WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological remediation

  1. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  2. Biological technologies for the remediation of co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shujing; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Dai, Juan; Liang, Jie; Yu, Jiangfang; Ren, Xiaoya; Yi, Huan; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil. Biological remediation technologies, as the eco-friendly methods, have received widespread concern due to soil improvement besides remediation. This review summarizes the application of biological technologies, which contains microbial technologies (function microbial remediation and composting or compost addition), biochar, phytoremediation technologies, genetic engineering technologies and biochemical technologies, for the remediation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Mechanisms of these technologies and their remediation efficiencies are also reviewed. Based on this study, this review also identifies the future research required in this field.

  3. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  4. Cell-free synthetic biology for environmental sensing and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karig, David K

    2017-06-01

    The fields of biosensing and bioremediation leverage the phenomenal array of sensing and metabolic capabilities offered by natural microbes. Synthetic biology provides tools for transforming these fields through complex integration of natural and novel biological components to achieve sophisticated sensing, regulation, and metabolic function. However, the majority of synthetic biology efforts are conducted in living cells, and concerns over releasing genetically modified organisms constitute a key barrier to environmental applications. Cell-free protein expression systems offer a path towards leveraging synthetic biology, while preventing the spread of engineered organisms in nature. Recent efforts in the areas of cell-free approaches for sensing, regulation, and metabolic pathway implementation, as well as for preserving and deploying cell-free expression components, embody key steps towards realizing the potential of cell-free systems for environmental sensing and remediation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Uranium using a Biological Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Shon, Dong Bin; Lee, Ki Won; Chung, Un Soo; Moon, Jai Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is a method to cleanup contaminants in soil or ground water with microorganisms. The biological method can reduce the volume of waste solution and the construction cost and operation cost of soil remediation equipment. Bioremediation can be divided into natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation. Biostimulation is technology to improve natural purification by adding nutritional substances, supplying oxygen and controlling pH. In this study, penatron, that is a nutritional substances, was mixed with soil. Optimum conditions for mixing ratios of penatron and soil, and the pH of soil was determined through several bioremediation experiments with soil contaminated with uranium. Also, under optimum experiment conditions, the removal efficiencies of soil and concrete according to reaction time were measured for feasibility analysis of soil and concrete bioremediations

  6. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Understanding the Biological Correlates and Remediation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Adarsh; Shukla, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia that evolve during the course of schizophrenia, after being originated even before the onset of illness. Existing pharmacological and biological treatment modalities fall short to meet the needs to improve the cognitive symptoms; hence, various cognitive remediation strategies have been adopted to address these deficits. Research evidences suggest that cognitive remediation measures improve the functioning, limit disability bettering the quality of life. The functional outcomes of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia are resultant of neurobiological changes in specific brain areas. Recent years witnessed significant innovations in cognitive remediation strategies in schizophrenia. This comprehensive review highlights the biological correlates of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and the remedial measures with evidence base. PMID:29397662

  7. Systematically biological prioritizing remediation sites based on datasets of biological investigations and heavy metals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Anthony, Johnathen

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution has adverse effects on not only the focal invertebrate species of this study, such as reduction in pupa weight and increased larval mortality, but also on the higher trophic level organisms which feed on them, either directly or indirectly, through the process of biomagnification. Despite this, few studies regarding remediation prioritization take species distribution or biological conservation priorities into consideration. This study develops a novel approach for delineating sites which are both contaminated by any of 5 readily bioaccumulated heavy metal soil contaminants and are of high ecological importance for the highly mobile, low trophic level focal species. The conservation priority of each site was based on the projected distributions of 6 moth species simulated via the presence-only maximum entropy species distribution model followed by the subsequent application of a systematic conservation tool. In order to increase the number of available samples, we also integrated crowd-sourced data with professionally-collected data via a novel optimization procedure based on a simulated annealing algorithm. This integration procedure was important since while crowd-sourced data can drastically increase the number of data samples available to ecologists, still the quality or reliability of crowd-sourced data can be called into question, adding yet another source of uncertainty in projecting species distributions. The optimization method screens crowd-sourced data in terms of the environmental variables which correspond to professionally-collected data. The sample distribution data was derived from two different sources, including the EnjoyMoths project in Taiwan (crowd-sourced data) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) ?eld data (professional data). The distributions of heavy metal concentrations were generated via 1000 iterations of a geostatistical co-simulation approach. The uncertainties in distributions of the heavy

  8. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  9. Physicochemical and biological quality of soil in hexavalent chromium-contaminated soils as affected by chemical and microbial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yingping; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial methods are the main remediation technologies for chromium-contaminated soil. These technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years; however, there is still a lack of methods for evaluating the chemical and biological quality of soil after different remediation technologies have been applied. In this paper, microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria and chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate were used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels (80 and 1,276 mg kg(-1)) through a column leaching experiment. After microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, the average concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the soils was reduced to less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Soil quality was evaluated based on 11 soil properties and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, including fuzzy mathematics and correlative analysis. The chemical fertility quality index was improved by one grade using microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, and the biological fertility quality index increased by at least a factor of 6. Chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate, however, resulted in lower levels of available phosphorus, dehydrogenase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase. The result showed that microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria was more effective for remedying Cr(VI)-contaminated soils with high pH value than chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate. In addition, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proven to be a useful tool for monitoring the quality change in chromium-contaminated soils.

  10. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of

  11. Use of a permeable biological reaction barrier for groundwater remediation at a uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thombre, M.S.; Thomson, B.M.; Barton, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work at the University of New Mexico and elsewhere has shown that sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of reducing uranium from the soluble +6 oxidation state to the insoluble +4 oxidation state. This chemistry forms the basis of a proposed groundwater remediation strategy in which microbial reduction would be used to immobilize soluble uranium. One such system would consist of a subsurface permeable barrier which would stimulate microbial growth resulting in the reduction of sulfate and nitrate and immobilization of metals while permitting the unhindered flow of ground water through it. This research investigated some of the engineering considerations associated with a microbial reducing barrier such as identifying an appropriate biological substrate, estimating the rate of substrate utilization, and identifying the final fate of the contaminants concentrated in the barrier matrix. The performance of batch reactors and column systems that treated simulated plume water was evaluated using cellulose, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, sawdust, and soluble starch as substrates. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) were monitored over time. Precipitates from each system were collected and the precipitated U(IV) was determined to be crystalline UO 2 (s) by X-ray Diffraction. The results of this study support the proposed use of cellulosic substrates as candidate barrier materials

  12. Investigations involving oxidation-reduction (REDOX) pretreatment in conjunction with biological remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemagno, C.D.; Peters, R.W.; Tyree, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction (REDOX) reactions are among the most important reactions involved in the environmental engineering field. Oxidation is a reaction in which the oxidation state of the treated compound is increased, i.e., the material loses electrons. Reduction involves the addition of a chemical (reducing) agent which lowers the oxidation state of a substance, i.e., the material gains electrons. Both processes of oxidation and reduction occur together. All REDOX reactions are thermodynamically based. There are a number of oxidizing agents which have been reported in the technical literature for treatment of refractory organic compounds. Common oxidizing agents include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and combinations thereof, such as UV/ozone and UV/peroxide. A gradient of REDOX reactions is possible, depending on such factors as the oxidation-reduction reaction conditions, the availability of electron donors and acceptors, and the nature of the organic compounds involved. A review of the technical literature revealed that the majority of the oxidation-reduction applications have been in the areas of wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation, with very little attention devoted to the potential of using REDOX technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. In this particular study, feasibility studies were performed on gasoline- contaminated soil. These studies focused on three major phases: 1) containment of the contamination by addition of tailoring agents to the soil, 2) biological remediation either performed in situ or on-site (using a slurry reactor system), and 3) pretreatment of the contaminated soils using REDOX systems, prior to biological remediation. This particular paper focuses on the third phase of the project, aimed at ''softening'' the refractory organics resulting in the formation of organic compounds which are more amenable to biological degradation. This paper focuses its attention on the use of

  13. Investigations involving oxidation-reduction (REDOX) pretreatment in conjunction with biological remediation of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemagno, C. D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Peters, R. W.; Tyree, A.

    1991-07-01

    Oxidation-reduction (REDOX) reactions are among the most important reactions involved in the environmental engineering field. Oxidation is a reaction in which the oxidation state of the treated compound is increased, i.e., the material loses electrons. Reduction involves the addition of a chemical (reducing) agent which lowers the oxidation state of a substance, i.e., the material gains electrons. Both processes of oxidation and reduction occur together. All REDOX reactions are thermodynamically based. There are a number of oxidizing agents which have been reported in the technical literature for treatment of refractory organic compounds. Common oxidizing agents include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and combinations thereof, such as UV/ozone and UV/peroxide. A gradient of REDOX reactions is possible, depending on such factors as the oxidation-reduction reaction conditions, the availability of electron donors and acceptors, and the nature of the organic compounds involved. A review of the technical literature revealed that the majority of the oxidation-reduction applications have been in the areas of wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation, with very little attention devoted to the potential of using REDOX technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. In this particular study, feasibility studies were performed on gasoline- contaminated soil. These studies focused on three major phases: 1) containment of the contamination by addition of tailoring agents to the soil, 2) biological remediation either performed in situ or on-site (using a slurry reactor system), and 3) pretreatment of the contaminated soils using REDOX systems, prior to biological remediation. This particular paper focuses on the third phase of the project, aimed at ''softening'' the refractory organics resulting in the formation of organic compounds which are more amenable to biological degradation. This paper focuses its attention on the use of

  14. Remediation of Biological Organic Fertilizer and Biochar in Paddy Soil Contaminated by Cd and Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Tie-zheng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of biological organic fertilizer and biochar on the immobilized remediation of paddy soil contaminated by Cd and Pb was studied under the field experiment. The results showed that biological organic fertilizer and biochar increased the soil pH and soil nutrient contents, and reduced the soil available Cd and Pb concentrations significantly. The soil pH had significantly negative correla-tion with the soil available Cd and Pb contents. The application of biological organic fertilizer and biochar decreased Cd and Pb concentration in all parts of the rice plant, with Cd concentration in brown rice decrease by 22.00% and 18.34% and Pb decease in brown rice by 33.46% and 12.31%. The concentration of Cd and Pb in brown rice had significant positive correlation with the soil available Cd and Pb concentra-tions. It was observed that both biological organic fertilizer and biochar had a positive effect on the remediation of paddy soil contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  15. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  16. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  17. Remediation of soil/concrete contaminated with uranium and radium by biological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gye-Nam Kim; Seung-Su Kim; Hye-Min Park; Won-Suk Kim; Uk-Ryang Park; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2013-01-01

    Biological method was studied for remediation of soil/concrete contaminated with uranium and radium. Optimum experiment conditions for mixing ratios of penatron and soil, and the pH of soil was obtained through several bioremediations with soil contaminated with uranium and radium. It was found that an optimum mixing ratio of penatron for bioremediation of uranium soil was 1 %. Also, the optimum pH condition for bioremediation of soil contaminated with uranium and radium was 7.5. The removal efficiencies of uranium and radium from higher concentration of soil were rather reduced in comparison with those from lower concentration of soil. Meanwhile, the removal of uranium and radium in concrete by bioremediation is possible but the removal rate from concrete was slower than that from soil. The removal efficiencies of uranium and radium from soil under injection of 1 % penatron at pH 7.5 for 120 days were 81.2 and 81.6 %, respectively, and the removal efficiencies of uranium and radium from concrete under the same condition were 63.0 and 45.2 %, respectively. Beyond 30 days, removal rates of uranium and radium from soil and concrete by bioremediation was very slow. (author)

  18. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Biological Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Moslemi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the consequences of discharging industrial wastes to land and water bodies, is the widespread accumulation and migration of toxic chemical mixtures in soil and groundwater resources. It is believed that the accumulation of contaminants in the environment constitutes a serious threat to ecological and human health. Bioremediation is an effective measure in dealing with such contaminations particularly those from petroleum hydrocarbon sources; moreover bioremediation is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. Therefore the goal of this study is discussing the theory and practice of biological remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils and assessing the effects of operational conditions and parameters such as: temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and  pH on the removal rate of the target contaminant which is handled in the designed reactor. Due to large production and consumption rate of diesel fuel inIran and many other countries, diesel fuel has been selected as target contaminant. In this study TOC and COD testing methods have been used to measure and assess the removal rate of the contaminant in the reactor. The experimental results indicate that, considering the operational conditions the indigenous microorganisms which have been separated from the soil are able to remove 50 to 83 percent of the contaminant after 30 days. Thereafter on the base of the results and considering the laboratorial specifications and conditions applied in this project, the optimum values of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration andpH were respectively determined as 35°C, 4mg/L and 7.

  19. Identifying and Remediating Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology via Writing-to-Learn Assignments and Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Audrey S; Finkenstaedt-Quinn, Solaire A; Olsen, Laura J; Gere, Anne Ruggles; Shultz, Ginger V

    2018-06-01

    Student misconceptions are an obstacle in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses and unless remediated may continue causing difficulties in learning as students advance in their studies. Writing-to-learn assignments (WTL) are characterized by their ability to promote in-depth conceptual learning by allowing students to explore their understanding of a topic. This study sought to determine whether and what types of misconceptions are elicited by WTL assignments and how the process of peer review and revision leads to remediation or propagation of misconceptions. We examined four WTL assignments in an introductory biology course in which students first wrote about content by applying it to a realistic scenario, then participated in a peer-review process before revising their work. Misconceptions were identified in all four assignments, with the greatest number pertaining to protein structure and function. Additionally, in certain contexts, students used scientific terminology incorrectly. Analysis of the drafts and peer-review comments generated six profiles by which misconceptions were addressed through the peer-review process. The prevalent mode of remediation arose through directed peer-review comments followed by correction during revision. It was also observed that additional misconceptions were elicited as students revised their writing in response to general peer-review suggestions.

  20. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  1. Stimulation of biological N2-fixation to accelerate the microbial remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshenko, N.N.; Lushnikov, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    All remediation projects are comprised at least in accelerating the processes of the self-cleaning and self-restoration of biocenose which is led to increasing the functional activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora (HOM). Some of experts are carefully relate to introducing the commercial cultures of active hydrocarbon-consuming microbes into soils. They are afraid of unpredictable behavior of the cultures in soils. That why the stimulation of metabolic activity of indigenous soil microflora seems to be most preferable. In fact, contamination of soil with low nitrogen capacity by oil spills leads to significant deficient of nitrogen for HOM. Nitrogen content limits the soil self-restoration. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizers are supplied to recover the balance. The study of the microbial destruction of petroleum-hydrocarbons in association with biochemical transformation of nitrogen was carried out in lab and field experiments during 2000-2004. Study showed the activity of HOM correlates with rate of microbial fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Activity of biological N 2 -fixation significantly depends on supplying fertilizers (dose, date and kind). General practice of remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils applies high initial doses of nitrogen-fertilizers (0.5-1 t per ha). Such practice leads to inhibition of N 2 -fixation processes, decreasing rate of oil destruction and loosing nitrogen due to activation of microbial denitrification. In opposition to that, the fractioned and advanced supplying mineral nitrogen fertilizers with aluminosilicate is the cost-effective approach to remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Field experiments showed that the approach allows to increase efficiency of treatment up to 70-75% and to decrease operational expenses 2-3 times at least. (authors)

  2. Secondary successions of biota in oil-polluted peat soil upon different biological remediation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.; Anchugova, E. M.; Kanev, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different bioremediation methods on restoration of the oil-polluted peat soil (Histosol) in the northernmost taiga subzone of European Russia was studied. The population dynamics of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (hydrocarbon-oxidizing, ammonifying, nitrifying, and oligonitrophilic) were analyzed together with data on the soil enzyme (catalase and dehydrogenase) activities, population densities of soil microfauna groups, their structures, and states of phytocenoses during a sevenyear-long succession. The remediation with biopreparations Roder composed of oil-oxidizing microorganisms-Roder with Rhodococcus rubber and R. erythropolis and Universal with Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodococcus sp.-was more efficient than the agrochemical and technical remediation. It was concluded that the biopreparations activate microbiological oil destruction, thereby accelerating restoration succession of phytocenosis and zoocenosis. The succession of dominant microfauna groups was observed: the dipteran larvae and Mesostigmata mites predominant at the early stages were replaced by collembolans at later stages. The pioneer oribatid mite species were Tectocepheus velatus, Oppiella nova, Liochthonius sellnicki, Oribatula tibialis, and Eupelops sp.

  3. Natural remedies in the Canon of Medicine for dentistry and oral biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Faridi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Sina is one of the most well know scholars in middle ages. This Persian physician wrote different books in medical filed which his great encyclopedia remained as one the most successful medical encyclopedia during the history. Ibn Sina discussed diseases of oral cavity and dentistry in the 3rd book of The Canon of Medicine. He discussed different conditions such as different types of trauma to the motor nerves, taste sensation, different limitations of tongue movements, Ranula, halitosis, tooth sensation, different types of tooth pain, Bruxism, attrition, loss of enamel, gingival bleeding, recession and hyperplasia. For management of these diseases he introduced more than 80 herbal remedies. Most of this plant species are from essential oil reach families. Generally, Ibn Sina has a deep view in case of dental diseases and his ideas and methods for treatment of this category of disease could be studied for finding new treatment in dental ailments.

  4. Biopiles - demonstration of cost effective biological remediation of furnace oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmair, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 900 tonnes of soil was contaminated at a rural manufacturing facility near Collingwood, Ontario, when a 9000 litre underground furnace oil storage tank sprang a leak. The contaminated soil was excavated and stockpiled at the site and the leak was repaired. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment ordered that the owner treat the soil to the proper criteria or have the soil removed from the site and properly disposed of at a licensed landfill facility. Barenco was hired to treat the soil. Bioremediation began in December 1994 with the creation of nine above-ground biopiles which were constructed through the addition of nutrients (manure from a local farmer). Piping for air injection and treatment were located throughout the biopiles. The biopiles were then covered with 6 mil black HDPE plastic. The progress of the bioremediation was monitored regularly through measurement of carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations in the biopiles. By October 1995, the soil was treated to within the appropriate criteria. In 10 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the polluted soil were reduced from an average of 2690 ppm to 275 ppm. This simple and cost effective approach can also be used to remediate soils impacted with diesel fuels

  5. Phenol wastewater remediation: advanced oxidation processes coupled to a biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcaba, A; Suárez-Ojeda, M E; Stüber, F; Fortuny, A; Bengoa, C; Metcalfe, I; Font, J; Carrera, J; Fabregat, A

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring more and more treatment of industrial effluents to generate product waters which could be easily reused or disposed of to the environment without any harmful effects. Therefore, different advanced oxidation processes were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial effluents containing phenol. Wet air oxidation and Fenton process were tested batch wise, while catalytic wet air oxidation and H2O2-promoted catalytic wet air oxidation processes were studied in a trickle bed reactor, the last two using over activated carbon as catalyst. Effluent characterisation was made by means of substrate conversion (using high liquid performance chromatography), chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. Biodegradation parameters (i.e. maximum oxygen uptake rate and oxygen consumption) were obtained from respirometric tests using activated sludge from an urban biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The main goal was to find the proper conditions in terms of biodegradability enhancement, so that these phenolic effluents could be successfully treated in an urban biological WWTP. Results show promising research ways for the development of efficient coupled processes for the treatment of wastewater containing toxic or biologically non-degradable compounds.

  6. Remediation of toxic ad hazardous wastes: plants as biological agents to mitigate heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz, Nina M.; Principe, Eduardo B.

