Sample records for biological recovery

  1. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.


    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  2. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage. (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc


    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  3. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary F.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Frances, Someliz; Wheeler, Raymond


    Resource recovery and recycling waste streams to usable water via biological water processors is a plausible component of an integrated water purification system. Biological processing as a pretreatment can reduce the load of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds entering physiochemical systems downstream. Aerated hollow fiber membrane bioreactors, have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration.

  4. Plant Leachate Nutrient Recovery with Biological, Thermal, and Photocatalytic Pretreatments (United States)

    Wong, Les


    Plants are ideal for long term space travel: provide essential resources - oxygen, water, food; Water-soaked plants expel soluble nutrients in a leachate solution - toxins and wastes are also expelled and inhibit growth; biological, thermal, photocatalytic coupled with an acid digestion treatment will hopefully maximize recovery and remove wastes

  5. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart E. Strand


    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  6. Control structure design for resource recovery using the enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Fuentes-Martínez, José Manuel; Flores Alsina, Xavier


    structurefor the novel enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) process, which is currentlyunder development. The aim of the EBP2R is to maximize phosphorus recovery through optimal greenmicro-algal cultivation, which is achieved by controlling the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N-to-P ratio......Nowadays, wastewater is considered as a set of resources to be recovered rather than a mixture of pollutantsthat should be removed. Many resource recovery schemes have been proposed, involving the useof novel technologies whose controllability is poorly studied. In this paper we present a control...... in the effluent (16.9 ± 0.07) and can recover about 72% of the influent phosphorus. The phosphorus recovered by the CFS is limited by the influent nitrogen (65% of the influent phosphorus load). Using the CFS configuration the effluent N-to-P ratio cannot be effectively controlled (16.45 ± 2.48). Therefore...

  7. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  8. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Hudgens


    Full Text Available Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors, and conservation genetics. We detected several changes in recovery plans in apparent response to publication trends in these areas (e.g., the number of tasks designed to promote the recovery of an endangered species shifted, although these tasks were rarely assigned a high priority. Our results indicate that, although the content of endangered species recovery plans changes in response to the literature, results are not uniform across all topics. We suggest that academic conservation biologists need to address the relative importance of each topic for conservation practice in different settings. [See Erratum

  9. Control Structure Design of an Innovative Enhanced Biological Nutrient Recovery Activated Sludge System Coupled with a Photobioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Fuentes-Martínez, José Manuel; Flores Alsina, Xavier


    The TRENS system is a train of biological units designed for resource recovery from wastewater. It is a sequence of a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) coupled with a photobioreactor (PBR). The bacteria-based system constructs an optimal culture media for...

  10. Esthetic-functional recovery of permanent posterior tooth using autogenous biological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Botelho


    Full Text Available Occlusal morphology and difficult access for cleaning permanent molars result in the buildup of bacterial plaque and the development of caries. One method known as biological restoration was carried out. This technique known as biological restoration, has as main restorative material a fragment obtained from a duly donated extracted human tooth. This case report describes the restoration of an extensively decayed molar through the bonding of a fragment obtained from a third molar extracted from the patient himself. Biological restoration is a low-cost option that offers satisfactory aesthetic, morphological and functional results.The morphological/functional reestablishment of posterior teeth can be obtained through biological restoration, which allows the recovery of properties inherent to the dental structure, offers satisfactory aesthetic results and low cost.

  11. Biological Recovery of Platinum Complexes from Diluted Aqueous Streams by Axenic Cultures (United States)

    Maes, Synthia; Props, Ruben; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; De Smet, Rebecca; Vanhaecke, Frank; Boon, Nico; Hennebel, Tom


    The widespread use of platinum in high-tech and catalytic applications has led to the production of diverse Pt loaded wastewaters. Effective recovery strategies are needed for the treatment of low concentrated waste streams to prevent pollution and to stimulate recovery of this precious resource. The biological recovery of five common environmental Pt-complexes was studied under acidic conditions; the chloro-complexes PtCl42- and PtCl62-, the amine-complex Pt(NH3)4Cl2 and the pharmaceutical complexes cisplatin and carboplatin. Five bacterial species were screened on their platinum recovery potential; the Gram-negative species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, Geobacter metallireducens, and Pseudomonas stutzeri, and the Gram-positive species Bacillus toyonensis. Overall, PtCl42- and PtCl62- were completely recovered by all bacterial species while only S. oneidensis and C. metallidurans were able to recover cisplatin quantitatively (99%), all in the presence of H2 as electron donor at pH 2. Carboplatin was only partly recovered (max. 25% at pH 7), whereas no recovery was observed in the case of the Pt-tetraamine complex. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of both intra- and extracellular platinum particles. Flow cytometry based microbial viability assessment demonstrated the decrease in number of intact bacterial cells during platinum reduction and indicated C. metallidurans to be the most resistant species. This study showed the effective and complete biological recovery of three common Pt-complexes, and estimated the fate and transport of the Pt-complexes in wastewater treatment plants and the natural environment. PMID:28046131

  12. Nutrient Recovery of Plant Leachates Under Thermal, Biological, and Photocatalytic Pretreatments (United States)

    Wong, Les


    Nutrient recovery has always been a problem for long distance and long-term space missions. To allow humans to man these missions, a steady source of oxygen, water, and food are necessary for survival beyond Earth's atmosphere. Plants are currently an area of interest since they are capable of providing all three resources for life sustainability. We are currently interested in nutrient recovery for future plant growth and simple aqueous leachate extractions can recover some of the nutrients. However, leaching plants also removes water-soluble organic plant wastes, which inhibits plant growth if not separated properly. To combat the issues with waste and maximize nutrient recovery, we are attempting to pre-treat the plant matter using biological, thermal, and photocatalytic methods before subjecting the solution with variable-strength acid digestion. For the biological method, the inoculums: mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying bioreactor effluent and Trichoderma vessei are used in an attempt to liberate more nutrients from the plant matter. For the thermal method, plants are subjected to varying temperatures at different retention times to determine nutrient recovery. Lastly, the photocatalytic method utilizes TiO (sub 2)'s oxidizing abilities under specific pHs and retention times to reduce organic wastes and improve nutrient gains. A final acid digestion serves to liberate nutrients even further in order to maximize recovery. So far, we have tested ideal acid digestion variables for practicality and performance in our experiments. We found that a low retention time of 10 minutes and a high acid concentration of 0.1 and 1 mole HCl were the most effective at nutrient recovery. For space travel purposes, 0.1 mole currently looks like a viable acid digestion to use since it is relatively effective and sustainable from a mass and energy balance if acid recovery can be performed on waste brines. Biological pretreatments do not look to be too effective and the thermal and

  13. Esthetic recovery of smile using composite resin and "biological posts" and crowns. (United States)

    Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Ribondi, Juliano Rodrigues; Botelho, Adriana Maria; Fernandes, Anacélia Mendes; Tavano, Karine Taís Aguiar


    The recovery of teeth that have been extensively destroyed by dental caries can be achieved through direct and indirect restorative procedures. This paper presents a case of the esthetic and functional recovery of permanent maxillary incisors with extensive dental caries in an adolescent patient through the use of a composite resin and "biological posts and crowns". A case report was drafted to describe the direct restoration of central maxillary incisors using composite resin and endodontic treatment of the lateral maxillary incisors, the construction of dentinal posts, the adaptation and cementing of the posts to the root canals, preparation and molding of crown portions, model construction, the choice of extracted teeth and the making and cementing of "biological crowns". The use of a composite resin and the cementing of "biological posts and crowns" reestablish dental esthetics and function. Biological restorations maintain all the characteristics of natural teeth and have a significant psychosocial impact on the patient's quality of life. However it should be stressed that this technique was only indicated in the present case after the determination of a significant improvement in oral hygiene.

  14. Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Biological Technologies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Prospects. (United States)

    Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J; Hülsen, Tim; Astals, Sergi; Peces, Miriam; Krömer, Jens O


    Limits in resource availability are driving a change in current societal production systems, changing the focus from residues treatment, such as wastewater treatment, toward resource recovery. Biotechnological processes offer an economic and versatile way to concentrate and transform resources from waste/wastewater into valuable products, which is a prerequisite for the technological development of a cradle-to-cradle bio-based economy. This review identifies emerging technologies that enable resource recovery across the wastewater treatment cycle. As such, bioenergy in the form of biohydrogen (by photo and dark fermentation processes) and biogas (during anaerobic digestion processes) have been classic targets, whereby, direct transformation of lipidic biomass into biodiesel also gained attention. This concept is similar to previous biofuel concepts, but more sustainable, as third generation biofuels and other resources can be produced from waste biomass. The production of high value biopolymers (e.g., for bioplastics manufacturing) from organic acids, hydrogen, and methane is another option for carbon recovery. The recovery of carbon and nutrients can be achieved by organic fertilizer production, or single cell protein generation (depending on the source) which may be utilized as feed, feed additives, next generation fertilizers, or even as probiotics. Additionlly, chemical oxidation-reduction and bioelectrochemical systems can recover inorganics or synthesize organic products beyond the natural microbial metabolism. Anticipating the next generation of wastewater treatment plants driven by biological recovery technologies, this review is focused on the generation and re-synthesis of energetic resources and key resources to be recycled as raw materials in a cradle-to-cradle economy concept.

  15. Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Biological Technologies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Prospects (United States)

    Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J.; Hülsen, Tim; Astals, Sergi; Peces, Miriam; Krömer, Jens O.


    Limits in resource availability are driving a change in current societal production systems, changing the focus from residues treatment, such as wastewater treatment, toward resource recovery. Biotechnological processes offer an economic and versatile way to concentrate and transform resources from waste/wastewater into valuable products, which is a prerequisite for the technological development of a cradle-to-cradle bio-based economy. This review identifies emerging technologies that enable resource recovery across the wastewater treatment cycle. As such, bioenergy in the form of biohydrogen (by photo and dark fermentation processes) and biogas (during anaerobic digestion processes) have been classic targets, whereby, direct transformation of lipidic biomass into biodiesel also gained attention. This concept is similar to previous biofuel concepts, but more sustainable, as third generation biofuels and other resources can be produced from waste biomass. The production of high value biopolymers (e.g., for bioplastics manufacturing) from organic acids, hydrogen, and methane is another option for carbon recovery. The recovery of carbon and nutrients can be achieved by organic fertilizer production, or single cell protein generation (depending on the source) which may be utilized as feed, feed additives, next generation fertilizers, or even as probiotics. Additionlly, chemical oxidation-reduction and bioelectrochemical systems can recover inorganics or synthesize organic products beyond the natural microbial metabolism. Anticipating the next generation of wastewater treatment plants driven by biological recovery technologies, this review is focused on the generation and re-synthesis of energetic resources and key resources to be recycled as raw materials in a cradle-to-cradle economy concept. PMID:28111567

  16. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology. (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki


    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  17. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from mechanical selection: biological stabilization and recovery options. (United States)

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Russo, Lara; Farina, Anna; Belgiorno, Vincenzo


    Although current trends address towards prevention strategies, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste is greatly produced, especially in high-income contexts. Its recovery-oriented collection is a common practice, but a relevant portion of the biodegradable waste is not source selected. Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT) are the most common option to sort and stabilize the biodegradable matter ending in residual waste stream. Following the changes of the framework around waste management, this paper aimed at analyzing the quality of the mechanically selected organic waste produced in MBT plants, in order to discuss its recovery options. The material performance was obtained by its composition as well as by its main chemical and physical parameters; biological stability was also assessed by both aerobic and anaerobic methods. On this basis, the effectiveness of an aerobic biostabilization process was assessed at pilot scale. After 21 days of treatment, results proved that the biomass had reached an acceptable biostabilization level, with a potential Dynamic Respirometric Index (DRIP) value lower than the limit required for its use as daily or final landfill cover material. However, the final stabilization level was seen to be influenced by scaling factors and the 21 days of treatment turned to be not so adequate when applied in the existing full-scale facility.

  18. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki


    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  19. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics (United States)

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne


    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  20. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass. (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L


    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability.

  1. Recovery Management in All Optical Networks Using Biologically-Inspired Complex Adaptive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inadyuti Dutt


    Full Text Available All-Optical Networks have the ability to display varied advantages like performance efficiency, throughput etc but their efficiency depends on their survivability as they are attack prone. These attacks can be categorised as active or passive because they try to access information within the network or alter the information in the network. The attack once detected has to be recovered by formulating back-up or alternative paths. The proposed heuristic uses biologically inspired Complex Adaptive System, inspired by Natural Immune System. The study shows that natural immune system exhibit unique behaviour of detecting foreign bodies in our body and removing them on their first occurrences. This phenomenon is being utilised in the proposed heuristic for recovery management in All-optical Network

  2. Biologically formed calcium carbonate : a durable plugging agent for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, M.; Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)


    Waterflooding is a common enhanced oil recovery method in which water is injected into an oil reservoir. The flow is diverted into high permeability zones from which oil has already been recovered during primary production. The increased permeability variation decreases volumetric sweep efficiency of injected water. Cross flow complicates this problem by allowing flow between contrasting layers. This results in a ratio of produced water to oil that is much too high. The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) and silica may be an effective method for selective plugging of reservoirs. The controlled biological formation of CaCO{sub 3} depends on the decomposition of urea to carbonate and ammonium ions by the catalytic action of urease enzyme. This study shows that biological formation of CaCO{sub 3} could be induced successfully using a bacterium with urease producing activity or urease enzyme. It is shown that the yield of enzymatically produced CaCO{sub 3} is substantially higher than when bacterially produced because the tolerable level of urea for bacteria is lower than the concentration of urea that participates in the enzymatic reaction. Plugging studies in unconsolidated porous media have shown that in situ formation of CaCO{sub 3} may decrease the permeability of porous media. The extent of plugging depends on the enzyme and reactant concentration. The extent of enzymatically produced CaCO{sub 3} increases with higher enzyme concentrations as well as with higher temperature. In situ formation of CaCO{sub 3} could result in a major decrease in permeability. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  3. Nutrient release, recovery and removal from waste sludge of a biological nutrient removal system. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Pei, Li-Ying; Ke, Li; Peng, Dang-Cong; Xia, Si-Qing


    The uncontrolled release of nutrients from waste sludge results in nitrogen and phosphorus overloading in wastewater treatment plants when supernatant is returned to the inlet. A controlled release, recovery and removal of nutrient from the waste sludge of a Biological Nutrient Removal system (BNR) are investigated. Results showed that the supernatant was of high mineral salt, high electrical conductivity and poor biodegradability, in addition to high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations after the waste sludge was hydrolysed through sodium dodecyl sulphate addition. Subsequently, over 91.8% of phosphorus and 10.5% of nitrogen in the supernatants were extracted by the crystallization method under the conditions of 9.5 pH and 400 rpm. The precipitate was mainly struvite according to X-ray diffraction and morphological examination. A multistage anoxic-oxic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was then adopted to remove the residual carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the supernatant. The MBBR exhibited good performance in simultaneously removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under a short aeration time, which accounted for 31.25% of a cycle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that nitrifiers presented mainly in floc, although higher extracellular polymeric substance content, especially DNA, appeared in the biofilm. Thus, a combination of hydrolysis and precipitation, followed by the MBBR, can complete the nutrient release from the waste sludge of a BNR system, recovers nutrients from the hydrolysed liquor and removes nutrients from leftovers effectively.

  4. Recovery of soil base saturation following termination of N deposition: Increased biological weathering? (United States)

    Lucas, R. W.; Högberg, P.


    Current models suggest the removal rate of base cations (i.e. calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) from forest soils due to forest growth or forest management practices is greater than the resupply rate in many areas of North America and Europe. This is particularly concerning given the recent historical depletion of base cations from forest soils during times of high acid deposition and their critical role in buffering against acidity changes in both soils and surface waters. Because base cations are not easily replaced in soil, being primarily supplied through slow processes such as the primary weathering of parent minerals or the decomposition of organic materials, rapid removals of base cations can jeopardize the long-term fertility of forests. Using a long-term nitrogen (N) addition experiment in a Pinus sylvestris forest that has been ongoing since 1970, we examined how the availability of inorganic N mediates the recovery of base cations in forest soil and tree pools in a boreal forest in northern Sweden. Contrary to model projections, exchangeable base cations in the top 10 cm of mineral soils recovered much faster than predicted. The base saturation of mineral soils in the high N addition treatment (90 kg N ha-1), which was applied annually from 1970-1990 and has been allowed to recover for the last 22 years, was 120% of that of soil in the control treatment. Similarly, the base saturation of the upper 10 cm of mineral soil in the medium N treatment (60 kg N ha-1 yr-1) increased from 30% of that of the control in 2007 following 37 years of N addition to 80% of that of the control in 2010 following two years of recovery. Importantly, the base saturation of the low N treatment (30 kg N ha-1 yr-1) continually declined from 1970 to 2007 and remained low in 2010. Furthermore, the total calcium pool in the top 10 cm of mineral soil was significantly lower in the high and medium N treatments than in the control treatment. These results suggest there may

  5. Wastewater resource recovery via the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal and Recovery (EBP2R) process coupled with green microalgae cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja

    process is operated at relatively low solid retention time (SRT). Hence the bulk of nitrogen is preserved as ammonium, which is the preferred nitrogen source for green micro-algal growth. The effluent criterion for the EBP2R is set to meet the micro-algal nutrient requirements in terms of nitrogen...... developed and tested using a set of dynamic influent disturbance scenarios. The sequencing EBP2R system was found to be sensitive to large input disturbances. Special care should be taken when tuning the controllers for the sequencing EBP2R to avoid too aggressive control actions that can potentially...... to the continuous flow system, where only the SVI could be improved. When extending the aforementioned studies to include the PBR, we identified the lack of a model suitable to describe resource recovery from wastewater via green micro-algal cultivation. Furthermore, neither of models published in literature were...

  6. Urban Area Recovery Planning with Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Lessons Learned from Seattle and Denver (United States)


    themes ). Another option is that the region selects those RSFs that are most applicable for that region which maybe a...Historic and Cultural Preservation Cultural and historical importance and value National Park Service or Bureau of Land Management Use of...Community Development Department Economic Recovery Tourism / Visitor and Convention Bureau Economic Recovery Local downtown/urban development councils

  7. Effect of foam on temperature prediction and heat recovery potential from biological wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Corbala-Robles, L; Volcke, E I P; Samijn, A; Ronsse, F; Pieters, J G


    Heat is an important resource in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which can be recovered. A prerequisite to determine the theoretical heat recovery potential is an accurate heat balance model for temperature prediction. The insulating effect of foam present on the basin surface and its influence on temperature prediction were assessed in this study. Experiments were carried out to characterize the foam layer and its insulating properties. A refined dynamic temperature prediction model, taking into account the effect of foam, was set up. Simulation studies for a WWTP treating highly concentrated (manure) wastewater revealed that the foam layer had a significant effect on temperature prediction (3.8 ± 0.7 K over the year) and thus on the theoretical heat recovery potential (30% reduction when foam is not considered). Seasonal effects on the individual heat losses and heat gains were assessed. Additionally, the effects of the critical basin temperature above which heat is recovered, foam thickness, surface evaporation rate reduction and the non-absorbed solar radiation on the theoretical heat recovery potential were evaluated.

  8. Epilithic algae as indicators of biological recovery in acid-stresed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.


