role, e.g. for growth, development, and orientation of plants and single cells, only became possible with the advent of spaceflight. Consequently, this research has been supported especially by space agencies around the world for decades, mainly for two reasons: first, to enable fundamental research on gravity perception and transduction during growth and development of plants; and second, to successfully grow plants under microgravity conditions with the goal of establishing a bioregenerative life support system providing oxygen and food for astronauts in long-term exploratory missions. For the second time, the International Space Life Sciences Working Group (ISLSWG), comprised of space agencies with substantial life sciences programmes in the world, organised a workshop on plant biology research in space. The present contribution summarises the outcome of this workshop. In the first part, an analysis is undertaken, if and how the recommendations of the first workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in 1996 have been implemented. A chapter summarising major scientific breakthroughs obtained in the last 15 years from plant research in space concludes this first part. In the second part, recommendations for future research in plant biology in space are put together that have been elaborated in the various discussion sessions during the workshop, as well as provided in written statements from the session chairs. The present paper clearly shows that plant biology in space has contributed significantly to progress in plant gravity perception, transduction and responses - processes also relevant for general plant biology, including agricultural aspects. In addition, the interplay between light and gravity effects has increasingly received attention. It also became evident that plants will play a major role as

  12. How research on the meta-structure of psychopathology aids in understanding biological correlates of mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofrat Shani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on biological correlates of psychopathology stands to benefit from being interwoven with an empirically based, quantitative model of mental disorders. Empirically-based classification approaches help to deal effectively with issues such as comorbidity among diagnoses, which often serve as challenges to interpreting research on biological correlates. With regard to the mood and anxiety disorders specifically, quantitative research shows how mood and anxiety disorders are well conceptualized as elements within a broad internalizing spectrum of psychopathology, such that many putative biological correlates of specific disorders may be better conceptualized as delineating the pathophysiology of the broader mechanisms underlying multiple disorders.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  14. Flow Quality Surveys in the Settling Chamber of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2011 Tests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Broeren, Andy P.; Kubiak, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the heat exchanger and refrigeration plant for NASA Glenn Research Centers Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) were upgraded. Flow quality surveys were performed in the settling chamber of the IRT in order to understand the effect that the new heat exchanger had on the flow quality upstream of the spray bars. Measurements were made of the total pressure, static pressure, total temperature, airspeed, and flow angle (pitch and yaw). These measurements were directly compared to measurements taken in 2000, after the previous heat exchanger was installed. In general, the flow quality appears to have improved with the new heat exchanger.

  15. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.

    2012-10-01

    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  16. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: A Demonstration of the Utility of the Rasch Model. IR Applications. Volume 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. This paper addresses the erroneous assumptions institutional researchers often make with regard to survey research and provides an alternative method to producing more valid and reliable measures. Rasch measurement models are discussed and…

  17. A Survey of Knowledge Management Research & Development at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This chapter catalogs knowledge management research and development activities at NASA Ames Research Center as of April 2002. A general categorization scheme for knowledge management systems is first introduced. This categorization scheme divides knowledge management capabilities into five broad categories: knowledge capture, knowledge preservation, knowledge augmentation, knowledge dissemination, and knowledge infrastructure. Each of nearly 30 knowledge management systems developed at Ames is then classified according to this system. Finally, a capsule description of each system is presented along with information on deployment status, funding sources, contact information, and both published and internet-based references.

  18. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research.

  19. Research on Performance Evaluation of Biological Database based on Layered Queuing Network Model under the Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengbin Luo; Dongmei Sun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of biological database based on layered queuing network model and under cloud computing environment is a premise, as well as an important step for biological database optimization. Based on predecessors’ researches concerning computer software and hardware performance evaluation under cloud environment, the study has further constructed a model system to evaluate the performance of biological database based on layered queuing network model and under cloud environme...

  20. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dalpé, Gratien; So, Derek; Birko, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Context Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants’ information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public’s opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public. Results Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents’ concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers’ institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models

  1. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, possessing antitoxic, antioxidant, radiation protective, cholesterol-lowering and lipid correcting qualities, and also a source of vitamins C, B9 (folic acid and P-active substances, possessing antioxidant properties. Due to high content in food red beet of a complex of microelements – iron, zinc, manganese and copper, and a complex of macro elements – potassium and magnesium, it can be recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases of heart and vascular system, and for prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia. Thus, the research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances showed that food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety are a high quality component ingredient for creation of food products of specialized and functional purpose

  2. From biological to program efficacy: promoting dialogue among the research, policy, and program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most.

  3. Biological Surveys in the Firth-Mancha Research Natural Area, Alaska, 1979-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At Mancha Creek, an area within the foresttundra ecotone, five major habitat types were identified and studied intensively for aspects of vegetation composition,...

  4. Biological surveys in the Firth-Mancha Research Natural Area, Alaska, 1979-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At Mancha Creek, an area within the forest-tundra ecotone, five major habitat types were identified and studied intensively for aspects of vegetation composition,...