    2005-01-01

    This papers introduced the plants as biological agents to control heavy metal pollution and the process used the green plants to clean contaminated soils or to render the toxic ions harmless is a new technology called phytoremediation with two levels, the phytostabilization and phytoextraction

  7. Microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizosphere: Potential application to biological remediation of waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, B.T.; Anderson, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that vegetation may be used to actively promote microbial restoration of chemically contaminated soils was tested by using rhizosphere and nonvegetated soils collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated field site. Biomass determinations, disappearance of TCE from the headspace of spiked soil slurries, and mineralization of [14C]TCE to 14CO2 all showed that microbial activity is greater in rhizosphere soils and that TCE degradation occurs faster in the rhizosphere than in the edaphosphere. Thus, vegetation may be an important variable in the biological restoration of surface and near-surface soils

  8. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  9. In situ technologies for the remediation of contaminated sites. Part 8: Biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, M. (URS Consultants, Inc., Long Beach, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses the in-situ technique of biodegradation for removal of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, from contaminated soils. Biodegradation involves growing microorganisms in the soil which consume the waste, breaking it down into less harmful end products. Enhancing the biological activity may require pH adjustment or the addition of supplementary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, trace metals and organic carbon. This is potentially an effective, low cost, and safe method for soil and groundwater decontamination, but has yet to be demonstrated for large sites. Detox Industries of Houston, Texas, has selected and bred a bank of 200 naturally occurring, nonpathogenic soil microorganisms for degrading such substances as polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. At one site, 1200 cubic yards of soil experienced a 90 percent reduction in contamination (with methylene chloride, n-butyl alcohol, dimethylaniline, and acetone) over 3 years. Costs are site- specific, but is usually 30 to 60 percent less than carbon adsorption or air stripping methods. Advantages are ease, safety, and cost. Limitations include difficulty to monitor and control, lack of experience and test data, and inapplicability of the technique where contaminants are refractory or are present at toxic levels. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Enrichment and immobilization of sulfide removal microbiota applied for environmental biological remediation of aquaculture area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang-Guo; Zheng, Yu; Tian, Weijun; Bai, Jie; Feng, Gong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Mengchun

    2016-01-01

    To remove sulfide in the deteriorating aquaculture sediment and water, sulfide-oxidizing microbiota was enriched from Jiaozhou Bay, China, by using sulfide-rich medium. Composition and structure of microbial communities in the enrichments were investigated by 16S rDNA molecular biotechniques. Results showed that microbial community structure continuously shifted and the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria, i.e., Desulfobacterium, Desulfococcus and Desulfobacca apparently declined. Several halophile genera, Vibrio, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, Prochlorococcus, Pediococcus and Thiobacillus predominated finally in the microbiota. The enriched microbiota was capable of removing a maximum of 1000 mg/L sulfide within 12 h with 10% inoculum at pH 7.0, 20–30 °C. After immobilized, the microbiota presented excellent resistance to impact and could completely remove 600 mg/L sulfide in 12 h. Moreover, the immobilized microbiota recovered well even recycled for five times. In conclusion, the immobilized sulfide-removing microbiota showed a quite promising application for biological restoring of sulfide-rich aquaculture environment. - Highlights: • A sulfide-oxidizing microbiota successfully enriched from aquaculture sediment. • Microbiota dominated by Vibrio, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus spp. • Sulfide-oxidizing microbiota removed sulfide at an average rate of 100 mg/(L·h). • Immobilized microbiota removed over 85% of sulfide even recycled for five times.

  11. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  12. Assessing remediation of contaminated sediments using multiple biological endpoints: sediment toxicity, food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC) as defined by the International Joint Commission’s Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. A sediment remediation project took place in the lower 14.2 km of the river where urban and industrial activitie...

  13. Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirthensohn, T. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences-Vienna, Department of IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.wirthensohn@boku.ac.at; Schoeberl, P. [Wienenergie Gasnetz GmbH, Referat 17-Altlasten, Josefstaedterstrasse 10-12, 1080 Vienna (Austria); Ghosh, U. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Fuchs, W. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences-Vienna, Department of IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5 h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies.

  14. Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthensohn, T; Schoeberl, P; Ghosh, U; Fuchs, W

    2009-04-15

    The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies.

  15. Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirthensohn, T.; Schoeberl, P.; Ghosh, U.; Fuchs, W.

    2009-01-01

    The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5 h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies

  16. Contaminated land and ground water: trends in the development of biological methods for remediation research; Altlasten und Grundwasser - Trends in der Entwicklung der biologischen Methoden in der Sanierungsforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottmeister, U [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Sanierungsforschung

    1998-11-01

    Future developments in environmental biotechnology and in situ-remediation processes need the understanding and the influencing of the interaction between all components of a biological biocoenosis, especially in biofilm. Better performances concerning the elimination of contaminants could be made possible by the balanced addition of both additional electron acceptors and cosubstrates, in which the studies of the physiological interaction must be studied. The application of physical methods like radio waves are able to support the microbiological processes. The understanding of the interaction between biotic and abiotic processes in contaminated sites is incomplete at the present time. Ecotechnical processes must decrease the time demand of the natural attenuation and remove inhibitions. Phytoremediation is promising; the understanding of the root - microorganism interaction is the basis of new applications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zukuenftigen Entwicklungen der Umweltbiotechnologie und der in situ-Sanierungsverfahren sollten durch das Erkennen und die Beeinflussung des Wechselspiels von Biozoenosen insbesondere in Biofilmen bestimmt werden. Leistungssteigerungen des Schadstoffabbaus sind moeglich durch die bilanzierte Zugabe zusaetzlicher Elektronenakzeptoren oder von Kosubstraten, deren physiologische Wirkungsweise erkannt werden muss. Physikalische Massnahmen wie z.B. die Radiowellenanwendung koennen mikrobiologische Prozesse unterstuetzen. Das Wechselspiel biotischer und abiotischer Prozesse in Altlasten ist erst unvollstaendig verstanden. Oekotechnische Prozesse muessen die natuerliche Selbstreinigung beschleunigen oder Inhibitionen aufheben. Die vielversprechenden Methoden der Phytoremediation werden neue Anwendungsgebiete finden, wenn die Wurzelraum-Mikroorganismen-Wechselwirkung verstanden wird. (orig.)

  17. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  18. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  19. Site remediation using biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.; Pouliot, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main process used in the bioremediation of contaminated sites is the microbial degradation and mineralization of pollutants. The bioengineering processes developed and applied by the company to optimize the microbial degradation are described and full scale case studies are reviewed. In each case, the site characteristics (type of contaminants, nature of soil, geographic location, etc.) and the results obtained are presented. The selected projects cover different bioremediation techniques (biopile, bioventing and air sparging), different contaminants (PAH, PCP, hydrocarbons) and different types of industrial sites (former gas work plant, petroleum depot, refinery, etc.)

  20. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette Martina; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal tetrachloroethene (PCE) remediation by steam injection in a sandy aquifer led to the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aquifer sediments resulting in more reduced redox conditions, accelerated PCE biodegradation, and changes in microbial populations. These changes were...... documented by comparing data collected prior to the remediation event and eight years later. Based on the premise that dual C-Cl isotope slopes reflect ongoing degradation pathways, the slopes associated with PCE and TCE suggest the predominance of biotic reductive dechlorination near the source area. PCE...... is supported by the relative lack of Dhc in the downgradient part of the plume. The results of this study show that thermal remediation can enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, and that this effect can be traced to the mobilisation of DOC due to steam injection. This, in turn, results in more...

  1. Escherichia coli NemA is an efficient chromate reductase that can be biologically immobilized to provide a cell free system for remediation of hexavalent chromium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Robins

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium is a serious and widespread environmental pollutant. Although many bacteria have been identified that can transform highly water-soluble and toxic Cr(VI to insoluble and relatively non-toxic Cr(III, bacterial bioremediation of Cr(VI pollution is limited by a number of issues, in particular chromium toxicity to the remediating cells. To address this we sought to develop an immobilized enzymatic system for Cr(VI remediation. To identify novel Cr(VI reductase enzymes we first screened cell extracts from an Escherichia coli library of soluble oxidoreductases derived from a range of bacteria, but found that a number of these enzymes can reduce Cr(VI indirectly, via redox intermediates present in the crude extracts. Instead, activity assays for 15 candidate enzymes purified as His6-tagged proteins identified E. coli NemA as a highly efficient Cr(VI reductase (k(cat/K(M= 1.1×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 with NADH as cofactor. Fusion of nemA to the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene phaC from Ralstonia eutropha enabled high-level biosynthesis of functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoate granules displaying stable and active NemA on their surface. When these granules were combined with either Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase or Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase as a cofactor regenerating partner, high levels of chromate transformation were observed with only low initial concentrations of expensive NADH cofactor being required, the overall reaction being powered by consumption of the cheap sacrificial substrates glucose or formic acid, respectively. This system therefore offers promise as an economic solution for ex situ Cr(VI remediation.

  2. The benefits from environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)

  3. Draft Technical Protocol: A Treatability Test for Evaluating the Potential Applicability of the Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (Rabitt) to Remediate Chloroethenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    This draft, unvalidated protocol describes a comprehensive approach for conducting a phased treatability test to determine the potential for employing the Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT...

  4. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  5. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  6. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  7. Technologies to remediate hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    Technologies to remediate hazardous wastes must be matched with the properties of the hazardous materials to be treated, the environment in which the wastes are imbedded, and the desired extent of remediation. Many promising technologies are being developed, including biological treatment, immobilization techniques, and in situ methods. Many of these new technologies are being applied to remediate sites. The management and disposal of hazardous wastes is changing because of federal and state legislation as well as public concern. Future waste management systems will emphasize the substitution of alternatives for the use of hazardous materials and process waste recycling. Onsite treatment will also become more frequently adopted. 5 refs., 7 figs

  8. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Cleanup and Remediation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... CDC and EPA on mold cleanup, removal and remediation. Cleanup information for you and your family Homeowner’s ...

  9. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  10. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...

  11. Biological Remediation of Cyanide: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Karamba Kabiru; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide and its complexes are produced by industries all over the world as waste or effluents. Biodegradation is considered to be the cheapest and the most effective method to get rid of cyanide in the environment. Several studies on different types of microorganisms that can degrade cyanide in the environment have been carried out. Hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitutive/transfer reactions are some of the common pathways used by microorganisms in cyanide degradation. Biodegradatio...

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  14. MGP site remediation: Working toward presumptive remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) were prevalent in the United States during the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. MGPs produced large quantities of waste by-products, which varied depending on the process used to manufacture the gas, but most commonly were tars and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 abandoned MGP sites across the United States. Because these sites are not concentrated in one geographic location and at least three different manufacturing processes were used, the waste characteristics are very heterogeneous. The question of site remediation becomes how to implement a cost-effective remediation with the variety of cleanup technologies available for these sites. Because of the significant expenditure required for characterization and cleanup of MGP sites, owners and regulatory agencies are beginning to look at standardizing cleanup technologies for these sites. This paper discusses applicable cleanup technologies and the attitude of state regulatory agencies towards the use of presumptive remedies, which can reduce the amount of characterization and detailed analysis necessary for any particular site. Additionally, this paper outlines the process of screening and evaluating candidate technologies, and the progress being made to match the technology to the site

  15. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. To fail is human: remediating remediation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Chou, Calvin L; Ellaway, Rachel H

    2017-12-01

    Remediating failing medical learners has traditionally been a craft activity responding to individual learner and remediator circumstances. Although there have been moves towards more systematic approaches to remediation (at least at the institutional level), these changes have tended to focus on due process and defensibility rather than on educational principles. As remediation practice evolves, there is a growing need for common theoretical and systems-based perspectives to guide this work. This paper steps back from the practicalities of remediation practice to take a critical systems perspective on remediation in contemporary medical education. In doing so, the authors acknowledge the complex interactions between institutional, professional, and societal forces that are both facilitators of and barriers to effective remediation practices. The authors propose a model that situates remediation within the contexts of society as a whole, the medical profession, and medical education institutions. They also outline a number of recommendations to constructively align remediation principles and practices, support a continuum of remediation practices, destigmatize remediation, and develop institutional communities of practice in remediation. Medical educators must embrace a responsible and accountable systems-level approach to remediation if they are to meet their obligations to provide a safe and effective physician workforce.

  17. Remediating a design tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rädle, Roman; Klokmose, Clemens N.

    2018-01-01

    digital sticky notes setup. The paper contributes with a nuanced understanding of what happens when remediating a physical design tool into digital space, by emphasizing focus shifts and breakdowns caused by the technology, but also benefits and promises inherent in the digital media. Despite users......' preference for creating physical notes, handling digital notes on boards was easier and the potential of proper documentation make the digital setup a possible alternative. While the analogy in our remediation supported a transfer of learned handling, the users' experiences across technological setups impact......Sticky notes are ubiquitous in design processes because of their tangibility and ease of use. Yet, they have well-known limitations in professional design processes, as documentation and distribution are cumbersome at best. This paper compares the use of sticky notes in ideation with a remediated...

  18. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  19. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  20. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  1. Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den P.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a

  2. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  3. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  4. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  5. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  6. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  7. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  8. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  9. Microbial Remediation of Metals in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, K. A.; Roane, T. M.

    Of metal-contaminated systems, metal-contaminated soils present the greatest challenge to remediation efforts because of the structural, physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneities encountered in soils. One of the confounding issues surrounding metal remediation is that metals can be readily re-mobilized, requiring constant monitoring of metal toxicity in sites where metals are not removed. Excessive metal content in soils can impact air, surface water, and groundwater quality. However, our understanding of how metals affect organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals, and our ability to negate the toxicity of metals are in their infancies. The ubiquity of metal contamination in developing and industrialized areas of the world make remediation of soils via removal, containment, and/or detoxification of metals a primary concern. Recent examples of the health and environmental consequences of metal contamination include arsenic in drinking water (Wang and Wai 2004), mercury levels in fish (Jewett and Duffy 2007), and metal uptake by agricultural crops (Howe et al. 2005). The goal of this chapter is to summarize the traditional approaches and recent developments using microorganisms and microbial products to address metal toxicity and remediation.

  10. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  11. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Several bioreactor designs are currently available for the ex-situ biological attenuation of perchlorate- contaminated waters and recently, some of these reactor designs were conditionally approved by the California Department of Health Services for application in the treatment of perchlorate contaminated drinking water. However, all of these systems are dependent on the continual addition of a chemical electron donor to sustain microbial activity and are always subject to biofouling and downstream water quality issues. In addition, residual labile electron donor in the reactor effluent can stimulate microbial growth in water distribution systems and contribute to the formation of potentially toxic trihalomethanes during disinfection by chlorination. As part of our ongoing studies into microbial perchlorate reduction we investigated the ability of dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) to metabolize perchlorate using a negatively charged electrode (cathode) in the working chamber of a bioelectrical reactor (BER) as the primary electron donor. In this instance the DPRB use the electrons on the electrode surface either directly or indirectly in the form of electrolytically produced H2 as a source of reducing equivalents for nitrate and perchlorate reduction. As part of this investigation our fed-batch studies showed that DPRB could use electrons from a graphite cathode poised at -500mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate. We isolated a novel organism, Dechlorospirillum strain VDY, from the cathode surface after 70 days operation which readily reduced 100 mg.L-1 perchlorate in a mediatorless batch bioelectrical reactor (BER) in 6 days. Continuous up-flow BERs (UFBERs) seeded with active cultures of strain VDY continuously treated waters containing 100 mg.L-1 perchlorate with almost 100% efficiency throughout their operation achieving a non-optimized volumetric loading of 60 mg.L-1 reactor volume.day-1. The same UFBERs also treated

  12. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  13. BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT by Tobyn A. Branck Courtney M. Cowell Jennifer M. Rego and...October 2011 – September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT... REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT Introduction The Biological Sciences and Technology Team (BSTT), Warfighter

  14. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  15. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  16. Values of Local Wisdom: A Potential to Develop an Assessment and Remedial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharudin, Uus; Kurniawan, Iwan Setia

    2017-01-01

    Development assessment and remedial needs to be done because it is an important part of a learning process. This study aimed to describe the ability of student teachers of biology in developing assessment and remedial based on local wisdom. using a quasi-experimental research methods with quantitative descriptive analysis techniques. The research…

  17. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  18. DOE'S remedial action assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.; Denham, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    The formulation and initial implementation of DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action are described. It was initiated in FY 84 and is expected to be further implemented in FY 85 as the activities of DOE's Remedial Action programs continue to expand. Further APRA implementation will include additional document reviews, site inspections, and program office appraisals with emphasis on Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program

  19. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  1. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; DePoorter, G.L.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  2. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  3. Bibliography on Chernobyl radioactivity impacts and remediation of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, C.D.; Baweja, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bibliography on the Chernobyl nuclear accident pertaining to radiological sources, distribution of radioactivity, transport of radionuclides in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and biological impacts/indicators. The second section lists references on remediation technologies at Bikini Atoll Islands. References include books and periodicals from Canada, the United States, and European sources.

  4. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  6. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  7. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  8. Site remediation: The naked truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of any company faced with an environmental site remediation project is to perform the cleanup effectively at the lowest possible cost. Today, there are a variety of techniques being applied in the remediation of sites involving soils and sludges. The most popular include: stabilization, incineration, bioremediation and off-site treatment. Dewatering may also play an integral role in a number of these approaches. Selecting the most cost-effective technique for remediation of soils and sludges can be a formidable undertaking, namely because it is often difficult to quantify certain expenses in advance of the project. In addition to providing general cost guidelines for various aspects of soil and sludge remediation, this paper will show how some significant cost factors can be affected by conditions related to specific remediation projects and the cleanup technology being applied

  9. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. Chaos and remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the nature of chaos indicates that even for systems that are well known and easily modeled, slight changes in the scale used to measure the input have unpredictable results in the model output. The conduct of a remedial investigation (RI) is dictated by well-established rules of investigation and management, yet small changes in project orientation, regulatory environment, or site conditions have unpredictable consequences to the project. The consequences can lead to either brilliant success or utter failure. The chaotic effect of a change in scale is most often illustrated by an exercise in measuring the length of the coast of Great Britain. If a straight ruler 10-kilometers long is used, the sum of the 10-kilometer increments gives the length of the coast. If the ruler is changed to five kilometers long and the exercise is repeated, the sum of the five-kilometer increments will not be the same as the sum of the 10-kilometer increments. Nor is there a way to predict what the length of the coast will be using any other scale. Several examples from the Fernald Project RI are used to illustrate open-quotes changes in scaleclose quotes in both technical and management situations. Given that there is no way to predict the outcome of scale changes in a RI, technical and project management must be alert to the fact that a scale has changed and the investigation is no longer on the path it was thought to be on. The key to success, therefore, is to develop specific units of measure for a number of activities, in addition to cost and schedule, and track them regularly. An example for tracking a portion of the field investigation is presented. The determination of effective units of measure is perhaps the most difficult aspect of any project. Changes in scale sometimes go unnoticed until suddenly the budget is expended and only a portion of the work is completed. Remedial investigations on large facilities provide new and complex challenges

  2. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.

  3. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe +2 ). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE

  4. Remediation of uranium contaminated water and soil by PIMS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J.; Smiciklas, I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soil by uranium (U) represents a permanent threat for food and water resources. For this reason, remediation is a very important measure for protection of the health of the population living in the vicinity of these contaminated sites. Phosphate- Induced Metal Stabilization (PIMS) represents one of the powerful methods for remediation of soil and water contaminated by U, including depleted uranium (DU). By this approach it is possible to stabilize metals in the form of phosphate phases and other low soluble phases that are stable over geological time. PIMS is based on application of a special form of apatite of biological origin, Apatite II, to clean up metal and radionuclide contamination, in situ or ex situ. This biogenic apatite can be emplaced as a down-gradient permeable reactive barrier, mixed into contaminated soil or waste or used as a disposal liner. Here we will briefly describe the PIMS remediation protocol. (author)

  5. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  6. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  7. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  8. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  9. A responsible remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an approach to cleaning up the residue of 150 years of intense urban and industrial development in the United States. The discussion focuses on several choices and strategies that business can adopt given the existing environmental laws and the socio-economic trends of the 1990's. The thesis of this paper is that the best business strategy for dealing with environmental liabilities is to act affirmatively and aggressively. An aggressive, pro-active approach to environmental remediation liabilities makes good business sense. It allows a company to learn the true size of the problem early. Early assessment and prioritization allows one to control the course and conduct of the cleanup. Early voluntary action is always viewed favorably by agencies. It gives one control over spending patterns which has value in and of itself. Voluntary cleanups are certainly faster and invariably more efficient. And they attain clearly acceptable standards. The volunteering company that takes the lead in a multi-party site finds that the courts are supportive in helping the volunteer collect from recalcitrant polluters. All of these pluses have a direct and positive impact on the bottom line and that means that the aggressive approach is the right thing to do for both stockholders and the communities where a business exists

  10. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  11. Pilot remediation of sediment from the Petroleum harbour in Amsterdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakstege, A.L.; Geldermalsen, L.A. van

    1998-01-01

    The Petroleum Harbour project is the third pilot remediation, which was carried out within the framework of POSW (the national development programme for treatment processes of polluted sediments). The main objectives of the pilot remediation are: to demonstrate the biological treatment of dredged materials on a practical scale; and to gain knowledge and experience for the future remediation of the total Petroleum harbour. A strict tender procedure was carefully executed in order to select the most effective and 'state of the art' biodegradation technology. The selected remediation chain was a combination of 'standard' soil treatment technology and newly developed biotechnology. Dredging, biotechnological treatment and the effects of the remediation on the environment were monitored in detail. The quality of the treated sand fraction complied with the Dutch standards for re-use and was actually applied in a project of Rijkswaterstaat. Biodegradation resulted in a substantial decrease of the oil and PAH's contents, but due to the lack of breakdown of a few high-molecular PAH's, the quality requirements of the contract were not achieved. It is concluded that the two main objectives of the project have been attained. Finally some recommendations for the future clean-up of the Petroleum harbour are given. (author)

  12. Bio remediation of inorganic contaminants; Biotratamiento de contaminantes de origen inorganico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algucial, F J; Merino, Y [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-12-31

    Bio remediation is usually associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. However, there is an increasing amount of information on the application of biological systems to bio remediation of soils, sediments and water contaminated with inorganic compounds which includes metals, radionuclides and anions (e.g. nitrates and cyanides). These compounds can be toxic both to humans and to the organisms used to remediate these toxic components. In contrast to organic compounds, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degrades, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, bi sorption, oxidation and reduction, methylation, demethylation, complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are some of the different processes applied in this type of byoremediation. This paper describes these processes. (Author) 60 refs.