    The responsiveness of benthic algae to lake acidification and chemical recovery prompted a survey of epilithic algae along an acid-stressed lake gradient. A primary acid-stress recovery gradient, best defined by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, was characterized by increasing epilithic algal production, and a shift from an Actinotaenium cucurbita/Fragilaria acidobiontica/Homoeothrix juliana/Zygogonium ericetorum to an Achnanthes minutissima/Cymbella spp./Gomphonema spp. indicator assemblage. Increased total, filamentous green, and desmid production, and a shift towards a placoderm desmid-dominated community, typified a secondary recovery gradient defined by increasing water colour. A reciprocal transplant experiment indicated that physiological tolerance of acid-stress was the primary ecological mechanism regulating epilithic algal production and community structure. Macrograzing was of secondary importance, affecting community architecture and species composition only in low acid-stressed habitats. Tadpoles reduced the growth of metaphyton-forming epilithic algae by selective removal of loosely attached filaments of zygnematacean genera. Metaphytic algae from two lakes of different acid-stress levels had contrasting acidity and aluminium tolerance ranges. Z. ericetorum had both a low pH optimum and relative growth rate, along with high aluminium resistance, while a less acidophilic Z. tunetanum exhibited faster growth over a broader range of acidities, but also sensitivity to aluminium concentrations in excess of naturally occurring background levels. 172 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. RO brine treatment and recovery by biological activated carbon and capacitive deionization process. (United States)

    Tao, Guihe; Viswanath, Bala; Kekre, Kiran; Lee, Lai Yoke; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Seah, Harry


    The generation of brine solutions from dense membrane (reverse osmosis, RO or nanofiltration, NF) water reclamation systems has been increasing worldwide, and the lack of cost effective disposal options is becoming a critical water resources management issue. In Singapore, NEWater is the product of a multiple barrier water reclamation process from secondary treated domestic effluent using MF/UF-RO and UV technologies. The RO brine (concentrates) accounts for more than 20% of the total flow treated. To increase the water recovery and treat the RO brine, a CDI based process with BAC as pretreatment was tested. The results show that ion concentrations in CDI product were low except SiO2 when compared with RO feed water. CDI product was passed through a RO and the RO permeate was of better quality including low SiO2 as compared to NEWater quality. It could be beneficial to use a dedicated RO operated at optimum conditions with better performance to recover the water. BAC was able to achieve 15-27% TOC removal of RO brine. CDI had been tested at a water recovery ranging from 71.6 to 92.3%. CDI based RO brine treatment could improve overall water recovery of NEWater production over 90%. It was found that calcium phosphate scaling and organic fouling was the major cause of CDI pressure increase. Ozone disinfection and sodium bisulfite dosing were able to reduce CDI fouling rate. For sustainable operation of CDI organic fouling control and effective organic fouling cleaning should be further studied.

  10. Rapid recovery of cyanobacterial pigments in desiccated biological soil crusts following addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abed, R M M; Polerecky, Lubos; Al-Habsi, Amal; Oetjen, Janina; Strous, Marc; de Beer, Dirk


    We examined soil surface colour change to green and hydrotaxis following addition of water to biological soil crusts using pigment extraction, hyperspectral imaging, microsensors and 13C labeling experiments coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry

  11. Recovery and Biological Properties of Nitrate Non-utilizing Mutants of Rice Blast, Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-qing; ZHOU Ming-guo


    Eleven nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were recovered from six isolates of Magnaporthe grisea cultured on MM media amended with 60 g/L potassium chlorate, with a frequency of 1.42 %. Some biological properties, such as growth rate, growth biomass, cultural characters, conidial production, sexual reproduction ability, and pathogenicity were compared between nit mutants and their parent isolates. Results showed that all the nit mutants were resistant to chlorate. Some important biological properties such as the growth rate on YPSA, conidial production ability on TPSA, pathogenicity, had no significant differences between nit mutants and their parent isolates. Mating type didn't change, but perithecia production ability of fertile isolates changed significantly as compared with that of their parent isolates. Therefore, the nit can be used as a genetic marker to study the genetics such as pathogenicity, fungicide resistance in Magnaporthe grisea.

  12. Optimized IMAC-IMAC protocol for phosphopeptide recovery from complex biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Xumin; Young, Clifford;


    that the ionization efficiencies of the phosphoryl group and carboxylic group changed differently when the acetonitrile concentration was increased. A magnified difference was achieved in high acetonitrile content solutions. On the basis of this concept, an optimized phosphopeptide enrichment protocol was established...... using Fe(III)-NTA IMAC resin and it proved to be highly selective in the phosphopeptide enrichment of a highly diluted standard sample (1:1000) prior to MALDI MS analysis. We also observed that a higher iron purity led to an increased IMAC enrichment efficiency. The optimized method was then adapted...... peptides from singly phosphorylated peptides with successive IMAC enrichments. The rational improvements to the IMAC protocol described in this study provide more insights into the factors that affect IMAC performance for phosphopeptide recovery. The improved IMAC-IMAC method should allow more detailed...

  13. The Virtual Brain: Modeling Biological Correlates of Recovery after Chronic Stroke. (United States)

    Falcon, Maria Inez; Riley, Jeffrey D; Jirsa, Viktor; McIntosh, Anthony R; Shereen, Ahmed D; Chen, E Elinor; Solodkin, Ana


    There currently remains considerable variability in stroke survivor recovery. To address this, developing individualized treatment has become an important goal in stroke treatment. As a first step, it is necessary to determine brain dynamics associated with stroke and recovery. While recent methods have made strides in this direction, we still lack physiological biomarkers. The Virtual Brain (TVB) is a novel application for modeling brain dynamics that simulates an individual's brain activity by integrating their own neuroimaging data with local biophysical models. Here, we give a detailed description of the TVB modeling process and explore model parameters associated with stroke. In order to establish a parallel between this new type of modeling and those currently in use, in this work we establish an association between a specific TVB parameter (long-range coupling) that increases after stroke with metrics derived from graph analysis. We used TVB to simulate the individual BOLD signals for 20 patients with stroke and 10 healthy controls. We performed graph analysis on their structural connectivity matrices calculating degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and global efficiency. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that long-range coupling is negatively correlated with global efficiency (P = 0.038), but is not correlated with degree centrality or betweenness centrality. Our results suggest that the larger influence of local dynamics seen through the long-range coupling parameter is closely associated with a decreased efficiency of the system. We thus propose that the increase in the long-range parameter in TVB (indicating a bias toward local over global dynamics) is deleterious because it reduces communication as suggested by the decrease in efficiency. The new model platform TVB hence provides a novel perspective to understanding biophysical parameters responsible for global brain dynamics after stroke, allowing the design of focused therapeutic

  14. The minimal database size and resolution of the locally linear algorithm of direct dependence recovery in helio-biology studies (United States)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Breus, T. K.


    Several problems can emerge in front of investigators, who take a detailed restoration of dependency. The key of them - is a mathematically rigorous formulation of the desired degree of details. Second in importance is the reliability problem of reproduction of these details. And the third problem is the evaluation of data collection efforts that will ensure the desired depending on the required details and results reliability. In this work the strict concept of spatial resolution of the locally linear algorithm of direct dependence recovery (DDR) is formulated mathematically. Such approach implies approximation of the system reaction (dependent variable) in the case of the assigned value of factors which only utilizes the data (precedents) from a spherical cluster surrounding those assigned value of factors. The concept of reliability of details is formalized through the noise attenuation coefficient. We derive a relationship between the size of the minimum required database, spatial resolution of the recovery algorithm, the number of influencing factors and the noise attenuation coefficient. Analytical findings are verified by numerical experiments. Maximum number of factors, functional dependence on which can be recovered via the database figuring in various helio-biological works published by many authors for several 10 of years, is estimated. It is shown that the minimum required size of the database depends on the number of influencing factors (dimension of space of the independent variable) as a power law. The analysis conducted in this study reveals that the majority of the dimensional potentials of helio-biological databases are significantly higher that dimensions, which are appear in the approaches of authors of these works.

  15. Investigation of biologically-designed metal-specific chelators for potential metal recovery and waste remediation applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Ockwig, Nathan W.


    Bacteria, algae and plants produce metal-specific chelators to capture required nutrient or toxic trace metals. Biological systems are thought to be very efficient, honed by evolutionary forces over time. Understanding the approaches used by living organisms to select for specific metals in the environment may lead to design of cheaper and more effective approaches for metal recovery and contaminant-metal remediation. In this study, the binding of a common siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO-B), to three aqueous metal cations, Fe(II), Fe(III), and UO{sub 2}(VI) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics. DFO-B has three acetohydroxamate groups and a terminal amine group that all deprotonate with increasing pH. For all three metals, complexes with DFO-B (-2) are the most stable and favored under alkaline conditions. Under more acidic conditions, the metal-DFO complexes involve chelation with both acetohydroxamate and acetylamine groups. The approach taken here allows for detailed investigation of metal binding to biologically-designed organic ligands.

  16. Ozone-biological activated carbon as a pretreatment process for reverse osmosis brine treatment and recovery. (United States)

    Lee, Lai Yoke; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Hu, Jiang Yong; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran; Viswanath, Balakrishnan; Lay, Winson; Seah, Harry


    Ozonation was used in this study to improve biodegradability of RO brine from water reclamation facilities. An ozone dosage ranging from 3 to 10 mg O(3)/L and contact times of 10 and 20 min in batch studies were found to increase the biodegradability (BOD(5)/TOC ratio) of the RO brine by 1.8-3.5 times. At the same time, total organic carbon (TOC) removal was in the range of 5.3-24.5%. The lab-scale ozone-biological activated carbon (BAC) at an ozone dosage of 6.0mg O(3)/L with 20-min contact time was able to achieve 3 times higher TOC removal compared to using BAC alone. Further processing with Capacitive Deionization (CDI) process was able to generate a product water with better water quality than the RO feed water, i.e., with more than 80% ions removal and a lower TOC concentration. The ozone-BAC pretreatment has the potential of reducing fouling in the CDI process.

  17. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe


    soil biological classes). Physical soil characteristics remained unchanged after the first year from the earthworks and did not change under grass cover. Chemical analysis only indicated a significant effect of earthworks. Over the 2010-2013 period, the new vineyard showed a slight increase of TOC and total N contents; as compared to the old vineyard, it averaged lower TOC and total N, and higher CaCO3 contents, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. Microarthropod analysis showed significant different abundances and communities' structures both by management system and by year, increasing where the land use pressure was reduced by permanent grass cover and along with the aging of vineyard. Though the euedaphic forms, well adapted to soil life, were always rare. Microbiological analysis showed a different structure of eubacterial communities and a lower microbial activity in the new vineyard, especially during 2010-2012. In contrast, significant differences were not observed between the two vineyards in 2013, and grass cover effect was controversial. To sum up, the consequence of deep earthworks on chemical and biological properties were still evident after four years from planting and more time was needed to recover soil functions. Permanent grass cover did not always show a consistent positive effect.

  18. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of a kraft pulp mill from the incineration in the recovery boiler of biological sludge; Effekter av PFG vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i ett massabruks sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan


    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler of a Swedish Kraft pulp mill, StoraEnso Pulp AB Skutskaers Bruk, which has practiced incineration of sludge in the recovery boiler during the last two years. The following aspects of the technique were investigated: Experience from operation of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler; The content of Non-Process Elements (NPE) in process flows and evaluate the risks of incrustations in the system; The build-up of NPE in the chemicals recovery system and the estimated increase in make-up lime demand; and Technical risks for mills with different process equipment. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium, copper, and nitrogen. The operational experience from the system for hydrolysis of the biological sludge and evaporation/incineration in the recovery boiler is excellent. The handling of the sludge takes place in a closed system that demands little supervision and maintenance. Overall, the mill has not seen any negative effects that can be explained by increased intake of NPEs to the chemical recovery system. Aluminium can lead to troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminium-silicates on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. An effective elimination of aluminium by the green liquor dreg is obtained with the double salt hydrotalcite if the quotient Mg/Al is kept higher than 4-5 in the black liquor. The need for make-up lime has increased due to the build-up of phosphorus in the lime. Depending on the level of make-up lime the need will increase 2-5 kg/ t{sub 90} at a price of 2-5 kr/t{sub 90}. If a higher level of phosphorus is accepted instead of increasing lime make-up the running costs will be somewhat higher, 0,5-1 kr/t{sub 90} due to increased ballast. NO{sub x} in the flue gases from the recovery boiler has not increased since the

  19. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H


    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  20. A consideration of potential confounding factors limiting chemical and biological recovery at Lochnagar, a remote mountain loch in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek MUIR


    Full Text Available Lochnagar, a remote loch in the Grampian Mountains of Scotland is one of the most studied freshwater bodies in the UK. It represents a key site in a number of monitoring programmes and has become the UK’s 'flag-ship' mountain lake in various EU funded projects over the last 15 years. Palaeolimnological studies have revealed the extent and diverse provenance of atmospherically deposited pollution at the site and show that the loch began to acidify in the mid-19th century. However, despite abatement strategies dramatically reducing the emission and deposition of non-marine sulphate and trace metals since the 1970s, the loch pH shows little sign of recovery and full basin fluxes of, for example, Pb and Hg show no decline or even a continued increase. It is suggested that the lack of recovery from acidification over the last 15 years of monitoring results from the balancing of the decline in sulphate by increased nitrate, and that this increase is related to winter duration and severity. The lack of response by the sediment record to declines in metal deposition is thought to be due to a continuing input of previously deposited metals from the catchment. Hypotheses for these enhanced catchment inputs involve responses to a changing climate. Site specific climate reconstructions and predictions for the 21st century suggest an accelerated increase in temperature rise and increased winter precipitation and storminess. These predicted changes are likely to exacerbate the input of metals (and other stored pollutants from the catchment but higher temperatures may also help to promote recovery from acidification.

  1. A roadmap for the synthesis of separation networks for the recovery of bio-based chemicals: Matching biological and process feasibility. (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Wu, WenZhao; Clark, Ryan L; Pfleger, Brian F; Root, Thatcher W; Maravelias, Christos T


    Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks to high-value chemicals is an attractive alternative to current petrochemical processes because it offers the potential to reduce net CO2 emissions and integrate with bioremediation objectives. Microbes have been genetically engineered to produce a growing number of high-value chemicals in sufficient titer, rate, and yield from renewable feedstocks. However, high-yield bioconversion is only one aspect of an economically viable process. Separation of biologically synthesized chemicals from process streams is a major challenge that can contribute to >70% of the total production costs. Thus, process feasibility is dependent upon the efficient selection of separation technologies. This selection is dependent on upstream processing or biological parameters, such as microbial species, product titer and yield, and localization. Our goal is to present a roadmap for selection of appropriate technologies and generation of separation schemes for efficient recovery of bio-based chemicals by utilizing information from upstream processing, separation science and commercial requirements. To achieve this, we use a separation system comprising of three stages: (I) cell and product isolation, (II) product concentration, and (III) product purification and refinement. In each stage, we review the technology alternatives available for different tasks in terms of separation principles, important operating conditions, performance parameters, advantages and disadvantages. We generate separation schemes based on product localization and its solubility in water, the two most distinguishing properties. Subsequently, we present ideas for simplification of these schemes based on additional properties, such as physical state, density, volatility, and intended use. This simplification selectively narrows down the technology options and can be used for systematic process synthesis and optimal recovery of bio-based chemicals.

  2. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study. (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N


    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  3. Recovery Swaps


    Berd, Arthur M.


    We derive an arbitrage free relationship between recovery swap rates, digital default swap spreads and conventional CDS spreads, and argue that the fair forward recovery rate used in recovery swaps must contain a convexity premium over the expected recovery value.

  4. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail:; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina


    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup −1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup −1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation

  5. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody


    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  6. Recovery Online (United States)

    Clark, John R.


    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  7. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W


    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  8. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  9. Technical progress report of biological research on the Volcanic Island Surtsey and environment for the year 1976. [Recovery of terrestrial ecosystem on volcanic island following volcano eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, S.


    The study involves the terrestrial biological research on the volcanic island, Surtsey, off the coast of Iceland and the neighbouring islands and environs of the Westman Islands, which are situated on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. An eruption of the volcano in 1973 is studied. The topographical changes on Surtsey were studied in August 1976. It is evident that the southwestern side is constantly being eroded and that the island decreases in area of some 7.5 hectares per year. Results are reported from studies of microorganisms, algae, lichens, moss, vascular plants, insects, birds, and soil, and the nitrogen cycle. Emphasis was placed on revegetation and recolonization of plants, insects, and sea birds.

  10. The Advancement of CO2 Biological Trapping and Wastewater Ecological Recovery Based on Microalgae Cultivation.%微藻在CO2生物捕集及废水生态修复领域的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小红; 常影; 黄和; 高振; 尹继龙; 纪晓俊


    温室效应、水资源短缺和能源危机是21世纪人类面临的三大挑战.微藻是一种水生植物,在CO2减排、废水生态修复及生物能源领域已成为全球研究热点.综述了微藻在CO2生物捕集和废水生态修复的应用研究进展.微藻生物柴油现已成为全球研发热点,但研究主要集中在某个单元的最优化设计,而对各单元之间相互作用和耦合的重要性缺乏充分认知,提出了将CO2生物捕集、废水生态修复、生物柴油制备、藻渣替代水煤浆与煤共气化的理念,这对微藻生物过程的高效全局优化和环境综合治理具有重要意义,是未来我国发展低碳经济的有效途径,并在此基础上对微藻产业规模化的未来核心研究方向进行了展望.%Greenhouse effect, water resource crisis and energy crisis are the three major challenges in front of human beings in the 21st century. Microalgae, as a kind of aquatic plant, have become a hot global research topic in the field of CO2 emission reduction, wastewater ecological recovery and biological energy. The application research progress in using microalgae in the field of CO2 biological trapping and wastewater ecological recovery is summarized. Based on microalgal biological processes research concentrating on optimum design of one unit and lacking of fully cognition toward the importance of interconnection, The conception of coupling these factors are putted forward. The new biofuel strategy is biodiesel production of high oil content microalgae coupled with wastewater treatment and flue gas, then algal residue and coal both vaporize. Efficient global optimization and environmental comprehensive control is important. To develop low carbon economy is an effective way in China, The future research emphasis and prospect of microalgae interconnection are also mentioned.

  11. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz


    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  12. Spontaneous Recovery (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.


    Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by…

  13. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.


    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  14. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 除磷系统剩余污泥中营养元素的快速释放及回收%Rapid Release and Recovery of Nutrient Elements in Excess Sludge from Biological Phosphorus Removal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡; 曲鹏程; 郑淑健; 彭党聪


    除磷系统的剩余污泥在浓缩、储存及后续的处理过程中均可能引起磷的释放,释放的磷往往导致正在运行的污水处理厂的磷负荷超标,最终引起出水磷的不稳定排放.针对此问题,在分析生物除磷系统剩余污泥化学特性的基础上,探讨除磷剩余污泥中营养元素的快速释放条件及磷回收效果.采用两个平行反应器,其中一个作为控制反应器,另一个添加表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS),在中温厌氧条件下对剩余污泥进行水解,并对水解产物中的营养元素在室温、pH值为9.5、搅拌转速为400 r/min的条件下进行鸟粪石回收.结果表明:生物除磷系统的剩余污泥具有磷含量高、磷释放快速、氮释放缓慢的特点;添加SDS不仅可以促进污泥水解过程中磷和氮的释放,而且对回收鸟粪石有积极作用;综合考虑水解产物中的氮、磷浓度及其比值和水解的时间成本,建议快速水解条件为添加SDS且水解24 h.%Excess sludge from biological phosphorus removal (BPR) process usually releases phosphorus when the sludge is thickened, stored and subsequently treated, which always leads to phosphorus overload in a running wastewater treatment plant and results in unstable discharge of effluent phosphorus. Based on the analysis of chemical characteristics of excess sludge from BPR process, the rapid release and recovery of nutrient elements in excess sludge were investigated. Bench-scale experiments of anaerobic hydrolysis under mesothermal condition were carried out in two identical reactors. One reactor served as control and the other was filled with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The nutrient elements in the hydrolysate were recovered by struvite crystallization under room temperature, pH value of 9.5 and mixing speed of 400 r/min. The results showed that excess sludge from BPR process was characterized by high phosphorus content, rapid release of phosphorus and slow release of

  16. EPA Recovery Mapper (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  17. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;


    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  18. Towards high through-put biological treatment of municipal wastewater and enhanced phosphorus recovery using a hybrid microfiltration-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor with hydraulic retention time in sub-hour level. (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Zhang, Sui; Srinivasa Raghavan, Divya Shankari; Das, Subhabrata; Ting, Yen-Peng


    This work uncovers an important feature of the forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) process: the decoupling of contaminants retention time (CRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Based on this concept, the capability of the hybrid microfiltration-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (MF-FOMBR) in achieving high through-put treatment of municipal wastewater with enhanced phosphorus recovery was explored. High removal of TOC and NH4(+)-N (90% and 99%, respectively) was achieved with HRTs down to 47min, with the treatment capacity increased by an order of magnitude. Reduced HRT did not affect phosphorus removal and recovery. As a result, the phosphorus recovery capacity was also increased by the same order. Reduced HRT resulted in increased system loading rates and thus elevated concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids and increased membrane fouling. 454-pyrosequecing suggested the thriving of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (especially Sphingobacteriales Flavobacteriales and Thiothrix members), as well as the community succession and dynamics of ammonium oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing bacteria.

  19. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)


    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  20. Mechanical Treatment: Material Recovery Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bilitewski, B.