  5. The 2011 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and the online Molecular Biology Database Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Cochrane, Guy R

    2011-01-01

    The current 18th Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research features descriptions of 96 new and 83 updated online databases covering various areas of molecular biology. It includes two editorials, one that discusses COMBREX, a new exciting project aimed at figuring out the functions of the 'conserved hypothetical' proteins, and one concerning BioDBcore, a proposed description of the 'minimal information about a biological database'. Papers from the members of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database collaboration (INSDC) describe each of the participating databases, DDBJ, ENA and GenBank, principles of data exchange within the collaboration, and the recently established Sequence Read Archive. A testament to the longevity of databases, this issue includes updates on the RNA modification database, Definition of Secondary Structure of Proteins (DSSP) and Homology-derived Secondary Structure of Proteins (HSSP) databases, which have not been featured here in >12 years. There is also a block of papers describing recent progress in protein structure databases, such as Protein DataBank (PDB), PDB in Europe (PDBe), CATH, SUPERFAMILY and others, as well as databases on protein structure modeling, protein-protein interactions and the organization of inter-protein contact sites. Other highlights include updates of the popular gene expression databases, GEO and ArrayExpress, several cancer gene databases and a detailed description of the UK PubMed Central project. The Nucleic Acids Research online Database Collection, available at: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, now lists 1330 carefully selected molecular biology databases. The full content of the Database Issue is freely available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  6. Risk-based immunization policies and tuberculosis screening practices for animal care and research workers in the United States: survey results and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health assessments and risk communication for vaccine-preventable diseases. Most (72.7%) institutions did not store serum samples from animal research personnel. More than half of the institutions housed nonhuman primates and maintained tuberculosis screening programs, although screening methods varied. Immunization protocols included various recommended or required vaccines that differed depending on job duties, type of institution, and nature of scientific programs. A single case of an identified vaccine-preventable illness in a laboratory worker was noted. Tetanus toxoid was the predominant vaccine administered (91.7%) to animal care and research workers, followed by hepatitis B (54.8%), influenza (39.9%), and rabies (38.3%). For some immunization protocols, an inconsistent rationale for administration was evident. Indications that animal care and research workers are unprotected from work-related etiologic agents did not emerge from this survey; rather, existing guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and available biologics seem sufficient to address most needs of the laboratory animal research community. Institutions should commit to performance-based standards in parallel with context-specific risk assessment methods to maintain occupational health and safety programs and practices appropriate to their needs.

  7. Research on models of biological systems that can be integrated into mechatronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Chiver, O.

    2016-02-01

    The models of biological systems that we find on Earth can be the subject of research to develop a few mechatronic systems. Such models are offered by bees, ants, crows, cranes, etc. Article aims to investigate these models and their manifestations. Imitating this behavior and studied him offer ideas for develop models that can be integrated into mechatronic systems. They can be integrated into mechatronic system as algorithms for finding local optimum, to search, to detect an optimal way travel on a network, to find best decision, etc.

  8. 75 FR 54343 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research eSubmitter Pilot Evaluation Program for Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is announcing an invitation to participate in a pilot evaluation program for CBER's eSubmitter Program (eSubmitter). CBER's eSubmitter has been customized as an automated biologics license application (BLA) and BLA supplement (BLS) submission system for blood and blood components. Participation in the......

  9. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  10. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    Distribution of Porifera (Wet Weight in Grams) Collected in Piling Samples from Pearl Harbor, Oahu 2.4-26 2.4-7. Syllidae 2.4-28 2.4-8. Cirratulidae...COLLECTED FROM PEARL HARBOR m .-. Sped es/Group Porifera Demospongiae Cnidaria Hydrozoa Hydrdda Anthozoa Actlnarla Stolchactlnldae Radianthus...and abundance data for 113 taxa (species, genera and higher taxa) are provided in Table 2.4-4. Wet weights are listed for all sponges ( porifera ). The

  11. Research Misconduct in the Croatian Scientific Community: A Survey Assessing the Forms and Characteristics of Research Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupovac, Vanja; Prijić-Samaržija, Snježana; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of research misconduct have mainly been studied in highly developed countries. In moderately or poorly developed countries such as Croatia, data on research misconduct are scarce. The primary aim of this study was to determine the rates at which scientists report committing or observing the most serious forms of research misconduct, such as falsification , fabrication, plagiarism, and violation of authorship rules in the Croatian scientific community. Additionally, we sought to determine the degree of development and the extent of implementation of the system for defining and regulating research misconduct in a typical scientific community in Croatia. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 1232 Croatian scientists at the University of Rijeka in 2012/2013 and 237 (19.2 %) returned the survey. Based on the respondents who admitted having committed research misconduct, 9 (3.8 %) admitted to plagiarism, 22 (9.3 %) to data falsification, 9 (3.8 %) to data fabrication, and 60 (25.3 %) respondents admitted to violation of authorship rules. Based on the respondents who admitted having observed research misconduct of fellow scientists, 72 (30.4 %) observed plagiarism, 69 (29.1 %) observed data falsification, 46 (19.4 %) observed data fabrication, and 132 (55.7 %) respondents admitted having observed violation of authorship rules. The results of our study indicate that the efficacy of the system for managing research misconduct in Croatia is poor. At the University of Rijeka there is no document dedicated exclusively to research integrity, describing the values that should be fostered by a scientist and clarifying the forms of research misconduct and what constitutes a questionable research practice. Scientists do not trust ethical bodies and the system for defining and regulating research misconduct; therefore the observed cases of research misconduct are rarely reported. Finally, Croatian scientists are not formally

  12. PARTAKE survey of public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Burt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE - Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. OBJECTIVE: To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. METHODS: A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. RESULTS: Interviewees were 18-84 old (mean: 39.6, SD ± 16.6, 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware: 'research benefits society' (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%, 'the government protects against unethical clinical research' (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%, 'research hospitals provide better care' (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%, 'confidentiality is adequately protected' (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%, 'participation in research is voluntary' (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%; 'participants treated like 'guinea pigs'' (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%, and 'compensation for participation is adequate' (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation, and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. Larger, cross

  13. Technical progress report of biological research on the volcanic island, Surtsey, and environment for the year 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, S.