  13. Optimal selection of biochars for remediating metals ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment due to possible exposure to the residuals of heavy metal extraction. Historically, a variety of chemical and biological methods have been used to reduce the bioavailability of the metals at mine sites. Biochar with its potential to complex and immobilize heavy metals, is an emerging alternative for reducing bioavailability. Furthermore, biochar has been reported to improve soil conditions for plant growth and can be used for promoting the establishment of a soil-stabilizing native plant community to reduce offsite movement of metal-laden waste materials. Because biochar properties depend upon feedstock selection, pyrolysis production conditions, and activation procedures used, they can be designed to meet specific remediation needs. As a result biochar with specific properties can be produced to correspond to specific soil remediation situations. However, techniques are needed to optimally match biochar characteristics with metals contaminated soils to effectively reduce metal bioavailability. Here we present experimental results used to develop a generalized method for evaluating the ability of biochar to reduce metals in mine spoil soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine. Thirty-eight biochars were produced from approximately 20 different feedstocks and produced via slow pyrolysis or gasification, and were allowed to react with a f

  14. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, Shahin; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-02-10

    Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency) and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc. , nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  15. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  16. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  17. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  18. Review of heavy metal bio-remediation in contaminated freeway facilitated by adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity around biological systems is a significant issue for environmental health in a long term. Recent biotechnological approaches for bio-remediation of heavy metals in freeway frequently include mineralization, bio-adsorption or even remediation. Thus, adequate restoration in freeway requiring cooperation, integration and assimilation of such biotechnological advances along with traditional and ethical wisdom to unravel the mystery of nature in the emerging field of bio-remediation was reviewed with highlights to better understand problems associated with toxicity of heavy metals and eco-friendly technologies.

  19. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  20. A comparison of technologies for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid , Sana; Shahid , Muhammad; Niazi , Nabeel Khan; Murtaza , Behzad; Bibi , Irshad; Dumat , Camille

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Soil contamination with persistent and potentially (eco)toxic heavy metal(loid)s is ubiquitous around the globe. Concentration of these heavy metal(loid)s in soil has increased drastically over the last three decades, thus posing risk to the environment and human health. Some technologies have long been in use to remediate the hazardous heavy metal(loid)s. Conventional remediation methods for heavy metal(loid)s are generally based on physical, chemical and biological a...

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  2. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  3. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  4. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  5. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  6. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...... bipolar electrodes in the porous material. The bipolar electrodes in EKR meant two improvements: (1) a shorter migration pathway for the contaminant, and (2) an increased electrical conductivity in the remediation system. All together the remediation proceeded faster with lower electrical resistance than...... in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...

  8. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  9. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  10. Academic Intervention: Acceleration and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Barbara Gail

    2016-01-01

    Eighth grade math students must pass a standards based test to be promoted to the next grade. Students who were at risk of failing the state's annual test faced impending retention. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to see if an intensive nine-week (55 min per day) remedial Math Connection (MC) class for 67 suburban, eighth grade…

  11. Integrated remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, R.S.; Howles, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals frequently focuses on a single phase of the chemical in question. This paper describes an integrated approach to remediation involving selection of complimentary technologies designed to create a remedial system which achieves cleanup goals in affected media in the shortest possible time consistent with overall environmental protection

  12. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific remedial...

  13. New Mexico English Remediation Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In March, 2016, the state of New Mexico established a Remediation Task Force to examine remediation reform efforts across the state's higher education institutions. On March 11, the Task Force met for the "New Mexico Corequisite Remediation at Scale Policy Institute" in order to learn about the results of the latest national reform…

  14. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  15. [No remedy for AIDS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M M

    1993-01-01

    Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention.

  16. Remediation techniques for heavy metal-contaminated soils: Principles and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianwen; Li, Wei; Song, Weiping; Guo, Mingxin

    2018-08-15

    Globally there are over 20millionha of land contaminated by the heavy metal(loid)s As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Se, with the present soil concentrations higher than the geo-baseline or regulatory levels. In-situ and ex-situ remediation techniques have been developed to rectify the heavy metal-contaminated sites, including surface capping, encapsulation, landfilling, soil flushing, soil washing, electrokinetic extraction, stabilization, solidification, vitrification, phytoremediation, and bioremediation. These remediation techniques employ containment, extraction/removal, and immobilization mechanisms to reduce the contamination effects through physical, chemical, biological, electrical, and thermal remedy processes. These techniques demonstrate specific advantages, disadvantages, and applicability. In general, in-situ soil remediation is more cost-effective than ex-situ treatment, and contaminant removal/extraction is more favorable than immobilization and containment. Among the available soil remediation techniques, electrokinetic extraction, chemical stabilization, and phytoremediation are at the development stage, while the others have been practiced at full, field scales. Comprehensive assessment indicates that chemical stabilization serves as a temporary soil remediation technique, phytoremediation needs improvement in efficiency, surface capping and landfilling are applicable to small, serious-contamination sites, while solidification and vitrification are the last remediation option. The cost and duration of soil remediation are technique-dependent and site-specific, up to $500ton -1 soil (or $1500m -3 soil or $100m -2 land) and 15years. Treatability studies are crucial to selecting feasible techniques for a soil remediation project, with considerations of the type and degree of contamination, remediation goals, site characteristics, cost effectiveness, implementation time, and public acceptability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  18. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  19. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference reviewed the latest innovations regarding the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater, with considerable information dedicated to the field of industrial pollutant treatments. Some topics and case studies covered in the presentations included both in-situ treatment and ex-situ treatment methods; biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; multi-phase extraction; detoxification; environmental management; hydrocarbon contamination stabilization; and unique and challenging locations. The conference featured 3 workshops addressing innovative solutions for federal contaminated sites; technology funding options; and use of chemistry in land reclamation. The technical sessions were entitled: bioremediation; military sites and gun ranges; an update on technology from the Netherlands; Sydney tar ponds update and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund; in-situ treatment methods; phytoremediation and natural attenuation; solidification/stabilization; vapour management; extraction; unique situations; Alberta Environment updates; framework and tools; and investigations. The conference featured 68 presentations, of which 16 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  20. Evaluation of bio-remediation technologies for PAHs contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frutos, F.J.; Diaz, J.; Rodriguez, V.; Escolano, O.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R.; Martinez, R.; Oromendia, R.

    2005-01-01

    Natural attenuation is a new concept related to polluted soil remediation. Can be understood like an 'in situ' bio-remediation process with low technical intervention. This low intervention may be in order to follow the behaviour of pollutants 'monitored natural attenuation' or include an optimisation process to improve biological remediation. The use of this technology is a fact for light hydrocarbon polluted soil, but few is known about the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this process. PAHs are more recalcitrant to bio-remediation due to their physic-chemical characteristics, mainly hydrophobicity and electrochemical stability. PAHs are a kind of pollutants widely distributed in the environment, not only in the proximity of the source. This linked to the characteristics of some of them related to toxicity and mutagenicity implies its inclusion as target compounds from an environmental point of view. Their low availability, solubility and the strong tendency to bind to soil particle, especially to the organic phase affect PAHs biological mineralisation. So, if the pollutant is not available to microorganisms it can not be bio-degraded. Bioavailability can be assessed form several but complementary points of view: physico-chemical and biological. First including the term availability and the second to point out the capacity of soil microorganisms to mineralize PAHs. Availability and Bio-degradability must be determined, as well as the presence and activity of specific degraders among the soil organisms, once settled these points is necessary to study the biological requirements to optimise biodegradation kinetics of these compounds. In this work we present a study carried out on a soil, contaminated by PAHs, the study includes three main topics: bioavailability assessment (both term availability and bio-degradability), bio-remediation assessment, once optimised conditions for natural attenuation and finally a simulation of the

  1. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  2. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated sample analysis and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Settle, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation Project is developing an automated chemical analysis system to address the current needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). These needs focus on the remediation of large amounts of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored, buried and still being processed at numerous DOE sites. This paper outlines the advantages of the system under development, and details the hardware and software design. A prototype system for characterizing polychlorinated biphenyls in soils is also described

  4. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  5. Strategic planning for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation projects may range from a single leaking storage tank to an entire plant complex or producing oil and gas field. Strategic planning comes into play when the contamination of soil and groundwater is extensive. If adjacent landowners have been impacted or the community at large is concerned about the quality of drinking water, then strategic planning is even more important. (1) To manage highly complex interrelated issues--for example, the efforts expended on community relations can alter public opinion, which can impact regulatory agency decisions that affect cleanup standards, which can...and so on. (2) To ensure that all potential liabilities are managed--for example, preparation for the defense of future lawsuits is essential during site investigation and remediation. (3) To communicate with senior management--when the remediation team provides a strategic plan that includes both technical and business issues, senior management has the opportunity to become more involved and make sound policy decisions. The following discusses the elements of a strategic plan, who should participate in it, and the issues that should be considered

  6. Status report: Fernald site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R. Jr.; Saric, J.A.; Schneider, T.; Yates, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process

  7. Considering bioavailability in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leita L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have demonstrated that instead of the total concentration of metals in soil, bioavailability is the key to understand the environmental risk derived by metals, since adverse effects are related only to the biologically available forms of these elements. The knowledge of bioavailability can decrease the uncertainties in evaluating exposure in human and ecological risk assessment. At the same time, the efficiency of remediation treatments could be greatly influenced by availability of the contaminants. Consideration of the bioavailability processes at contaminated sites could be useful in site-specific risk assessment: the fraction of mobile metals, instead of total content should be provided as estimates of metal exposure. Moreover, knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils is a critical component in the evaluation of applicability of different remediation technologies such as phytoremdiation or soil washing.

  8. Decontamination formulation with additive for enhanced mold remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Irvine, Kevin [Huntsville, AL; Berger, Paul [Rome, NY; Comstock, Robert [Bel Air, MD

    2010-02-16

    Decontamination formulations with an additive for enhancing mold remediation. The formulations include a solubilizing agent (e.g., a cationic surfactant), a reactive compound (e.g., hydrogen peroxide), a carbonate or bicarbonate salt, a water-soluble bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate), a mold remediation enhancer containing Fe or Mn, and water. The concentration of Fe.sup.2+ or Mn.sup.2+ ions in the aqueous mixture is in the range of about 0.0001% to about 0.001%. The enhanced formulations can be delivered, for example, as a foam, spray, liquid, fog, mist, or aerosol for neutralization of chemical compounds, and for killing certain biological compounds or agents and mold spores, on contaminated surfaces and materials.

  9. Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besten, Pieter J. den; Brink, Paul J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas

  10. Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besten, Pieter J. den [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, PO Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.dbesten@riza.rws.minvenw.nl; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-15

    Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas.

  11. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environment is suffering severe contamination as a result of various uncontrolled activities of man and chemicals in the biosphere. This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, which if left unchecked will be detrimental to man and other ...

  12. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, ... basic structure of PCB according to Wiegel and Wu. (2000), is as shown in Figure. 1. ..... inability to understand the interaction between complex chemicals in addition to physical and ...

  13. Biological remediation of oil contaminated soil with earthworms Eisenia andrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachina, S. B.; Voronkova, N. A.; Baklanova, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    The study was performed on the bioremediation efficiency of the soil contaminated with oil (20 to 100 g/kg), petroleum (20 to 60 g/kg) and diesel fuel (20 to 40 g/kg) with the help of earthworms E. andrei in the presence of bacteria Pseudomonas, nitrogen fixing bacteria Azotobacter and Clostridium, yeasts Saccharomyces, fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium, as well as Actinomycetales, all being components of biopreparation Baykal-EM. It was demonstrated that in oil-contaminated soil, the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 95-97% after 22 weeks in the presence of worms and bacteria. In petroleum-contaminated soil the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 99% after 22 weeks. The presence of the diesel fuel in the amount of 40 g per 1 kg soil had an acute toxic effect and caused the death of 50 % earthworm species in 14 days. Bacteria introduction enhanced the toxic effect of the diesel fuel and resulted in the death of 60 % earthworms after 7 days.

  14. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning planning of any scale and for recording

  15. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  17. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  18. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies

  19. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ongoing problem facing the global environmental community including NASA centers is the removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs were...

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  2. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  3. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties

  4. Some Similarities and Differences Between Compositions Written by Remedial and Non-Remedial College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Elizabeth B.; House, William J.

    The essays composed by 84 remedial and 77 nonremedial college freshmen were analyzed for some features proposed by Mina Shaughnessy as being characteristic of basic writers. The students were enrolled in either a beginning remedial class (098), a class at the next level of remediation (099), or a regular English class (101). The essays were…

  5. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2005-01-01

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted

  6. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D; Bastiaens, L; Carpels, M; Mergaey, M; Diels, L

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  7. Black Swans and the Effectiveness of Remediating Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.

    2013-12-01

    Black swans, outliers, dominate science far more than do predictable outcomes. Predictable success constitutes the Black Swan in groundwater remediation. Even the National Research Council concluded that remediating groundwater to drinking water standards has failed in typically complex hydrogeologic settings where heterogeneities and preferential flow paths deflect flow paths obliquely to hydraulic gradients. Natural systems, be they biological or physical, build upon a combination of large-scale regularity coupled to chaos at smaller scales. We show through a review of over 25 case studies that groundwater remediation efforts are best served by coupling parsimonious site characterization to natural and induced geochemical tracer tests to at least know where contamination advects with groundwater in the subsurface. In the majority of our case studies, actual flow paths diverge tens of degrees from anticipated flow paths because of unrecognized heterogeneities in the horizontal direction of transport, let alone the vertical direction. Consequently, regulatory agencies would better serve both the public and the environment by recognizing that long-term groundwater cleanup probably is futile in most hydrogeologic settings except to relaxed standards similar to brownfielding. A Black Swan

  8. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  9. Soil remediation process and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monlux, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for remediation of soil containing up to about 30,000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants. It comprises: providing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a divided condition of minus 1 1/2 double-prime to a first confined zone where it is exposed to an open flame; heating while agitating the contaminated soil in an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone to a temperature below soil ignition within a range of from about 375 degrees F. to about 750 degrees F. for a time sufficient to drive off as vapors a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon vapors from the first zone to a second zone; recovering heat from the hot gases in the second zone to condense a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon vapors as liquid hydrocarbons; recovering the liquid hydrocarbons; and removing the soil from the first zone as remediated soil having below about 1000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants

  10. Solar One demolition and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  11. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  12. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes

  13. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes.

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  17. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised,

  18. Mercury contaminated sediment sites—An evaluation of remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Chattopadhyay, Sandip, E-mail: Sandip.Chattopadhyay@tetratech.com [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ► Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ► Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ► Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ► Mathematical

  19. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  20. Foreword Special Issue on Electrokinetic remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first symposium on Electro-remediation (EREM) in 1997 at the École des Mines d’Albi, in Albi, France, much international attention, interest and progress have been generated in the science and technology of electro-remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and construction

  1. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  2. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  3. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5 U.S.C...

  4. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring suit...

  5. Steam and electroheating remediation of tight soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.; Dablow, J.F. III; Pearce, J.A.; Johnson, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    In the past few decades the need for soil remediation has become urgent, even more necessary--innovative, cost effective methods. Steam and Electroheating Remediation of Tight Soils presents the results of a field study testing the cleanup of semi-volatile fuels from tight soils using combination of hydraulic fracturing and soil heating technologies.

  6. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... the total parts requirement of each person who is to perform the repair under the remedial plan to be...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the repair...

  7. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Iris R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS, a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting

  8. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  10. Groundwater remediation in the Straz leaching operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The locality affected by consequences of the chemical mining of the uranium during underground leaching 'in situ' is found in the area of the Czech Republic in the northeastern part of the Ceska Lipa district. In the contribution the complex groundwater remediation project is discussed. First, the risks of the current state are expressed. Then the alternatives of remediation of the both Cenomanian and Turonian aquifers are presented. Evaluation of the remediation alternatives with the view to the time-consumption, economy, ecology and the elimination of unacceptable risks for the population and environment is done. Finally, the present progress of remediation and the conception of remediation of chemical mining on deposit of Straz pod Ralskem are presented. (orig.)

  11. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  12. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies...... and present methodological issues to consider when conducting LCAs within the area. Within the field of contaminated site remediation , a terminology distinguishing three types of environmental impacts: primary, secondary and tertiary, is often applied. Primary impacts are the site-related impacts due...... and efficiency of remediation, which are important for assessment or primary impacts; (ii) robust assessment of primary impacts using site-specific fate and exposure models; (iii) weighting of primary and secondary (or tertiary) impacts to evaluate trade-offs between life cycle impacts from remediation...

  13. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  14. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  15. Deterring and remedying employee theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzogany, Bill; Mueller, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Employee theft of patient-related information for personal financial gain is a serious threat to the success and financial viability of many healthcare providers. You can safeguard your financial interest in your patient base by taking three preventative measures designed to dissuade your employees from stealing from you. The first step is the implementation of policies and procedures that inform your employees that patient-related information is a valuable business asset that you vigorously protect from misappropriation. The second step is strictly limiting and monitoring employee access to patient-related information. The third step is educating your employees of the potential legal consequences to them in the event they steal from you and, in the event of theft, pursuing all legal remedies available to you.

  16. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  17. Remedial transactions curtailment via optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method developed in this paper is aiming at transmission congestion management (CM. The new, Optimal Transactions Management method (OTM, is based on linear programming (LP, DC load flow (DCLF and linear security constraints. The OTM method is embedded in Available Transfer Capabilities (ATCs and Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs definitions' environment. Well-suited for both preventive and corrective modes of operation, the OTM method aids transmission system operator in running a congested power system network, where congestions are due to transactions. Potential congestion threat is solved by finding the 'culprit' transaction and its optimal reduction. Besides the proposed downsizing of scheduled and/or committed transactions, controls of the OTM method also include redispatching of generation and load levels. The task is to establish a system state without constraint violations. To ensure the feasible network solution, both DC and AC power flows are used. The common 5 nodes/7 lines Ward&Hale sample power system is used to clarify the OTM method. Besides, six other power system networks including the real-life power system network of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro (part of the South East Europe - SEE grid are used to test remedial potentials and CPU-time performances of the method. The 24-hour daily demand diagram is used with all test networks to study the effects of transactions as they are being superimposed to the regional grid. The remedial, transactions-curtailing OTM method is found well suited for market-related analyses precluding the hour-ahead, the day-ahead dispatch, as well as the real-time generation dispatch. It could also suit for the novel, Day Ahead Congestion Forecast (DACF procedure used in power markets. .

  18. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  19. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology

  20. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  1. Representation of viruses in the remediated PDB archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Catherine L.; Dutta, Shuchismita; Westbrook, John D.; Henrick, Kim; Berman, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    A new data model for PDB entries of viruses and other biological assemblies with regular noncrystallographic symmetry is described. A new scheme has been devised to represent viruses and other biological assemblies with regular noncrystallographic symmetry in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The scheme describes existing and anticipated PDB entries of this type using generalized descriptions of deposited and experimental coordinate frames, symmetry and frame transformations. A simplified notation has been adopted to express the symmetry generation of assemblies from deposited coordinates and matrix operations describing the required point, helical or crystallographic symmetry. Complete correct information for building full assemblies, subassemblies and crystal asymmetric units of all virus entries is now available in the remediated PDB archive

  2. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service

  5. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-05

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  6. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses program to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  7. Remedial action of radium contaminated residential properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Eng, J.

    1986-01-01

    Since November 1983, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have been in the process of identifying properties in Montclair, Glen Ridge and West Orange, New Jersey, which were built over radium contaminated soil landfilled areas. Elevated indoor radon concentrations prompted the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to issue a health advisory which included permanent remediation of radon progeny levels in excess of 0.02 Working Levels within two years of discovery. In order to expedite remedial action, NJDEP undertook a ten million dollar cleanup program. Remedial Action at the 12 residential properties encountered some unanticipated problems despite the efforts of numerous government agencies and their contractors to characterize the contamination as much as possible prior to remediation. Some of the unanticipated issues include contamination from other radionuclides, underestimation of removal volumes, and controversy over the transportation and disposal of the radium contaminated soil at a commercial facility in Nevada. This paper will review the approach taken by NJDEP to the remedial action for radium contaminated soil, discuss some of the issues encountered during the remedial action, and provide post remedial action data

  8. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  9. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1984-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses progress to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  10. Remediation of spatial processing disorder (SPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Kelley; Van Dun, Bram; Tomlin, Dani; Dowell, Richard; Rance, Gary

    2018-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of deficit-specific remediation for spatial processing disorder, quantify effects of remediation on functional listening, and determine if remediation is maintained. Participants had SPD, diagnosed using the Listening in Spatialised Noise-Sentences test. The LiSN and Learn software was provided as auditory training. Post-training, repeat LiSN-S testing was conducted. Questionnaires pre- and post-training acted as subjective measures of remediation. A late-outcome assessment established long-term effects of remediation. Sixteen children aged between 6;3 [years; months] and 10;0 completed between 20 and 146 training games. Post-training LiSN-S improved in measures containing spatial cues (p ≤ 0.001) by 2.0 SDs (3.6 dB) for DV90, 1.8 SDs for SV90 (3.2 dB), 1.4 SDs for spatial advantage (2.9 dB) and 1.6 SDs for total advantage (3.3 dB). Improvement was also found in the DV0 condition (1.4 dB or 0.5 SDs). Post-training changes were not significant in the talker advantage measure (1.0 dB or 0.4 SDs) or the SV0 condition (0.3 dB or 0.1 SDs). The late-outcome assessment demonstrated improvement was maintained. Subjective improvement post-remediation was observed using the parent questionnaire. Children with SPD had improved ability to utilise spatial cues following deficit-specific remediation, with the parent questionnaire sensitive to remediation. Effects of the remediation also appear to be sustained.