    .g. shredding prior to incineration or screening after composting). The mechanical treatment unit process is in the latter case an integrated part of the overall treatment usually with the purpose of improving the quality of the input material, or the efficiency or stability of the biological or thermal process......, or improving the quality of the output material. Examples hereof appear in the chapters on biological and thermal treatment. Mechanical treatment unit processes may also appear at industries using recycled material as part of their feedstock, for example, for removing impurities and homogenizing the material....... Examples hereof appear in the chapters describing the recycling of materials. Mechanical treatment unit processes most often perform only one function, but placing different mechanical unit processes in a series or ‘treatment train’ creating a material recovery facility, often called an MRF, output...

  1. Bioelectrochemical metal recovery from wastewater: a review. (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Ren, Zhiyong Jason


    Metal contaminated wastewater posts great health and environmental concerns, but it also provides opportunities for precious metal recovery, which may potentially make treatment processes more cost-effective and sustainable. Conventional metal recovery technologies include physical, chemical and biological methods, but they are generally energy and chemical intensive. The recent development of bioelectrochemical technology provides a new approach for efficient metal recovery, because it offers a flexible platform for both oxidation and reduction reaction oriented processes. While dozens of recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of the bioelectrochemical metal recovery concept, the mechanisms have been different and confusing. This study provides a review that summarizes and discusses the different fundamental mechanisms of metal conversion, with the aim of facilitating the scientific understanding and technology development. While the general approach of bioelectrochemical metal recovery is using metals as the electron acceptor in the cathode chamber and organic waste as the electron donor in the anode chamber, there are so far four mechanisms that have been reported: (1) direct metal recovery using abiotic cathodes; (2) metal recovery using abiotic cathodes supplemented by external power sources; (3) metal conversion using bio-cathodes; and (4) metal conversion using bio-cathodes supplemented by external power sources.

  2. All biology is computational biology (United States)


    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  3. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik


    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagr...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. "Sizing Up" Codependency Recovery. (United States)

    Messner, Beth A.


    Analyzes codependency related, self-help literature with a dramatistic lens to explore M. Beattie's bibliotherapeutic portrayal of codependency and codependency recovery. Depicts Beattie's "stylistic medicine" for codependency recovery as a three-step, rebirth experience: (1) recognize the codependent pollution within; (2) engage in…

  5. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders;


    . However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. Based on a simulation of a full-scale nutrient...

  6. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud


    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  7. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  8. Recovery Audit Program (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  9. Disaster Debris Recovery Database (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  10. Silver recovery system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulineau, B.


    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.


    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  12. Recovery Action Mapping Tool (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  13. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  14. [Biological experiments on "Kosmos-1887"]. (United States)

    Alpatov, A M; I'lin, E A; Antipov, V V; Tairbekov, M G


    In the 13-ray space flight on Kosmos-1887 various experiments in the field of cell biology, genetics, biorhythm, developmental biology and regeneration were performed using bacteria, protozoa, plants, worms, insects, fish and amphibia. Paramecia showed enhanced cell proliferation, spheroidization and diminished protein content. Experiments on fruit-flies, newt oocytes and primate lymphocytes confirmed involvement of the cell genetic apparatus in responses to microgravity. Beetles exhibited a reduction of the length of the spontaneous period of freely running circadian rhythms. Carausius morosus developed latent changes in early embryogenesis which manifested at later stages of ontogenesis. Exposure to microgravity did not prevent recovery of injured tissues; moreover their regeneration may be accelerated after recovery. Biology research programs in future biosatellite flights are discussed.

  15. [Biological weapons]. (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D


    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  16. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John


    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  17. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla


    , who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front......-line employees' satisfaction with management's actions and overall employee recovery.......Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...

  18. Epigenetics in Stroke Recovery (United States)

    Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang


    Abstract: While the death rate from stroke has continually decreased due to interventions in the hyperacute stage of the disease, long-term disability and institutionalization have become common sequelae in the aftermath of stroke. Therefore, identification of new molecular pathways that could be targeted to improve neurological recovery among survivors of stroke is crucial. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histone proteins and microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of the enhanced plasticity observed during repair processes after stroke. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in the evolving field of epigenetics in stroke recovery. PMID:28264471

  19. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M. [Briggs Marine Environmental Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)


    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  20. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten


    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  1. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang;


    A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract......) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery...

  2. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation. (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.


    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  3. The Ghanaian Economic Recovery (United States)


    struggle for power between the Bretton Woods institutions and African leaders.28 20 Nii K. Sowa...Oriented Industrial Output in Ghana: The Case of Formal Wood Processing in an Era of Economic Recovery.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 39

  4. Sulfur recovery further improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsboom, J.; Grinsven, M. van; Warners, A. van [Jacobs Nederland B.V., (Netherlands); Nisselrooy, P. van [Gastec N.V., (Netherlands)


    The original 100-year-old Claus process for producing sulfur from hydrogen sulfide in acid gas is described together with improvements which have been made over the years. The most recent modification, EUROCLAUS, achieves sulfur recoveries of 99-99.9 per cent. Five commercial units are being designed.

  5. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Di Muro, M A; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A


    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy of nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery $\\gamma$, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane $\\gamma-p$ of the phase diagram three ...

  6. Recovery post ICU. (United States)

    Jones, Christina


    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  7. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The world economy crawls ahead amid risk and uncertainty The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  8. Recovery in the East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  9. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology? (United States)

    Holm, Sune


    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  10. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  11. Allee effect and the uncertainty of population recovery. (United States)

    Kuparinen, Anna; Keith, David M; Hutchings, Jeffrey A


    Recovery of depleted populations is fundamentally important for conservation biology and sustainable resource harvesting. At low abundance, population growth rate, a primary determinant of population recovery, is generally assumed to be relatively fast because competition is low (i.e., negative density dependence). But population growth can be limited in small populations by an Allee effect. This is particularly relevant for collapsed populations or species that have not recovered despite large reductions in, or elimination of, threats. We investigated how an Allee effect can influence the dynamics of recovery. We used Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as the study organism and an empirically quantified Allee effect for the species to parameterize our simulations. We simulated recovery through an individual-based mechanistic simulation model and then compared recovery among scenarios incorporating an Allee effect, negative density dependence, and an intermediate scenario. Although an Allee effect significantly slowed recovery, such that population increase could be negligible even after 100 years or more, it also made the time required for biomass rebuilding much less predictable. Our finding that an Allee effect greatly increased the uncertainty in recovery time frames provides an empirically based explanation for why the removal of threat does not always result in the recovery of depleted populations or species.

  12. Recovery from opioid addiction in DATOS. (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Joe, George W; Broome, Kirk M; Simpson, D Dwayne; Brown, Barry S


    Patient attributions for their own long-term recovery were obtained in a 5-year followup of 432 admissions to 18 outpatient methadone treatment programs. Subjects were classified into two groups - recovering and non-recovering-strictly defined and based on both biological and self-report measures of no opioid or cocaine use, less than daily use of alcohol, and no arrests or illegal activity during the year prior to interview. The 28% who were in recovery at Year 5 reported that they had relied primarily upon personal motivation, treatment experiences, religion/spirituality, family, and their job/career. Particular value was placed on the support from family and close friends, indicating the importance of stronger efforts to develop social networks for support of drug-free functioning, especially among patients who lack these resources or need them strengthened. More information is available on the Internet at

  13. Biological Oceanography (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya


    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  14. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi


    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  15. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  16. Spontaneous recovery from acalculia. (United States)

    Basso, Anna; Caporali, Alessandra; Faglioni, Pietro


    A topic much considered in research on acalculia was its relationship with aphasia. Far less attention has been given to the natural course of acalculia. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between aphasia and acalculia in an unselected series of 98 left-brain-damaged patients and the spontaneous recovery from acalculia in 92 acalculic patients with follow-up. There was a significant association between aphasia and acalculia although 19 participants exhibited aphasia with no acalculia and six acalculia with no aphasia. We observed significant improvement between a first examination carried out between 1 and 5 months post-onset and a second examination carried out between 3 and 11 months later (mean: 5 months). The mechanisms of spontaneous recovery are discussed.

  17. Gasoline Vapor Recovery (United States)


    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  18. Foldit Biology (United States)


    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  19. Recovery Systems Design Guide (United States)


    14 1.9 Gemini Paraglider Deployment ......................................... 14 1.10 Apollo Recovery System Deployment...45 to 15 g’s. The fied land landing by Paraglider and an ejection seat automatic sequencing system deployed the drogue back-up system as the means for... Paraglider system should not be higher altitudes and speeds. There was no reserve ready for early Gemini flights. The intention was to drogue parachute

  20. Superconducting energy recovery linacs (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan


    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  1. Recovery From Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Carter


    Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.

  2. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Biological Terrorism Incident (United States)


    goals may be advised for areas where young children or people with compromised immune systems spend considerable time. Pre-planning for clearance...Cipro) can cause moderate to severe nausea, diarrhea , vomiting, headache, stomach pain, skin rashes, mental confusion, tremors, seizures

  3. Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent


    Patel, Sanjay; Murthy, Z.V. Panchakshari


    International audience; The treatment of dairy wastewater which conforms to environmental regulations is a crucial problem due to its high biological oxygen demand (BOD). The main cause of the BOD in dairy wastewater is due to residual whey which consists mainly of lactose. Recovery of lactose from the whey would solve the problems of whey utilization as well as pollution reduction as lactose recovery itself can reduce the BOD of whey by > 80%. In the present study, the recovery of lactose fr...

  4. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis (United States)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao


    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  5. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao


    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  6. Nutrients removal and recovery in bioelectrochemical systems: a review. (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen


    Nutrient removal and recovery has received less attention during the development of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for energy efficient wastewater treatment, but it is a critical issue for sustainable wastewater treatment. Both nitrogen and phosphorus can be removed and/or recovered in a BES through involving biological processes such as nitrification and bioelectrochemical denitrification, the NH4(+)/NH3 couple affected by the electrolyte pH, or precipitating phosphorus compounds in the high-pH zone adjacent a cathode electrode. This paper has reviewed the nutrients removal and recovery in various BES including microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, discussed the influence factors and potential problems, and identified the key challenges for nitrogen and phosphorus removal/recovery in a BES. It expects to give an informative overview of the current development, and to encourage more thinking and investigation towards further development of efficient processes for nutrient removal and recovery in a BES.

  7. Methods for analysis of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids (United States)

    Methods for analysis of 10 selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics in biological fluids are reviewed. Approaches for sample preparation, detection methods, limits of detection and quantitation and recovery information are provided for both single analyte and multi-analyte fluoroquinolone methods....


    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.


    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga


    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  10. Biological preconcentrator (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.


    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  11. Uncertainty in Population Estimates for Endangered Animals and Improving the Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Rachlow


    Full Text Available United States recovery plans contain biological information for a species listed under the Endangered Species Act and specify recovery criteria to provide basis for species recovery. The objective of our study was to evaluate whether recovery plans provide uncertainty (e.g., variance with estimates of population size. We reviewed all finalized recovery plans for listed terrestrial vertebrate species to record the following data: (1 if a current population size was given, (2 if a measure of uncertainty or variance was associated with current estimates of population size and (3 if population size was stipulated for recovery. We found that 59% of completed recovery plans specified a current population size, 14.5% specified a variance for the current population size estimate and 43% specified population size as a recovery criterion. More recent recovery plans reported more estimates of current population size, uncertainty and population size as a recovery criterion. Also, bird and mammal recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty compared to reptiles and amphibians. We suggest the use of calculating minimum detectable differences to improve confidence when delisting endangered animals and we identified incentives for individuals to get involved in recovery planning to improve access to quantitative data.

  12. Biology Notes. (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981


    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  13. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.


    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  14. Marine Biology (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.


    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  15. Scaffolded biology. (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro


    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  16. Biology Notes. (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984


    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  17. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut


    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  18. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  19. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    . Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models ( dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...... have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment...

  20. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin


    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  1. Superdiffusive gas recovery from nanopores (United States)

    Wu, Haiyi; He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui


    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative recovery scales as R ˜t1 /2 ) but follows a superdiffusive scaling law R ˜tn (n >0.5 ), which is similar to that observed in some field experiments. For the system studied here, the superdiffusive gas recovery scaling law can be captured well by continuum models in which the gas adsorption and desorption from pore walls are taken into account using the Langmuir model.

  2. Register file soft error recovery (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.


    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  3. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.


    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  4. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.


    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  5. Forerunner of Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It has been an accepted fact that the sweeping financial crisis has thrown the world economy into a tailspin.Some Western countries are succumbing to a deepening recession.In China,the chilly winds blowing through the global economy have even put a damper on this year’s lunar New Year. The looming question now is which country will be the first to bottom out-the United States or China?Have they laid the groundwork for recovery?Zuo Xiaolei,chief economist at China Galaxy Securities Beijing,discussed these questions in a recent article in the China Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow

  6. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.


    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  7. Planning tiger recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per;


    approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits...... two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely......, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Paraschita


    Full Text Available Discopathy lumbar (DVL is characterized by localized back pain in the lumbar region and radiating to the buttocks and along the leg, under certain nerve pathways. The purpose of this study was to find the best treatment for improving pronounced as back pain in lumbar-sacral and cervical region. In the study took part two women aged 42 to 55 years, with disease acquired due to requesting or incorrect posture, one being a former athlete, the other being an accountant and sitting a lot on the chair because the profession. Patients with lower discopathies can improve spinal mobility and may relieve back pain through chiropractic methods, massage and electrotherapy. It is necessary to apply as early as possible a comprehensive program of recovery (Exercise WILLIAMS, showing continuity in time and aim to reduce or eliminate pain patient.

  9. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.


    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  10. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar


    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  11. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.


    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  12. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  13. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders (United States)

    Woods, Susan


    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  14. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hwa Chen


    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  15. LHC Report: Rocky Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The last technical stop finished on Friday 8 July, but the machine returned to its pre-stop performance level over a week later.   Efficiency of LHC fills between 16 July and 20 July, 2011. The cryogenics team had the entire ring cold by Saturday morning and the usual post-technical stop tests with circulating beams started soon after. Unfortunately, they were interrupted by a major perturbation to CERN’s electrical network caused by an impressive thunderstorm that swept over the Pays de Gex. There were major knock-on effects, including the loss of cooling to the cryogenics and an inevitable recovery period once normal service had been re-established. The beams were circulating again by Tuesday afternoon and the post-technical stop checks continued, beefed up with further tests to address a number of issues related to the power cut.  Before the stop, the LHC had managed to get 1380 bunches per beam into collisions and the plan was to ramp back up relatively quickly to this leve...

  16. Immune recovery vitritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana


    Full Text Available Introduction Immune recovery vitritis (IRV is symptomatic vitritis of > 1+ severity associated with inactive cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. It is an opportunistic infection of the eye, in the patients who suffer from AIDS, and is treated with a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. As a result of this therapy, there is an immune reconstitution in the body and inflammation of the vitreous body. Objective The aim of the study was to show the incidence of IRV in patients treated with HAART. Method A retrospective study was conducted in patients who suffered from CMV retinitis. Twenty-one were treated with HAART and had the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, as well. All of them were examined by the same ophthalmologist who peformed slit lamp examination with mydriasis and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results Nine of 21 patients developed IRV as a complication of HAART, two had cystoid macular edema (CMO. Conclusion CMV retinitis develops when the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes drops below 50/mm3. This results in necrotic retinitis which, if untreated, leads to complete loss of vision. With the introduction of HAART, we learned that the reconstitution of immune status was achieved as well as life expectancy, but there was a dramatic decline in the opportunistic infection, including CMV retinitis, as well. With the immune reconstitution, the inflammation develops in the eye, known as IRV. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat this condition, but in the case of our patients, the inflammation was mild, and no treatment was necessary.

  17. PHA recovery from biomass. (United States)

    Madkour, Mohamed H; Heinrich, Daniel; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shabbaj, Ibraheem I; Steinbüchel, Alexander


    The recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from biomass, that is, from bacterial cells, is one of the major obstacles in the industrial production of these polyesters. Since PHAs are naturally synthesized as intracellular storage compounds for carbon and energy and are for this deposited in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell, PHAs are more or less tightly linked with the entire biomass, and the polyesters must be released from the cells before their isolation and purification can be conducted. This additional step, that is, the release from the cells, is a major difference from most other biotechnological processes where the product occurs outside of the cells because it is secreted into the medium in a bioreactor or because it is synthesized in vitro in an enzyme reactor in a cell free system. This additional step contributes significantly to the overall costs of production. In this review we provide an overview about the different processes that result in the release of PHA from the cells, and we evaluate these processes with regard to the suitability at large scale in the industry.

  18. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran


    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  19. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)


    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  20. Recovery and Concentration of Antioxidants from Winery Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Parajó


    Full Text Available Grape and wine byproducts have been extensively studied for the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and a variety of biological actions. The selective recovery and concentration of the phenolic compounds from the liquid phase separated from further diluted winery wastes has been proposed. Adsorption onto non ionic polymeric resins and further desorption with ethanolic solutions was studied. Several commercial food grade resins were screened with the aim of selecting the most suited for the practical recovery of phenolic compounds with radical scavenging activity. Under the optimized desorption conditions (using Sepabeads SP207 or Diaion HP20 as adsorbents and eluting with 96% ethanol at 50 °C a powdered yellow-light brown product with 50% phenolic content, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, was obtained. The radical scavenging capacity of one gram of product was equivalent to 2–3 g of Trolox.

  1. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR (United States)

    ... PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with ... tests that help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means ...

  2. Used water resource recovery using green microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta

    A paradigm shift is promoted in wastewater treatment whereby wastewater is considered as a source of nutrients, water and energy, rather than waste and it is referred to as used water. Microalgae cultivation on used water resources offers the potential to recover nitrogen, phosphorus, water...... resources promoting sustainable urban water management. The system consists of a low solids retention time (SRT) enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) system that can provide optimal cultivation medium – in terms of nutrients and water – for downstream microalgal cultivation...... is to develop a consensus-based microalgal process model (ASM-A) accounting for photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, the uptake and storage of nitrogen and phosphorus and decay. The model was developed in the ASM framework as an extension to ASM-2d, thus it can be readily connected to bacterial...

  3. Bio-palladium: from metal recovery to catalytic applications



    Summary While precious metals are available to a very limited extent, there is an increasing demand to use them as catalyst. This is also true for palladium (Pd) catalysts and their sustainable recycling and production are required. Since Pd catalysts exist nowadays mostly under the form of nanoparticles, these particles need to be produced in an environment‐friendly way. Biological synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (‘bio‐Pd’) is an innovative method for both metal recovery and nanocatalyst synth...

  4. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu


    tests, microstructural investigations by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out to identify and characterise possible recovery mechanisms. Annihilation of zigzagged dislocations, positioned between deformationinduced lamellar boundaries...... of medium-to-high angles, and annihilation of dislocations in boundaries were found to be important recovery mechanisms, whereas other mechanisms, such as triple junction motion, subgrain coalescence, and boundary migration, were less important or negligible. The recovery kinetics was analysed based...... on hardness data, showing that the apparent activation energy for recovery at low temperatures was 60–86 kJ mol1, consistent with thermally activated glide of jogged interior dislocations and the climb of dislocations in boundaries. These mechanisms are restricted by the presence of small intermetallic...

  5. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  6. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  7. CRISIS FOCUS: Risks to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A sustained recovery of the global economy at a slow but steady pace should be expected in the first quarter of 2010, according to the quarterly report on global economic and financial outlook compiled by the International Finance Research Institute of the Bank of China. But three risks stand out, the report said, that threaten recovery efforts: the sovereign credit crisis, growing inflation pressures and increasing numbers of small and medium-sized U.S. banks filing for bankruptcy.

  8. Structural Biology Fact Sheet (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  9. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas


    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  10. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  11. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob


    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... recovery cases. This general recovery formulation covers all known observer based compensator types as special cases. The conditions given in this setting are effectively the aim of all known LTR design methods. The recovery formulation is interpreted in terms of a modelmatching problem as well, which...... is examined by means of the Q-parametrization. It is shown how the general controller obtained by the Q-parametrization can be written as a Luenberger observer based controller. In all cases, n controller states suffice to achieve recovery. The compensators are characterized for errors both on the input...