    1975-01-01

    The study involves terrestrial biological research on the volcanic island, Surtsey, off the coast of Iceland and the neighboring islands and environs of the Westman Islands, which are situated on the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  14. Assessment of the biological health of streams on the Patuxent Research Refuge within Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the biological conditions of streams located within the North Track of the Patuxent Research Refuge (Refuge). Over the last 7 years, Anne...

  15. Development and validation of the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R; Lauren Crain, A

    2013-09-01

    Development and targeting efforts by academic organizations to effectively promote research integrity can be enhanced if they are able to collect reliable data to benchmark baseline conditions, to assess areas needing improvement, and to subsequently assess the impact of specific initiatives. To date, no standardized and validated tool has existed to serve this need. A web- and mail-based survey was administered in the second half of 2009 to 2,837 randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows at 40 academic health centers in top-tier research universities in the United States. Measures included the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) as well as measures of perceptions of organizational justice. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded seven subscales of organizational research climate, all of which demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from 0.81 to 0.87) and adequate test-retest reliability (Pearson r ranging from 0.72 to 0.83). A broad range of correlations between the seven subscales and five measures of organizational justice (unadjusted regression coefficients ranging from 0.13 to 0.95) document both construct and discriminant validity of the instrument. The SORC demonstrates good internal (alpha) and external reliability (test-retest) as well as both construct and discriminant validity.

  16. A brief qualitative survey on the utilization of Yoga research resources by Yoga teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Yoga has become popular worldwide with increasing research done on its therapeutic potential. However, it remains to be determined whether such findings actually percolate down into teaching and practice of Yoga teachers/therapists. Materials and Methods: The aim of this survey was to document awareness of Yoga research findings in the Yoga community and find out how these were utilized. It was undertaken with a select group of 34 international Yoga teachers and therapists utilizing email and social media between August and December 2015. Majority of responders had well-established reputation in Yoga and were from diverse lineages with 30 of them having more than 5 years of experience in the field. A set of eight questions were sent to them related to essentiality of Yoga research, how they updated themselves on research findings and whether such studies influenced their teaching and practice. Responses were compiled and appropriate statistics determined for quantitative aspects while feedback, comments and suggestions were noted in detail. Results and Discussion: About 89% agreed that it was essential to be up-to-date on Yoga research but only 70% updated themselves regularly with average papers read fully per year being <10. Most accessed information through general news reports, emails from contacts, and articles on internet sites whereas only 7% were through PubMed. About 60% felt these studies helped them in general teaching whereas 20% said that such studies had not really influenced it in any way. Conclusion: This survey provides a basic picture of a general lack of awareness of Yoga research amongst practicing Yoga teachers and therapists. Though a majority agree research is important, few seriously update themselves on this through scientific channels. With regard to future studies, most wanted “proof” that could be used to convince potential clients and felt that more qualitative methods should be applied. PMID:27104038

  17. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director`s Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  18. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director's Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  19. Biological and Chemical Technologies Research at OIT: Annual Summary Report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, G.

    1998-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1 997 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1997 (ASR 97) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization; selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1 997; detailed descriptions of individual projects; and a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by the program.

  20. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  1. Photon spectrum behind biological shielding of the LVR-15 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Marek, M.; Vins, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Husinec-Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The LVR-15 reactor is a light water research reactor situated at the Research Centre Rez, near Prague. It operates as a multipurpose facility with a maximum thermal power of 10 MW. The reactor core usually contains from 28 to 32 fuel assemblies with a total mass of {sup 235}U of about 5 kg. Emitted radiation from the fuel caused by fission is shielded by moderating water, a steel reactor vessel, and heavy concrete. This paper deals with measurement and analysis of the gamma spectrum near the outer surface of the concrete wall, behind biological shielding, mainly in the 3- to 10-MeV energy range. A portable HPGe detector with a portable multichannel analyzer was used to measure gamma spectra. The origin of energy lines in gamma detector spectra was identified. (authors)

  2. Research on the Hydrophilic Modified of LDPE for the New Biological Suspended Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the main pollution sources of the city, which pollute soil, deteriorate the water quality and increase the water shortages and urban load. LDPE is low cost and widely used as the basic material of wastewater treatment, but LDPE’s hydrophilic is not good enough to meet the need of suspended filler in wastewater treatment. In this paper the hydrophilic modified of LDPE for the new biological suspended filler was studied and the preparation and processing technique based on LDPE was researched. The hydrophilic and mechanic performance of the hydrophilic modified materials was tested. Results shown that the new type of hydrophilic modified materials has good hydrophilic and meets the demand of urban sewage treatment. The research on the new suspended filler materials has great meaning in solving the problem of urban sewage and recycling.