  11. Present status of the Zavratec remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Stepisnik, M.; Mele, I.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the responsibility for the remediation of the temporary storage of radioactive waste near Zavratec was assigned to the Agency for Radwaste Management. The project was divided into two phases. First, in a study, different options for remediation were considered. In the second phase, performed in 1996, the measurements, inventorying and repacking of radioactive waste were carried out. Simultaneously with these activities a programme for covering public relations was prepared. One of the results of the public relation campaign is also a 15-minute video film, which was prepared from documentary material recorded during remedial activities, and will be presented here. (author)

  12. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  13. Electrochemical remediation of copper contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Mitojan, R.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study objective focused on electrochemical remediation copper polluted soils in the presence of adjuvant substances and conditions that are more effective for the treatment. Some of these substances were studied in different researches. Moreover, authors obtained a result of extraction copper rate higher than 90%. In this connection the following problems were set: - Influence organic and inorganic substances on copper mobility in soil under the DC current. - Moisture effect on copper migration in clay. - Electrochemical remediation soils different mineralogical composition. - A washing conditions contribution to electrochemical remediation of soil from copper. - Accuracy rating experimental dates. (orig.)

  14. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  15. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  17. Drama, dissensus, remediation and a fluttering butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Why is it important to pay attention to democracy and polyphony when working with remediation in a multimodal drama project in introductory schooling? This question is elucidated and investigated in this article on the basis of a drama project case study conducted at Hundborg Friskole. The study...... is analysed on the basis of the concepts of remediation (Bolter and Grusin 1999; Christoffersen 2009), dissensus (Biesta 2013; Rancière 2013), dialogue and polyphony (Dysthe, Bernhardt and Esbjørn 2012). The examples in the investigation show how dialogue, polyphony and dissensus influence the art......-based process of remediation, and how this impacts children’s democratic education....

  18. Economics of biofiltration for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudelson, J.M.; Tinari, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Biofilters with granular activated carbon (GAC) filter backup units offer substantial savings compared to conventional GAC filters and catalytic/thermal oxidation (Catox) units in controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum remediation projects. Provided that the biofilter supplier is willing to satisfy the client's and consultant's risk-management concerns, biofilters offer anew method for reducing the cost of remediation projects, with savings of up to $10,000 (24%) per facility in 24-month projects and up to $16,000 (32%) per facility in 36-month projects for simple gas station remediation projects. Savings will be greater for longer projects and projects with higher average contaminant loadings

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-B/C remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Cislo, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Readiness Evaluation Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 100-B/C Remedial Action Project. The 100 Areas Remedial Action Project will remediate the 100 Areas liquid waste site identified in the Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100- BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 Operable Units. These sites are located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  2. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Plastino, J.C.; Roeck, F.V.; Tuttle, B.G.

    1997-04-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation involves the excavation, treatment if applicable, and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The scope of the 300-FF-1 remediation is to excavate, transport, and dispose of contaminated solid from sites identified in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

  3. 46 CFR 298.41 - Remedies after default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies after default. 298.41 Section 298.41 Shipping... Defaults and Remedies, Reporting Requirements, Applicability of Regulations § 298.41 Remedies after default... governing remedies after a default, which relate to our rights and duties, the rights and duties of the...

  4. Evaluation methods for assessing effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Biao; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang; Ye, Shujing; Yi, Huan; Ren, Xiaoya

    2017-08-01

    Soil and sediment contamination has become a critical issue worldwide due to its great harm to the ecological environment and public health. In recent years, many remediation technologies including physical, chemical, biological, and combined methods have been proposed and adopted for the purpose of solving the problems of soil and sediment contamination. However, current research on evaluation methods for assessing these remediation technologies is scattered and lacks valid and integrated evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review with an environmental perspective on the evaluation methods for assessing the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals. The review systematically summarizes recent exploration and attempts of the remediation effectiveness assessment based on the content of pollutants, soil and sediment characteristics, and ecological risks. Moreover, limitations and future research needs of the practical assessment are discussed. These limitations are not conducive to the implementation of the abatement and control programs for soil and sediment contamination. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness while developing new in situ remediation technologies in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. School Finance Reform: Acceptable Remedies for Serrano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1974-01-01

    Article examined the remedies available to states in the wake of Serrano and its progeny. As well, it analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of "district power equalizing" and "full state assumption" as alternative methods of financing schools. (Editor/RK)

  6. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  7. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  8. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... addition to other remedies permitted by law or contract for a breach of the restrictions in this subpart or... to be provided for this section, the NRC may debar the contractor from subsequent NRC contracts. ...

  9. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  10. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Mining Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet describes best management practices (BMPs) that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of cleanup activities associated with common project components, cleanup phases, and implementation of remediation technologies.

  11. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  12. Developing a disposal and remediation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messier, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental release of wastes generated by the upstream oil and gas industry in Alberta can result in polluted soil and groundwater at several facilities across the province. Responsibility for decommissioning upstream oil and gas facilities falls under the jurisdiction of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP). This paper outlines a protocol that can serve as a framework for the development of a plan to dispose of oilfield waste and to remediate related contaminated soils. The components involved in developing a disposal and remediation plan for oilfield wastes are: (1) identifying the potential source of pollution and oilfield waste generation, (2) characterizing oilfield wastes, (3) determining the nature and extent of soil and groundwater pollution, (4) preparing a remedial action plan, (5) assessing the viability of various remediation options, and (6) preparing health and safety plan. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  14. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES (11505)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  15. Kerr Hollow Quarry Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry is a 3-acre flooded limestone quarry located near the Y-12 Facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The quarry was used in the 1940s as a source of construction material for the Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its use was discontinued in the early 1950s, and it was allowed to flood with water. The quarry presently has a maximum water depth of approximately 55 ft. During the period between the early 1950s until about 1988, the quarry was used for the treatment and disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive, alkali metals, shock-sensitive chemicals, and compressed gas cylinders. For some of these materials, the treatment consisted of dropping the vessels containing the materials into the quarry from a high bluff located on one side of the quarry. The vessels were then punctured by gun shot, and the materials were allowed to react with the water and sink to the bottom of the quarry. Very few disposal records exist for the period from 1952 to 1962. The records after that time, from 1962 until 1988, indicate some 50 t of hazardous and nonhazardous materials were disposed of in the quarry. This report documents remediation efforts that have taken place at the quarry beginning in September 1990

  16. Compliance monitoring for remediated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Throughout the world, many countries have experienced problems associated with pollution of the environment. Poorly managed practices in nuclear fuel cycle, medicine, industry, weapons production and testing, research and development activities, as well as accidents, and poor disposal practices have produced a large array of radioactively contaminated facilities and sites. Structures, biota, soils, rocks, and both surface and groundwaters have become contaminated with radionuclides and other associated contaminants, a condition that raises serious concern due to potential health effects to the exposed human populations and the environment. In response to the needs of its Member States in dealing with the problems of radioactive contamination in the environment, the IAEA has established an Environmental Restoration Project. The principal aspects of current IAEA efforts in this area include (1) gathering information and data, performing analyses, and publishing technical summaries, and other documents on key technical aspects of environmental restoration; (2) conducting a Co-ordinated Research Project on Environmental Restoration; and (3) providing direct technical assistance to Member States through technical co-operation programmes. The transfer of technologies to Member States in need of applicable methodologies and techniques for the remediation of contaminated sites is a principal objective of this project

  17. Parsley! Mechanism as antiurolithiasis remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousofy, Fayed; Gumaih, Hussein; Ibrahim, Hassan; Alasbahy, Afrah

    2017-01-01

    Parsley is a medicinal plant used widely in urolithiasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiurolithiatic effect of parsley and its mechanism. 24 rats divided into four groups: group A (negative control), group B (positive control), group C (cystone ® group) and group D (parsley group). Group B were treated with EG and Ammonium chloride (AC). Group C were treated as B plus cystone ® and group D was treated as B plus parsley. The period of experiment was 15 days. Urine samples were analysis on days 0 and 15 days. Kidneys of rats from all groups were removed, and histopathologically examined. The kidnies of parsley treated group appeared mostly to be calculi-free (less CaOx) even better than the cystone treated group. CaOx crystals was significantly lower both in histological sections and in urine samples in parsley treated group. We further investigated the mechanism of parsley by adding another 6 rats. The latter treated by parsley only after adaptation period. We found significant increase in urine volume and pH in parsley treated rats compared to negative control. We concluded that parsley acts as antiurolithiatic drug through decreasing urinary calcium excretion, increasing urinary pH, dieresis, decreasing urinary protein excretion and its nephroprtective activity. We recommended to use it in pharmaceutical forms as it is safe and effective as antiurolithiasis remedy.

  18. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  19. Remediation of asbestos in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Ross; Dangerfield, David

    2012-01-01

    The former Patea Freezing Works in the Tarankai region of New Zealand began as a canning plant and tallow factory in the late 1800s. Freezing technology was introduced in 1904 and was in continuous operation until 1982. Some of the structures were destroyed by fire in 2008, leaving metal, ash and asbestos. Fragments of Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) were blown over the local town and a large area of the site. A remedial strategy was developed by Aecom and they also provided validation services. . The preferred option was to remove the top layer of ACM impacted soil and place it in an engineered containment cell on site. However this process could not be used due to local cultural objections, and the 'dig and dump' option was adopted. The Western Australian Department of Health (DOH) Guidelines, May 2009, were used in collaboration with local district New Zealand Councils. Monitoring wells were installed, however the monitoring program is not yet underway as the revegetation program is not complete.

  20. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  1. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  2. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.MacG.

    2001-01-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  3. New technologies in decommissioning and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    New and emerging technologies are making decommissioning and remediation more cost effective, faster and safer. From planning to execution and control, the use of new technologies is on the rise. Before starting decommissioning or environmental remediation, experts need to plan each step of the process, and to do that, they first need a clear idea of the characteristics of the structure and the level of radiation that they can expect to encounter

  4. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  5. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site's mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial

  6. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  7. Risk assessment guidance document for the UMTRA project groundwater remediation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the groundwater remedial activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites is to reduce, control, or eliminate risks to human health and the environment. This is in accordance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 192. According to this regulation, the need for groundwater restoration is based upon US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-defined groundwater cleanup standards and must be consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Risk assessments will be used in the UMTRA Groundwater Program to aid in the evaluation of sites. Risk assessments are conducted for four purposes: (1) Preliminary risk assessments are used to aid in prioritizing sites, scope data collection, end determine if a site presents immediate health risks. (2) Baseline risk assessments provide a comprehensive integration and interpretation of demographic, geographic, physical, chemical, and biological factors at a site to determine the extent of actual or potential harm. This information Is used to determine the need for remedial action. (3) Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives is performed to evaluate risks to humans or the environment associated with the various remedial strategies. (4) After remediation, an evaluation of residual risks is conducted. The information gathered for each of these risk evaluations is used to determine the need for subsequent evaluation. Several sites may be eliminated after a preliminary risk assessment if there is no current or future threat to humans or the environment. Likewise, much of the data from a baseline risk assessment can be used to support alternate concentration limits or supplemental standards demonstrations, or identify sensitive habitats or receptors that may be of concern in selecting a remedy

  8. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords

  10. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity

  11. Hanford sitewide grounwater remediation - supporting technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy was issued in 1995 to establish overall goals for groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site. This strategy is being refined to provide more detailed justification for remediation of specific plumes and to provide a decision process for long-range planning of remediation activities. Supporting this work is a comprehensive modeling study to predict movement of the major site plumes over the next 200 years to help plan the remediation efforts. The information resulting from these studies will be documented in a revision to the Strategy and the Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Plan. To support the modeling work and other studies being performed to refine the strategy, this supporting technical information report has been produced to compile all of the relevant technical information collected to date on the Hanford Site groundwater contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, and description of the contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, description of the contaminant plumes, rate of movement based on the conceptual model and monitoring data, risk assessment, treatability study information, and current approach for plume remediation

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  13. Review of chemical and electrokinetic remediation of PCBs contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangping; Wang, Yu; Fang, Guodong; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-09-14

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manmade organic compounds, and pollution due to PCBs has been a global environmental problem because of their persistence, long-range atmospheric transport and bioaccumulation. Many physical, chemical and biological technologies have been utilized to remediate PCBs contaminated soils and sediments, and there are some emerging new technologies and combined methods that may provide cost-effective alternatives to the existing remediation practice. This review provides a general overview on the recent developments in chemical treatment and electrokinetic remediation (EK) technologies related to PCBs remediation. In particular, four technologies including photocatalytic degradation of PCBs combined with soil washing, Fe-based reductive dechlorination, advanced oxidation process, and EK/integrated EK technology (e.g., EK coupled with chemical oxidation, nanotechnology and bioremediation) are reviewed in detail. We focus on the fundamental principles and governing factors of chemical technologies, and EK/integrated EK technologies. Comparative analysis of these technologies including their major advantages and disadvantages is summarized. The existing problems and future prospects of these technologies regarding PCBs remediation are further highlighted.

  14. Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vermeul, Vincent R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-129 (129I) generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site during plutonium production was released to the subsurface, resulting in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit (OU). Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited, though work is under way to better understand the fate and transport of 129I in the environment and the effectiveness of potential remediation technologies. The recent UP-1 Evaluation Plan for Iodine and report on the Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site provide information on the history of contamination in the 200-UP-1 OU, relevant controlling processes (biological and geochemical), risk, the conceptual site model, and potential remedial options, which provided a foundation for this study. In this study, available information was compiled and used to categorize potential remediation technologies, culminating in a recommendation of promising technologies for further evaluation. Approaches to improve the technical information about promising technologies are also recommended in this study so that a subsequent evaluation of potential remediation alternatives can assess these technologies.

  15. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  16. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO 2 , U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS

  17. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  18. Recent advances in conventional and contemporary methods for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Tiwari, Sakshi; Hasan, Abshar; Saxena, Varun; Pandey, Lalit M

    2018-04-01

    Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has been drawing our attention toward it for quite some time now and a need for developing new methods toward reclamation has come up as the need of the hour. Conventional methods of heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation have been in use for decades and have shown great results, but they have their own setbacks. The chemical and physical techniques when used singularly generally generate by-products (toxic sludge or pollutants) and are not cost-effective, while the biological process is very slow and time-consuming. Hence to overcome them, an amalgamation of two or more techniques is being used. In view of the facts, new methods of biosorption, nanoremediation as well as microbial fuel cell techniques have been developed, which utilize the metabolic activities of microorganisms for bioremediation purpose. These are cost-effective and efficient methods of remediation, which are now becoming an integral part of all environmental and bioresource technology. In this contribution, we have highlighted various augmentations in physical, chemical, and biological methods for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, weighing up their pros and cons. Further, we have discussed the amalgamation of the above techniques such as physiochemical and physiobiological methods with recent literature for the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soils. These combinations have showed synergetic effects with a many fold increase in removal efficiency of heavy metals along with economic feasibility.

  19. The Aftermath of Remedial Math: Investigating the Low Rate of Certificate Completion among Remedial Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…

  20. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-DR-1 remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Calverley, C.

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the method used to assess the readiness of the 100- DR-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation of the 100-D sites (located on the Hanford Site) involves the excavation (treatment if applicable) and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the high-priority waste sites in the 100 Areas

  1. 200-UP-1 groundwater remedial design/remedial action work plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This 200-UP-1 remedial design report presents the objective and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure for the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  2. Provincial labour market study : mould remediation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and

  3. Technologies for remediating radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of technologies that can be used for the remediation of radioactively contaminated ground. There are a wide variety of techniques available -most have established track records for contaminated ground, though in general many are only just being adapted to use for radioactively contaminated ground. 1) Remediation techniques for radioactively contaminated ground involve either removal of the contamination and transfer to a controlled/contained facility such as the national LLW repository at Drigg, or 2) immobilization, solidification and stabilization of the contamination where the physical nature of the soil is changed, or an 'agent' is added to the soil, to reduce the migration of the contaminants, or 3) isolation and containment of the contaminated ground to reduce contaminant migration and control potential detrimental effects to human health. Where contamination has to be removed, ex situ and in situ techniques are available which minimize the waste requiring disposal to an LLW repository. These techniques include: 1) detector-based segregation 2) soil washing by particle separations 3) oil washing with chemical leaching agents 4) electro remediation 5) phyto remediation. Although many technologies are potentially applicable, their application to the remediation of a specific contaminated site is dependent on a number of factors and related to detailed site characterization studies, results from development trials and BPEO (best practicable environmental option) studies. Those factors considered of particular importance are: 1) the clean-up target 2) technical feasibility relative to the particular site, soil and contaminant characteristics, and time frame 3) site infrastructure arrangements and needs, the working life of the site and the duration of institutional care 4) long-term monitoring arrangements for slow remedial techniques or for immobilization and containment techniques 5) validation of the remediation 6) health and

  4. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  5. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  6. Remedy for Radiation Fear — Discard the Politicized Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.

    2014-01-01

    While seeking a remedy for the crisis of radiation fear in Japan, the author reread a recent article on radiation hormesis. It describes the motivation for creating this fear and mentions the evidence, in the first UNSCEAR report, of a factor of 3 reduction in leukemia incidence of the Hiroshima atom-bomb survivors in the low dose zone. Drawing a graph of the data reveals a hormetic J-curve, not a straight line as reported. UNSCEAR data on the lifespan reduction of mice and Guinea pigs exposed continuously to radium gamma rays indicate a threshold at about 2 gray per year. This contradicts the conceptual basis for radiation protection and risk determination that was established in 1956-58. In this paper, beneficial effects and thresholds for harmful effects are discussed, and the biological mechanism is explained. The key point: the rate of spontaneous DNA damage (double-strand breaks) is more than 1000 times the rate caused by background radiation. It is the effect of radiation on an organism's very powerful adaptive protection systems that determines the dose-response characteristic. Low radiation up-regulates the adaptive protection systems, while high radiation impairs these systems. The remedy for radiation fear is to expose and discard the politicized science

  7. Remedy for radiation fear - discard the politicized science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler and Associates Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    While seeking a remedy for the ongoing crisis of radiation fear in Japan and everywhere else, the author reread a recent article on radiation hormesis. It describes the political motivation for creating this fear and mentions the evidence, in the first UNSCEAR report, of a factor of 3 reduction in leukemia incidence of the Hiroshima a-bomb survivors in the low dose zone. Producing a graph of the tabulated data reveals that they fit a hormetic J-curve, not a straight line as reported. UNSCEAR data on the lifespan reduction of mice and Guinea pigs exposed continuously to radium gamma rays indicate a threshold at about 2 gray per year. This information contradicts the conceptual basis for radiation protection and risk determination that was established in 1956-58. In this paper, beneficial effects and thresholds for harmful effects are discussed, and the biological mechanism is explained. The key point is the discovery that the rate of spontaneous DNA damage (double-strand breaks) is more than 1000 times the rate caused by average background radiation. It is the effect of radiation on an organism's very powerful adaptive protection systems that determines the dose-response characteristic. Low radiation up-regulates adaptive protection systems, while high radiation impairs these systems. The remedy for radiation fear is to expose and discard the politicized science. (author)

  8. Flare pits wastes remediation by low temperature oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, L. J. L.; Jamaluddin, A. K. M.; Mehta, R.; Moore, R. G.; Okazawa, N.; Ursenbach, M.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated soil in oilfield sites, flare pits in particular, is subject to strict environmental regulations. Most current remediation techniques such as biological or thermal treatment are not particularly effective in highly contaminated sites, or effective only at costs that are considered prohibitive. This contribution describes a cost-effective method for the treatment of contaminated soil in-situ. The proposed treatment involves low temperature oxidation which converts the hydrocarbons in the contaminated soil to inert coke. In laboratory studies contaminated soil was oxidized with air at temperatures between 150 degrees C and 170 degrees C for three weeks. After the three week treatment extractable hydrocarbon levels were reduced to less than 0.1 per cent. Bioassays also demonstrated that toxicity associated with hydrocarbons was eliminated. Salts and metals remaining in the soil after treatment were removed by leaching with water. Low temperature oxidation requires no special equipment; it can occur under conditions and with equipment that are readily available in an oilfield setting. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Recent Developments for Remediating Acidic Mine Waters Using Sulfidogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nancucheo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic mine drainage (AMD is regarded as a pollutant and considered as potential source of valuable metals. With diminishing metal resources and ever-increasing demand on industry, recovering AMD metals is a sustainable initiative, despite facing major challenges. AMD refers to effluents draining from abandoned mines and mine wastes usually highly acidic that contain a variety of dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn in much greater concentration than what is found in natural water bodies. There are numerous remediation treatments including chemical (lime treatment or biological methods (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors used for metal precipitation and removal from AMD. However, controlled biomineralization and selective recovering of metals using sulfidogenic bacteria are advantageous, reducing costs and environmental risks of sludge disposal. The increased understanding of the microbiology of acid-tolerant sulfidogenic bacteria will lead to the development of novel approaches to AMD treatment. We present and discuss several important recent approaches using low sulfidogenic bioreactors to both remediate and selectively recover metal sulfides from AMD. This work also highlights the efficiency and drawbacks of these types of treatments for metal recovery and points to future research for enhancing the use of novel acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfidogenic microorganisms in AMD treatment.