  12. The Design and Verification of Disaster Recovery Strategies in Cloud Disaster Recovery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li


    Full Text Available  Disaster recovery is an important means to ensure business continuity. However, the disaster recovery investment is so huge that the cloud disaster recovery becomes a best choice for enterprises, especially for SMEs. This paper discusses the necessity and importance of the cloud disaster recovery center and the vital indicators of disaster recovery by analyzing the classification and selecting principle of cloud disaster recovery strategy, developing disaster recovery strategy based on major disaster recovery strategy finally. In the end, this paper verifies the feasibility of the disaster recovery strategy by two specific cases of disaster recovery implementation.

  13. Thermal recovery of NIF amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Marshall, C.; Petty, C.; Smith, L.; van Wonterghem, B.; Mills, S.


    The issue of thermal recovery of the NIF amplifiers has taken on increased emphasis as program goals move toward increasing the shot rate to once every four hours. This paper addresses the technical issues associated with achieving thermal recovery in the NIF amplifiers. We identify two temperature related thermal recovery quantities: (1) the difference between the average slab temperature and the temperature of other surfaces in the amplifier cavity, and (2) the temperature difference in the slab over the aperture. The first quantity relates to optical disturbances in the gas column in the system, while the second quantity is associated with optical aberrations in the laser media itself. Calculations and experiments are used to quantify recovery criteria, and develop cooling approaches. The cooling approaches discussed are (1) active cooling of the flashlamps with ambient gas and chilled gas, and (2) active cooling of the slab edge cladding. Calculations indicate that the NIF baseline cooling approach of 20 cfm per lamp ambient temperature gas flow in both the central and side flashlamp cassettes is capable of meeting thermal recovery requirements for an 8 hour shot period, while to achieve a 4 hour shot period requires use of chilled gas and edge cladding cooling. In addition, the effect of changing the amplifier cavity and beamtube fill gas from nitrogen to helium is addressed, showing that a factor of 8 reduction in the sensitivity to thermal disturbances is possible. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players. (United States)

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís


    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.

  15. After the Fall: The Tapestry of Disturbance and Recovery. (United States)

    Nadkarni, Nalini M


    On July 3, 2015, Nalini Nadkarni, a world-renowned ecologist who had been studying the biologic processes of ecosystem disturbance and recovery, sustained a catastrophic 50-foot free-fall from the top of the rainforest canopy to the forest floor at her remote field research site. She lost consciousness in shock and sustained life-threatening injuries. Her accompanying students hiked out, radio-called 911, and the Harborview Medical Center (Seattle) Medivac team arrived 4 hours later to rescue her. Her prognosis was extremely grim; her family gathered in anticipation of her death as she underwent four operations during her 10 days in the ICU. As she emerged from coma, she spent weeks of hospital recovery and months of progressive mobility and physical therapy during medical leave from work. She experienced ICU psychosis and postintensive care syndrome, but slowly recovered nearly totally, to the point where she can solo hike up to 18 miles in a day, and has fully resumed her professional responsibilities as professor of biology, including climbing tall trees for her canopy research. She attributes her survival and remarkable recovery to both exquisite medical critical care and support she received, and also to incorporating lessons learned from her interdisciplinary study of how diverse natural systems commonly experience and recover from catastrophic disturbances (e.g., forest fires, traffic jams, orphaned children, and refugee survivors of war). Insights from her own encounter with critical illness and study of disturbance and recovery led her to reflect on the tapestry of disturbance and recovery that permeate all ecosystems, and with relevance to the evolving Society of Critical Care Medicine, postintensive care syndrome, and THRIVE initiatives.

  16. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology. (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille


    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  17. Physostigmine in recovery from anaesthesia. (United States)

    Hamilton-Davies, C; Bailie, R; Restall, J


    Intravenous ketamine anaesthesia has been used by the British army in the field for many years. A recognised problem has been the unpredictable recovery profile this produces. We anaesthetised 28 ASA 1 patients using a standard British military technique. At termination of the anaesthetic, half of the patients were given a physostigmine/glycopyrronium mixture and half were given the equivalent volume of saline 0.9%. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to recovery times (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to other variables. In trauma anaesthesia the improved recovery profile from the use of physostigmine following ketamine anaesthesia may lead to earlier evacuation of the patient.

  18. Assessment of susceptibility to pollution in littoral waters using the concept of recovery time. (United States)

    Gómez, Aina G; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Revilla, José A


    Susceptibility to pollution can be related to the flushing capacity of aquatic systems. Transport time scales constitute a useful tool for representing the water exchange and transport processes. A new transport time scale, recovery time, and a methodology to estimate it by means of numerical models is hereby developed. Recovery time, calculated in Gijon, Santander and Tarragona harbours, is significantly related to physical, chemical and biological water quality indicators. Susceptibility, assessed through recovery time values, provides spatial patterns of expected flushing capacity, being sensitive to physical and hydrodynamic characteristics. The developed method is appropriate to estimate recovery time and assess susceptibility against pollution in littoral waters having great potential to be applied to different disciplines. Recovery time could be used in littoral waters as a surrogate of water quality indicators, to establish efficient monitoring programs, to define and characterize modified water bodies or to improve the design of marine infrastructures.

  19. From recovery values to recovery-oriented practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Cunningham, Harry


    with mental illness; “A New Focus in the Dialogue With Clients” thematizes how the HCPs focus more on the individual's own goal for recovery rather than disease-induced goals in the dialog with clients; “A Person-Centered Role” comprises a shift in the professional role whereby the HCPs value the client's own...

  20. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo;

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved....

  1. Lower Bounds for Sparse Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Ba, Khanh Do; Price, Eric; Woodruff, David P


    We consider the following k-sparse recovery problem: design an m x n matrix A, such that for any signal x, given Ax we can efficiently recover x' satisfying ||x-x'||_1 <= C min_{k-sparse} x"} ||x-x"||_1. It is known that there exist matrices A with this property that have only O(k log (n/k)) rows. In this paper we show that this bound is tight. Our bound holds even for the more general /randomized/ version of the problem, where A is a random variable and the recovery algorithm is required to work for any fixed x with constant probability (over A).

  2. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S


    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  3. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Sloane, A.M.; Andova, S.


    Automation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction techniques that allow

  4. Indirect effects of recovery strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jake

    in isolation,but the expected consequences for the rest of the ecosystem must be analyzed. We use ageneral size- and trait-based model to calculate the ecosystem effects of fishing andrecovery. We present a general analysis of a recovery strategies targeting either large fishes(consumer fishery), small fishes...

  5. Resource Recovery Technology Application Document. (United States)


    required before the process can be considered a viable recovery alternative. Additional data are not available. REFERENCES Diebold, James P., "Gasoline From...Dearborn Chem. Div.Lib.) *i FORD, BACON & DAVIS. INC. New York (Library) * MIDLAND-ROSS CORP. TOLEDO. OH (RINKER) POTOMAC ENERGY GRU ( Naismith ) Alexandria

  6. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.


    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an

  7. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...

  8. Biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil


    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  9. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems


    Slade, Mike; Amering, M.; FARKAS, MARIANNE; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Gavin; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, R.


    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can ...

  10. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John


    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  11. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa. (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan


    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  12. When 'exact recovery' is exact recovery in compressed sensing simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.


    In a simulation of compressed sensing (CS), one must test whether the recovered solution \\(\\vax\\) is the true solution \\(\\vx\\), i.e., ``exact recovery.'' Most CS simulations employ one of two criteria: 1) the recovered support is the true support; or 2) the normalized squared error is less than...... for a given distribution of \\(\\vx\\)? We show that, in a best case scenario, \\(\\epsilon^2\\) sets a maximum allowed missed detection rate in a majority sense....

  13. Addiction recovery: its definition and conceptual boundaries. (United States)

    White, William L


    The addiction field's failure to achieve consensus on a definition of "recovery" from severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems undermines clinical research, compromises clinical practice, and muddles the field's communications to service constituents, allied service professionals, the public, and policymakers. This essay discusses 10 questions critical to the achievement of such a definition and offers a working definition of recovery that attempts to meet the criteria of precision, inclusiveness, exclusiveness, measurability, acceptability, and simplicity. The key questions explore who has professional and cultural authority to define recovery, the defining ingredients of recovery, the boundaries (scope and depth) of recovery, and temporal benchmarks of recovery (when recovery begins and ends). The process of defining recovery touches on some of the most controversial issues within the addictions field.

  14. Recovery from blocking between outcomes. (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R


    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  15. Al-Anon and recovery. (United States)

    Cermak, T L


    The history of Al-Anon and its current demographics are reviewed. In order to understand 12-step recovery and psychotherapy for family members of alcoholics, the concept of codependence is defined with a set of diagnostic criteria consistent with the DSM-III-R definition of personality traits and disorders. At the core of codependence are denial and an unrealistic relationship to willpower. The therapeutic implications of considering codependence as a personality disorder are explored, as are the characteristics that make codependence unique among personality disorders: the central role of denial and the existence of a self-help organization to facilitate recovery. The dynamics of working the 12 steps on codependent characteristics are outlined. A synergistic relationship between psychotherapy and the 12 steps is described. Special attention is given the emergence of Al-Anon adult children of alcoholic meetings, and the future of codependence is discussed.

  16. Heat recovery equipment for engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.


    The recovery and use of waste heat from prime movers is an important consideration for evaluating an on-site power system, since it is the basic factor that makes possible a substantial increase in fuel-use efficiency. The equipment usually employed to recover waste heat can be categorized as: (a) shell-and-tube type heat exchangers, (b) radiator-type heat exchangers, (c) exhaust gas boilers for the generation of pressurized hot water and/or steam, (d) steam separators, and (e) combined packaged units for ebulliently cooled internal combustion piston engines. The functional requirements and cost considerations involved in applying these devices for the recovery of waste heat from various types of prime-movers considered for application in the ICES Systems Engineering Program are examined.

  17. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.


    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  18. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry


    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  19. Boiler Stack Gas Heat Recovery (United States)


    recover about 17 million Btu/hr. The fact that the exhaust gas was loaded with fiber made the spray recu- perator a prime candidate since it could also wash... properties of water, heating feedwater is more effective than heating air. Research in heat-recovery material technology has identified materials which are...and Acidic fluids up to 180 OF. Piping Fans and Blowers 350 OF flue gas. Scrubbers 300 to 350 OF bagasse flue gas, trash burner flue gas. Electrostatic

  20. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)


    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  1. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)


    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  2. Biological conversion system (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  3. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation. (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc


    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  4. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation. (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R


    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  5. Brain Plasticity Mechanims Underlying Stroke Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fourtassi


    Full Text Available Spontaneous recovery represents the only hope of regaining autonomy, for the majority of stoke victims especially in developing countries like Morocco. This recovery is mainly based on the brain’s reorganization capacities, referred to as “adaptive plasticity”. Rehabilitation is one of the most powerful modulators of brain plasticity that, if well administered, can improve post-injury recovery.

  6. Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...

  7. Computational Systems Chemical Biology


    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  8. Assessing recovery feasibility for piping plovers using optimization and simulation (United States)

    Larson, M.A.; Ryan, M.R.; Murphy, R.K.


    Optimization and simulation modeling can be used to account for demographic and economic factors simultaneously in a comprehensive analysis of endangered-species population recovery. This is a powerful approach that is broadly applicable but underutilized in conservation biology. We applied the approach to a population recovery analysis of threatened and endangered piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the Great Plains of North America. Predator exclusion increases the reproductive success of piping plovers, but the most cost-efficient strategy of applying predator exclusion and the number of protected breeding pairs necessary to prevent further population declines were unknown. We developed a linear programming model to define strategies that would either maximize fledging rates or minimize financial costs by allocating plover pairs to 1 of 6 types of protection. We evaluated the optimal strategies using a stochastic population simulation model. The minimum cost to achieve a 20% chance of stabilizing simulated populations was approximately $1-11 million over 50 years. Increasing reproductive success to 1.24 fledglings/pair at minimal cost in any given area required fencing 85% of pairs at managed sites but cost 23% less than the current approach. Maximum fledging rates resulted in >20% of simulated populations reaching recovery goals in 30-50 years at cumulative costs of <$16 million. Protecting plover pairs within 50 km of natural resource agency field offices was sufficient to increase simulated populations to established recovery goals. A range-wide management plan needs to be developed and implemented to foster the involvement and cooperation among managers that will be necessary for recovery efforts to be successful. We also discuss how our approach can be applied to a variety of wildlife management issues.

  9. Early Triassic marine biotic recovery: the predators' perspective. (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo


    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent.

  10. Early Triassic marine biotic recovery: the predators' perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten M Scheyer

    Full Text Available Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became

  11. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems. (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob


    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship.

  12. 75 FR 6696 - Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California (United States)


    ...) Historical and current habitat loss and fragmentation due to urban development, agriculture, and diking... naturally occurring events. We expect that the following species recovery objectives will be met: (1) Secure... the following: (1) Biological, commercial trade, or other relevant data concerning any threat (or...

  13. 77 FR 17498 - Recovery Plan for the Endangered Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian Pinkroot) (United States)


    ..., reproductive biology, and seed ecology is accomplished; and Collect viable seeds from at least 50 percent of... Fish and Wildlife Service Recovery Plan for the Endangered Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian Pinkroot) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability. SUMMARY: We,...

  14. Biological restorations: Option of reincarnation for severely mutilated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulvinder Kaur Wadhwani


    Full Text Available Objective: Esthetic and functional rehabilitation of severely mutilated fractured central incisors teeth using homogenous biological fragment bonding. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and post spaces were prepared. Intra-radicular biological post core were fabricated from the sectioned roots of extracted canines. Cementation of biological post core in prepared space was done after clinical and radiological confirmation. Subsequent esthetic rehabilitation was done using adaptation of biological crown which was prepared from morphologically similar extracted maxillary central incisor. Results: The association between biological crowns and post core offers excellent esthetic, functional, and psychosocial results, which justifies the use of this technique to achieve the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged teeth. Conclusion: The biological restorations are an alternative technique for reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes.

  15. Super-Diffusive Gas Recovery from Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Haiyi; Qiao, Rui


    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative ...

  16. Recovery from an acute infection in C. elegans requires the GATA transcription factor ELT-2. (United States)

    Head, Brian; Aballay, Alejandro


    The mechanisms involved in the recognition of microbial pathogens and activation of the immune system have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in the recovery phase of an infection are incompletely characterized at both the cellular and physiological levels. Here, we establish a Caenorhabditis elegans-Salmonella enterica model of acute infection and antibiotic treatment for studying biological changes during the resolution phase of an infection. Using whole genome expression profiles of acutely infected animals, we found that genes that are markers of innate immunity are down-regulated upon recovery, while genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification, redox regulation, and cellular homeostasis are up-regulated. In silico analyses demonstrated that genes altered during recovery from infection were transcriptionally regulated by conserved transcription factors, including GATA/ELT-2, FOXO/DAF-16, and Nrf/SKN-1. Finally, we found that recovery from an acute bacterial infection is dependent on ELT-2 activity.

  17. Recovery from an acute infection in C. elegans requires the GATA transcription factor ELT-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Head


    Full Text Available The mechanisms involved in the recognition of microbial pathogens and activation of the immune system have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in the recovery phase of an infection are incompletely characterized at both the cellular and physiological levels. Here, we establish a Caenorhabditis elegans-Salmonella enterica model of acute infection and antibiotic treatment for studying biological changes during the resolution phase of an infection. Using whole genome expression profiles of acutely infected animals, we found that genes that are markers of innate immunity are down-regulated upon recovery, while genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification, redox regulation, and cellular homeostasis are up-regulated. In silico analyses demonstrated that genes altered during recovery from infection were transcriptionally regulated by conserved transcription factors, including GATA/ELT-2, FOXO/DAF-16, and Nrf/SKN-1. Finally, we found that recovery from an acute bacterial infection is dependent on ELT-2 activity.

  18. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)


    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  19. MediaWiki Grammar Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Zaytsev, Vadim


    The paper describes in detail the recovery effort of one of the official MediaWiki grammars. Over two hundred grammar transformation steps are reported and annotated, leading to delivery of a level 2 grammar, semi-automatically extracted from a community created semi-formal text using at least five different syntactic notations, several non-enforced naming conventions, multiple misspellings, obsolete parsing technology idiosyncrasies and other problems commonly encountered in grammars that were not engineered properly. Having a quality grammar will allow to test and validate it further, without alienating the community with a separately developed grammar.

  20. System i Disaster Recovery Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Dolewski, Richard


    Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step

  1. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.


    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  2. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.


    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  3. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith


    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  4. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System (United States)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal


    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  5. Optimization of process parameters by Taguchi method in the recovery of lactose from whey using sonocrystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, S.R.; Murthy, Z.V.P. [Chemical Engineering Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat - 395 007, Gujarat (India)


    Anti-solvent crystallization of lactose in the presence of ultrasound will reduce crystal size and the level of agglomeration as compared to the commercial cooling crystallization. It offers a potential route to enhance the physical properties as well as the rapid recovery of lactose. Since lactose recovery itself can reduce biological oxygen demand of whey by more then 80%, recovery of lactose from dairy waste stream (whey) solves the problems of dairy industries by improving economics of whey utilization and pollution reduction. In the present study, recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey using an anti-solvent (acetone) by sonocrystallization was optimized for finding the most influencing operating parameters; such as sonication time, anti-solvent concentration, initial lactose concentration in the whey and initial pH of sample mixture at three levels using L{sub 9}-orthogonal method. The responses were analyzed for recovery of lactose from whey. The anti-solvent concentration and the sonication time were found to be most influencing parameters for the recovery of lactose and the recovery of lactose was found to be 89.03% at the identified optimized level. The crystal size distribution of recovered lactose was found to be narrower (2.5 - 6.5 {mu}m) as compared to the commercial lactose crystals (3.5 - 9.5 {mu}m). (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Spontaneous recovery in dynamical networks (United States)

    Majdandzic, Antonio; Podobnik, Boris; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Kenett, Dror Y.; Havlin, Shlomo; Eugene Stanley, H.


    Much research has been carried out to explore the structural properties and vulnerability of complex networks. Of particular interest are abrupt dynamic events that cause networks to irreversibly fail. However, in many real-world phenomena, such as brain seizures in neuroscience or sudden market crashes in finance, after an inactive period of time a significant part of the damaged network is capable of spontaneously becoming active again. The process often occurs repeatedly. To model this marked network recovery, we examine the effect of local node recoveries and stochastic contiguous spreading, and find that they can lead to the spontaneous emergence of macroscopic `phase-flipping' phenomena. As the network is of finite size and is stochastic, the fraction of active nodes z switches back and forth between the two network collective modes characterized by high network activity and low network activity. Furthermore, the system exhibits a strong hysteresis behaviour analogous to phase transitions near a critical point. We present real-world network data exhibiting phase switching behaviour in accord with the predictions of the model.

  7. Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Minghui


    In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...

  8. Pharmacogenetics of neural injury recovery. (United States)

    Pearson-Fuhrhop, Kristin M; Cramer, Steven C


    Relatively few pharmacological agents are part of routine care for neural injury, although several are used or under consideration in acute stroke, chronic stroke, traumatic brain injury and secondary stroke prevention. Tissue plasminogen activator is approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and genetic variants may impact the efficacy and safety of this drug. In the chronic phase of stroke, several drugs such as L-dopa, fluoxetine and donepezil are under investigation for enhancing rehabilitation therapy, with varying levels of evidence. One potential reason for the mixed efficacy displayed by these drugs may be the influence of genetic factors that were not considered in prior studies. An understanding of the genetics impacting the efficacy of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic drugs may allow clinicians to target these potential therapies to those patients most likely to benefit. In the setting of stroke prevention, which is directly linked to neural injury recovery, the most highly studied pharmacogenomic interactions pertain to clopidogrel and warfarin. Incorporating pharmacogenomics into neural injury recovery has the potential to maximize the benefit of several current and potential pharmacological therapies and to refine the choice of pharmacological agent that may be used to enhance benefits from rehabilitation therapy.