  3. Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Kilkenny

    Full Text Available For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87% or blinding (86%, to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer

  4. Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F W; Cuthill, Innes C; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G

    2009-11-30

    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  5. The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and molecular biology database collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Rigden, Daniel J; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 172 papers that include descriptions of 56 new molecular biology databases, and updates on 115 databases whose descriptions have been previously published in NAR or other journals. Following the classification that has been introduced last year in order to simplify navigation of the entire issue, these articles are divided into eight subject categories. This year's highlights include RNAcentral, an international community portal to various databases on noncoding RNA; ValidatorDB, a validation database for protein structures and their ligands; SASBDB, a primary repository for small-angle scattering data of various macromolecular complexes; MoonProt, a database of 'moonlighting' proteins, and two new databases of protein-protein and other macromolecular complexes, ComPPI and the Complex Portal. This issue also includes an unusually high number of cancer-related databases and other databases dedicated to genomic basics of disease and potential drugs and drug targets. The size of NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, remained approximately the same, following the addition of 74 new resources and removal of 77 obsolete web sites. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  6. The 2013 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and the online molecular biology database collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Galperin, Michael Y

    2013-01-01

    The 20th annual Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes 176 articles, half of which describe new online molecular biology databases and the other half provide updates on the databases previously featured in NAR and other journals. This year's highlights include two databases of DNA repeat elements; several databases of transcriptional factors and transcriptional factor-binding sites; databases on various aspects of protein structure and protein-protein interactions; databases for metagenomic and rRNA sequence analysis; and four databases specifically dedicated to Escherichia coli. The increased emphasis on using the genome data to improve human health is reflected in the development of the databases of genomic structural variation (NCBI's dbVar and EBI's DGVa), the NIH Genetic Testing Registry and several other databases centered on the genetic basis of human disease, potential drugs, their targets and the mechanisms of protein-ligand binding. Two new databases present genomic and RNAseq data for monkeys, providing wealth of data on our closest relatives for comparative genomics purposes. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, has been updated and currently lists 1512 online databases. The full content of the Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  7. The 2012 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and the online Molecular Biology Database Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M

    2012-01-01

    The 19th annual Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research features descriptions of 92 new online databases covering various areas of molecular biology and 100 papers describing recent updates to the databases previously described in NAR and other journals. The highlights of this issue include, among others, a description of neXtProt, a knowledgebase on human proteins; a detailed explanation of the principles behind the NCBI Taxonomy Database; NCBI and EBI papers on the recently launched BioSample databases that store sample information for a variety of database resources; descriptions of the recent developments in the Gene Ontology and UniProt Gene Ontology Annotation projects; updates on Pfam, SMART and InterPro domain databases; update papers on KEGG and TAIR, two universally acclaimed databases that face an uncertain future; and a separate section with 10 wiki-based databases, introduced in an accompanying editorial. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, has been updated and now lists 1380 databases. Brief machine-readable descriptions of the databases featured in this issue, according to the BioDBcore standards, will be provided at the http://biosharing.org/biodbcore web site. The full content of the Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  8. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2015-11-01

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  9. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-04-10

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  10. A survey of the barriers associated with academic-based cancer research commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Nathan L; Weiss, L Todd; Weiss, Heidi L

    2013-01-01

    Commercialization within the academic setting is associated with many challenges and barriers. Previous studies investigating these challenges/barriers have, in general, broadly focused on multiple disciplines and, oftentimes, several institutions simultaneously. The goal of the study presented here was to analyze a range of barriers that may be broadly associated with commercializing academic-based cancer research. This goal was addressed via a study of the barriers associated with cancer research commercialization at the University of Kentucky (UK). To this end, a research instrument in the form of an electronic survey was developed. General demographic information was collected on study participants and two research questions were addressed: 1) What are the general barriers inhibiting cancer research commercialization at UK? and 2) Would mitigation of the barriers potentially enhance faculty engagement in commercialization activities? Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data reveal that multiple barriers likely inhibit cancer research commercialization at UK with expense, time, infrastructure, and lack of industry partnerships being among the most commonly cited factors. The potential alleviation of these factors in addition to revised University policies/procedures, risk mitigation, more emphasis on commercialization by academia research field, and increased information on how to commercialize significantly correlated with the potential for increased commercialization activity. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated that research commercialization would incrementally increase as barriers to the process are removed and that PhD-holding respondents and respondents in commercialization-supportive research fields would be more likely to commercialize their research upon barrier removal. Overall, as with other disciplines, these data suggest that for innovations derived from academic cancer-research to move more effectively and