  10. Remedial Action Programs annual meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Within the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. These programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings remedial Action Program and the West Valley Demonstration Project. The programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Surplus Facilities Management Program and was held near DOE Headquarters, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This volume of proceedings provides the record for the meeting. The proceedings consist of abstracts for each presentation made at the meeting, and the visual aids (if any) used by the speakers. The material is organized in the following pages according to the five different sessions at the meeting: Session 1: Environmental Compliance--Policy; Session 2: Environmental Compliance--Practice; Session 3: Reports from working groups; Session 4: DandD Technology; and Session 5: Remedial Action Technology. The agenda for the meeting and the list of meeting registrants are provided in Appendix A and B, respectively. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  11. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  12. Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraiko, Carol; Wright, Eva M; Ralston, Faye

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to lead has been shown to be harmful to adults; it is a teratogen, it can damage the peripheral nervous system, and it adversely affects the reproductive system. Professional lead-based paint remediation workers are at risk of exposure to lead dust. The authors' study was conducted to determine if these remediation workers transfer lead from their work site to their vehicles and then potentially expose their families. It was hypothesized that remediation workers transported the lead from the remediation work site to the floorboards of their vehicles due to not following required protective equipment use. The laboratory's level of quantitation for lead on the wipe samples, 10 microg/ft2, was used to indicate lead contamination. This level was exceeded in 50% of the floorboards sampled. These results confirm that many vehicle floorboards used by remediation workers are contaminated with lead dust, potentially resulting in transfer of lead dust. The ultimate detrimental outcome could be the transfer of lead particles to other family members, causing the poisoning of a child or other at-risk person.

  13. Setting a benchmark in remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Thiess Services has achieved a first in the treatment of contaminated soil, in the process assisting Orica in successfully removing a toxic legacy. In 1980, when Orica Australia's predecessor ICI Australia constructed its car park waste encapsulation (CPWE) to seal off contaminated soil at Botany Industrial Park, 12km south of the Sydney CBD, treatment methods were not available. Fast-forward more than 30 years and Thiess Services has successfully undertaken treatment of the soil, earning it the 2013 CARE award. The contaminated soil contained hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), low levels of hexachlorobenzene and hexachloroethane, all by-products of historical manufacturing of chlorinated solvents, including dry cleaning fluid, in the 1960s and 1970s. ICI Australia decided initially to store the contaminated material in drums and place it on a bed of boiler ash. However, drum corrosion led to contamination of the ash bed and underlying soil, so the company decided to encapsulate the material within a synthetic Hypalon liner, covering it with clean soil and capping it with bitumen in a 45,000 cubic metre cell. In 2005, Orica commissioned Thiess to assess a range of remediation methods and technologies to treat the material. Three options were recommended — directly heated thermal desorption, in situ thermal desorption and indirectly heated thermal desorption. “Together with Orica, we decided that directly heated thermal desorption was the appropriate technology to use,” Thiess project manager Joshua Van Der Heiden said. “Essentially, the soil is introduced into a rotary kiln and a flame directly heats up the soil above the contaminants' boiling point (up to a maximum of 450C) so that the contaminants are volatilised and the soil comes out clean. The gas separated from the soil is then heated to around 1000C in a thermal oxidiser, converting it into carbon dioxide and water. To prevent contaminants from reforming, the gas stream is rapidly cooled by a

  14. REMEDIAL APPLICATIONS OF EXOSOMES IN CANCER, INFECTIONS AND DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianhuai; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zhen, Fei; Ma, Jianwei; Meng, Fanxing

    2017-03-01

    Different cell types under normal and diseased states constantly secrete numerous membrane vesicles including exosomes into extracellular space wkich can be isolated from various biological fluids and cell culture supernatants. Exosomal diameter ranges between 40-100 nm. In current research, exosomes are being exploited as biomarkers for pathological diagnosis and potential remedy against various disease conditions such as infections and autoimmune disorders. In cancer immunotherapy, exosomes have promisingly been employed due to the identical immunogenic antigens of exosomes produced by neoplastic cells and the originating tissues. Antigen-specific T-cell activation and immunomodulatory activity is observed to be performed by exosomes isolated from tumor and dendritic cells (DCs). However, more research is still required to uncover the realistic uses of exosomes, particularly as drug delivery tool in autoimmune diseases, cancers and diabetes.

  15. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  16. Remediation of Soil at Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.; Boardman, C.; Robbins, R; Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2000-01-01

    As the major nuclear waste and decontamination and decommissioning projects progress, one of the remaining problems that faces the nuclear industry is that of site remediation. The range of contamination levels and contaminants is wide and varied and there is likely to be a significant volume of soil contaminated with transuranics and hazardous organic materials that could qualify as mixed TRU waste. There are many technologies that offer the potential for remediating this waste but few that tackle all or most of the contaminants and even fewer that have been deployed with confidence. This paper outlines the progress made in proving the ability of Supercritical Fluid Extraction as a method of remediating soil, classified as mixed (TRU) transuranic waste

  17. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  18. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to

  19. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-07-01

    Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil - mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to develop hydro-geochemically stable

  20. Remediation of a former tank farm : Saviktok Point, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingras, P. [Biogenie Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    A former tank farm was remediated in Saviktok Point, Northwest Territories (NWT). This presentation discussed the site characteristics and presented several photographs of the tank farm location. The remote location did not have any source of electrical power and was accessible only by sea. It had limited availability of equipment, materials and manpower. The preferred solution for the hydrocarbon contamination was biological treatment, which requires oxygen gas to maximize the degradation of contaminants. Other key aspects of biological treatment include the need for heat to sustain microbial activity; use of nitrogen and phosphorous; neutral pH and loose structure and moisture content. Several photographs were provided to illustrate treatment technologies; bench scale trials; and the use of wind turbines for soil aeration. A chart that demonstrated bioremediation efficiency at Saviktok Point was presented. The presentation revealed that over a 3 season period 17,000 cubic metres were treated to NWT industrial standards. The average temperatures during treatment was 30 degrees Celsius and soils were recycled as landfill cover material. The presentation concluded with a discussion Saviktok Point benefits, such as the minimization of soil handling; utilization of a wind-powered aeration system; adapted design of the biological treatment to site-specific conditions; and maximum use of local resources. figs.

  1. A review of current techniques of Physico-chemical and biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 5 (2015) > ... are more recent biological remediation methods, like vermiremediation, which are especially eco-friendly, cost effective, and sustainable.

  2. Biological degradation of oil sludge: A review of the current state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse effects of oil sludge on soil ecology and fertility have been of ... of contaminated land, with a view to making such land available for further use. Oil ... on the biological remediation technologies employed in the treatment oil sludge.

  3. Remedial action planning for Trench 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, A.; Sproles, W.; Burmeister, M.; Wagner, R.; Law, J.; Greengard, T.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes from Trench 1 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) will begin in June 1998. To ensure that the remedial action is conducted safely, a rigorous and disciplined planning process was followed that incorporates the principles of Integrated Safety Management and Enhanced Work Planning. Critical to the success of the planning was early involvement of project staff (salaried and hourly) and associated technical support groups and disciplines. Feedback was and will continue to be solicited, and lessons learned incorporated to ensure the safe remediation of this site

  4. Pulse current enhanced electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect at diffe......Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect...

  5. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This strategy paper identifies and defines the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) for source waste sites in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. This paper provides the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess and approve the Environmental Restoration Contractor's (ERC) approach to RD/RA. Additionally, DOE is requesting review/agreement from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on the strategy presented in this document in order to expedite remedial activities

  6. Remediation Using Plants and Plant Enzymes: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In every case, the sources are plants growing near the sediment. The use of plants for remediation of hazardous materials such as TNT or other munitions like RDX and HMX has led to a new approach to remediation-- phytoremediation...

  7. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  8. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  9. Remediation General Permit (RGP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Remediation Activity Discharges – the Remediation General Permit in MA (MAG910000) and NH (NHG910000).

  10. Electrochemical Remediation of Dredged Material for Beneficial Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Two different methods, electrodialytic and electroosmotic remediation, were used to demonstrate the potential of electrochemical methods for remediation of contaminated harbor sediments. In two three-week-long laboratory experiments using electrodialysis and electroosmosis, respectively...

  11. Functional remediation components: A conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them. The overall goal of the present investigation was to define the components of remediation types (= functional remediation). Objectives were to (1) define and describe functional components of remediation, regardless of the remediation type, (2) provide examples of each functional remediation component, and (3) explore potential effects of functional remediation components in the post-cleanup phase that may involve continued monitoring and assessment. Functional remediation components include types, numbers, and intensity of people, trucks, heavy equipment, pipes, and drill holes, among others. Several components may be involved in each remediation type, and each results in ecological effects, ranging from trampling of plants, to spreading invasive species, to disturbing rare species, and to creating fragmented habitats. In some cases remediation may exert a greater effect on ecological receptors than leaving the limited contamination in place. A goal of this conceptualization is to break down functional components of remediation such that managers, regulators, and the public might assess the effects of timing, extent, and duration of different remediation options on ecological systems.

  12. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Cu-Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action......Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action...

  16. Bioventing feasibility test to aid remediation strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pearce, K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented where the feasibility of bioventing was assessed for the remediation of a petroleum-contaminated site. This was achieved through the determination of the radius of influence of a single vent well, the soil gas permeability...

  17. Adaptive remediation using portable treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahowick, S.; Folsom, E.; Pico, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using adaptive remediation to optimize their environmental restoration strategy. Adaptive remediation uses hydrostratigraphic analysis to gain a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics, hydraulic tests to optimize contaminant transport models, and Portable Treatment Units (PTUs) as an alternative to fixed facilities. Hydrostratigraphic analysis is an optimization tool that improves the ability to identify and target contaminant migration pathways, identify the relationship between plumes and source areas, and better define hydraulic capture areas. Hydraulic tests, performed with PTUs, provide valuable data about subsurface characteristics. As clean up progresses, PTUs can be moved to the appropriate extraction wells to optimize contaminant mass removal. PTUs can also be placed to support innovative treatment technologies such as steam injection and microbial filters. Construction of PTUs will reduce by one-half the capital costs of building the rest of the fixed treatment system planned in the Record of Decision. Regulatory agencies are receptive to the use of the PTUs because the same treatment technology is being used and the PTUs will be able to clean up the plume cheaper and faster. Using adaptive remediation, LLNL is more effectively implementing remediation plans, improving cleanup time, and reducing project costs

  18. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  19. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization

  20. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces

  1. Cost and performance of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.; Kingscott, J.W.; Fiedler, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and use of more cost-effective remedies requires better access to data on the performance and cost of technologies used in the field. To make data more widely available, the US Environmental Protection Agency is working jointly with member agencies of the Federal Remediation Technologies Round table to publish case studies of full-scale remediation and demonstration projects. EPA, DoD, and DOE have published case studies of cleanup projects primarily consisting of bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and thermal desorption. Within the limits of this initial data set, the paper evaluates technology performance and cost. In the analysis of cost factors, the paper shows the use of a standardized Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Use of the WBS will be important in future reporting of completed projects to facilitate cost comparison. The paper notes the limits to normalization and thus cross-site comparison which can be achieved using the WBS. The paper identifies conclusions from initial efforts to compile cost and performance data, highlights the importance of such efforts to the overall remediation effort, and discusses future cost and performance documentation efforts

  2. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment

  3. 48 CFR 903.970 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Whistleblower Protections for Contractor Employees 903.970 Remedies. (a) Contractors found to have retaliated against an employee in reprisal for such disclosure.... However, a contractor's disagreement and refusal to comply with a final decision could result in a...

  4. Screening of fungi for soil remediation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Lamar; Laura M. Main; Diane M. Dietrich; John A. Glaser

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if physiological and/or biochemical factors such as growth rate, tolerance to and ability to degrade PCP or creosote have use for predicting the potential bioremediation performance of fungi. Because we have focused the initial development of a fungal-based soil remediation technology on PCP- and/or creosote-...

  5. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  6. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil ...

  7. Remedial Action Program annual conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Within the DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration ampersand Waste Management, the Office of Environmental Restoration manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. The programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, and the West Valley Demonstration Project. These programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive or hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, DOE-AL, and was held in Albuquerque, NM. This volume of proceedings is the record of that conference. The proceedings consist of abstracts, summaries, or actual text for each presentation made and any visual aids used by the speakers

  8. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  9. Soil radiological characterisation and remediation at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Cristina; Garcia Tapias, Esther; Leganes, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Located in Madrid, CIEMAT is the Spanish Centre for Energy-Related, Environmental and Technological Research. It used to have more than 60 facilities in operation that allowed a wide range of activities in the nuclear field and in the application of ionising radiations. At present, the centre includes several facilities; some of them are now obsolete, shut down and in dismantling phases. In 2000 CIEMAT started the 'Integrated plan for the improvement of CIEMAT facilities (PIMIC)', which includes activities for the decontamination, dismantling, rehabilitation of obsolete installations and soil remediation activities. A small contaminated area named with the Spanish word 'Lenteja' (Lentil), has had to be remediate and restored. In the 70's, an incidental leakage of radioactive liquid occurred during a transference operation from the Reprocessing Plant to the Liquid Treatment Installation, and contaminated about 1000 m 3 of soil. Remediation activities in this area started with an exhaustive radiological characterisation of the soil, including surface samples and up to 16 meters boreholes, and the development of a comprehensive radiological characterization methodology for pre-classification of materials. Once the framework was defined the following tasks were being carried out: preparation of the area, soil extraction activities and final radiological characterisation for release purposes. Next step will be the refilling of the resulting hole from the removal soil activities. This paper will describe the soil radiological characterization and remediation activities at the Lentil Zone in Ciemat Research Centre. (authors)

  10. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  11. 49 CFR 604.47 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from receiving future Federal financial assistance from FTA; (2) Order the withholding of a reasonable percentage of available Federal financial assistance; or (3) Pursue suspension and debarment of the recipient... violations will be given greater consideration than action simply to remedy violations identified during FTA...

  12. Gamma Ray Imaging for Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.F. Philips; R.A. Kroeger: J.D. Kurfess: W.N. Johnson; E.A. Wulf; E. I. Novikova

    2004-11-12

    This program is the development of germanium strip detectors for environmental remediation. It is a collaboration between the Naval Research Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. The goal is to develop detectors that are simultaneously capable of excellent spectroscopy and imaging of gamma radiation.

  13. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... adequate supply of parts will be available to initiate the repair campaign, the percentage of the total... intact. (3) The label shall contain: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the...

  14. Preliminary Investigations Of Effectiveness Of Herbal Remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed some of the widely publicised herbal remedies in use for HIV infection in Nigeria, and investigated their efficacy scientifically. Those found to be efficacious will be subjected to further analysis to identify their active chemical components. The research deals directly with patients living with HIV/AIDS that ...

  15. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  16. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms...

  17. 2-D model for electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J.M.; Garcia Delgado, R.A.; Gomez Lahoz, C.; Garcia Herruzo, F. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Vereda Alonso, C. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)]|[Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    A simple two-dimensional numerical model is presented in this work. In this case, the model is used to examine the enhanced method of the electrokinetic remediation technique in a 2-D arrangement. Nevertheless the model with minor changes can also be used to study the effect of the electrode configuration in the performance of this technique. (orig.)

  18. Remediation of contaminated soil by cement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript presents the most applicable remedial technologies for contaminated soil with focus on cement stabilisation/solidification treatment. These technologies are examined in the light of soil contamination with depleted uranium in the large area of south Serbia,after Nato bombing 1999. (author) [sr

  19. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  20. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...

  1. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic regimes of the ecosystem. Several remediation alternatives have been in use for the restoration of ... In this paper, we present an overview of bioremediation alternative vis-à-vis other ...

  2. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  3. The running athlete: Roentgenograms and remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have put together an atlas of radiographs of almost every conceivable running injury to the foot, ankle, leg, knee, femur, groin, and spine. Text material is limited to legends which describe the figures, and the remedies listed are brief. The text indicates conservative versus surgical treatment and, in some instances, recommends a surgical procedure

  4. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    and remedial options enables the evaluation of a variety of situations or alternative recovery strategies in contexts of preparedness or decision-making. At present a number of models and modelling approaches are available for different purposes. This paper summarizes the available modelling approaches...

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  6. Decision process for Hanford sitewide groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes a decision process for planning future investigations and remediating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This decision process details the following: identifies key decisions and activities; defines the criteria used in making each decision; and defines the logic that links the decisions and the activities in a stepwise manner

  7. TRADITIONAL REMEDIES IN CHILDREN AROUND EASTERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... remain largely unproven by the scientific method and the concern about adverse effects have led to closer scrutiny of these products (4). Whereas most traditional remedies are safe, the potential for adverse effects or intoxication exists, as does the possibility of interaction with conventional drugs (2, 5-8).

  8. Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation Project in Uyo ... and retraining in the hope that this will impact on the pupils' literacy development. ... process and often fail to engage the pupils in activities that promote literacy ... In other to empower such children for meaningful learning, reading needs to ...

  9. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  10. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  11. IAEA Remediation Mission Issues Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed their assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Their Final Report, delivered to the Japanese authorities, is available here. ''A lot of good work, done at all levels, is on-going in Japan in the area of environmental remediation,'' said Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. In the report, Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts, taking into account the advice provided by the Mission. ''In the early phases of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a very cautious approach was adopted by the Japanese authorities in terms of dealing with the handling of residue materials. It is considered right to do so,'' Lentijo said. ''However, at this point in time, we see that there is room to take a more balanced approach, focussing on the real priority areas, classifying residue materials and adopting appropriate remediation measures on the basis of the results of safety assessments for each specific situation.'' The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it continues its efforts to remediate the environment in the area off-site the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The IAEA sent the mission to Japan from 7 to 15 October 2011 following a request from the country's government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several ministries and institutions. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 14 October. Background The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA

  12. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  13. Calculating the Costs of Remedial Placement Testing. CCRC Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Olga; Bowden, Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Of the more than one million new students who enter community colleges each fall, nearly 70 percent are assigned to remedial coursework. The cost of providing this coursework is high, yet evidence about the effectiveness of remediation is not compelling. In addition, many students are misclassified in the remedial assessment process. In order for…

  14. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  15. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase...

  16. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    .... Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY... biphenyl (PCB) disposal regulations regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste. The proposed... regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste under regulations promulgated at 40 CFR part 761. The...

  17. Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The University of Dayton Research Institute Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation Final Report Marlin D... Remediation Executive Summary: Fuel contamination is a broad term commonly applied to anything that causes a fuel test to fail quality assurance...Statement A: Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 1 Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation Contents

  18. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61 PCB remediation waste. This section provides cleanup and disposal options for PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up and disposing of PCBs managed under this section...