  9. Resetting Biological Clocks (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.


    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  10. Biology is simple. (United States)

    Newman, Tim


    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  11. Biology of Blood (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  12. Effects of phosphorus recovery requirements on Swedish sludge management. (United States)

    Levlin, E; Löwén, M; Stark, K; Hultman, B


    Expected requirements of phosphorus recovery, restrictions on sludge disposal on landfill, and difficulties in obtaining consensus on sludge use on agricultural land has led to several development works in Sweden to change sludge management methods. Especially sludge fractionation has gained interest including following steps to recover products and separate transfer of toxic substances into a small stream. Commercial systems are offered based on technology by Cambi/KREPRO and BioCon and other companies and many other methods are under development. Iron salts are widely used in Sweden as precipitation agents for phosphorus removal and this technology has some disadvantages for phosphorus recovery compared with the use of biological phosphorus removal. The amount of chemicals needed for a KREPRO or a BioCon system was calculated for a treatment plant which has an addition of iron salt resulting in 1,900 mole Fe per tonne DS. The result was compared with the chemical consumption of recovery systems installed at plants with lower use of iron for precipitation. The chemical consumption in equivalents per tonne DS was found to be 5,000 + 6,000 * (molar ratio iron to phosphorus).

  13. Designing synthetic biology. (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M


    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.




  15. Biology Myth-Killers (United States)

    Lampert, Evan


    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  16. Disaster Recovery plan for healthcare organisation


    Prokeš, David


    Theme of this thesis is Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning. Main goal is design of Disaster Recovery plan for specific healthcare organization. One part of the design is analysis of analyzed hospital and identification of core applications and weak spots of the system. Within the analysis is risk assessment and assessment of its impact on the main applications. Based on this research the Disaster Recovery Plan is proposed. First part defines basic parts of Business Continuity ...

  17. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John


    OBJECTIVE: To examine person, injury, and treatment characteristics associated with recovery trajectories of people with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Two specialized inpatient TBI rehabilitation...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  18. Energy recovery for a road vehicle (United States)

    Tarulescu, R.


    In this paper the author analyse the possibility of fluid energy recovery, generated from a road vehicle through the aerodynamic impact. The suggested dynamic recovery system use an axial wind turbine, bended with the vehicle. Also, are presented the benefits (economic and energetic) and the disadvantages (constructive and functional) in the base of a calculus statement, with original parts. The results of some numeric calculus for a concrete opportunity are hopeful, the degree of recovery (in fluid - mechanic - electric conversion) tending to 40%.

  19. Isopropyl alcohol recovery by heteroazeotropic batch distillation


    Van Baelen, Guy; Vreysen, Steven; Gerbaud, Vincent; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Geens, Jeroen; Janssens, Bart


    Solvent recovery is becoming a major issue in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries. Solvent recovery by conventional batch distillation is limited by the frequent presence of azeotropes in the used solvent mixtures. Most distillation processes for the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic mixtures involve the addition of an entrainer (homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation or extractive distillation). In this study the recovery of IPA (isopropyl alc...

  20. Recovery of Overpayments Accounting Reporting Master (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains detailed accounting of refund and remittance data, beneficiary data, and a history of overpayment recovery efforts. It also house data for overpayments of...

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...

  2. Recovery following bereavement: metaphor, phenomenology, and culture. (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C


    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across cultures, the concept of recovery can be irrelevant or even misleading in understanding what goes on following bereavement. Arguably, a postmodern perspective in which no single concept is considered relevant for framing what goes on or what is desirable following bereavement might be best.

  3. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise. (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle


    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  4. Computational systems chemical biology. (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  5. Thermal method of oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, A.I.; Sheinman, A.B.; Malofeev, G.E.


    In a thermal method of oil recovery, an oxidizer is fed through one hole so that the air expels the water from the formation and starts to circulate between this and a second hole. The combustion heat is formed so that as air is added and the combustion products are drawn off through the other, the heat of combustion will in fact move along the oil formation toward the flow of oxidizing agent. The highly heated zone of rock which forms lies perpendicular to the water flow. When air is stopped, pressure is reduced and the water is re-admitted to this zone. It evaporates and fills the cavity in the rock, cools the area behind, while the heated zone moves on and heats the area in front. The water vapor and hot water expel the oil.

  6. Diagnostic approach to functional recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Christensen, Hanne Krarup;


    Stroke remains the most frequent cause of handicap in adult life and according to the WHO the second cause of death in the Western world. In the peracute phase, intravenous thrombolysis and in some cases endovascular therapy may induce early revascularization and hereby improve prognosis. However...... a substantial capacity to reorganize after a focal ischemic (or hemorrhagic) brain lesion. This functional reorganization contributes to functional recovery after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a valuable tool to capture the spatial and temporal activity changes in response...... available and does not pose any adverse effects, repeated fMRI measurements provide unprecedented possibilities to prospectively assess the time course of reorganization in functional neural networks after stroke and relate the temporospatial dynamics of reorganization at the systems level to functional...

  7. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan


    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  8. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.


    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  9. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Andreea


    Full Text Available Internationally, services represent the most important sector of the economy both in terms of economic performance and labor utilization. Becoming essential part of today society, they are considered the basis of a healthy economy, fact that has increased the importance of services and the research in the field.T hrough this work we intend to address a number of issues that require clarification and are relevant to this sector. Increased competition and customers higher demands lead to difficulties in service delivery, so managers of service organizations must work hard towards developing appropiate strategies that can lead to improved customers satisfaction and to increased efficiency. Because it is inevitably for service providers to face situations in which service failure occurs and their customers are not satisfied, understanding the nature of service failures and the ways in which an organization can recover after a failure are considered key factors for achieving customer satisfaction. Since the data suggests that over 50% of customers who are facing problems are not satisfied with the way they were resolved, we consider appropriate to approach this topic. We intend to draw attention to service providers to the importance of proper management of service failure. They can find ways to recover from these failures and even to turn them into some very pleasant situations that can contribute to customer loyalty. This paper begins by highlighting the various features specific to services which contribute to the increased chances of failure, it continues by presenting the concepts of service failure and service recovery and then it presents some links that exist between service recovery and other aspects of providing services that are demonstrated in the literature. We hope that this paper will significantly contribute to the knowledge and development of the sector under analysis and will highlight some practices that will lead to improved

  11. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.


    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  12. Standard biological parts knowledgebase. (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H


    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  13. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  14. Methods of information geometry in computational system biology (consistency between chemical and biological evolution). (United States)

    Astakhov, Vadim


    Interest in simulation of large-scale metabolic networks, species development, and genesis of various diseases requires new simulation techniques to accommodate the high complexity of realistic biological networks. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. We analyze the complexity of large-scale biological networks as well as transition of the system functionality due to modification in the system architecture, system environment, and system components. The dynamic core model is developed. The term dynamic core is used to define a set of causally related network functions. Delocalization of dynamic core model provides a mathematical formalism to analyze migration of specific functions in biosystems which undergo structure transition induced by the environment. The term delocalization is used to describe these processes of migration. We constructed a holographic model with self-poetic dynamic cores which preserves functional properties under those transitions. Topological constraints such as Ricci flow and Pfaff dimension were found for statistical manifolds which represent biological networks. These constraints can provide insight on processes of degeneration and recovery which take place in large-scale networks. We would like to suggest that therapies which are able to effectively implement estimated constraints, will successfully adjust biological systems and recover altered functionality. Also, we mathematically formulate the hypothesis that there is a direct consistency between biological and chemical evolution. Any set of causal relations within a biological network has its dual reimplementation in the chemistry of the system environment.

  15. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.


    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  16. Migratory Recovery from Infection as a Selective Pressure for the Evolution of Migration. (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Binning, Sandra A


    Migration, a widespread animal behavior, can influence how individuals acquire and transmit pathogens. Past work has demonstrated that migration can reduce the costs of pathogen or parasite infection through two processes: migratory escape from infected areas or individuals and migratory culling of infected individuals. Here, we propose a third process: migratory recovery, where infected individuals lose their parasites and recover from infection during migration. Recovery can occur when parasites and/or their intermediate hosts cannot support changes in the migratory host's internal or external environment during migration. Thus, parasite mortality increases with migration. Although migratory recovery is likely widespread across species, it remains challenging to empirically test it as a selective force promoting migration. We develop a model and determine the conditions under which migratory recovery theoretically favors the evolution of migration. We show that incorporating migratory recovery into a model of migratory escape increases the range of biologically realistic conditions favoring migration and leads to scenarios where partial migration can evolve. Motivated by empirical estimates of infection costs, our model shows how recovery from infection could drive the evolution of migration. We suggest a number of future directions for both theoretical and empirical research in this area.

  17. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.


    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep e

  18. Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Yasadi, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Metz, S.J.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Nijmeijer, K.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rijnaarts, H.


    The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to produc

  19. Recovery methods in municipal refuse management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affholder, M.; Gony, J.N.; Colardeau, J.


    Various refuse screening tecniques and methods for organizing selective collection of paper, cardboard, and glass are described. Recovery of incinerated refuse developed by USBM and the French Bureau of Geological and Mining Research is detailed. The economics of municipal refuse recovery methods are examined. The sale of recovered material is explored.

  20. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey


    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  1. A Modest Proposal about Bereavement and Recovery (United States)

    Balk, David E.


    The author argues that the term "recovery" aptly describes the trajectory following the bereavement of most persons. While the term "resilience" has gained ascendancy in the thanatology literature and the term "recovery" has been dismissed as inappropriate to denote responses over time to being bereaved, the irony is that all dictionaries of the…

  2. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports. (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo


    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  3. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan...

  4. Plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal


    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  5. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek


    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  6. Development of krypton recovery and storage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Shoji, Hisashi; Kurihara, Takayuki; Kawashima, Nobuyoshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Osawa, Toshiyuki; Yamato, Haruo; Aizawa, Toshihiro [Sanko Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Krypton-Recovery Development Facility was constructed as a pilot plant which has a piratical capacity at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Various tests such as performance confirmation corresponding to parameter changing of each process by cold test, safety assurance of confinement performance of radioactive gas etc. and confirmation of the krypton recovery rate by connecting run with the reprocessing process were executed in order to develop recovery and storage technology of radioactive krypton from the shearing and dissolution process off-gas aiming to reduce the release of radioactivity to the environment. As a result, it was assured that krypton recovery rate with a cryogenic distillation was beyond the target value of 90% as krypton recovery technology, and storage technology by high pressure cylinder method was established as storage technology of recovered krypton. The immobilization technology of recovered krypton that is necessary for long term storage by ion implantation method is under development. (author)

  7. Chemical Biology is.....



    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  8. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  9. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  10. Biological Individuality of Man (United States)


    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  11. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  12. Chemical space and biology. (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M


    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  13. Polythiophenes in biological applications. (United States)

    Sista, Prakash; Ghosh, Koushik; Martinez, Jennifer S; Rocha, Reginaldo C


    Polythiophene and its derivatives have shown tremendous potential for interfacing electrically conducting polymers with biological applications. These semiconducting organic polymers are relatively soft, conduct electrons and ions, have low cytotoxicity, and can undergo facile chemical modifications. In addition, the reduction in electrical impedance of electrodes coated with polythiophenes may prove to be invaluable for a stable and permanent connection between devices and biological tissues. This review article focuses on the synthesis and some key applications of polythiophenes in multidisciplinary areas at the interface with biology. These polymers have shown tremendous potential in biological applications such as diagnostics, therapy, drug delivery, imaging, implant devices and artificial organs.

  14. Ceramic Membranes for Ammonia Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, O.; Perera, S.; Crittenden, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Van Delft, Y.C.; Meyer, D.F.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kumakiri, I.; Miachon, S.; Dalmon, J.A. [CNRS-Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse 2, av. A. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne (France); Tennison, S. [MAST Carbon, Ltd., Henley Park, Guildford, Surrey, GU3 2AF (United Kingdom); Chanaud, P. [Pall-Exekia, BP1, Usine a Bazet (France); Groensmit, E. [Kemira GrowHow SA/NV, Avenue Einstein 11, B-1300 Wavre (Belgium); Nobel, W. [Continental Engineers BV, Rustenburg 114, 1506 AZ Zaandam (Netherlands)


    An extensive screening program has been performed to find a suitable membrane configuration and operating conditions for the effective recovery of ammonia from the syngas loop. All the experiments have been performed at steady state. MFI zeolite membranes in tubular and multi-channel fiber configurations have been tested along with tubular silica membranes. At 80C, a high ammonia permeance (2.1 x 10{sup -7} mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}.Pa{sup -1}), and a selectivity of about 10 were found with the tubular zeolite membrane, whereas for the silica membrane an even higher ammonia permeance was measured (7.6 x 10{sup -7} mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}.Pa{sup -1}) with a selectivity of about 7. For both silica and zeolite membranes, the selectivity was found to increase with increasing temperature up to 80C. This is a combined effect of weaker adsorption of ammonia and increased diffusion at higher temperature. The results have been modeled using both the well-mixed reactor and the log mean pressure difference approaches. To overcome their limitations in addressing changes in feed concentration along the membrane surface, a segmental model has been used to obtain suitable operating conditions and membrane areas required for an industrial application.

  15. Stage 2 vapor recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W.H.; Strock, D.J.; Butkovich, M.S.; Hartman, H.B.


    A vapor recovery system is described, comprising: a set of elongated underground storage tanks, each storage tank containing a different grade of gasoline; vent pipes; a series of dispensing units; fuel flow lines; vapor return lines; an array of fuel pumps for pumping gasoline from said storage tanks to said dispenser units; an elongated condensate liquid pickup tube; an elongated inner spout providing a fuel conduit and having an outer tip defining a fuel outlet for discharging gasoline into a filler pipe of a motor vehicle tank during fueling; an outer spout assembly; extending into and engaging said spout-receiving socket, said outer spout assembly comprising an outer spout providing a vapor return conduit and defining apertures providing a vapor inlet spaced from said fuel outlet for withdrawing, removing, and returning a substantial amount of gasoline vapors emitted during said fueling; an elongated liquid sensing tube; a manually operable level; a flow control valve assembly; an automatic shutoff valve assembly; and a venturi sleeve assembly positioned in said venturi sleeve receiving chamber.

  16. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  17. A comparative approach to assess drivers of success in mammalian conservation recovery programs. (United States)

    Crees, Jennifer J; Collins, Amy C; Stephenson, P J; Meredith, Helen M R; Young, Richard P; Howe, Caroline; Price, Mark R Stanley; Turvey, Samuel T


    The outcomes of species recovery programs have been mixed; high-profile population recoveries contrast with species-level extinctions. Each conservation intervention has its own challenges, but to inform more effective management it is imperative to assess whether correlates of wider recovery program success or failure can be identified. To contribute to evidence-based improvement of future conservation strategies, we conducted a global quantitative analysis of 48 mammalian recovery programs. We reviewed available scientific literature and conducted semistructured interviews with conservation professionals involved in different recovery programs to investigate ecological, management, and political factors associated with population recoveries or declines. Identifying and removing threats was significantly associated with increasing population trend and decreasing conservation dependence, emphasizing that populations are likely to continue to be compromised in the absence of effective threat mitigation and supporting the need for threat monitoring and adaptive management in response to new and potential threats. Lack of habitat and small population size were cited as limiting factors in 56% and 42% of recovery programs, respectively, and both were statistically associated with increased longer term dependence on conservation intervention, demonstrating the importance of increasing population numbers quickly and restoring and protecting habitat. Poor stakeholder coordination and management were also regularly cited by respondents as key weaknesses in recovery programs, indicating the importance of effective leadership and shared goals and management plans. Project outcomes were not influenced by biological or ecological variables such as body mass or habitat, which suggests that these insights into correlates of conservation success and failure are likely to be generalizable across mammals.

  18. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  19. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón


    important in determining the different patterns of recovery at both sites, other biological processes may also play an important part.

  20. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta


    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  1. Biology Library Workbook. (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  2. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology. (United States)

    Haumann, G


    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  3. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.


    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  4. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  5. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne


    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  6. Introduction to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Hornberg, J.J.; Boogerd, F.C.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Westerhoff, H.V.


    The developments in the molecular biosciences have made possible a shift to combined molecular and system-level approaches to biological research under the name of Systems Biology. It integrates many types of molecular knowledge, which can best be achieved by the synergistic use of models and experi

  7. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum


    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  8. Localized recovery of complex networks against failure (United States)

    Shang, Yilun


    Resilience of complex networks to failure has been an important issue in network research for decades, and recent studies have begun to focus on the inverse recovery of network functionality through strategically healing missing nodes or edges. However, the effect of network recovery is far from fully understood, and a general theory is still missing. Here we propose and study a general model of localized recovery, where a group of neighboring nodes are restored in an invasive way from a seed node. We develop a theoretical framework to compare the effect of random recovery (RR) and localized recovery (LR) in complex networks including Erdős-Rényi networks, random regular networks, and scale-free networks. We find detailed phase diagrams for the subnetwork of occupied nodes and the “complement network” of failed nodes under RR and LR. By identifying the two competitive forces behind LR, we present an analytical and numerical approach to guide us in choosing the appropriate recovery strategy and provide estimation on its effect by using the degree distribution of the original network as the only input. Our work therefore provides insight for quantitatively understanding recovery process and its implications in infrastructure protection in various complex systems.

  9. Recovery in England: transforming statutory services? (United States)

    Perkins, Rachel; Slade, Mike


    English mental health policy has explicitly supported a focus on recovery since 2001. More recently, this has been elaborated through policy support for social inclusion, employment and well-being. We review several drivers for this political orientation, including a refocusing of the role of health services as a whole from treating illnesses to helping people to make the most of their lives, the shift to greater power for the individual, reflected in personal social care and personal health budgets, and the evidence informing clinical guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). A disjunction remains between policy and practice, with organizational policies espousing a recovery orientation and teams re-branding as 'recovery and support' teams, whilst pursuing clinical practices which prioritize symptomatic treatment rather than recovery support. The next phase of development in English statutory mental health services is therefore bridging this gap, through organizational transformation in mental health services towards a focus on recovery. We describe two funded initiatives to support this process of organizational transformation. The first (ImROC) is a national initiative to develop a pro-recovery organizational climate. The second (REFOCUS) is a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940) investigating a team-level pro-recovery intervention.

  10. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (United States)


    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...- National Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery...: The Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is available...

  11. New perspectives for the design of sustainable bioprocesses for phosphorus recovery from waste. (United States)

    Tarayre, Cédric; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Camargo-Valero, Miller; Delvigne, Frank


    Phosphate rock has long been used for the production of phosphorus based chemicals. However, considering the depletion of the reservoirs and the decrease of the quality of phosphate rocks, a potential market is now emerging for the recovery of phosphate from waste and its reuse for different applications. Notably, phosphate recovery from wastewater could be included in a circular economy approach. This review focuses on the use of microbial systems for phosphorus accumulation and recovery, by considering the actual range of analytical techniques available for the monitoring of phosphorus accumulating organisms, as well as the actual biochemical and metabolic engineering toolbox available for the optimization of bioprocesses. In this context, knowledge gathered from process, system and synthetic biology could potentially lead to innovative process design.

  12. Application of Stochastic Resonance Signal Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; WANG Taiyong; LENG Yonggang; DENG Hui


    Stochastic resonance(SR) enhances the nonlinear system behavior with the assistance of noise, including the sensitivity and selectivity of the response to the exterior stimulus. The energy-transfer mechanism makes the weak information revealed in the output spectrum, while the time-waveform is distorted. The distortion analysis was made both from the particle's dynamics and signal processing. The factors causing the deviation in the output are presented and the function of the recovery system is proposed. By the investigation of the particle's motion track in the bistable system and the suggested recovery system, the influences of noise and system parameters on the recovery course were discussed. Moreover, the pulse distortion appearing the recovery waveform caused by the particle's transitions at the bistable potential' inflexions was explained. Due to different characteristics, cascaded-bistable SR or mono-stable SR was introduced to process different types of signals. The final recovery signal is just the suggested recovery system's response to the SR output. Meanwhile, the recovery system is optional, as parameter-tuned or parameter-fixed. Since the method requires no average processing, it is applicable to a single sample with limited length. The numerical simulations reveal that the SR recovery method can recover the waveform containing weak information submerged in noise effectively. The engineering application to the vibration analysis of metal cutting chose the combination of mono-stable SR and the parameter-fixed recovery system. Because the optimal SR state is not required strongly, the system parameters are tuned in a wider range than the traditional SR processing methods.

  13. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server


    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  14. Space biology research development (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.


    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  15. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden


    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  16. Biological sample collector (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.


    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  17. Probabilistic Recovery Guarantees for Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Graeme; Studer, Christoph


    We consider the recovery of sparse signals subject to sparse interference, as introduced in Studer et al., IEEE Trans. IT, 2012. We present novel probabilistic recovery guarantees for this framework, covering varying degrees of knowledge of the signal and interference support, which are relevant for a large number of practical applications. Our results assume that the sparsifying dictionaries are solely characterized by coherence parameters and we require randomness only in the signal and/or interference. The obtained recovery guarantees show that one can recover sparsely corrupted signals with overwhelming probability, even if the sparsity of both the signal and interference scale (near) linearly with the number of measurements.