  11. Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling: A Survey of U.S. and International Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    The Nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes, and organizations across which these goods and services move are called "critical infrastructures".1 This statement is as true in the U.S. as in any country in the world. Recent world events such as the 9-11 terrorist attacks, London bombings, and gulf coast hurricanes have highlighted the importance of stable electric, gas and oil, water, transportation, banking and finance, and control and communication infrastructure systems. Be it through direct connectivity, policies and procedures, or geospatial proximity, most critical infrastructure systems interact. These interactions often create complex relationships, dependencies, and interdependencies that cross infrastructure boundaries. The modeling and analysis of interdependencies between critical infrastructure elements is a relatively new and very important field of study. The U.S. Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) has sponsored this survey to identify and describe this current area of research including the current activities in this field being conducted both in the U.S. and internationally. The main objective of this study is to develop a single source reference of critical infrastructure interdependency modeling tools (CIIMT) that could be applied to allow users to objectively assess the capabilities of CIIMT. This information will provide guidance for directing research and development to address the gaps in development. The results will inform researchers of the TSWG Infrastructure Protection Subgroup of research and development efforts and allow a more focused approach to addressing the needs of CIIMT end-user needs. This report first presents the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis, describes the survey methodology, and presents the leading research efforts in both a cumulative table and through individual datasheets. Data was

  12. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy.

  13. Present status and development on biological nitrogen fixation research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This presentation introduces the advances in biological nitrogen fixation research abroad, in particular, describes the great progress and achievements on its research in China as follows: collection of rhizobial resources and establishment of the largest database of Rhizobium in China, correction and development of Rhizobium taxonomy in international; discovery of a couple of nif genes, identification and unification of linkage among the nif gene operons of Klebsiella pneumoniae, finding of regulative mechanism of positive regulation nif gene and its sensitivity to oxygen, temperature; finding of the activity of nodulation gene nodD3 product in Sinorhizobium meliloti which is not controlled by flavonoid produced from its host alfalfa; finding of the association between expression of genes coding the products for carbon utilization and nitrogen metabolism and their regulations; chemical synthesis of nodulation factor of Sinorhizobium meliloti; constructions of engineered nitrogen fixers and utilization in practice based on the research of gene expression and regulation; chemical simulation of the structure and function of nitrogenase and bringing forward the model of nitrogenase active center for the first time in international and synthesis of model compounds which were paid attention by colleagues abroad. Finally, the development of nitrogen fixation research in China in future has been put forward, suggesting that the nif gene regulation and its role in providing crops with nitrogen element, signal transduction and molecular interactions between Rhizobium and legume, coupling between carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis, and functional genomics of nitrogen-fixing nodule symbiosis, etc., would be actively worked on.

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  15. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  16. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum's Open Data Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Birgit; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Treloar, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum's survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users' perceptions of the term "open data", expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing.

  17. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. This also means to create risk, quality, performance, and other management plans to monitor and manage the projects efficiently and effectively.

  18. Publication bias in laboratory animal research: a survey on magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerben ter Riet

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Publication bias jeopardizes evidence-based medicine, mainly through biased literature syntheses. Publication bias may also affect laboratory animal research, but evidence is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion of laboratory animal researchers on the magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions for publication bias. And to explore the impact of size of the animals used, seniority of the respondent, working in a for-profit organization and type of research (fundamental, pre-clinical, or both on those opinions. DESIGN: Internet-based survey. SETTING: All animal laboratories in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Laboratory animal researchers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S: Median (interquartile ranges strengths of beliefs on 5 and 10-point scales (1: totally unimportant to 5 or 10: extremely important. RESULTS: Overall, 454 researchers participated. They considered publication bias a problem in animal research (7 (5 to 8 and thought that about 50% (32-70 of animal experiments are published. Employees (n = 21 of for-profit organizations estimated that 10% (5 to 50 are published. Lack of statistical significance (4 (4 to 5, technical problems (4 (3 to 4, supervisors (4 (3 to 5 and peer reviewers (4 (3 to 5 were considered important reasons for non-publication (all on 5-point scales. Respondents thought that mandatory publication of study protocols and results, or the reasons why no results were obtained, may increase scientific progress but expected increased bureaucracy. These opinions did not depend on size of the animal used, seniority of the respondent or type of research. CONCLUSIONS: Non-publication of "negative" results appears to be prevalent in laboratory animal research. If statistical significance is indeed a main driver of publication, the collective literature on animal experimentation will be biased. This will impede the performance of valid literature syntheses. Effective, yet efficient systems should be explored to

  19. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  20. Development of interactive hypermedia software for high school biology: A research and development study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Uthman T.

    The goal of this research was to research, design, and develop a hypertext program for students who study biology. The Ecology Hypertext Program was developed using Research and Development (R&D) methodology. The purpose of this study was to place the final "product", a CD-ROM for learning biology concepts, in the hands of teachers and students to help them in learning and teaching process. The product was created through a cycle of literature review, needs assessment, development, and a cycle of field tests and revisions. I applied the ten steps of R&D process suggested by Borg and Gall (1989) which, consisted of: (1) Literature review, (2) Needs assessment, (3) Planning, (4) Develop preliminary product, (5) Preliminary field-testing, (6) Preliminary revision, (7) Main field-testing, (8) Main revision, (9) Final field-testing, and (10) Final product revision. The literature review and needs assessment provided a support and foundation for designing the preliminary product---the Ecology Hypertext Program. Participants in the needs assessment joined a focus group discussion. They were a group of graduate students in education who suggested the importance for designing this product. For the preliminary field test, the participants were a group of high school students studying biology. They were the potential user of the product. They reviewed the preliminary product and then filled out a questionnaire. Their feedback and suggestions were used to develop and improve the product in a step called preliminary revision. The second round of field tasting was the main field test in which the participants joined a focus group discussion. They were the same group who participated in needs assessment task. They reviewed the revised product and then provided ideas and suggestions to improve the product. Their feedback were categorized and implemented to develop the product as in the main revision task. Finally, a group of science teachers participated in this study by reviewing