  19. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this planning document is to identify and define the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. Additionally, this document will support the Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC) team, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and regulatory agencies in identifying and agreeing upon the complete process for expedited cleanup of the 100 Area

  20. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account. Copyright

  1. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  2. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  3. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  4. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettin, R.W.; Carr, D.J.; Janke, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  5. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  6. RCRA corrective action ampersand CERCLA remedial action reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This reference guide provides a side-by-side comparison of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA Remedial Action, focusing on the statutory and regulatory requirements under each program, criterial and other factors that govern a site's progress, and the ways in which authorities or requirements under each program overlap and/or differ. Topics include the following: Intent of regulation; administration; types of sites and/or facilities; definition of site and/or facility; constituents of concern; exclusions; provisions for short-term remedies; triggers for initial site investigation; short term response actions; site investigations; remedial investigations; remedial alternatives; clean up criterial; final remedy; implementing remedy; on-site waste management; completion of remedial process

  7. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  8. Program management strategies for following EPA guidance for remedial design/remedial action at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, J.P.; Chew, J.R.; Kowalski, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, environmental restoration is being conducted in accordance with Federal Facilities Compliance Agreements (or Interagency Agreements). These agreements establish a cooperative working relationship and often define roles, responsibilities and authorities for conduct and oversight of the Remedial Action Programs. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has guidelines on how to initiate and perform remedial actions for sites they are remediating under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Re-Authorization Act (SARA). This paper addresses some of the difference and commonalities between the DOE project management procedures and EPA guidance documents. This report covers only the RD/RA phase of environmental restoration. On the surface, there are many apparent differences between the DOE and EPA project management processes. Upon closer review, however, many of the differences are the result of applying different terminology to the same phase of a project. By looking for the similarities in the two processes rather than hunting for differences, many communication problems are avoided. Understanding both processes also aids in figuring out when, how and to what extent EPA should participate in the RD/RA phase for DOE lead cleanup activities. The DOE Remedial Design and Remedial Action process is discussed in a stepwise manner and compared to the EPA process. Each element of the process is defined. Activities common to both the EPA and DOE are correlated. The annual DOE budget cycle for remediation projects and the four-year cycle for appropriation of remediation funds are discussed, and the constraints of this process examined. DOE orders as well as other requirements for RD/RA activities are summarized and correlated to EPA regulations where this is possible

  9. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  10. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  11. Briefing paper -- Remedial Action Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Congress has mandated a more comprehensive management of hazardous wastes with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or ''Superfund'') and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This mandate includes restoration of disposal sites contaminated through past disposal practices. This mandate applies to facilities operated for and by the Department of Energy (DOE), just as it does to industrial and other institutions. To help implement the CERCLA/SARA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process in a consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, a methodology needs to be developed that will allow definition, sorting, and screening of remediation technologies for each operable unit (waste site). This need is stated specifically in Section 2.2.2.1 of the October 1989 Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Plan of the DOE. This Briefing Paper is prepared to respond to this need. 1 fig

  12. Analytical considerations for stress related remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.; McGuire, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study described here focuses on reducing the impact of one of the factors, contributing to integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWR reactor piping, e.g., tensile residual stresses in the areas of observed cracking. There are several techniques for controlling residual stresses on the inside surface of girth welded pipes. The work described here is part of a larger study where various remedies and pipe geometries were considered. The stress remedy technique utilizes an induction heating method to alter residual stresses due to welding. The method is referred to as Induction Heating for Stress Improvement (IHSI). While IHSI was first applied to pipe-to-pipe weldments with successful results, many field applications of IHSI will be to pipe-to-tee or pipe-to-component geometries. Therefore, this study is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the weld induced residual stress and the effect of IHSI on weldments with this type of geometry

  13. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  14. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  15. Phyto remediation of PAH contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, G.; Pedron, F.; Barbafieri, M.; Cervelli, St.; Vigna Guidi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-remediation may enhance degradation of organic compounds promoting an adequate substrate for microbial growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two plant species, Lupinus albus and Zea mais, in the bio-remediation of a PAH contaminated soil. This soil has been collected in a contaminated industrial area in Italy characterized by PAH concentrations up to 16000 mg/Kg. Microcosms experiments were carried out by planting Lupinus albus and Zea mais in the polluted soil; controls without plants were run separately. Growing period lasted by three months. Plants favoured PAH biodegradation by percentages of 32% with Lupinus albus and 22% with Zea mais, with respect to non vegetated microcosms. (authors)

  16. Installation of an innovative remedial technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, B.

    1995-01-01

    The major goal of the Lasagna trademark project was to design, construct, install, and operate an in situ remediation system in low-permeability soil. A new technology--the Lasagna process--uses electro-osmosis to move contaminated groundwater through treatment zones. The treatment zones are installed in contaminated soils, thereby forming an integrated in situ remedial process. Electro-osmosis, well known for its effectiveness and extremely low power consumption, uses a direct current to cause Groundwater to travel through low-permeability soil. When a bench-scale version of the technology was 98 percent effective in removing contamination, an actual field test was the next step. The site chosen for this first field effort was the DOE-owned Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. The target contaminant for this project was trichloroethylene (TCE) because it is found at many sites across the country and is present at approximately 60 percent of DOE's sites

  17. Orchestrating environmental research and assessment for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Whicker, F.W.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The interface between science, assessment, and policy have come to the forefront of national attention recently, and the issues involved were summarized for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The authors of this letter consider if the lessons learned in NAPAP are being applied to the remediation of contaminated sites in the U.S. DOE nuclear weapons complex. A figure giving the authors'prospective of the role science should play in a risk management problems is presented. Three major lessons from the NAPAP experience are discussed in reference to DOE: (1) objectives must be clearly spelled out early in the assessment; (2) the importance of peer review throughout the scientific evaluation phase, including publication of a significant amount of research in peer-reviewed journal in a timely fashion; (3) the risk associated with remediation alternative should be included in any assessment. 30 refs., 1 fig

  18. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  19. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  20. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  1. Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard. Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.

  2. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities

  3. Electrochemical soil remediation - accelerated soil weathering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A.; Hansen, H.K.; Jensen, P.E.; Pedersen, A.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, New Univ. of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    In electrochemical soil remediation systems, where enhancement solutions and complexing agents are not used, a developing acidic front is mobilizing the heavy metals and the electric current is removing the mobilized elements from the soil. The hypotheses investigated in this paper is whether this process may be comparable to the chemical soil weathering that occurs in the environment due to the acidic rain, where the mobilized elements are removed from the soil by the penetrating water. Even through the weathering process is highly accelerated in the electrochemical cell. This paper shows results from electrodialytic remediation experiments performed with four different Danish heavy metal polluted soils. The main emphasis is laid on the relation between the developing acidic front and electromigration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca. (orig.)

  4. Electrochemical remediation technologies for soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, F. [Electrochemical Processes I.I. c. Valley Forge, PA (United States)]|[P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany); Doering, N. [P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Direct Current Technologies (DCTs) a direct current electricity is passed between at least two subsurface electrodes in order to effect the remediation of the groundwater and/or the soil. DCTs in line with the U.S.-terminology comprise of the ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs), and GeoKinetics. The primary distinction between ECRTs and ElectroKinetics are the power input, and the mode of operation, which are electrochemical reactions vs. mass transport. ECRTs combine phenomena of colloid (surface) electrochemistry with the phenomena of Induced Polarization (IP). This report focuses on ECRTs, comprising of the ElectroChemical GeoOxidation (ECGO) for the mineralization of organic pollutants to finally carbon dioxide and water, and Induced Complexation (IC), related to the electrochemical conversion of metals enhancing the mobilization and precipitation of heavy metals on both electrodes. Both technologies are based on reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions at the scale of the individual soil particles. (orig.)

  5. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  6. Decommissioning and environmental remediation: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The objective in both decommissioning and environmental remediation is to lower levels of residual radioactivity enough that the sites may be used for any purpose, without restriction. In some cases, however, this may not be practical and restrictions may be placed on future land use. Following decommissioning, for example, some sites may be reused for non-nuclear industrial activities, but not for habitation. Some former uranium mining sites may be released for reuse as nature reserves or for other leisure activities. Both decommissioning and environmental remediation are major industrial projects in which the safety of the workforce, the local public and the environment must be ensured from both radiological and conventional hazards. Hence, an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, as well as proper training for personnel both in implementation and in regulatory oversight are among the necessary preconditions to ensure safety.

  7. Decommissioning and environmental remediation: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The objective in both decommissioning and environmental remediation is to lower levels of residual radioactivity enough that the sites may be used for any purpose, without restriction. In some cases, however, this may not be practical and restrictions may be placed on future land use. Following decommissioning, for example, some sites may be reused for non-nuclear industrial activities, but not for habitation. Some former uranium mining sites may be released for reuse as nature reserves or for other leisure activities. Both decommissioning and environmental remediation are major industrial projects in which the safety of the workforce, the local public and the environment must be ensured from both radiological and conventional hazards. Hence, an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, as well as proper training for personnel both in implementation and in regulatory oversight are among the necessary preconditions to ensure safety

  8. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  9. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study

  10. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  11. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors' facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission

  12. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  13. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  14. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  15. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  16. GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    system for sediment runoff along sloped areas.  Use of excavated areas as retention basins.  Optimize amount of injection water used during...of Solid Waste and Emergency Response vii RACG remedial action cleanup goal RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ROD Record of Decision...total energy use, increase in hybrid vehicles, and reduction in water intensity. Many of the principles outlined in EO 13693 can be applied to improve

  17. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  18. Cultural services remediated in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Danish Public Libraries conducted an experiment in establishing a library in the virtual world Second Life. The Info Island DK provided the framework for a number of online library services and cultural events. This study, based on interviews with most of the active participants...... in the project, discusses the experiences in remediating conventional library services into the new medium and in understanding and redefining the role of the librarian in an online virtual world....

  19. Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great.

  20. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  1. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ''lessons learned'' from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors

  2. Remedial measures for nozzles susceptible to PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Remediating primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is usually directed towards one of the three causes of PWSCC, material susceptiability, tensile stress, and an aggressive environment. The most practical remedial measures for primary loop penetration of PWSCC are considered to be shot peening, electropolishing, stress relief, and electroplating. The objective of shot peening is to induce a comprehensive residual stress on surfaces of Inconel 600 which are exposed to aggressive environments. Experience with steam generator tubes has shown this method is most effective if applied before PWSCC occurs. If it has already occurred, then the peening may retard but not arrest the corrosion. Electroplating consists of plating the inside surface of the Inconel 600 penetration with pure nickel. One of the major problems with this method was in obtaining surfaces uniformly free from pitting and roughness. Electropolishing for PWSCC remediation would remove the high strength cold work surfaces on the insides of nozzles which are produced by mechanical working e.g. machining. 5 figs

  3. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents

  4. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  5. Laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskid, N.J.; Zussman, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    There are two measures of ''successful'' technology transfer in DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program. The first is remediation of DOE sites, and the second is commercialization of an environmental remediation process or product. The ideal case merges these two in laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation. The elements to be discussed in terms of their effectiveness in aiding technology transfer include: a decision-making champion; timely and sufficient funding; well organized technology transfer function; well defined DOE and commercial markets; and industry/commercial partnering. Several case studies are presented, including the successful commercialization of a process for vitrification of low-level radioactive waste, the commercial marketing of software for hazardous waste characterization, and the application of a monitoring technique that has won a prestigious technical award. Case studies will include: vitrification of low-level radioactive waste (GTS Duratek, Columbia, MD); borehole liner for emplacing instrumentation and sampling groundwater (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM); electronic cone penetrometer (Applied Research Associates, Inc., South Royalton, VT); and software for hazardous waste monitoring ConSolve, Inc. (Lexington, MA). The roles of the Department of Energy and Argonne National Laboratory in these successes will be characterized

  6. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  7. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1995-09-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I-Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  8. Modern approaches to remediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-07-01

    The main principles and approaches to remediation of in situ polluted soils aimed at the removal or control of heavy metals (washing, stabilization, phytoremediation, and natural restoration) are analyzed. The prospects of gentle methods of stabilization oriented at the reduction of the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals due to the processes of adsorption, ionic exchange, and precipitation are emphasized. The use of sorbents and the traditional application of liming and phosphates to fix metal pollutants in soils is considered. The necessary conditions for successful soil remediation are the assessment of its economic efficiency, the analysis of the ecological risks, and confirming the achievement of the planned purposes related to the content of available metals in the soils.

  9. Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2014-05-01

    Remediation of the technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works on the Kola Peninsula resulted in the improvement of the soil properties, namely, in a decrease in acidity and enrichment with nutrients, which continued for several years. However, the reaction of most of the treated soils remained strongly acid, and the concentrations of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were much lower than their background levels and the demands of the plants for nutrients (especially, for magnesium and potassium). The soils were depleted in available manganese and zinc. Most of the treated soils contained the same (or higher) amounts of available nickel and copper compounds in comparison with their untreated analogues. The willow plantations on the remediated plots were in a satisfactory state, but they experienced a deficit of magnesium, manganese, and zinc; they consumed elevated amounts of nickel and copper. Recommendations on the nutrient regime of the soils aimed at decreasing the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals were made.

  10. Heavy Metal Phytoremediation: Microbial Indicators of Soil Health for the Assessment of Remediation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Ma Becerril, José; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    Phytoremediation is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, promising phytotechnology for the remediation of polluted soils. The objective of any soil remediation process must be not only to remove the contaminant(s) from the soil but, most importantly, to restore the continued capacity of the soil to perform or function according to its potential (i.e., to recover soil health). Hence, indicators of soil health are needed to properly assess the efficiency of a phytoremediation process. Biological indicators of soil health, especially those related to the size, activity and diversity of the soil microbial communities, are becoming increasingly used, due to their sensitivity and capacity to provide information that integrates many environmental factors. In particular, microbial indicators of soil health are valid tools to evaluate the success of metal phytoremediation procedures such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization processes.

  11. Arsenic: A Review of the Element's Toxicity, Plant Interactions, and Potential Methods of Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2015-08-19

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element with a long history of toxicity. Sites of contamination are found worldwide as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The broad scope of arsenic toxicity to humans and its unique interaction with the environment have led to extensive research into its physicochemical properties and toxic behavior in biological systems. The purpose of this review is to compile the results of recent studies concerning the metalloid and consider the chemical and physical properties of arsenic in the broad context of human toxicity and phytoremediation. Areas of focus include arsenic's mechanisms of human toxicity, interaction with plant systems, potential methods of remediation, and protocols for the determination of metals in experimentation. This assessment of the literature indicates that controlling contamination of water sources and plants through effective remediation and management is essential to successfully addressing the problems of arsenic toxicity and contamination.

  12. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  13. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  14. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  15. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  16. Remediation of Site of Decommissioning Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovich, A.S.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Potapov, V.N.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V. [National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In the world the most widespread method of soil decontamination consists of removing the contaminated upper layer and sending it for long-term controlled storage. However, implementation of this soil cleanup method for remediation of large contaminated areas would involve high material and financial expenditures, because it produces large amounts of radioactive waste demanding removal to special storage sites. Contaminated soil extraction and cleanup performed right on the spot of remediation activities represents a more advanced and economically acceptable method. Radiological separation of the radioactive soil allows reducing of amount of radwaste. Studies performed during the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences revealed that a considerable fraction of radioactivity is accumulated in minute soil grains. So, the separation of contaminated soil by size fractions makes it possible to extract and concentrate the major share of radioactivity in the fine fraction. Based on these researches water gravity separation technology was proposed by Bochvar Institute. The method extracts the fine fraction from contaminated soil. Studies carried out by Bochvar Institute experts showed that, together with the fine fraction (amounting to 10-20% of the initial soil), this technology can remove up to 85-90% of contaminating radionuclides. The resulting 'dirty' soil fraction could be packaged into containers and removed as radwaste, and decontaminated fractions returned back to their extraction site. Use of radiological and water gravity separations consequently increases the productivity of decontamination facility. Efficiency of this technology applied for contaminated soil cleanup was confirmed in the course of remediation of the contaminated territories near decommissioning research reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. For soil cleaning purposes, a special facility implementing the technology of water gravity separation and radiometric monitoring of soil

  17. Remediation in Practicing Physicians: Current and Alternative Conceptualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Law, Gisèle; Teunissen, Pim W; Regehr, Glenn

    2018-04-24

    Suboptimal performance in practicing physicians is a decades-old problem. The lack of a universally accepted definition of remediation, the paucity of research on best remediation practices, and the ongoing controversy regarding the institutional responsibility for enacting and overseeing this activity suggests that the remediation of physicians is not merely a difficult problem to solve, but a problem that the community does not grapple with meaningfully. Undoubtedly, logistical and political considerations contribute to this state of affairs; however, other underlying conceptual issues may also play a role in the medical profession's difficulties in engaging with the challenges around remediation.Through a review of the medical education and other literatures, the authors examined current conceptualizations of both remediation itself and the individual being remediated, as well as how the culture of medicine influences these conceptions. The authors explored how conceptualizations of remediation and the surrounding culture might affect not only the medical community's ability to support, but also its willingness to engage with physicians in need of remediation.Viewing remediation as a means of supporting practice change-rather than as a means of redressing gaps in knowledge and skill-might be a useful alternative conceptualization, providing a good place to start exploring new avenues of research. However, moving forward will require more than simply a reconceptualizion of remediation; it will also necessitate a change in how the community views its struggling members and a change in the medical culture that currently positions professional autonomy as the foundational premise for individual practice improvement.

  18. Environmental and biological applications of microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K; Koutsospyros, A; Yin, S-M; Christodoulatos, C; Abramzon, N; Joaquin, J C; Brelles-Marino, G

    2005-01-01

    Stable glow-type discharge plasmas at elevated pressures can be generated and maintained easily when the plasma is spatially confined to cavities with critical dimensions below 1 mm ('microplasmas'). We studied the properties of several atmospheric-pressure microplasmas and their use in the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biological decontamination. The VOCs studied include individual prototypcal aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as mixtures such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). The biological systems under study included individual bacteria as well as bacterial biofilms, which are highly structured communities of bacteria that are very resistant to antibiotics, germicides, and other conventional forms of destruction

  19. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  1. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  2. Phase 1 remediation of jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport using dual phase extraction and bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Bianco, P. Rizzo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contaminated with jet fuel at Terminal One of the JFK International Airport in New York have been remediated using dual phase extraction (DPE) and bioventing. Two areas were remediated using 51 DPE wells and 20 air sparging/air injection wells. The total area remediated by the DPE wells is estimated to be 4.8 acres. Groundwater was extracted to recover nonaqueous phase and aqueous phase jet fuel from the shallow aquifer and treated above ground by the following processes; oil/water separation, iron-oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, air stripping and liquid-phase granular activated carbon (LPGAC) adsorption. The extracted vapors were treated by vapor-phase granular activated carbon (VPGAC) adsorption in one area, and catalytic oxidation and VPGAC adsorption in another area. After 6 months of remediation, approximately 5,490 lbs. of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were removed by soil vapor extraction (SVE), 109,650 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed from the extracted groundwater, and 60,550 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were biologically oxidized by subsurface microorganisms. Of these three mechanisms, the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon removal was the highest for biological oxidation in one area and by groundwater extraction in another area

  3. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  4. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  7. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil using Achromobacter sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies have the potential to effectively remediate soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): solvent extraction, coal-oil agloflotation, supercritical extraction, and bioremediation. Due to the cost effectiveness and in-situ treatment capabilities of bioremediation, studies were conducted to determine the efficiency of Achromobacter sp. to remediate an industrial contaminated soil sample. Specifically, the use of three different mineral salt solutions in conjunction with the Achromobacter sp. was investigated. The molecular identification of the contaminants and their respective levels after remediation were determined using a Hewlett-Packard 1050 HPLC. Preliminary results show a 92% remediation for the use of two of the mineral salt solutions after 20 days' treatment. After 8 weeks, the remediation efficiency reached 99%. Bioremediation was also critically compared to the other potential remediation technologies

  8. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Annual status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The FY 1983 project accomplishments are: completed the Remedial Action Plan and Phase I engineering design for the Canonsburg processing site; completed remedial action on an additional 52 vicinity properties and the inclusion of an additional 303 properties in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; executed cooperative agreements with four states and the Navajo Nation; published the draft environmental impact statement for Salt Lake City site; and issued the approved Project Plan

  10. Technology needs and trends for hazardous waste site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Over the next few decades, federal, state, and local governments and private industry will commit billions of dollars annually to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous waste and petroleum products. While these needs represent an obligation for society, they also represent an important business opportunity for vendors of remediation services. This presentation assesses the remediation market by characterizing sites that comprise the demand for cleanup services, observing remedy selection trends in the Superfund program, and discussing gaps in the supply of technologies

  11. The effect of Soil Temperature on Electrodialytic Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Iben Vernegren

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic remediation of copper, zinc and lead contaminated kaolin was studied at three different temperatures (0-39 degrees centrigrate). It is shown that an increase in temperature increases the rate of remediation for all three metals. Copper and zinc shows similar rate constants......, while for lead, the rate constant obtained are significantly smaller. The increased remediation rate is presumed to be due mainly to the lowering of the viscosity....

  12. Sustainability: A new imperative in contaminated land remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Deyi; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviewed the emerging green and sustainable remediation movement in the US and Europe. • Identified three sources of pressures for emphasizing sustainability in the remediation field. • Presented a holistic view of sustainability considerations in remediation. • Developed an integrated framework for sustainability assessment and decision making. - Abstract: Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economic systems. However, historical industrial operations have resulted in large areas of contaminated land that are only slowly being remediated. In recent years, sustainability has drawn increasing attention in the environmental remediation field. In Europe, there has been a movement towards sustainable land management; and in the US, there is an urge for green remediation. Based on a questionnaire survey and a review of existing theories and empirical evidence, this paper suggests the expanding emphasis on sustainable remediation is driven by three general factors: (1) increased recognition of secondary environmental impacts (e.g., life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, energy consumption, and waste production) from remediation operations, (2) stakeholders’ demand for economically sustainable brownfield remediation and “green” practices, and (3) institutional pressures (e.g., social norm and public policy) that promote sustainable practices (e.g., renewable energy, green building, and waste recycling). This paper further argues that the rise of the “sustainable remediation” concept represents a critical intervention point from where the remediation field will be reshaped and new norms and standards will be established for practitioners to follow in future years. This paper presents a holistic view of sustainability considerations in remediation, and an integrated framework for sustainability assessment and decision making

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of some parameters for the efficiency of electrodialytic soil remediation are evaluated. The parameters investigated are pH, the limiting current density and the adding of desorbing agents to the soil. Three parameters are found to be of greatest importance. Results...... show that the electrodialytic soil remediation can be optimized by understanding and adjusting of these parameters. For scaling up of the remediation method these parameters are of crucial importance....