  18. Effect of transition metals on recovery from plasma of the growth-modulating tripeptide glycylhistidyllysine. (United States)

    Pickart, L; Thaler, M M; Millard, M


    Isolation and purification of growth-modulating peptides from biological sources is often accompanied by excessive losses of bioactive material. During the isolation of a growth-modulating tripeptide glycylhistidyllysine (GHL) from human plasma, copper and iron were found to co-isolate with the peptide. Studies with [3H]GHL demonstrated that these metals interfere at several steps of the procedure for the isolation of GHL from plasma (gel filtration chromatography, high-pressure silica-gel). Removal of these metals with an insoluble chelating resin (Cellex 100) enhanced recovery of [3H]GHL from plasma 8-fold. These results suggest that removal of transition metals may aid in the recovery of peptides which are difficult to isolate from biological sources.

  19. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples. (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte


    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented.

  20. Bio-palladium: from metal recovery to catalytic applications. (United States)

    De Corte, Simon; Hennebel, Tom; De Gusseme, Bart; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico


    While precious metals are available to a very limited extent, there is an increasing demand to use them as catalyst. This is also true for palladium (Pd) catalysts and their sustainable recycling and production are required. Since Pd catalysts exist nowadays mostly under the form of nanoparticles, these particles need to be produced in an environment-friendly way. Biological synthesis of Pd nanoparticles ('bio-Pd') is an innovative method for both metal recovery and nanocatalyst synthesis. This review will discuss the different bio-Pd precipitating microorganisms, the applications of the catalyst (both for environmental purposes and in organic chemistry) and the state of the art of the reactors based on the bio-Pd concept. In addition, some main challenges are discussed, which need to be overcome in order to create a sustainable nanocatalyst. Finally, some outlooks for bio-Pd in environmental technology are presented.

  1. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W.R.


    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  2. Effects of organelle shape on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. (United States)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Mezzacasa, Anna; Helenius, Ari; Koumoutsakos, Petros


    The determination of diffusion coefficients from fluorescence recovery data is often complicated by geometric constraints imposed by the complex shapes of intracellular compartments. To address this issue, diffusion of proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is studied using cell biological and computational methods. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments are performed in tissue culture cells expressing GFP-KDEL, a soluble, fluorescent protein, in the ER lumen. The three-dimensional (3D) shape of the ER is determined by confocal microscopy and computationally reconstructed. Within these ER geometries diffusion of solutes is simulated using the method of particle strength exchange. The simulations are compared to experimental FRAP curves of GFP-KDEL in the same ER region. Comparisons of simulations in the 3D ER shapes to simulations in open 3D space show that the constraints imposed by the spatial confinement result in two- to fourfold underestimation of the molecular diffusion constant in the ER if the geometry is not taken into account. Using the same molecular diffusion constant in different simulations, the observed speed of fluorescence recovery varies by a factor of 2.5, depending on the particular ER geometry and the location of the bleached area. Organelle shape considerably influences diffusive transport and must be taken into account when relating experimental photobleaching data to molecular diffusion coefficients. This novel methodology combines experimental FRAP curves with high accuracy computer simulations of diffusion in the same ER geometry to determine the molecular diffusion constant of the solute in the particular ER lumen.

  3. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown. (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A


    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration.

  4. Managing biological diversity (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.


    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  5. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J


    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  6. Esthetic and functional recovery of extensively decayed posterior teeth through conservative treatment. (United States)

    Barroso, Sheila Daiane; Jales, Talita Santos; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; de Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Botelho, Adriana Maria; Tavano, Karine Taís Aguiar


    The case exemplifies the combination of two important principles in dentistry: 1) the maintenance of pulp vitality by the partial excavation of the contaminated dentin followed by the application of a biomaterial; and 2) esthetic and functional recovery based on biological restoration. Tooth vitality was confirmed two months after pulp treatment and restoration was accomplished with a fragment of a tooth extracted from another individual. This method is easy to perform and offers esthetic, functional, emotional and social benefits to the patient.

  7. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore;


    on recovery of high value biomolecules such as proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD5) as well as total suspended solids (TSS) were also measured to follow the performance of the ultrafiltration. The retentates contained 75-82% (95% TSS...... that ceramic ultrafiltration can recover biomolecules from marinated herring brines although pre-filtration optimization is still needed....

  8. Recovery of deep-sea meiofauna after artificial disturbance in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Goltekar, N.R.; Gonsalves, S.; Ansari, Z.A.

    -1 1 Recovery of Deep-sea Meiofauna after Artificial Disturbance in the Central Indian Basin INGOLE B.S*., R. GOLTEKAR, S. GONSALVES and Z. A. ANSARI Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa; 403004... in the Central Indian Ocean under the Indian Deep- sea Environmental Experiment (INDEX). The seafloor bottom was physically disturbed by moving a benthic disturber in a 3000 m long x 200 m wide area. 3 Sharma (2001) described the location and characteristics...

  9. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid recovery from Larrea tridentata by microwave-assisted extraction


    Martins, Sílvia; Mussatto, Solange I.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garza-Rodriguez, I.; Teixeira, J.A.


    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a powerful antioxidant with biological activities of great interest in several health areas, including antiviral, cancer chemopreventive, and antitumorgenic. Little information is available on extraction methods of NDGA from Larrea tridentata. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and effective microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for NDGA recovery from Larrea tridentata leaves, and to compare the results ob...

  10. Recovery processes and dynamics in single and interdependent networks (United States)

    Majdandzic, Antonio

    Systems composed of dynamical networks --- such as the human body with its biological networks or the global economic network consisting of regional clusters --- often exhibit complicated collective dynamics. Three fundamental processes that are typically present are failure, damage spread, and recovery. Here we develop a model for such systems and find phase diagrams for single and interacting networks. By investigating networks with a small number of nodes, where finite-size effects are pronounced, we describe the spontaneous recovery phenomenon present in these systems. In the case of interacting networks the phase diagram is very rich and becomes increasingly more complex as the number of interacting networks increases. In the simplest example of two interacting networks we find two critical points, four triple points, ten allowed transitions, and two forbidden transitions, as well as complex hysteresis loops. Remarkably, we find that triple points play the dominant role in constructing the optimal repairing strategy in damaged interacting systems. To test our model, we analyze an example of real interacting financial networks and find evidence of rapid dynamical transitions between well-defined states, in agreement with the predictions of our model.

  11. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    damage response (Chapter 5). When DNA damage is repaired, cells restart the cell cycle and resume growth. This process is called damage recovery. In S. cerevisiae, the molecular mechanism of recovery relies on dephosphorylation of Rad53 by protein phosphatases (PPs), that, in case of recovery from MMS......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...

  12. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan 1979 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the Recovery Plan is to restore the Delmarva fox squirrel to secure status throughout its former range, which is described in this plan. The...

  13. Whooping crane recovery activities : April - September, 2006 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of whooping crane recovery activities for April through September 2006 for the Aransas/Wood Buffalo flock, the Florida non-migratory flock, and captive...

  14. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion. (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J


    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  15. Recovery of germanium from lignite by microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The recovery of Ge from lignite by microorganism includes two stages: (1) the breaking-down of Ge complex of humus in lignite into simple compounds assisted by microorganism; (2) the desorption of Ge compounds from the lignite. The recovery rate of Ge has been enhanced by 14% since the discovery of adsorption and desorption of Ge from coal. The effects of pH, leaching agents, and coal size on the recovery of Ge were experimentally investigated, and the optimized process parameters were obtained. The reaction heat of Ge adsorption and desorption in lignite was determined. It is about 23-53 kJ/mol, which reveals that the adsorption belongs to physical process. The recovery rate of Ge from lignite with direct microorganism leaching can reach about 85%, which is higher than that of 60% reported elsewhere. A potential process for leaching Ge in lignite was suggested.

  16. Developing sustainable resource recovery and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector


    The issues that should be addressed when developing resource recovery and recycling programs and initiatives were highlighted. When well thought out, these initiatives result in substantial increases in the recovery of products and materials at their end-of-life cycle. The issues discussed included design for the environment, consumption patterns, sustainable markets for recovered products, infrastructure, policy mechanisms, and technology. Each issue was examined from a life cycle approach. The author outlined several benefits associated with a resource recovery and recycling program including materials and energy efficiencies, reduced burdens to landfill, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and social implications. The author also presented some examples of Canadian initiatives in the resource recovery and recycling sector. 15 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Social Stressors at Work, Sleep, and Recovery. (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Gross, Sven; Elfering, Achim


    Many employees in service work are required to work on Saturdays, recovering during work-free Sundays and working again Mondays. We examined the effects of social stressors at work on recovery status at Sunday noon and Monday noon, and investigated if sleep quality mediates the negative effects of social stressors at work on recovery. From Saturday until Monday morning, 41 participants wore actigraphs to measure sleep duration and sleep fragmentation. Social stressors at work were assessed by self-reported questionnaires administered on Saturday. Recovery status was reported Sunday noon and Monday noon. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were negatively related to recovery status on Sunday and on Monday. Supporting our assumptions, more social stressors at work predicted higher sleep fragmentation in the night to Monday. A mediation effect of sleep quality, however, was not found. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others


    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  19. Strategic Issues in Product Recovery Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Thierry (Martijn); M. Salomon (Marc); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)


    textabstractThis article examines strategic production and operations management issues in product recovery management (PRM). PRM encompasses the management of all used and discarded products, components, and materials for which a manufacturing company is legally, contractually, or otherwise respons

  20. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan 1983 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the Recovery Plan is to restore the Delmarva fox squirrel to secure status throughout its former range. The plan includes the following...

  1. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  2. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes. (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel


    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view.

  3. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer


    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate interaction

  4. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)


    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  5. Recovery of Gait After Stroke: What Changes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap H.; Nene, Anand V.; Kwakkel, Gert; Erren-Wolters, Victorien; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Hermens, Hermie J.


    Background. Little is known about whether changes in coordination patterns of muscle activation after stroke are related to functional recovery of walking. Objective . The present study investigated the longitudinal relationship between changes in neuromuscular activation patterns of paretic muscles

  6. Recovery After Stroke: Bladder and Bowel Function (United States)

    ... easier for you to use the toilet.  Social workers can help with financial issues. They can with ... your doctor, “Where am I on my stroke recovery journey?” Note: This fact sheet is compiled from ...

  7. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hera, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marzolf, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phillips, M. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  8. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.


    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  9. Simulations of (an)isotropic diffusion on curved biological surfaces. (United States)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Hayer, Arnold; Helenius, Ari; Koumoutsakos, Petros


    We present a computational particle method for the simulation of isotropic and anisotropic diffusion on curved biological surfaces that have been reconstructed from image data. The method is capable of handling surfaces of high curvature and complex shape, which are often encountered in biology. The method is validated on simple benchmark problems and is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time and of high parallel efficiency. It is applied to simulations of diffusion on the membrane of endoplasmic reticula (ER) in live cells. Diffusion simulations are conducted on geometries reconstructed from real ER samples and are compared to fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments in the same ER samples using the transmembrane protein tsO45-VSV-G, C-terminally tagged with green fluorescent protein. Such comparisons allow derivation of geometry-corrected molecular diffusion constants for membrane components from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data. The results of the simulations indicate that the diffusion behavior of molecules in the ER membrane differs significantly from the volumetric diffusion of soluble molecules in the lumen of the same ER. The apparent speed of recovery differs by a factor of approximately 4, even when the molecular diffusion constants of the two molecules are identical. In addition, the specific shape of the membrane affects the recovery half-time, which is found to vary by a factor of approximately 2 in different ER samples.

  10. Heat exchangers for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering)


    A survey is made of the equipment used for heat recovery and utilization. Types and merits of commonly employed heat exchangers are presented, and criteria for selecting heat exchangers are summarized. Applications for waste heat recovery are emphasized. It is concluded that careful selection and operation of such equipment would be expected to result in energy savings as well as problem-free operation. (author)

  11. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyong [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshan [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Teng, Lisong, E-mail: [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Legerski, Randy J., E-mail: [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States)


    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  12. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL


    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  13. Fast Electrocardiogram Amplifier Recovery after Defibrillation Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky


    Full Text Available A procedure for fast ECG amplifier recovery after defibrillation shocks was developed and simulated in the MATLAB environment. Exponentially decaying post-shock voltages have been recorded. Signals from the AHA database are taken and mixed with the recorded exponential disturbances. The algorithm applies moving averaging (comb filter on the compound input signal, thereby obtaining the samples of the disturbance. They are currently subtracted from the input signal. The results obtained show that its recovery is practically instantaneous.

  14. A Survey on Design Pattern Recovery Techniques


    Ghulam Rasool; Detlef Streitfdert


    The evaluation of design pattern recovery techniques and tools is significant as numbers of emergent techniques are presented and used in the past to recover patterns from source code of legacy applications. The problem of very diverse precision and recall values extracted by different pattern recovery techniques and tools on the same examined applications is not investigated thoroughly. It is very desirable to compare features of existing techniques as abundance of techniques supplemented wi...

  15. Eigenstructure Conditions for Loop Transfer Recovery


    Søgaard-Andersen, Per


    Conditions for loop transfer recovery based on eigenstructure assignment are derived. These conditions imply constraints on the eigenvalues and certain parameter vectors of the controller. Three cases emerge - depending on the geometric stucture of the plant. For all cases explicit design rules are derived. The eigenstructure-LTR approach provides - beyond insight into mechanisms of LTR - improved flexibility in selecting the controller gains and faster recovery convergence as compared with t...

  16. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)


    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  17. Off-Site Source Recovery Project Overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coel-Roback, Rebecca J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report introduces the Off-Site Source Recovery project and gives a summary of domestic and international work. The mission of OSRP is to eliminate excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to health, safety, and national security. OSRP identifies and tracks disused sealed sources potentially requiring recovery, and performs special form encapsulation for sealed sources to simplify transportation.

  18. Axial Vibration Analysis of the Mud Recovery Line on Deepwater Riserless Mud Recovery Drilling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 陈国明; 许亮斌; 殷志明


    The series connection of multistage pumping module is the common concept of deepwater riserless mud recovery drilling system. In this system, the influence of the mass of pumping module on the vibration of mud recovery line cannot be ignored, and the lumped mass method has been utilized to discretize the mud recovery line. Based on the analysis of different boundary conditions, the paper establishes the axial forced vibration model of the mud recovery line considering the seawater damping, and the vibration model analysis provides the universal solution to the vibration model. An example of the two-stage pumping system has been used to analyze the dynamic response of mud recovery line under different excited frequencies. This paper has the important directive significance for the application of riserless mud recovery drilling technology in deepwater surface drilling.

  19. Measuring Mental Health Recovery: An Application of Rasch Modeling to the Consumer Recovery Measure. (United States)

    Lusczakoski, Kathryn Kd; Olmos-Gallo, P Antonio; Milnor, William; McKinney, Christopher J


    As the need for recovery-oriented outcomes increases, it is critical to understand how numeric recovery scores are developed. In the current article, the modern Rasch modeling techniques were applied to establish numeric scores of consumers' perceptions of recovery. A sample of 1,973 adult consumers at a community-based mental health center (57.5% male; average age of 47 years old) completed the 15-item Consumer Recovery Measure. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed the unidimensional nature of the Consumer Recovery Measure and provided construct validity evidence. The Rasch analysis displayed that the items produced acceptable model fit, reliability, and identified the difficulty of the items. The conclusion emphasizes the value of Rasch modeling regarding the measurement of recovery and its relevance to consumer-derived assessments in the clinical decision-making process.

  20. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes. (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent


    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  1. Technologies and countermeasures for gas recovery enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ping


    Full Text Available Since 2000, China has been ranked as one of the top countries in gas production. Nevertheless, the domestic gas production can hardly satisfy the need of national economic development. Besides, an increasing number of gas fields have come to the middle or late development stages, and most gas reservoirs have low recovery efficiency due to the low permeability and water drive nature. Therefore, gas recovery enhancement has become an urgent issue. At present, the oil recovery enhancement is well defined, and there are methods describing the remaining oil and a complete set of mature EOR (enhanced oil recovery technologies. However, the definition and description of EGR (enhanced gas recovery are still undermined, and the description method for the distribution of residual gas and EGR technologies are almost unavailable. In view of this, by reviewing a wealth of related literatures, we defined EGR and also described the remaining gas distribution based on the remaining gas abundance. In addition, collecting three typical types (low-permeability, condensate and edge/bottom water of major gas reservoirs developed both at home and abroad, we summarized the geological and development characteristics, and found out the obstructions in the development. In response, we concluded and analyzed the relevant technologies and methods for enhancing the gas recovery of such reservoirs, and proposed the suggestions about EGR technology development, which provides a significant reference and popularization basis for EGR measures in fields.

  2. Resource recovery: research development and demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramelli, A B


    Implementation of resource recovery is being retarded by technological uncertainties and institutional impediments. Development and commercialization of new competitive technologies are not proceeding rapidly because a structured development program for the industry is lacking. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized these problems, and as part of its overall program in energy recovery from urban waste, it is developing a near- and longer-term research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to accelerate commercialization of promising resource recovery technologies. The MITRE Corporation was contracted to develop a near-term RD and D Plan for resource recovery which identifies actions which should be taken over the next three years to accelerate commercialization of existing and developing technologies. The research needs presented in this Plan exist in the industry today. The resolution, however, is not necessarily the sole responsibility of DOE, but rather calls for a combination of public and private sector efforts. An individual research program is presented for each resource recovery technology. A program consists of a combination of bench-, pilot-, demonstration-, and full-scale process and equipment evaluations as well as qualitative and quantitative studies. Each research program is tailored to alleviate the problems of a technology such that their resolution will accelerate the rate at which the technology advances toward commercial readiness and realizes commercial implementation. All the research needs identified are actions which should be taken in the next three years to advance the field of resource recovery.

  3. Cultural competency and recovery within diverse populations. (United States)

    Ida, D J


    Recovery for diverse populations with mental health problems includes communities of color, those with limited English proficiency and individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). The process of healing and recovery must take into consideration the critical role of culture and language and look at the individual within the context of an environment that is influenced by racism, sexism, colonization, homophobia, and poverty as well as the stigma and shame associated with having a mental illness. Recovery must assess the impact of isolation brought about by cultural and language barriers and work towards reducing the negative influence it has on the emotional and physical well-being of the person. It is imperative that recovery occur at multiple levels and involves the person in recovery, the service provider, the larger community and the system that establishes policies that often work against those who do not fit the mold of what mainstream society considers being "the norm." Recovery must respect the cultural and language backgrounds of the individual.

  4. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.


    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  5. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review. (United States)

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M


    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered.

  6. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob


    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  7. Hammond Bay Biological Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  8. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  9. Chemistry and biology data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  10. Laboratory of Biological Modeling (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  11. Laboratory of Biological Modeling (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  12. Precision Measurement in Biology (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  13. Biological satellite Kosmos-936 (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.


    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  14. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  15. Large Pelagics Biological Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  16. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F


    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  17. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment......The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  18. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    example of biological design. We investigated the architecture of A. simplex and found that an advanced hierarchical biomineralized structure acts as the interface between soft musculature and a stiff substrate, thus securing underwater attachment. In bone, the mechanical properties of the material......, and the nanoscale response of bone in compression. Lastly, a framework for the investigation of biological design principles has been developed. The framework combines parametric modeling, multi-material 3D-printing, and direct mechanical testing to efficiently screen large parameter spaces of biological design. We......Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...

  19. [Systems biology of cancer]. (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei


    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  20. Insecticides and Biological Control (United States)

    Furness, G. O.


    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  1. Disaster recovery using VMware vSphere Replication and vCenter Site Recovery Manager

    CERN Document Server

    GB, Abhilash


    This is a step-by-step guide that will help you understand disaster recovery using VMware vSphere Replication 5.5 and VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager (SRM) 5.5. The topics and configuration procedures are accompanied with relevant screenshots, flowcharts, and logical diagrams that makes grasping the concepts easier. This book is a guide for anyone who is keen on using vSphere Replication or vCenter Site Recovery Manager as a disaster recovery solution. This is an excellent handbook for solution architects, administrators, on-field engineers, and support professionals. Although the book as

  2. Nestedness across biological scales (United States)

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.