  1. The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Gordon M; Katz, Flora; Newman, David J; Rosenthal, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The discovery and development of novel, biologically active agents from natural sources, whether they be drugs, agrochemicals or other bioactive entities, involve a high level of interdisciplinary as well as international collaboration. Such collaboration, particularly at the international level, requires the careful negotiation of collaborative agreements protecting the rights of all parties, with special attention being paid to the rights of host (source) country governments, communities and scientific organizations. While many biodiversity-rich source countries currently might not have the necessary resources for in-country drug discovery and advanced development, they provide valuable opportunities for collaboration in this endeavor with research organizations from more high-income nations. This chapter discusses the experiences of the US National Cancer Institute and the US government-sponsored International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program in the establishment of international agreements in the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity's objectives of promoting fair and equitable collaboration with multiple parties in many countries, and includes some specific lessons of value in developing such collaborations.

  2. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  3. [Cell biology researches aboard the robotic space vehicles: preparation and performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairbekov, M G

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews the unique aspects of preparation and performance of cell biology experiments flown on robotic space vehicles Bion and Foton, and gives an overview of key findings in researches made under the author's leadership over the past decades. Described are the criteria of selecting test objects, and the conditions required for preparation and implementation of space and control (synchronous) experiments. The present-day status and issues of researches into cell responsivity to space microgravity and other factors are discussed. Also, potentialities of equipment designed to conduct experiments with cell cultures in vitro and populations of single-celled organisms are presented, as well as some ideas for new devices and systems. Unveiled are some circumstances inherent to the development and performance of space experiments, setting up laboratory facilities at the launch and landing site, and methods of safe transportation and storage of biosamples. In conclusion, the author puts forward his view on biospecies, equipment and areas of research aboard future space vehicles.

  4. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  5. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 7 - Pathogenesis and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed research knowledge gaps in the fields of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) pathogenesis and molecular biology by performing a literature review (2011-15) and collecting research updates (2014) from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future research. There have been important advances in FMDV pathogenesis; FMDV remains in lymph nodes of many recovered animals that otherwise do not appear persistently infected, even in species previously not associated with the carrier state. Whether virus retention helps maintain host immunity and/or virus survival is not known. Studies of FMDV pathogenesis in wildlife have provided insights into disease epidemiology, in endemic and epidemic settings. Many aspects of FMDV infection and virus entry remain unknown; however, at the cellular level, we know that expression level and availability of integrins (that permit viral entry), rate of clearance of infected cells and strength of anti-viral type I IFN (interferon) response are key determinants of tissue tropism. Extending findings to improved understanding of transmission requires a standardized approach and adoption of natural routes of infection during experimental study. There has been recognition of the importance of autophagosomes for FMDV entry into the cytoplasm following cell surface receptor binding, and that distinct internal cellular membranes are exploited for viral replication and immune evasion. New roles for viral proteins in blocking type I IFN production and downstream signalling have been identified facilitating research in anti-viral therapeutics. We know more about how infection affects cell protein expression, and research into molecular determinants of capsid stability has aided the development of stable vaccines. We have an expanding knowledge of viral and host molecular determinates of virulence and infectiousness, and of how phylogenetics may be used to estimate vaccine match and strain

  6. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  7. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biological mechanisms, treatment recommendations and future research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; M; Leon; Thomas; M; Maddox

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus(DM) continues to rise and has quickly become one of the most prevalent and costly chronic diseases worldwide. A close link exists between DM and cardiovascular disease(CVD), which is the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular(CV) risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia are common in patients with DM, placing them at increased risk for cardiac events. In addition, many studies have found biological mechanisms associated with DM that independently increase the risk of CVD in diabetic patients. Therefore, targeting CV risk factors in patients with DM is critical to minimize the long-term CV complications of the disease. This paper summarizes the relationship between diabetes and CVD, examines possible mechanisms of disease progression, discusses current treatment recommendations, and outlines future research directions.

  8. Research on the biology of Echinacea angustifolia (Dc. Moench and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea angustifolia (Dc. Moench and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species have been highly appreciated for their therapeutic qualities, both of them belong to the few plants of immunostimulative and antiviral properties. The adaptation and cultivation process of these plants has been initiated for medical purposes at the Cluj-Napoca Agronomy Institute. The biological researches evidenced the two species, multiplied by nursery transplant, formed a rosette of leaves during their first year of plantation. The first floral offshoots in Echinacea purpurea were seen during the months September and October (in approximately 40 percent of plants. Flowering Echinacea angustifolia appeared only sporadically the first year of cultivation. Leaves number and plant mass in both species increased markedly the first year of vegetation starting from August. Herba and radix ratio represented 74 percent and 26 percent respectively of the whole plant mass in Echinacea angustifolia and 87 percent and 13 percent respectively in Echinacea purpurea.