  14. Cognitive remediation therapy for older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of research on cognitive interventions for older adults the review which suggests the following: (1 Cognition remediation therapy is indicated for healthy elderly, and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, early dementia, brain disease and injury, and severe mental illness (SMI. (2 Studies on healthy elderly demonstrate that with cognitive training (CT, cognitive stimulation (CS, and/or cognitive rehabilitation (CR age-related cognitive decline can be reversed, at least partially if not fully, even in advanced age, with improved social functioning and quality of life. Better results are obtained if cognitive remediation therapy (CRT is combined with vocational/psychosocial rehabilitation. Generalization of training to activities of daily living (ADL and to secondary outcome measures such as quality of life and self-esteem are issues that need to be addressed in older adults. (3 Research in MCI has indicated that CRT, especially memory training, has some role. Future studies should place focus on the assessment of dose-response relationship, training generalization, and ecologically relevant approaches. (4 Findings of earlier work in early-stage dementia were frustrating, more recent work, especially randomized controlled trials of high quality, has provided a ray of rope with respect to effectiveness of CT and CR. Further well-designed studies are required to provide more definitive evidence. (5 Significant therapeutic effects of CR have been observed on cognitive function and ADL in the elderly patients with stroke. Routine screening for stroke patients and those with brain injury for cognitive impairment is recommended. (6 Available research provides evidence that cognitive remediation benefits people with SMI, and when combined with psychiatric rehabilitation this benefit generalizes to functioning. Elderly with SMI need special focus. Further needs to be carried out on older people with SMI.

  15. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  16. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  17. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994

  18. Geostatistics and cost-effective environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous sites within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex have been contaminated with various radioactive and hazardous materials by defense-related activities during the post-World War II era. The perception is that characterization and remediation of these contaminated sites will be too costly using currently available technology. Consequently, the DOE Office of Technology Development has funded development of a number of alternative processes for characterizing and remediating these sites. The former Feed-Materials Processing Center near Fernald, Ohio (USA), was selected for demonstrating several innovative technologies. Contamination at the Fernald site consists principally of particulate uranium and derivative compounds in surficial soil. A field-characterization demonstration program was conducted during the summer of 1994 specifically to demonstrate the relative economic performance of seven proposed advanced-characterization tools for measuring uranium activity of in-situ soils. These innovative measurement technologies are principally radiation detectors of varied designs. Four industry-standard measurement technologies, including conventional, regulatory-agency-accepted soil sampling followed by laboratory geochemical analysis, were also demonstrated during the program for comparative purposes. A risk-based economic-decision model has been used to evaluate the performance of these alternative characterization tools. The decision model computes the dollar value of an objective function for each of the different characterization approaches. The methodology not only can assist site operators to choose among engineering alternatives for site characterization and/or remediation, but also can provide an objective and quantitative basis for decisions with respect to the completeness of site characterization

  19. Overview: Microbial amendment of remediated soils for effective recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Soo-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various methods are being considered with appropriate amendments, not with conventional reclamation to recycle deteriorated soils after remediation as agricultural addition, backfilling and construction materials etc. Among these amendments, microbial amendments with effective microorganism(EMs are known to improve soil qualities such as fertility, strength and toxicity to be recycled into possible utilizations. This study indicates the possibility of recycling the remediated soils by using these EMs most efficiently. Soil samples will be collected from contaminated sites with either heavy metals or petroleum and will be remediated by bench-scale soil washing and thermal desorption. And then the remediated soils will be treated with easily obtainable inocula, substrates (culture media near our life and they are compared with commercial EM products in terms of the cost and efficiency. Also, after treating with a number of mixing ratios, soil properties of (1 fresh, (2 contaminated, (3 remediated (4 amended soils will be evaluated based on soil quality indicators depending on demands and the optimal mixing ratios which are effective than commercial EM products will be determined. The ratio derived from pre-tests could be applied on the remediated soils with pilot-scale in order to assess suitability for recycling and characterize correlation between soil properties and microbial amendments regarding contaminants and remediation, and furthermore for modelling. In conclusion, application of the established models on recycling remediated soils may help to dispose the remediated soils in future, including environmental and ecological values as well as economical values.

  20. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  1. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  2. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Gour T.; Gwo, Jin Ping; Siegel, Malcolm D.; Li, Ming-Hsu; Fang, Yilin; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g.,Ni, Cr, Co). The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models

  3. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Gour T. [Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (Taiwan); National Central Univ. (Taiwan); Univ. of Central Florida (United States); Gwo, Jin Ping [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Siegel, Malcolm D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Ming-Hsu [National Central Univ. (Taiwan); ; Fang, Yilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Fan [Inst. of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Luo, Wensui [Inst. of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g.,Ni, Cr, Co).The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System optimized processing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.; Boldt, A.L.; Boomer, K.D.; Galbraith, J.D.; Leach, C.E.; Waldo, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  5. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail

  6. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid

  7. Automated remedial assessment methodology software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiting, M.; Wilkins, M.; Stiles, D.

    1994-11-01

    The Automated Remedial Analysis Methodology (ARAM) software system has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in evaluating cleanup options for over 10,000 contaminated sites across the DOE complex. The automated methodology comprises modules for decision logic diagrams, technology applicability and effectiveness rules, mass balance equations, cost and labor estimating factors and equations, and contaminant stream routing. ARAM is used to select technologies for meeting cleanup targets; determine the effectiveness of the technologies in destroying, removing, or immobilizing contaminants; decide the nature and amount of secondary waste requiring further treatment; and estimate the cost and labor involved when applying technologies

  8. Radiation induced oxidation for water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.

    1997-01-01

    The action of ionizing radiation on halogenated hydrocarbons, in the presence and absence of ozone, was studied in water and wastewater. The combined ozone/electron-beam irradiation process was found especially suited for remediation of low-level contaminated groundwater. This combined treatment was often more effective than irradiation alone for wastewater decontamination. It reduced the COD without a simultaneous increase of BOD. Introduction of gaseous ozone directly into the irradiation chamber improved the water-flow turbulence, allowing treatment in layers thicker than the penetration range of the electrons, with increased decontamination efficiency. (author)

  9. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  10. 40 CFR 300.435 - Remedial design/remedial action, operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features of the selected remedy with respect to scope, performance, or cost. To amend the ROD, the lead...) Include appropriate language in the solicitation requiring potential prime contractors to submit... protection of human health and the environment, the operation of such treatment or other measures for a...

  11. Zn (II) Removal from River Water Samples of Sembrong, Johor State, Malaysia by Electrokinetic Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, E.; Husna, MNF; Shakila, A.; Azhar, ATS; Arif, AM; Norshuhaila, MS

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Even many physical, chemical and biological treatment processes have been proposed to remove heavy metals from river water, the use of these treatment processes are not efficient and relatively costly. This study focused on the potential application of electrokinetic (EK) remediation in Sembrong River water to remove zinc (Zn2+). The physicochemical and biological parameters and water quality index (WQI) of Sembrong River water was characterized. The electrokinetic remediation experiments were performed by controlling pH, and electric density on voltage were observed and investigated. The results indicated that all physicochemical and biological parameters of Sembrong River complied with the standard discharged limit set by the Department of Environment (DOE). However, suspended solids (SS) and pH can be categorized as Class III according to INWQS. The best performance of 88% efficiency of zinc can be achieved EK experiment run at a fixed voltage of 30 V at pH 5.14 after 60 min of the process operate. This technology may be proposed for faster and eco-friendly removal of heavy metals in the environment.

  12. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Quanying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tianran [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation.

  13. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  14. Education science and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This contribution states deficits and makes proposals in order to overcome them. First there is the question as to why the Biological Anthropology--despite all its diversifications--hardly ever deals with educational aspects of its subject. Second it is the question as to why Educational Science neglects or even ignores data of Biological Anthropology which are recognizably important for its subject. It is postulated that the stated deficits are caused by several adverse influences such as, the individual identity of each of the involved single sciences; aspects of the recent history of the German Anthropology; a lack of conceptual understanding of each other; methodological differences and, last but not least, the structure of the universities. The necessity to remedy this situation was deduced from two groups of facts. First, more recent data of the Biological Anthropology (e.g. brain functions and learning, sex specificity and education) are of substantial relevance for the Educational Science. Second, the epistemological requirements of complex subjects like education need interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a few suggestions of concrete topics are given which are related to both, Educational Science and Biological Anthropology.

  15. Chamomile an Adjunctive Herbal Remedy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Gharakhani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies available today is the chamomile preparations prepared from Matricaria chamomilla (MC. The medicinal preparations of MC are composed of several classes of biological active compounds with inhibitory effects on inflammation including essential oil and flavonoids. Apigenin, quercetin and luteolin are the major flavonoids of MC which exhibit their anti-inflammatory effects through different mechanisms. Apigenin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines production, whilst luteolin suppresses production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 and expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 all of which are associated with inflammatory responses. However, there are also some additional components of the MC preparations which have a role on the anti-inflammatory actions of the plant through other pathways. The mentioned mechanisms are in reference with the authors' concept that MC would be of value in alleviating inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis. Keywords: Essential oil; flavonoids; Matricaria chamomilla; polyphenols; rheumatoid arthritis

  16. Case study of an approved corrective action integrating active remediation with intrinsic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teets, D.B.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., performed UST removals and/or site assessments at UST system locations at a former US Air Force Base (AFB) in Denver, Colorado. Four UST systems, incorporating 17 USTs, were located within the petroleum, oils, and lubricants bulk storage yard (POL Yard) of the former AFB. During the tank removals and subsequent site investigations, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in soils at each site. Significant releases from two of the UST systems resulted in a dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) plume in the groundwater, and smear-zone contamination of soils beneath the majority of the POL Yard. Because of the close proximity of the UST systems, and the presence of the groundwater plume beneath the POL Yard, a corrective action plan (CAP) was prepared that encompassed all four UST systems. An innovative, risk-based CAP integrated active remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils with intrinsic remediation of groundwater. A natural attenuation evaluation for the dissolved BTEX was performed to demonstrate that natural attenuation processes are providing adequate remediation of groundwater and to predict the fate of the groundwater plume. BTEX concentrations versus distance were regressed to obtain attenuation rates, which were then used to calculate BTEX degradation rates using a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical solution. Additionally, electron acceptor concentrations in groundwater were compared to BTEX concentrations to provide evidence that natural attenuation of BTEX compounds was occurring. The natural attenuation evaluation was used in the CAP to support the intrinsic remediation with long-term monitoring alternative for groundwater, thereby avoiding the installation of an expensive groundwater remediation system

  17. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  18. Natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, G.; Pintauro, P.; O'Connor, S.; Zhang, J.; Gonzales, R.; Flowers, G.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this research is the non-biological, chemical remediation of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides in aquatic environments. This Tulane/Xavier group includes researchers from Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Geology. Active methods using novel zeolites and ion exchange membranes are currently being evaluated for use in removing heavy metals from natural waters. In addition, field and laboratory studies of metal ion exchange reactions and competitive, heavy metal adsorption on clay substrates are underway to determine sediment metal sequestering capacity. A summary of progress to date and future work is presented

  19. A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and arsenic (As, etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities have gradually increased in recent years, which have resulted in serious environment deterioration. In present study we compared and analyzed soil contamination of heavy metals in various cities/countries, and reviewed background, impact and remediation methods of soil heavy metal contamination worldwide.

  20. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  1. Award of merit: transportable remediation unit -Jacques Whitford Environment Limited -Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A unique hybrid of remediation technologies was designed to deal with the problem of removing the gasoline and fuel-oil found in soils and groundwater as a result of spills or leakage at petroleum storage and dispensing facilities. Liquid petroleum hydrocarbons were found discharging into a creek in a residential and commercial neighborhood of Metropolitan Toronto. Numerous in-place soil and ground water remediation approaches were evaluated in the course of searching for a solution. A full-scale, transportable, in-situ bioslurping remediation unit was recommended. The unit was connected to 13 specially designed vertical bioslurping wells, and to a buried horizontal header network comprised of four separate zones that could be used to simultaneously extract and/or inject air and water flows. Cycling of various modes of operation was based on detailed monitoring and analysis, which allowed for optimal recovery and biological degradation of contaminants. After only four months of operation, over 4000 kg of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants had been removed and treated, and all of the mobile liquid hydrocarbons at the water table had been removed. Treatment cost was estimated at $100 to $120 per tonne of contaminated soil, but assuming that the unit could be used at more than one site, the net treatment cost would decrease to $20 to $30 per tonne. 1 ill

  2. A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Lee, Jechan; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Use of Waste Materials in the Passive Remediation of Mine Water Polution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The contamination and resulting degradation of water courses by effluents from abandoned and active mines is a world-wide problem. Traditional methods of remediating the discharges from mines involve the addition of chemicals and the utilisation of artificial energy sources. Over the last 15-20 years passive treatment systems have been developed that harness natural chemical and biological processes to ameliorate the potentially toxic effects of such discharges. There are many different types of passive system, including compost wetlands, reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS), permeable reactive barriers and inorganic media passive systems. Different waste materials can be utilised as reactive media within each of these systems, dependent upon the type of mine water and treatment technology. In many cases the reactivity of these recycled waste materials is key to the remedial performance of these systems. The materials used may be organic (e.g., composts) or inorganic (e.g., blast furnace slag) and where possible are sourced locally in order to minimise transport costs. The remediation of mine waters in itself can produce large quantities of waste products in the form of iron oxide sludge. Potential uses of this material in the production of pigments and in the treatment of phosphate contaminated waters is also currently under investigation. The exploitation of what are traditionally thought of as waste materials within treatment systems for polluted waters is an expanding technology which provides great scope for recycling.

  4. Tank waste remediation system risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management Plan is to describe a consistent approach to risk management such that TWRS Project risks are identified and managed to achieve TWRS Project success. The Risk Management Plan implements the requirements of the Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Plan in the area of risk management. Figure ES-1 shows the relationship of the TWRS Risk Management Plan to other major TWRS Project documents. As the figure indicates, the Risk Management Plan is a tool used to develop and control TWRS Project work. It provides guidance on how TWRS Project risks will be assessed, analyzed, and handled, and it specifies format and content for the risk management lists, which are a primary product of the risk management process. In many instances, the Risk Management Plan references the TWRS Risk Management Procedure, which provides more detailed discussion of many risk management activities. The TWRS Risk Management Plan describes an ongoing program within the TWRS Project. The Risk Management Plan also provides guidance in support of the TWRS Readiness To-Proceed (RTP) assessment package

  5. Stream remediation following a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Reiter, G.A.; Challenger, G.

    2000-01-01

    On June 10, 1999, a pipe ruptured on the Olympic Pipe Line causing the release, explosion and fire of up to one million litres of gasoline in Bellingham, Washington. It affected approximately 5 km of the Whatcom Creek ecosystem. Following the incident, several concurrent activities in the source area and downstream occurred. This paper discussed the remediation of the affected stream bed sections. During the period July 6 - August 16, an interagency project was implemented. It involved mechanical, manual, and hydraulic in-situ treatment techniques to remove the gasoline from the stream bed and the banks. In addition, a series of controlled, hydraulic flushes were conducted. The sluice or control gates at the head of the Whatcom Creek were opened each night, and bigger flushes took place before and after the treatments. Simultaneously, water and sediment were sampled and analysed. The data obtained provided information on the state of the initial stream water and stream sediment and on the effects that the remediation had had. The residual gasoline was successfully removed from the sediments and river banks in six weeks. No downstream movement of the released gasoline towards Bellingham was detected. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Radon remedial measures in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.

    2004-01-01

    A view is taken that mitigation of an indoor radon problem is often more complex than usually assumed, and that additional factors should be considered to avoid situations in which after mitigation the radon problem may be solved, but other problems have been created. Emphasis is put on how the choice and design of radon remedial measures are influenced not only by effectiveness in reducing radon levels indoors, but also by climatic factors, energy-saving aspects, as well as economic and psycho-social factors. Climatic conditions give rise to several concerns when attempting to mitigate a radon problem in areas with large seasonal temperature variations. Problems with humidity, energy consumption and durability of sealing materials are probably the most prominent issues. Commonly used radon remedial measures and their effectiveness in Norway is reviewed. Discussion is focused on principles and technical solutions which produce good results, and those which don't perform so well in cold Norwegian climate. Innovative technical solutions which successfully resolve some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. Results of some preliminary tests showing performance of such solutions in reduction of radon levels are presented. Other aspects of mitigation systems, such as need and cost of maintenance, longevity, noise levels, 'additional benefits', etc., are briefly mentioned. Homeowners' perceptions and willingness to implement various mitigation solutions are briefly reviewed. Based on discussion, several guiding principles which may be adopted in search for optimal solutions are suggested. (author)

  7. Remediating the INEL's buried mixed waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhns, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.; Reese, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), encompasses 890 square miles and is located in southeast Idaho. In 1949, the United States Atomic Energy Commission, now the Department of Energy (DOE), established the NRTS as a site for the building and testing of nuclear facilities. Wastes generated during the building and testing of these nuclear facilities were disposed within the boundaries of the site. These mixed wastes, containing radionuclides and hazardous materials, were often stored in underground tanks for future disposal. The INEL has 11 buried mixed waste storage tanks regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) ranging in size from 400 to 50,000 gallons. These tanks are constructed of either stainless or carbon steel and are located at 3 distinct geographic locations across the INEL. These tanks have been grouped based on their similarities in an effort to save money and decrease the time required to complete the necessary remediation. Environmental Restoration and Technology Development personnel are teaming in an effort to address the remediation problem systematically

  8. Communication activities during remediation project of Zavratec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.

    1996-01-01

    The remediation project of temporary storage of radioactive waste near village Zavratec is under way. The Agency for Radwaste Management was assigned to perform this project by the Slovenian government. Radioactive waste was stored on site of Zavratec in 1961. That year an accident has occurred at Oncological institute in Ljubljana in which several rooms and some equipment have been contaminated by the content of radium applicator. Radioactive waste from decontamination was transported and stored in an old Italian military barrack near village Zavratec. The storage became known to public in eighties by the TV report. Since that time it is frequently the subject of public polemics and discussions. This year the first part of remediation project, i.e. the activity measurements and sorting of radioactive waste is taking place. It is planned to conclude the project next year. For successful realization of the project the PR activities, specially the communication with the local community, are of great importance. Special plan of these activities has been prepared by the Agency for Radwaste Management in early stage of the project. Initial activities have already been successfully realized. In this paper the communication plan is presented and most important elements of this plan are briefly described. (author)

  9. Remedial training: Will CRM work for everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. N.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of those pilots who seem unresponsive to Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) training is addressed. Attention is directed to the need and opportunity for remedial action. Emphasis is given to the requirement for new perspectives and additional training resources. It is also argued that, contrary to conventional training wisdom, such individuals do not represent a hard core which is beyond assistance. Some evidence is offered that such a new perspective will lend itself to a wider appreciation of certain specific training needs. The role of appropriately trained specialists is briefly outlined, and a selected bibliography is attached. The combined experiences of several Pilot Advisory Groups (PAG's) within IFALPA member association form the basis for this discussion. It does not purport to desribe the activities of any one PAG. While much of the activities of PAG's have no relevance to CRM, there are clearly some very important points of intersection. The relevance of these points to diagnostic skills, and remedial training in the general domain of CRM is made obvious.

  10. Overview of innovative remediation of emerging contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A. A.; Adeleye, A. S.; Huang, Y.; Garner, K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of nanotechnology in drinking water treatment and pollution cleanup is promising, as demonstrated by a number of field-based (pilot and full scale) and bench scale studies. A number of reviews exist for these nanotechnology-based applications; but to better illustrate its importance and guide its development, a direct comparison between traditional treatment technologies and emerging approaches using nanotechnology is needed. In this review, the performances of traditional technologies and nanotechnology for water treatment and environmental remediation were compared with the goal of providing an up-to-date reference on the state of treatment techniques for researchers, industry, and policy makers. Pollutants were categorized into broad classes, and the most cost-effective techniques (traditional and nanotechnology-based) in each category reported in the literature were compared. Where information was available, cost and environmental implications of both technologies were also compared. Traditional treatment technologies were found to currently offer the most cost-effective choices for removal of several common pollutants from drinking water and polluted sites. Nano-based techniques may however become important in complicated remediation conditions and meeting increasingly stringent water quality standards, especially in removal of emerging pollutants and low levels of contaminants. We also discuss challenges facing environmental application of nanotechnology were also discussed and potential solutions.