    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  3. Biological Parameters of Impact (United States)


    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  4. Systems cell biology. (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D


    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  5. Recovery entails bridging the multiple realms of best practice: towards a more integrated approach to evidence-based clinical treatment and psychosocial disability support for mental health recovery. (United States)

    Rosen, A; O'Halloran, P


    While mental health recovery is a very personal process, the approach also offers possibilities as a meta-framework for improving quality of services to support people with severe and enduring mental illness. This paper explores how a recovery paradigm offers opportunities to better understand how efforts within the personal, clinical, and psychosocial disability domains of well-being relate and need bridging and integration with an evidence-based framework of practice to optimise outcomes. Recovery from a severe and persisting mental illness such as schizophrenia is optimised by a holistic approach integrating the domains of clinical treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation with the personal efforts of individuals. For service providers, a monolithic or single paradigm approach with an exclusive or predominant biological, psychological, social, or cultural focus is unable to offer effective guidance on the treatment and rehabilitation support needed to enable community participation and ameliorate the impact which problems associated with mental illness have on individuals, their families, and their wider communities. Moreover, recovery-oriented services need to be effective, embracing evidence-based policy, practice and service delivery by providing treatment and support which actually work to improve outcomes for consumers and families.

  6. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen


    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...

  7. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... field. back to top What biological products does FDA regulate? The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ( ...

  8. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  9. Plastic Sealed Thermal Expansion Packer for Thermal Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Li; Jiang Hua


    @@ According to the requirements of wellbore heatinsulation technique and selective zonal steaminjection technique in heavy-oil steam-injection recovery process, the Oil Recovery Technique Department of Liaohe Petroleum Exploration and Production Bureau and Shuguang Oil Recovery Plant have cooperatively designed and developed a plastic sealed thermal expansion packer for thermal recovery.

  10. Operational meaning of quantum measures of recovery (United States)

    Cooney, Tom; Hirche, Christoph; Morgan, Ciara; Olson, Jonathan P.; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Watrous, John; Wilde, Mark M.


    Several information measures have recently been defined that capture the notion of recoverability. In particular, the fidelity of recovery quantifies how well one can recover a system A of a tripartite quantum state, defined on systems A B C , by acting on system C alone. The relative entropy of recovery is an associated measure in which the fidelity is replaced by relative entropy. In this paper we provide concrete operational interpretations of the aforementioned recovery measures in terms of a computational decision problem and a hypothesis testing scenario. Specifically, we show that the fidelity of recovery is equal to the maximum probability with which a computationally unbounded quantum prover can convince a computationally bounded quantum verifier that a given quantum state is recoverable. The quantum interactive proof system giving this operational meaning requires four messages exchanged between the prover and verifier, but by forcing the prover to perform actions in superposition, we construct a different proof system that requires only two messages. The result is that the associated decision problem is in QIP(2) and another argument establishes it as hard for QSZK (both classes contain problems believed to be difficult to solve for a quantum computer). We finally prove that the regularized relative entropy of recovery is equal to the optimal type II error exponent when trying to distinguish many copies of a tripartite state from a recovered version of this state, such that the type I error is constrained to be no larger than a constant.

  11. 75 FR 53153 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act... (United States)


    ... purchase of goods covered by the Recovery Act. According to these respondents, any final rule must, at a... straps, construction clothing, gloves, etc. purchased by the contractor as part of doing the work.'' A..., including textile products, must be manufactured in the United States, as intended by the Recovery Act....

  12. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa


    Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity...

  13. Join the Voices for Recovery: Celebrating Health: National Alcohol & Drug Addiction Recovery Month. (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    The Recovery Month observance highlights the societal benefits of substance abuse treatment, lauds the contributions of treatment providers, and promotes the message that recovery from substance abuse in all its forms is possible. The observance also encourages citizens to take action to help expand and improve the availability of effective…

  14. 77 FR 20806 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... (United States)


    ... 1605 of the Recovery Act under the authority of Section 1605(b)(2), (iron, steel, and the relevant... of a satisfactory quality), with respect to Recovery Act projects funded by EERE for pre-insulated district heating pipe system consisting of thin wall thickness steel pipe meeting the EN13941...

  15. 78 FR 48867 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... (United States)


    ... 1605 of the Recovery Act under the authority of Section 1605(b)(2), (iron, steel, and the relevant...) electric motors (less than 40 HP) to be utilized in Recovery Act projects funded by EERE. DATES: Effective... American provision) if the iron, steel, or relevant manufactured good is not produced or manufactured...

  16. 78 FR 48866 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... (United States)


    ... 1605 of the Recovery Act under the authority of Section 1605(b)(2), (iron, steel, and the relevant... of a satisfactory quality), with respect to Recovery Act projects funded by EERE for (1) Energy... American provision) if the iron, steel, or relevant manufactured good is not produced or manufactured...

  17. 77 FR 4029 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... (United States)


    ... 1605 of the Recovery Act under the authority of Section 1605(b)(2), (iron, steel, and the relevant... of a satisfactory quality), with respect to Recovery Act projects funded by EERE for: (1) 5-25 Watt... inapplicability'' (a waiver of the Buy American provision) if the iron, steel, or relevant manufactured good...

  18. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki


    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  19. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  20. Information Complexity and Biology (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  1. What is recovery? A conceptual model and explication. (United States)

    Jacobson, N; Greenley, D


    This paper describes a conceptual model of recovery from mental illness developed to aid the state of Wisconsin in moving toward its goal of developing a "recovery-oriented" mental health system. In the model, recovery refers to both internal conditions experienced by persons who describe themselves as being in recovery--hope, healing, empowerment, and connection--and external conditions that facilitate recovery--implementation of the principle of human rights, a positive culture of healing, and recovery-oriented services. The aim of the model is to link the abstract concepts that define recovery with specific strategies that systems, agencies, and individuals can use to facilitate it.

  2. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology



    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules; predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes; generating hypotheses...

  3. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology. (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A


    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  4. Biological applications of nanobiotechnology. (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Steffens, Daniela; Pranke, Patricia; da Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira


    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment. Nanoscale structures and materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes) have been explored in many biological applications (biosensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy) because their novel properties and functions differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Their high volume/surface ratio, improved solubility, and multifunctionality open many new possibilities. The objective of this review is to describe the potential benefits and impacts of the nanobiotechnology in different areas.

  5. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen


    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  6. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A


    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  7. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...... number of thoroughly selected targets. Our need for fundamental understanding of the building blocks of the complex biological systems had been the main reason for the reductionist approach that was mainly applied in the past to elucidate these systems. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that systems...... components with biological systems and their connection to health and disease. The database will be enriched with predicted interactions between food components and protein targets, based on their structural and pharmacophore similarity with known small molecule ligands. Further to this, the associations...

  8. [Biologics in SLE]. (United States)

    Karonitsch, Thomas; Aringer, Martin


    Biologics have become indispensable in the last decade in the treatment of the more common rheumatic diseases. For treating systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), B-cell depletion, albeit off-label, has been a well-accepted strategy in severe and refractory disease. Unexpectedly, however, the results of the first randomized controlled rituximab trials in SLE were negative. New trials with improved study protocols are ongoing, which should resolve this issue. In 2012, with the approval of belimumab, SLE finally entered the era of approved biological therapies. The anti-Blys/BAFF antibody belimumab showed prevention of SLE flares, glucocorticoid sparing, and significant improvement in the quality of life of SLE patients, in part by drastically reducing immune complex mediated fatigue. Positive reports on further targeting approaches give hope that additional biological agents will be available for SLE therapy soon.

  9. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja


    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  10. Biological Soft Robotics. (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W


    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  11. Biological therapy and dentistry (United States)

    Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal


    In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436

  12. The biology of personality. (United States)

    Mulder, R


    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  13. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.


    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  14. Social Networks among Residents in Recovery Homes. (United States)

    Jason, Leonard; Stevens, Ed; Ferrari, Joseph R; Thompson, Erin; Legler, Ray


    Although evidence exists that substance abuse abstinence is enhanced when individuals in recovery are embedded in social networks that are cohesive, few studies examined the network structures underlying recovery home support systems. In two studies, we investigated the mechanisms through which social environments affect health outcomes among two samples of adult residents of recovery homes. Findings from Study 1 (n = 150) indicated that network size and the presence of relationships with other Oxford House (OH) residents both predicted future abstinence. Study 2 (n = 490) included individuals who lived in an OH residence for up to 6 months, and their personal relationship with other house residents predicted future abstinence. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V


    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  16. Isolation and recovery of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The deleterious environmental impacts caused by plastic wastes have attracted worldwide concern. The biobased and biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA appears to be one of the potential candidates to replace some conventional plastics. However, high production cost of PHAs has limited their market penetration. The major cost absorbing factors are the upstream fermentation processes and the downstream PHA recovery technologies. The latter significantly affects the overall process economics. Various recovery technologies have been proposed and studied in small scales in the laboratory as well as in industrial scales. These include solvent extraction, chemical digestion, enzymatic treatment and mechanical disruption, supercritical fluid disruption, flotation techniques, use of gamma irradiation and aqueous two-phase system. This paper reviews all the recovery methods known to date and compares their efficiency and the quality of the resulting PHA. Some of the large-scale production of PHA and the strategies employed to reduce the production cost are also discussed.

  17. Rational use of energy via heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groscurth, H.M. (Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER), Stuttgart Univ. (Germany))


    The linear, stochastic optimization model ECCO has been developed as a computerized planning tool for case studies on integrated energy management involving heat recovery by heat exchanger networks, heat pumps and cogeneration. The procedure of stochastic optimization is described in detail. For a model city, which consists of three districts with together nearly 20,000 inhabitants and 4 industrial companies, we obtain the following results: Via heat recovery and cogeneration, the primary energy input into the energy system of the model city may be reduced by 25% compared to a status quo scenario. At the same time, the CO[sub 2]-emissions are reduced by 31% with some fuel switching from coal to natural gas being involved. Introducing waste heat recovery and cogeneration into the model city at the current low energy price level would increase the cost of the energy system by at least 41% with respect to the status quo. (orig./BWI)

  18. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry


    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  19. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie


    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...... extent expectations were associated with empirical prognostic factors.Summary of Background Data. Patients' recovery expectations have been associated with prognosis, but it is largely unknown why patients expect what they do, and how expectations relate to other prognostic factors.Methods. 1169...... participants completed questionnaires at their first consultation due to LBP and 78% were followed for 3 months. At baseline, recovery expectations were measured on a 0-10 scale. Outcome measures were LBP intensity and Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Associations were tested in regression models...

  20. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    In this project, a generic model has been set up to include the two main mechanisms in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process; reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) due to surfactant production, and microscopic fluid diversion as a part of the overall fluid diversion mechanism due......, bacterial growth, substrate consumption, and surfactant production in one dimension. The system comprises oil, water, bacteria, substrate, and surfactant. There are two flowing phases: Water and oil. We introduce the partition of surfactant between these two phases determined by a partitioning constant......, the curve levels off. Partitioning of surfactant between the oil and water phase is a novel effect in the context of microbial enhanced oil recovery. The partitioning coefficient determines the time lag before the surfactant effect can be seen. The surfactant partitioning does not change final recovery...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia PREDA


    Full Text Available Respiratory reeducation is a way to recover the thoracic contusion. Correcting dyspnea induced by pain, decreases the required postcontuzional recovery time and, therefore, the required social reintegration time. This is achieved an increasing of the pacient life quality, and significant savings of human and material resources: reducing medical and somato-functional recovery costs, reducing the sick leave payment and the work days off to. The „TES” device has been designed in order to improve respiratory reeducation and to recover the thoracic contusion. A study showed that the postcontuzional recovery was significantly increased by using the physical exercises of respiratory reeducation. The „TES” device demonstrated his role in this.

  2. Narrowband interference parameterization for sparse Bayesian recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum


    This paper addresses the problem of narrowband interference (NBI) in SC-FDMA systems by using tools from compressed sensing and stochastic geometry. The proposed NBI cancellation scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown signal and adopts a Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. This is done by keeping a few randomly chosen sub-carriers data free to sense the NBI signal at the receiver. As Bayesian recovery requires knowledge of some NBI parameters (i.e., mean, variance and sparsity rate), we use tools from stochastic geometry to obtain analytical expressions for the required parameters. Our simulation results validate the analysis and depict suitability of the proposed recovery method for NBI mitigation. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Regulation of Replication Recovery and Genome Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Camilla Skettrup

    facilitate replication recovery after MMS-induced replication stress. Our data reveal that control of Mrc1 turnover through the interplay between posttranslational modifications and INQ localization adds another layer of regulation to the replication checkpoint. We also add replication recovery to the list...... is mediated by Mrc1, which ensures Mec1 presence at the stalled replication fork thus facilitating Rad53 phosphorylation. When replication can be resumed safely, the replication checkpoint is deactivated and replication forks restart. One mechanism for checkpoint deactivation is the ubiquitin......-targeted proteasomal degradation of Mrc1. In this study, we describe a novel nuclear structure, the intranuclear quality control compartment (INQ), which regulates protein turnover and is important for recovery after replication stress. We find that upon methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced replication stress, INQ...

  4. [Cybernetics and biology]. (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F


    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  5. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)


    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  6. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.


    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  7. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.


    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  8. Image Recovery Algorithm Based on Learned Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghui Zhu


    Full Text Available We proposed a recovery scheme for image deblurring. The scheme is under the framework of sparse representation and it has three main contributions. Firstly, considering the sparse property of natural image, the nonlocal overcompleted dictionaries are learned for image patches in our scheme. And, then, we coded the patches in each nonlocal clustering with the corresponding learned dictionary to recover the whole latent image. In addition, for some practical applications, we also proposed a method to evaluate the blur kernel to make the algorithm usable in blind image recovery. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme is competitive with some current state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes. (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiguo; Pratt, Steven; Batstone, Damien J


    Waste streams offer a compelling opportunity to recover phosphorus (P). 15-20% of world demand for phosphate rock could theoretically be satisfied by recovering phosphorus from domestic waste streams alone. For very dilute streams (application is effective, but the product is bulky and carries contaminant risks that need to be managed. Phosphorus release can be achieved using either thermochemical or biochemical methods, while recovery is generally by precipitation as struvite. We conclude that while EBPR technology is mature, the subsequent phosphorus release and recovery technologies need additional development.

  10. State-Recovery Analysis of Spritz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankele, Ralph; Kölbl, Stefan; Rechberger, Christian


    RC4 suffered from a range of plaintext-recovery attacks using statistical biases, which use substantial, albeit close-to-practical, amounts of known keystream in applications such as TLS or WEP/WPA. Spritz was recently proposed at the rump session of CRYPTO 2014 as a slower redesign of RC4...... the number of guessed values in our state recovery algorithm. Our third algorithm uses a probabilistic approach by considering the permutation table as probability distribution. All in all, rather than showing a weakness, our analysis supports the conjecture that compared to RC4, Spritz may also provide...

  11. Sparse Signal Recovery in Hilbert Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Graeme


    This paper reports an effort to consolidate numerous coherence-based sparse signal recovery results available in the literature. We present a single theory that applies to general Hilbert spaces with the sparsity of a signal defined as the number of (possibly infinite-dimensional) subspaces participating in the signal's representation. Our general results recover uncertainty relations and coherence-based recovery thresholds for sparse signals, block-sparse signals, multi-band signals, signals in shift-invariant spaces, and signals in finite unions of (possibly infinite-dimensional) subspaces. Moreover, we improve upon and generalize several of the existing results and, in many cases, we find shortened and simplified proofs.

  12. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  13. Applications guide for waste heat recovery (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.


    The state-of-the-art of commercially available organic Rankine cycle (ORC) hardware from a literature search and industry survey is assessed. Engineering criteria for applying ORC technology are established, and a set of nomograms to enable the rapid sizing of the equipment is presented. A comparison of an ORC system with conventional heat recovery techniques can be made with a nomogram developed for a recuperative heat exchanger. A graphical technique for evaluating the economic aspects of an ORC system and conventional heat recovery method is discussed: also included is a description of anticipated future trends in organic Rankine cycle R&D.

  14. Comparison of methods for miRNA extraction from plasma and quantitative recovery of RNA from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A McAlexander


    Full Text Available Interest in extracellular RNA has intensified as evidence accumulates that these molecules may be useful as indicators of a wide variety of biological conditions. To establish specific extracellular RNA molecules as clinically relevant biomarkers, reproducible recovery from biological samples and reliable measurements of the isolated RNA are paramount. Towards these ends, careful and rigorous comparisons of technical procedures are needed at all steps from sample handling to RNA isolation to RNA measurement protocols. In the investigations described in this methods paper, RT-qPCR was used to examine the apparent recovery of specific endogenous miRNAs and a spiked-in synthetic RNA from blood plasma samples. RNA was isolated using several widely used RNA isolation kits, with or without the addition of glycogen as a carrier. Kits examined included total RNA isolation systems that have been commercially available for several years and commonly adapted for extraction of biofluid RNA, as well as more recently introduced biofluids-specific RNA methods. Our conclusions include the following: some RNA isolation methods appear to be superior to others for the recovery of RNA from biological fluids; addition of a carrier molecule seems to be beneficial for some but not all isolation methods; and partially or fully quantitative recovery of RNA is observed from increasing volumes of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.


    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  16. Investigation of Chemical Reactivity, Mass Recovery and Biological Activity During Thermal Treatment of DNAPL Source Zones (United States)


    shallow, relatively homogeneous, unconfined aquifer ...................................................................................2 2-1...Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones (Dr. Rick Johnson, PI) and ER-1423 Large-Scale Physical Models of Thermal Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones in Aquifers ...Standards and Technology NOM natural organic matter OD outside diameter OW a mixed, methanogenic , PCE-to-ethene-dechlorinating PAH

  17. Recovery of Metals and Stabilization of Arsenic from (Bio-)Leaching Operations by Engineered Biological Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Contreras, P.A.; weghuis, M.O.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    This paper focuses on the application of biotechnological stabilization of arsenic from (bio-) leaching operations. One of the latest applications of the Thioteq technology is arsenic immobilization. The Thioteq-scorodite biorecovery reactor is an aerobic system to immobilise arsenic in bio-scorodit

  18. Biologically formed calcium carbonate, a durable plugging agent for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, M. [University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Voordouw, G. [University of Calgary, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The use of bacterially precipitated inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and silica have been suggested as an effective method for selective plugging of reservoirs as a means to improve microscopic and volumetric sweep efficiencies within a given geological formation. In this paper controlled enzymatic and bacterial formation of calcium carbonate were studied using a purified urease enzyme and a bacterium isolated from a Canadian oil field. Results showed that the quantity of produced calcium carbonate in the presence of bacteria was dependent on urea concentration. The highest amount achieved was 15 g/L urea. Enzymatically, the maximum concentration of calcium carbonate was 2.6 times higher than that achieved in the presence of bacteria (57.6 g/L vs 21.5 g/L). The production of calcium carbonate appeared to be less sensitive to temperature in the presence of bacteria, whereas production rates were enhanced with the urease enzyme as the temperature was increased from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C. Plugging studies in unconsolidated porous media and in a core-flooding system with Beria sandstone indicated that in situ formation of calcium carbonate could effectively decrease the permeability of the porous media. Nevertheless, it should be noted that plugging by biomass is not permanent, and permeabilities will increase as degradation of bacterial cells progresses. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Effect of prolonged freezing of semen on exosome recovery and biologic activity. (United States)

    Welch, Jennifer L; Madison, Marisa N; Margolick, Joseph B; Galvin, Shannon; Gupta, Phalguni; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Dash, Chandravanu; Okeoma, Chioma M


    Exosomes are important vehicles of intercellular communication that shape host responses to physiologic, tumorigenic, and pathogenic conditions. The composition and function of exosomes are dynamic and depends on the state and condition of the cellular source. In prior work, we found that semen exosomes (SE) from healthy donors who do not use illicit drugs potently inhibit HIV-1. Following semen donation, specimens are either used immediately or frozen for use at a later time. It has been shown that short-term freezing of semen has no effect on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. However, the effect of illicit drugs and prolonged freezing on SE bioactivity is unknown. Here, we show preservation of SE physical properties, (morphology, concentration, intensity/size) irrespective of illicit drug use or duration of semen freezing. Interestingly, illicit drugs and prolonged freezing decreased the levels of SE-bound CD63/CD9 and acetylcholinesterase activity respectively. Furthermore, we show differential effects of illicit drug use and prolonged freezing on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. Our results highlight the importance of the source of SE and condition of semen storage on SE content and function. In-depth evaluation of donor drug-use and duration of semen storage on SE cargo and bioactivity will advance our understanding of SE composition and function.