  9. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in this unit of work to help students use metacognitive strategies since students did not generally use metacognitive strategies spontaneously. Scaffolding was mediated through the teacher modelling, questioning, cueing or prompting students to evaluate their learning. The research reported here illustrates how teachers can cue students to be more self-directed in their learning. Three case studies illustrate how learning strategies were used differentially. Most students were aware of strategies that could help them to learn more effectively. It was found that those students who were not only aware of but also used strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate their work, produced essays of higher quality.

  10. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P responders expressed willingness to participate was 39.3%, a significantly lower rate than the result of the India (58.9% vs. 39.3%, P < 0.001). Treatment benefit was the single most influential reason for participation, followed by financial gain. Concern about safety was the main reason for refusal, succeeded by fear and lack of trust. Public awareness and educational programs addressing these negative perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  11. Secondary School Biology Teachers' Perceptions of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeke, Grace C. W.; Okere, Mark I. O.; Keraro, Fred N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school biology teachers' perceptions of scientific creativity. Cross-sectional survey research design was employed. The population of the study comprised all biology teachers in public secondary schools in Kericho and Kajiado counties in Kenya. A sample of 205 biology teachers' was selected…

  12. The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and an updated NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Rigden, Daniel J; Galperin, Michael Y

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue includes descriptions of 58 new molecular biology databases and recent updates to 123 databases previously featured in NAR or other journals. For convenience, the issue is now divided into eight sections that reflect major subject categories. Among the highlights of this issue are six databases of the transcription factor binding sites in various organisms and updates on such popular databases as CAZy, Database of Genomic Variants (DGV), dbGaP, DrugBank, KEGG, miRBase, Pfam, Reactome, SEED, TCDB and UniProt. There is a strong block of structural databases, which includes, among others, the new RNA Bricks database, updates on PDBe, PDBsum, ArchDB, Gene3D, ModBase, Nucleic Acid Database and the recently revived iPfam database. An update on the NCBI's MMDB describes VAST+, an improved tool for protein structure comparison. Two articles highlight the development of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database: one describes SCOPe, which automates assignment of new structures to the existing SCOP hierarchy; the other one describes the first version of SCOP2, with its more flexible approach to classifying protein structures. This issue also includes a collection of articles on bacterial taxonomy and metagenomics, which includes updates on the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN), Ribosomal Database Project (RDP), the Silva/LTP project and several new metagenomics resources. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been expanded to 1552 databases. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  13. Plant molecular biology and biotechnology research in the post-recombinant DNA era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Khurana, Jitendra P

    2003-01-01

    After the beginning of the recombinant DNA era in the mid-1970s, researchers in India started to make use of the new technology to understand the structure of plant genes and regulation of their expression. The outcome started to appear in print in early the 1980s and genes for histones, tubulin, photosynthetic membrane proteins, phototransduction components, organelles and those regulated differentially by developmental and extrinsic signals were sequenced and characterized. Some genes of biotechnological importance like those encoding an interesting seed protein and the enzyme glyoxalase were also isolated. While work on the characterization of genome structure and organization was started quite early, it remained largely focused on the identification of DNA markers and genetic variability. In this context, the work on mustard, rice and wheat is worth mentioning. In the year 2000, India became a member of the international consortium to sequence entire rice genome. Several laboratories have also given attention to regulated expression of plastid and nuclear genes as well as to isolate target-specific promoters or design promoters with improved potential. Simultaneously, transgenic systems for crops like mustard, rice, wheat, cotton, legumes and several vegetables have been established. More recently, genes of agronomic importance like those for insect resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, nutritional improvement and male sterility, isolated in India or abroad, have been utilized for raising transgenics for crop improvement. Some of these transgenics have already shown their potential in containment facility or limited field trials conducted under the stipulated guidelines. Plant molecular biology and biotechnology are thus clearly poised to make an impact on research in basic biology and agriculture in the near future.

  14. The 1984 ARI (Army Research Institute) Survey of Army Recruits: Codebook for October 84/February 85 Active Army Survey Respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    TOOK/PASS IN HIGH SCHOOL:COMPUTR SCI 202 T198E TOOK/PASS IN HIGH SCHOOL:INTRMED ALGBRA 203 T198F TOOK/PASS IN HIGH SCHOOL:TRIGONOMETRY 204 T198G TOOK...OCTOBER 84/FEBRUARY 85 ACTIVE ARMY SURVEY RESPONDENTS WHEN DO YOU REGULARLY WATCH TV DURING THE WEEKEND -- SATURDAYS AND SUNDAYS? T233C - EARLY EVENING...I PERCENTI VALUE I MEANING 81 0.71 NO RESPONSE 2418 . D QUESTION NOT ON SURVEY 857 77.5 0 NOT CHECKED 241 21.8 1 CHECKED - EARLY EVENING --- 6PM TO

  15. Physical biologists and biological physicists: combining biology and physics in research on the effects of noise on aquatic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    Research in aquatic bioacoustics and the effects of noise is interdisciplinary and to be effective requires a collaboration of experts from all the fields involved. The full range of expertise is needed for adequate understanding of the processes involved, adequate experimental design, analysis and interpretation, and adequate knowledge of the research already published. The biologists need to understand how physicists work and make allowance, and vice versa. Both need to understand that the other will not be familiar with their practices and approach and that there will be a certain amount of negotiation and education on both sides.However, the best reason to develop collaborations with other experts in interdisciplinary research is that it is such a rewarding experience from the insights it provides into other disciplines and from the opportunity to do really effective and very significant research, well beyond what the individuals might have achieved on their own.