  11. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  12. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  13. Verification Survey of Uranium Mine Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, Stager

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) contracted an independent verification of an intensive gamma radiation survey conducted by a mining company to demonstrate that remediation of disturbed areas was complete. This site was the first of the recent mines being decommissioned in Canada and experience gained here may be applied to other mines being decommissioned in the future. The review included examination of the site-specific basis for clean-up criteria and ALARA as required by CNSC guidance. A paper review of the company report was conducted to determine if protocols were followed and that the summarized results could be independently reproduced. An independent verification survey was conducted on parts of the site and comparisons were made between gamma radiation measurements from the verification survey and the original company survey. Some aspects of data collection using rate meters linked to GPS data loggers are discussed as are aspects for data management and analyses methods required for the large amount of data collected during these surveys. Recommendations were made for implementation of future surveys and reporting the data from those surveys in order to ensure that remediation was complete. (authors)

  14. Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Lane, N.K.; Swenson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is one of the many tools used to evaluate and select remedial alternatives and evaluate the risk associated with selected remedial alternatives during and after implementation. The risk evaluation of remedial alternatives (RERA) is performed to ensure selected alternatives are protective of human health and the environment. Final remedy selection is promulgated in a record of decision (ROD) and risks of the selected alternatives are documented. Included in the ROD documentation are the risk-related analyses for long-term effectiveness, short-term effectiveness, and overall protection of human health and the environment including how a remedy will eliminate, reduce or control risks and whether exposure will be reduced to acceptable levels. A major goal of RERA in the process leading to a ROD is to provide decision-makers with specific risk information that may be needed to choose among alternatives. For the Hanford Site, there are many considerations that must be addressed from a risk perspective. These include the large size of the Hanford Site, the presence of both chemical and radionuclide contamination, one likelihood of many analogues sites, public and worker health and safety, and stakeholder concern with ecological impacts from site contamination and remedial actions. A RERA methodology has been promulgated to (1) identify the points in the process leading to a ROD where risk assessment input is either required or desirable and (2) provide guidance on how to evaluate risks associated with remedial alternatives under consideration. The methodology and evaluations parallel EPA guidance requiring consideration of short-term impacts and the overall protectiveness of remedial actions for evaluating potential human health and ecological risks during selection of remedial alternatives, implementation of remedial measures, and following completion of remedial action

  15. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  16. Site remediation guided by risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, E.A.; Gowing, A.; Pieczonka, G.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Risk assessment (RA) provides an effective tool for identifying hazards with respect to human health and ecological receptors, hazards that arise from contaminants in the environment. Risk assessment relies upon: hazard identification/problem formulation; toxicity assessment; exposure assessment; and risk characterization. Hence, risk assessment provides an effective guide for site remediation through the identification of the associated risks arising from pre- and potential post-remediation activities. As a demonstration of this decision-making process, a site-specific risk assessment (SSRA) was performed on a chemical producing facility. Historical waste practices during the production of DDT compounds resulted in impacted site soils and sediment and soils of the creek passing through the facility. The purpose of the SSRA was to derive site-specific cleanup values for the impacted on-site soils, creek sediments, and embankment soils, incorporating human and ecological receptors associated with the environmental media. The human exposure pathways considered were dermal contact, incidental ingestion, and inhalation of the various soils. The potential human receptors were industrial workers, construction workers, trespassers, and off-site residents. Ingestion of fish from the creek by residents was also evaluated in the human health risk assessment (HHRA). Food web analyses were used to evaluate the impact of exposure to chemical compounds in aquatic sediments and related soils by ecological receptors such as the great blue heron, raccoon, and mink. The SSRA involved modelling the daily chemical intake by receptors and the transfer of chemicals to identified secondary media (e.g., ambient air or animal tissues) that are also potential exposure media. These models, while using the site-specific chemical data in the source media, possess uncertainties associated with default parameters that are only approximations and not site-specific (e.g., soil

  17. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Gkorezis

    2016-11-01

    remediation of PHC contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant-microbe interactions during PHCs remediation. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on

  18. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Daghio, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant-microbe interactions during PHC remediation. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on improving phytoremediation of PHC contaminated sites.

  19. The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Daghio, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant–microbe interactions during PHC remediation. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on improving phytoremediation of PHC contaminated sites. PMID:27917161

  20. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  1. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  2. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  3. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Part 2. Study on soil environment remediation system using ecological information and functions; 1994 nendo seitaikei joho to seitaikei kino ni yoru dojo kankyo fukugen system no chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the feasibility of soil environment remediation through detecting contamination of soil and changes in ecosystems caused by industrial activities, with attention paid to biological antagonists. In this fiscal year, based on the results of surveys conducted in the past, studies are continued mainly on hypersensitive biosensing technology using ecosystem functions, remote sensing technology to monitor the terrestrial vegetation and soil environment over wide areas, and soil environment remediation technology using biological antagonists and vegetation. In consideration of Europe's long experience in this field, seven organizations known for their accomplishments are visited, where interviews are held. There is a close relationship between soil environments and ecosystems, and ecosystems are provided not only with information on changes in soil environments but also with functions to remedy soil environments by minimizing secondary contamination. To put such information and functions to practical use, element technologies are indispensable, including hypersensitive soil environment biosensors and environmental remediation by identification and isolation of biological information carrying substances and by vegetation. Proposed in this report is a project for soil remediation by use of biological information and functions and for elucidation of biological antagonists. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Part 2. Study on soil environment remediation system using ecological information and functions; 1994 nendo seitaikei joho to seitaikei kino ni yoru dojo kankyo fukugen system no chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the feasibility of soil environment remediation through detecting contamination of soil and changes in ecosystems caused by industrial activities, with attention paid to biological antagonists. In this fiscal year, based on the results of surveys conducted in the past, studies are continued mainly on hypersensitive biosensing technology using ecosystem functions, remote sensing technology to monitor the terrestrial vegetation and soil environment over wide areas, and soil environment remediation technology using biological antagonists and vegetation. In consideration of Europe's long experience in this field, seven organizations known for their accomplishments are visited, where interviews are held. There is a close relationship between soil environments and ecosystems, and ecosystems are provided not only with information on changes in soil environments but also with functions to remedy soil environments by minimizing secondary contamination. To put such information and functions to practical use, element technologies are indispensable, including hypersensitive soil environment biosensors and environmental remediation by identification and isolation of biological information carrying substances and by vegetation. Proposed in this report is a project for soil remediation by use of biological information and functions and for elucidation of biological antagonists. (NEDO)

  5. The Geochemical Record of Cultural Eutrophication and Remediation Efforts in Three Connecticut Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, T.; Bourne, H. L.; Tirtajana, S.; Nahar, M.; Kading, T.

    2009-12-01

    Cultural eutrophication is the process whereby human activity increases the amount of nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, entering an aquatic ecosystem causing excessive biological growth. To reverse or decelerate cultural eutrophication, many regulatory agencies have implemented stringent laws intended to lower the flux of nutrients into impacted water bodies or have emplaced internal remediation systems designed to decrease primary productivity. To quantify the effects of cultural eutrophication and remediation efforts, we examined sedimentary histories of three eutrophic Connecticut lakes that record the transition from pre-anthropogenic conditions into eutrophication and through recent remediation. The three Connecticut lakes (Lake Waramaug, Beseck Lake, and Amos Lake) represent a range of remediation activities. Since 1983, Lake Waramaug has been the focus of significant remediation efforts including the installation of three hypolimnetic withdrawal / layer aeration systems, zoning regulations to limit runoff, and the stocking and seeding of fish and zooplankton. Beseck Lake has experienced episodic eutrophic conditions, in part due to failing septic systems, and in 2001, 433 residences were converted from septic systems to a city sewer system. Amos Lake serves as a cultural eutrophication end member as it has not has received any major remediation. Multiple freeze and gravity cores were collected from 2005-2008. Radiocarbon, Pb-210, Cs-137, Hg, and Pb measurements determined sediment ages. Organic C accumulation rates, C/N ratios, organic matter delta-15N, bulk sediment Fe and Al concentrations, and P speciation (labile, iron-bound, aluminum-bound, organic, and total) determined sediment and nutrient sources and accumulations. Dithionite-extractable iron, pyrite S, and pyrite delta-34S provided insight into changes in P-Fe-S cycling. The sediment cores represent the last few hundreds of years of lake history and, importantly, some Lake Waramaug

  6. SF Box--a tool for evaluating the effects on soil functions in remediation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy

    2014-10-01

    Although remediation is usually aimed at reducing the risks posed by contaminants to human health and the environment, it is also desirable that the remediated soil within future green spaces is capable of providing relevant ecological functions, e.g., basis for primary production. Yet while addressing a contamination problem by reducing contaminant concentration and/or amounts in the soil, the remedial action itself can lead to soil structure disturbances, decline in organic matter and nutrient deficiencies, and in turn affect a soil's capacity to carry out its ecological soil functions. This article presents the Soil Function Box (SF Box) tool that is aimed to facilitate integration of information from suggested soil quality indicators (SQIs) into a management process in remediation using a scoring method. The scored SQIs are integrated into a soil quality index corresponding to 1 of 5 classes. SF Box is applied to 2 cases from Sweden (Kvillebäcken and Hexion), explicitly taking into consideration uncertainties in the results by means of Monte Carlo simulations. At both sites the generated soil quality indices corresponded to a medium soil performance (soil class 3) with a high certainty. The main soil constraints at both Kvillebäcken and Hexion were associated with biological activity in the soil, as soil organisms were unable to supply plant-available N. At the Kvillebäcken site the top layer had a content of coarse fragment (ø > 2 mm) higher than 35%, indicating plant rooting limitations. At the Hexion site, the soil had limited amount of organic matter, thus poor aggregate stability and nutrient cycling potential. In contrast, the soil at Kvillebäcken was rich in organic matter. The soils at both sites were capable of storing a sufficient amount of water for soil organisms between precipitation events. © 2014 SETAC.

  7. Integrated phytobial remediation for sustainable management of arsenic in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhumita; Giri, Ashok K; Dutta, Sourav; Mukherjee, Pritam

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As), cited as the most hazardous substance by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR, 2005), is an ubiquitous metalloid which when ingested for prolonged periods cause extensive health effects leading to ultimate untimely death. Plants and microbes can help mitigate soil and groundwater As problem since they have evolved elaborate detoxification machineries against this toxic metalloid as a result of their coexistence with this since the origin of life on earth. Utilization of the phytoremediation and bioremediation potential of the plants and microbes, respectively, is now regarded as two innovative tools that encompass biology, geology, biotechnology and allied sciences with cutting edge applications for sustainable mitigation of As epidemic. Discovery of As hyperaccumulating plants that uptake and concentrate large amounts of this toxic metalloid in their shoots or roots offered new hope to As phytoremediation, solar power based nature's own green remediation. This review focuses on how phytoremediation and bioremediation can be merged together to form an integrated phytobial remediation which could synergistically achieve the goal of large scale removal of As from soil, sediment and groundwater and overcome the drawbacks of the either processes alone. The review also points to the feasibility of the introduction of transgenic plants and microbes that bring new hope for more efficient treatment of As. The review identifies one critical research gap on the importance of remediation of As contaminated groundwater not only for drinking purpose but also for irrigation purpose and stresses that more research should be conducted on the use of constructed wetland, one of the most suitable areas of application of phytobial remediation. Finally the review has narrowed down on different phytoinvestigation and phytodisposal methods, which constitute the most essential and the most difficult part of pilot scale and field scale applications

  8. 161 EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION OPERATIONS IN. PORT HARCOURT ... study is an attempt to unravel the effectiveness of clean-up exercises undertaken by oil .... Research Design. The study ..... remediation as well as tilling and evacuation of affected soils would certainly be more productive.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Remedial Mathematics at the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Daysha Monique

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of remedial math courses at the community college level through an examination of short-term academic success variables. For the purposes of this study, short-term academic success was defined as passing required remedial math course(s) and the first college-level math course with a C or…

  10. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a method of increasing fluid flow within the subsurface, should improve the effectiveness of several remedial techniques, including pump and treat, vapor extraction, bio-remediation, and soil-flushing. he technique is widely used to increase the yields of oi...

  11. 49 CFR 805.735-27 - Disciplinary or remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disciplinary or remedial action. 805.735-27... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-27 Disciplinary or remedial action... cause for disciplinary action in addition to any penalty prescribed by Federal statute or regulation...

  12. 11 CFR 7.6 - Disciplinary and other remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disciplinary and other remedial action. 7.6... Disciplinary and other remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by an employee or special Commission employee may be cause for appropriate disciplinary action which may be in addition to any penalty...

  13. 49 CFR 1019.6 - Disciplinary and other remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disciplinary and other remedial action. 1019.6... SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.6 Disciplinary and other remedial action. Any violation of the regulations in this part by an employee shall be cause for appropriate disciplinary or other...

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  15. 3,000 Paper Cranes: Children's Literature for Remedial Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Marjorie P.; Shumaker, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how the educational experience of sixth grade remedial readers was revitalized and enriched through a project that grew out of reading "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes." Suggests using "real" books (literature) to liberate remedial students from skill drills and reading games. (NH)

  16. Reading Remediation Based on Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnison, Judy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The theory postulating a dichotomy between sequential and simultaneous processing is reviewed and its implications for remediating reading problems are reviewed. Research is cited on sequential-simultaneous processing for early and advanced reading. A list of remedial strategies based on the processing dichotomy addresses decoding and lexical…

  17. Department of Energy remedial action program annual conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial action at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and sites located throughout the United States. This volume contains 18 papers on the topics environmental restoration and hazardous/mixed waste characterization and remediation. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.' different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  19. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  20. Multi-objective decision-making for soil remediation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drunen, van M.A.; Beinat, E.; Nijboer, M.; Okx, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    After deciding whether or not a soil clean-up operation is necessary, the question remains which remedial strategy and technique should be applied. Traditionally, remediation techniques aim at reaching environmental threshold values within the shortest possible time. There is, however, a growing

  1. Assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardos, R.P.; Kearney, T.E.; Nathanail, C.P.; Weenk, A.; Martin, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination. In terms of the environmental element of sustainable development, a remediation project's overall environmental performance is the sum of the

  2. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  3. Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazardous waste remedial actions program (HAZWRAP) which manages approximately 200 hazardous waste projects. These projects include preliminary assessments, site inspections, and remedial investigation/feasibility studies. The author describes the procedures HAZWRAP follows to ensure quality. The discussion covers the quality assurance aspects of project management, project planning, site characterization, document control and technical teamwork

  4. 48 CFR 22.1504 - Violations and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to cooperate as required in accordance with the clause at 52.222-19, Child Labor Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies, with an investigation of the use of forced or indentured child labor by an Inspector... contractor knew of the violation. (b) Remedies. (1) The contracting officer may terminate the contract. (2...

  5. DECISION ANALYSIS OF INCINERATION COSTS IN SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the decision-making process of the remedial design (RD) phase of on-site incineration projects conducted at Superfund sites. Decisions made during RD affect the cost and schedule of remedial action (RA). Decision analysis techniques are used to determine the...

  6. Chernobyl radioactivity impacts and remediation of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, C.D.; Baweja, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the results of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the impacts of strontium, cesium, and plutonium on forestry ecosystems, the toxicity of the radionuclides, remediation techniques such as upgrading the soils with the addition of potassium and calcium, and other possible measures for remediation, based primarily on the Bikini Atoll model.

  7. 32 CFR 634.10 - Remedial driver training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial driver training programs. 634.10 Section 634.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.10 Remedial driver training programs. (a) Navy...

  8. An expert support model for in situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an expert support model for in situ soil remediation. It combines knowledge and experiences obtained from previous in situ soil remediations. The aim of this model is to optimise knowledge transfer among the various parties involved in contaminated site management. Structured

  9. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  10. Improving the Targeting of Treatment: Evidence from College Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Crosta, Peter M.; Belfield, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation is one of the largest single interventions intended to improve outcomes for underprepared college students, yet little is known about the remedial screening process. Using administrative data and a rich predictive model, we find that severe mis-assignments are common using current test-score-cutoff-based policies, with…

  11. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  12. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  13. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  14. Pursuing the Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undoubtedly, global and regional human rights instruments clearly entrench the right to an effective remedy for a human rights violation. The substantive nature of the right to an effective remedy makes it relevant to the realisation of the right to equality as well as the right to equal protection under the law. Cameroon, as a ...

  15. Causes of, and Remedy to Insecurity and Kidnapping in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a descriptive survey which examine the causes and counselling strategies that can remedy insecurity and kidnapping in Anambra State. Three research questions were answered and one null hypothesis was tested. The researcher designed an instrument tagged 'Causes and Remedy to Kidnapping ...

  16. Environmental Chemistry Principles in Site Remediation (CEECHE 2018 Krakow Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In CEECHE meeting, we will present scientific, engineering information and case studies on sustainable and innovative remediation technologies used in contaminated sites in Europe and the United States. One of the most important tasks to be performed to remediate contaminated si...

  17. The Impact of Thermal Remediation on Soil Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Andrew; Switzer, Christine; Knapp, Charles

    2013-04-01

    In an effort to restore the social and economic value of brownfield sites contaminated by hazardous organic liquids, many new remediation techniques involving the use of elevated temperatures to desorb and extract or destroy these contaminants have been developed. These approaches are typically applied to heavily contaminated soils to effect substantial source removal from the subsurface. These processes operate over a range of temperatures from just above ambient to in excess of 1000˚C depending on technology choice and contaminant type. To facilitate the successful rehabilitation of treated soils for agriculture, biomass production, or habitat enrichment the effects of high temperatures on the ability of soil to support biological activity needs to be understood. Four soils were treated with high temperatures or artificially contaminated and subjected to a smouldering treatment (600-1100°C) in this investigation. Subsequent chemical analysis, plant growth trials and microbial analysis were used to characterise the impacts of these processes on soil geochemistry, plant health, and potential for recovery. Decreases were found in levels of carbon (>250˚C), nitrogen (>500˚C) and phosphorus (1000˚C) with intermediate temperatures having variable affects on bio-available levels. Macro and micro nutrients such as potassium, calcium, zinc and copper also showed changes with general trends towards reduced bioavailability at higher temperatures. Above 500°C, cation exchange capacity and phosphate adsorption were lowered indicating that nutrient retention will be a problem in some treated soils. In addition, these temperatures reduced the content of clay sized particles changing the texture of the soils. These changes had a statistically significant impact on plant growth with moderate growth reductions occurring at 250°C and 500°C. Above 750°C, growth was extremely limited and soils treated at these temperatures would need major restorative efforts. Microbial re

  18. Nitrate and Nitrogen Oxides: Sources, Health Effects and Their Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Sabir, Muhammad; Ozturk, Munir; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum

    Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer. Despite these evident negative environmental as well as health impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for the teeming growing world population. Various agronomic and genetic modifications have been practiced to tackle this problem. Some agronomic techniques adopted include split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and encouraging the use of organic manure over chemical fertilizers. As a matter of fact, the use of chemical means to remediate nitrate from the environment is very difficult and costly. Particularly, removal of nitrate from water is difficult task because it is chemically non-reactive in dilute aqueous solutions. Hence, the use of biological means for nitrate remediation offers a promising strategy to minimize the ill effects of nitrates and nitrites. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient genotypes. This will ensure the optimum uptake of applied N in a balanced manner and exploring the molecular mechanisms for their uptake as well as metabolism in assimilatory pathways. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the interrelations which exist in the terrestrial ecosystems between the plant type and characteristics of nutrient uptake and analyze the global consumption and demand for fertilizer nitrogen in relation to cereal production, evaluate the various

  19. World-first PRB remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundle, Keely

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) project in question was a former waste control site at Bellevue in Western Australia, which burned down in 2001. The fire and the site's historic use as a liquid waste treatment plant created a plume of contaminated groundwater as well as a secondary offsite plume of chlorinated solvents. Damage from the fire and historical use caused the contamination to extend 200m downgradient of the site, under several nearby parcels of land and migrating in the direction of the nearby Helena River. Two areas of chlorinated solvents were identified as residual dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the unsaturated zone, including concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) at 1000 micrograms per litre (μg/L) in groundwater, which needed to be reduced to concentrations of around 330μg/L before the groundwater discharged into the river. Complete source removal of DNAPL contamination - such as TCE - in the environment can be difficult and costly. Partial source removal of the contamination may not have a significant impact on the extent of the plume but may reduce its longevity. Treatment of the contaminant plume is more achievable and allows for more time to develop an effective source remediation solution if it is required. Zero-valent iron (ZVI), a non-toxic granular material placed in PRBs, has been proven to be successful in removing a broad range of contaminants, including many chlorinated solvents such as TCE. In a ZVI-based PRB, the system uses the natural groundwater flow to channel contaminants to an engineered treatment area. As groundwater passes through the PRB, contaminants are treated in the barrier and remediated water flows out the other side. There are two primary pathways for the dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in ZVI PRBs: beta-elimination and hydrogenolysis. Experiments have shown the dominant degradation pathway is p-elimination. This pathway is preferred as it results in the chlorinated ethene

  20. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de