  16. Research on Performance Evaluation of Biological Database based on Layered Queuing Network Model under the Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Luo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of biological database based on layered queuing network model and under cloud computing environment is a premise, as well as an important step for biological database optimization. Based on predecessors’ researches concerning computer software and hardware performance evaluation under cloud environment, the study has further constructed a model system to evaluate the performance of biological database based on layered queuing network model and under cloud environment. Moreover, traditional layered queuing network model is also optimized and upgraded in this process. After having constructed the performance evaluation system, the study applies laboratory experiment method to test the validity of the constructed performance model. Shown by the test result, this model is effective in evaluating the performance of biological system under cloud environment and the predicted result is quite close to the tested result. This has demonstrated the validity of the model in evaluating the performance of biological database.

  17. Psycho-social picture of sexually active adolescent girls: Results of research survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a demographic sense, adolescents are a population group which is yet to take part in birth giving. Therefore, their sexual behavior and especially sexual activity at early ages which is not only unfavorable from the aspect of the individual, meaning risk for psycho-physical health, but from the aspect of society as well, as regards population fertility, deserves special attention. This paper shows the results of in-depth research carried out in Belgrade from September 2001 to October 2002 with an aim to establish which factors determine a young person, of sixteen years old or younger, to become sexually active. It was carried out on a sample of 111 adolescent girls between 14 and 20 years old which turned to the Republic Family Planning Center Youth Counseling Clinic of the Institute for Mother and Child Health Care of Serbia. The research showed that sexual experience, realized at an early age was an integral part of development and maturing for the largest number of surveyed girls. In the largest number of cases it was a positive experience, induced by love and experienced with a partner, mainly of the same age, with which they were in a longer, stable relationship. Nevertheless, it could be concluded from the results obtained by the research that the surveyed girls could have more easily and efficiently solved their problems and dilemmas regarding sexuality had they had the possibility to obtain a better insight into their personal feelings and feelings of others at the right time, as well as developed social experience and experience in mastering control of their impulses. With a certain number of surveyed girls that would have meant a delay in their sexual activities to a later age. This also refers to the prevention of other risky behavior such as use of alcohol and drugs, which also have an influence on changing sexual behavior, making it more risky. It is important to stress that the surveyed adolescent girls themselves recognized the

  18. Evaluating the informatics for integrating biology and the bedside system for clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meystre Stéphane M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selecting patient cohorts is a critical, iterative, and often time-consuming aspect of studies involving human subjects; informatics tools for helping streamline the process have been identified as important infrastructure components for enabling clinical and translational research. We describe the evaluation of a free and open source cohort selection tool from the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2 group: the i2b2 hive. Methods Our evaluation included the usability and functionality of the i2b2 hive using several real world examples of research data requests received electronically at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center between 2006 - 2008. The hive server component and the visual query tool application were evaluated for their suitability as a cohort selection tool on the basis of the types of data elements requested, as well as the effort required to fulfill each research data request using the i2b2 hive alone. Results We found the i2b2 hive to be suitable for obtaining estimates of cohort sizes and generating research cohorts based on simple inclusion/exclusion criteria, which consisted of about 44% of the clinical research data requests sampled at our institution. Data requests that relied on post-coordinated clinical concepts, aggregate values of clinical findings, or temporal conditions in their inclusion/exclusion criteria could not be fulfilled using the i2b2 hive alone, and required one or more intermediate data steps in the form of pre- or post-processing, modifications to the hive metadata, etc. Conclusion The i2b2 hive was found to be a useful cohort-selection tool for fulfilling common types of requests for research data, and especially in the estimation of initial cohort sizes. For another institution that might want to use the i2b2 hive for clinical research, we recommend that the institution would need to have structured, coded clinical data and metadata available that can be

  19. Preventing biological weapon development through the governance of life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Gerald L

    2012-03-01

    The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed.

  20. Report on preceding researches in fiscal 1998 on the survey and research on conjugate materials; 1998 nendo conjugate material no chosa kenkyu sendo kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development has been made on the 'conjugate materials (CM)' , the innovative materials in which ultra fine inorganic and organic structural units of molecular levels are introduced to be oriented regularly in glass matrix to respond to external force conjugately. The current fiscal year reported items having been made clear by further surveys and researches on CM as proposed by the fundamental surveys having been done as the second year. Section 1 summarizes significance of the research and development; Section 2 reports the result of the CM research and survey and the subjects related to application areas of CM; Section 3 reports the result of the CM market research performed newly in the current fiscal year; Section 4 reports the contents and result of the questionnaire survey to glass related small enterprises as to what interest these enterprises will have upon assuming that these CM products have been realized; Section 5 reports the result of surveys on patents and literatures related to photonics; and Section 6 states future problems in the CM research and development, and summarizes the future prospects of CM. (NEDO)