  20. Effect of prolonged freezing of semen on exosome recovery and biologic activity (United States)

    Welch, Jennifer L.; Madison, Marisa N.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Galvin, Shannon; Gupta, Phalguni; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Dash, Chandravanu; Okeoma, Chioma M.


    Exosomes are important vehicles of intercellular communication that shape host responses to physiologic, tumorigenic, and pathogenic conditions. The composition and function of exosomes are dynamic and depends on the state and condition of the cellular source. In prior work, we found that semen exosomes (SE) from healthy donors who do not use illicit drugs potently inhibit HIV-1. Following semen donation, specimens are either used immediately or frozen for use at a later time. It has been shown that short-term freezing of semen has no effect on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. However, the effect of illicit drugs and prolonged freezing on SE bioactivity is unknown. Here, we show preservation of SE physical properties, (morphology, concentration, intensity/size) irrespective of illicit drug use or duration of semen freezing. Interestingly, illicit drugs and prolonged freezing decreased the levels of SE-bound CD63/CD9 and acetylcholinesterase activity respectively. Furthermore, we show differential effects of illicit drug use and prolonged freezing on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. Our results highlight the importance of the source of SE and condition of semen storage on SE content and function. In-depth evaluation of donor drug-use and duration of semen storage on SE cargo and bioactivity will advance our understanding of SE composition and function. PMID:28338013

  1. Biological recovery of metals, sulfur and water in the mining and metallurgical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Copini, C.F.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Schultz, C.E.


    Metals of particular interest in acid mine drainage and industrial wastewaters include copper, zinc, cadmium, arsenic, manganese, aluminum, lead, nickel, silver, mercury, chromium, uranium and iron, in a concentration that can range from 106 to 102 g/l. The composition of such wastewater reflects th

  2. Plant Systems Biology (editorial) (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  3. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob


    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  4. Doublethink in Biological Education (United States)

    Cox, Donald D.


    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  5. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;


    As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question, ...

  6. Openers for Biology Classes. (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  7. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj


    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  8. Diversity in Biological Molecules (United States)

    Newbury, H. John


    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  9. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz


    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  10. Bayes in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R


    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  11. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia


    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  12. Biology Curriculum Support Document. (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  13. Biological Isolation Garment (United States)


    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  14. Commercializing Biological Control (United States)

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.


    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  15. Biological trade and markets. (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald


    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  16. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism. (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan


    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  17. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin


    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission.

  18. Recovery efter depression. Er det muligt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard Jepsen, Stine; Aagaard, Hanne


    is transcribed, analyzed and interpreted in the hermeneutic tradition. Findings: Four main themes were identified: 1) Experience of living through depression, 2) Experience of help and addiction, 3) Experience of redefinition of one’s own (illness) identity and 4) Experience and definition of recovery...

  19. Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric


    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.

  20. Collapse and recovery of marine fishes. (United States)

    Hutchings, J A


    Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of marine fishes has focused attention on the ability of affected populations to recover to former abundance levels and on the degree to which their persistence is threatened by extinction. Although potential for recovery has been assessed indirectly, actual changes in population size following long-term declines have not been examined empirically. Here I show that there is very little evidence for rapid recovery from prolonged declines, in contrast to the perception that marine fishes are highly resilient to large population reductions. With the possible exception of herring and related species that mature early in life and are fished with highly selective equipment, my analysis of 90 stocks reveals that many gadids (for example, cod, haddock) and other non-clupeids (for example, flatfishes) have experienced little, if any, recovery as much as 15 years after 45-99% reductions in reproductive biomass. Although the effects of overfishing on single species may generally be reversible, the actual time required for recovery appears to be considerable. To exempt marine fishes from existing criteria used to assign extinction risk would be inconsistent with precautionary approaches to fisheries management and the conservation of marine biodiversity.

  1. Nutrition to Promote Recovery from Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clyde Williams


    @@ KEY POINTS ·Recovery from strenuous daily training or competition is improved when athletes consume a high-carbohydrate diet. The most important effect of such a diet is to maximize the stores of glycogen in the muscles. Roughly 10 g carbohydrate per kg body weight should be sufficient to replenish glycogen stores after a tough training session.

  2. Predicting scale formation during electrodialytic nutrient recovery. (United States)

    Thompson Brewster, Emma; Ward, Andrew J; Mehta, Chirag M; Radjenovic, Jelena; Batstone, Damien J


    Electro-concentration of nutrients from waste streams is a promising technology to enable resource recovery, but has several operational concerns. One key concern is the formation of inorganic scale on the concentrate side of cation exchange membranes when recovering nutrients from wastewaters containing calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and carbonate, commonly present in anaerobic digester rejection water. Electrodialytic nutrient recovery was trialed on anaerobic digester rejection water in a laboratory scale electro-concentration unit without treatment (A), following struvite recovery (B), and following struvite recovery as well as concentrate controlled at pH 5 for scaling control (C). Treatment A resulted in large amount of scale, while treatment B significantly reduced the amount of scale formation with reduction in magnesium phosphates, and treatment C reduced the amount of scale further by limiting the formation of calcium carbonates. Treatment C resulted in an 87 ± 7% by weight reduction in scale compared to treatment A. A mechanistic model for the inorganic processes was validated using a previously published general precipitation model based on saturation index. The model attributed the reduction in struvite scale to the removal of phosphate during the struvite pre-treatment, and the reduction in calcium carbonate scale to pH control resulting in the stripping of carbonate as carbon dioxide gas. This indicates that multiple strategies may be required to control precipitation, and that mechanistic models can assist in developing a combined approach.

  3. Disaster Resiliency and Recovery: Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's leader in energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, practices, and strategies. For the last 15 years, NREL has provided expertise, tools, and innovations to private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities during the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages after disaster strikes.

  4. Failure and recovery in dynamical networks (United States)

    Böttcher, L.; Luković, M.; Nagler, J.; Havlin, S.; Herrmann, H. J.


    Failure, damage spread and recovery crucially underlie many spatially embedded networked systems ranging from transportation structures to the human body. Here we study the interplay between spontaneous damage, induced failure and recovery in both embedded and non-embedded networks. In our model the network’s components follow three realistic processes that capture these features: (i) spontaneous failure of a component independent of the neighborhood (internal failure), (ii) failure induced by failed neighboring nodes (external failure) and (iii) spontaneous recovery of a component. We identify a metastable domain in the global network phase diagram spanned by the model’s control parameters where dramatic hysteresis effects and random switching between two coexisting states are observed. This dynamics depends on the characteristic link length of the embedded system. For the Euclidean lattice in particular, hysteresis and switching only occur in an extremely narrow region of the parameter space compared to random networks. We develop a unifying theory which links the dynamics of our model to contact processes. Our unifying framework may help to better understand controllability in spatially embedded and random networks where spontaneous recovery of components can mitigate spontaneous failure and damage spread in dynamical networks. PMID:28155876

  5. Recovery and utilization of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Beirutty, M.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Coll. of Engineering)


    A review of waste heat recovery and utilization is presented. The potential for re-using the otherwise waste heat in different branches of industry is discussed. Traditional and new ways to recover the discharged heat from industrial equipment are illustrated. It is concluded that there exist numerous opportunities for recuperating and using waste heat. (author)

  6. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.


    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included) In English, one or 2 pages. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery Currently in the tropics, the area of second

  7. Business case Roteb: recovery strategies for monitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikke, H.R.; Harten, van A.; Schuur, P.C.


    Due to the introduction of extended producer responsibility, European Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are forced to set up a reverse logistic system for their discarded products. As part of this set-up, OEMs or their service providers have to determine strategies for the recovery of these pr

  8. Removal and Recovery of Phosphonate Antiscalants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boels, L.


    In reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes, the use of phosphonates prevents scaling, thus allowing for a higher product water recovery, which increases the efficiency of the process. However, a major concern associated with their use in RO desalination is the high cost and environmental impacts

  9. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Based on available data in the literature the recovery of aluminium, copper, gold, iron, nickel, palladium and silver from high-grade WEEE was modeled by LCA. The pre-treatment of WEEE included manual sorting, shredding, magnetic sorting, Eddy-current sorting, air classification and optical sorting...


    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  11. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation. (United States)

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J


    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ.

  12. Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others


    Used psychotherapy dosage model in which effect was probability of recovery to compare treatment response rates for psychological symptoms. Administered symptom checklists to 854 psychotherapy outpatients at intake and during treatment. Chronic distress symptoms demonstrated fastest average response rate, whereas characterological symptoms…

  13. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.


    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  14. Death Dilemma and Organism Recovery in Ecotoxicology. (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; O'Connor, Isabel; Hintermeister, Anita; Escher, Beate I


    Why do some individuals survive after exposure to chemicals while others die? Either, the tolerance threshold is distributed among the individuals in a population, and its exceedance leads to certain death, or all individuals share the same threshold above which death occurs stochastically. The previously published General Unified Threshold model of Survival (GUTS) established a mathematical relationship between the two assumptions. According to this model stochastic death would result in systematically faster compensation and damage repair mechanisms than individual tolerance. Thus, we face a circular conclusion dilemma because inference about the death mechanism is inherently linked to the speed of damage recovery. We provide empirical evidence that the stochastic death model consistently infers much faster toxicodynamic recovery than the individual tolerance model. Survival data can be explained by either, slower damage recovery and a wider individual tolerance distribution, or faster damage recovery paired with a narrow tolerance distribution. The toxicodynamic model parameters exhibited meaningful patterns in chemical space, which is why we suggest toxicodynamic model parameters as novel phenotypic anchors for in vitro to in vivo toxicity extrapolation. GUTS appears to be a promising refinement of traditional survival curve analysis and dose response models.

  15. Sorption Recovery of Gold Thiosulphate Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; 等


    The gold sorption from thiosulphate solutions on carbon sorbents and on anion exchangers was studied. It was shown that the anion exchangers AV-17-10P and AP-100 are the most effective and selective at pH=5-8. These anion exchangers can be recommended for the gold recovery from the industrial solutions.

  16. Music and Psychophysiological Recovery from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radstaak, M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Brosschot, J.F.; Kompier, M.A.J.


    Objective: This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Method: Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to ind

  17. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery. (United States)


    ... applications and monitoring costs for special use authorizations. Applicants and holders shall submit sufficient information for the authorized officer to estimate the number of hours required to process their applications or monitor their authorizations. Cost recovery fees are separate from any fees charged for the...

  18. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.


    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  19. A Parallel Voting Scheme for Aspect Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珂; 石川真澄


    Recently,a qualitative approach was proposed for 3-D shape recovery based on a hybrid object representation[1].In this approach,aspect recovery is the most important stage which binds regions in the image into meaningful aspects to support 3-D primitive recovery.There is no known polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem.the previous approach dealt with this problem by using a heuristic method based on the conditional probability.Unlike the previous method,this paper presents a novel parallel voting scheme to conquer the problem for efficiency.For this purpose,the previous global aspect representation is replaced with a distributed representation of aspects.Based on this representation,a three-layer parallel voting network for aspect recovery is proposed.For evaluating likelihood,a continuous Hopfield net is employed so that all aspect coverings in decreasing order of likelihood can be enumerated.The paper describes this method in detail and demonstrates its usefulness with simulation.

  20. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas


    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  1. Recovery i fællesskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Diana Astrup


    ; analysis based on fundamental concepts taken from recovery-orientation, and analysis based on fundamental concepts taken from critical psychology. This approach serves to provide an idealized level, as well as a prac-tice level of understanding for the case studies, whereby it becomes possible to identify...

  2. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.


    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  3. Let's Spur Recovery by Investing in Information (United States)

    Lowry, Charles B.


    In the 1990s, the Internet and digital technologies brought astonishing gains in worker productivity and national prosperity. Today, people can leverage that investment and buoy economic recovery by hiring people to move the collections of libraries and cultural-memory organizations--the raw material of the information age--to the Web. Investing…

  4. Biosurfactants and their role in oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma (United States)


    This paper presents the role of biosurfactants in oil recovery. Types of biosurfactants include, among others, lipopeptides, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids. The process of oil recovery and the involvement of microbes are explained. The objective is to know if lipopeptide biosurfactants lower interfacial tension. Fatty acid composition is important for lipopeptide biosurfactant activity and microbial surfactants are hydrophilic and Interfacial Tension (IFT) values are high. Examples of biosurfactants with lower IFT values with mixtures are also given. An experiment was conducted to determine whether lipopeptides recovery entrapped oil or not. The procedure and experimental setup are shown. It is seen that with higher concentration of biosurfactants, the percentage of residual oil recovery is higher. Another experiment was conducted to see if biosurfactants greater than 40 mg/l can be produced in oil reservoirs. The experimental design and the analysis with the results are given. It was seen that more oil was produced. Conclusions from the study were, among other findings, that, in situ biosurfactant production and inoculation are possible.

  5. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology. (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart; Sonnenberg, Avery; Schutt, Carolyn; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Yeh, Yasan; Ortac, Inanc; Manouchehri, Sareh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik; Heller, Michael J


    The effect of complex biological fluids on the surface and structure of nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding field of study. One of the challenges holding back this research is the difficulty of recovering therapeutic nanoparticles from biological samples due to their small size, low density, and stealth surface coatings. Here, the first demonstration of the recovery and analysis of drug delivery nanoparticles from undiluted human plasma samples through the use of a new electrokinetic platform technology is presented. The particles are recovered from plasma through a dielectrophoresis separation force that is created by innate differences in the dielectric properties between the unaltered nanoparticles and the surrounding plasma. It is shown that this can be applied to a wide range of drug delivery nanoparticles of different morphologies and materials, including low-density nanoliposomes. These recovered particles can then be analyzed using different methods including scanning electron microscopy to monitor surface and structural changes that result from plasma exposure. This new recovery technique can be broadly applied to the recovery of nanoparticles from high conductance fluids in a wide range of applications.

  6. Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey McNeely


    Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

  7. Compressed Sensing Electron Tomography for Determining Biological Structure (United States)

    Guay, Matthew D.; Czaja, Wojciech; Aronova, Maria A.; Leapman, Richard D.


    There has been growing interest in applying compressed sensing (CS) theory and practice to reconstruct 3D volumes at the nanoscale from electron tomography datasets of inorganic materials, based on known sparsity in the structure of interest. Here we explore the application of CS for visualizing the 3D structure of biological specimens from tomographic tilt series acquired in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). CS-ET reconstructions match or outperform commonly used alternative methods in full and undersampled tomogram recovery, but with less significant performance gains than observed for the imaging of inorganic materials. We propose that this disparity stems from the increased structural complexity of biological systems, as supported by theoretical CS sampling considerations and numerical results in simulated phantom datasets. A detailed analysis of the efficacy of CS-ET for undersampled recovery is therefore complicated by the structure of the object being imaged. The numerical nonlinear decoding process of CS shares strong connections with popular regularized least-squares methods, and the use of such numerical recovery techniques for mitigating artifacts and denoising in reconstructions of fully sampled datasets remains advantageous. This article provides a link to the software that has been developed for CS-ET reconstruction of electron tomographic data sets.

  8. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration. (United States)

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas


    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration.

  9. Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system. (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D


    An osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) hybrid system integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction was evaluated for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from raw sewage. In this hybrid system, the forward osmosis membrane effectively retained inorganic salts and phosphate in the bioreactor, while the MF membrane periodically bled them out for phosphorus recovery with pH adjustment. The RO process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Results show that phosphorus recuperation from the MF permeate was most effective when the solution pH was adjusted to 10, whereby the recovered precipitate contained 15-20% (wt/wt) of phosphorus. Periodic MF extraction also limited salinity build-up in the bioreactor, resulting in a stable biological performance and an increase in water flux during OMBR operation. Despite the build-up of organic matter and ammonia in the draw solution, OMBR-RO allowed for the recovery of high quality reused water.

  10. Metahabilitation: Transforming Life Crises: A Story of Enhanced Recovery Involving Addiction and Dependency. (United States)


    Individuals experience crisis when their estimation of resources needed to successfully manage traumatic situations such as addiction and dependency is greater than their perception of resources available. Some recovery models are limited in their perspective on enhanced outcomes, failing to put the individual in a position of strength and on the path to a positive, more meaningful future. Rehabilitation can be too general, failing to incorporate personal experiences of trauma into the therapeutic plan. Recovery models must address these insufficiencies and promote an individual's biological, psychological, and spiritual abilities to transform and experience higher levels of functioning-actually brought about by traumas and personal life crises such as addictions and dependencies. These conditions become vehicles, providing opportunities to creatively restructure the self and find significant existential meaning. A heuristic study revealed insights into advanced recovery. The results identified limitations of current rehabilitative models and informed the development of the unique recovery concept and process: metahabilitation. A case study provides an overview and shows the model as it applies to addiction and dependency.

  11. Negotiating the neurochemical self: anti-depressant consumption in women's recovery from depression. (United States)

    Fullagar, Simone


    Anti-depressant treatment can be viewed as an exercise of biopower that is articulated through policies and practices aimed at the reduction of depression, population healthcare costs and effects on labour force productivity. Drawing upon a feminist governmentality perspective, this article examines the discourses that shaped women's experiences of anti-depressant medication in an Australian qualitative study on recovery from depression. The majority of women had been prescribed anti-depressants to treat a chemical imbalance in the brain, manage symptoms and restore normal functioning. One-third of participants identified anti-depressants as helpful in their recovery, while two-thirds were either highly ambivalent about, or critical of, medication as a solution to depression. Thirty-one women who identified the ;positive' benefits of anti-depressants actively constituted themselves as biomedical consumers seeking to redress a chemical imbalance. The problem of depression, the emergence of molecular science and the push for pharmacological solutions are contributing to the discursive formation of new subject positions - such as the neurochemically deficient self. Three themes were identified in relation to medication use, namely restoring normality, signifying recovery success and control/uncertainty. Anti-depressant medication offered women a normalized pathway to successful recovery that stood in stark contrast to the biologically deficient and morally failing self. These women's stories importantly reveal the gender relations and paradoxes arising from biopolitical technologies that shape selfhood for women in advanced liberal societies.

  12. Recovery trends of Scrobicularia plana populations after restoration measures, affected by extreme climate events. (United States)

    Verdelhos, T; Cardoso, P G; Dolbeth, M; Pardal, M A


    The Mondego estuary (Portugal) went through different ecological scenarios over the last decades. An eutrophication process led to a decline in the ecosystem quality. The ensuing restoration plan resulted into a gradual ecological recovery, which was impaired by the occurrence of successive extreme climate events that affected dynamics and productivity of key species. In this study we assess the response of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana to the impacts of these events in a recovery scenario, by comparing populations in two different intertidal habitats: a seagrass bed and a sandflat area. As a general tendency, S. plana, which was negatively affected by eutrophication, responded positively to restoration. However, the occurrence of extreme climate events seemed to affect recruitment success, biomass and production, impairing the recovery process. In the seagrass bed, S. plana maintained a stable and structured population, while in the sandflat area recovery clearly reverted into a decline, mainly concerning biomass and production values. This sequence of multiple stressors might have reduced S. plana resilience to further impacts and therefore, understanding the behavior of biological populations following restoration initiatives requires acknowledgement that some changes may not be easily reversible.

  13. Recovery of imperiled species under the Endangered Species Act: The need for a new approach (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Goble, D.D.; Wiens, J.A.; Wilcove, D.S.; Bean, M.; Male, T.


    The recovery (delisting) of a threatened or endangered species is often accompanied by the expectation that conservation management of the species will no longer be necessary. However, the magnitude and pace of human impacts on the environment make it unlikely that substantial progress will be made in delisting many species unless the definition of "recovery" includes some form of active management. Preventing delisted species from again being at risk of extinction may require continuing, species-specific management actions. We characterize such species as "conservation-reliant", and suggest that viewing "recovery" as a continuum of states rather than as a simple "recovered/not recovered" dichotomy may enhance our ability to manage such species within the framework of the Endangered Species Act. With ongoing loss of habitat, disruption of natural disturbance regimes, and the increasing impacts of non-native invasive species, it is probable that the number of conservation-reliant species will increase. We propose the development of "recovery management agreements", with legally and biologically defensible contracts that would provide for continu-ing conservation management following delisting. The use of such formalized agreements will facilitate shared management responsibilities between federal wildlife agencies and other federal agencies, and with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as with private entities that have demonstrated the capability to meet the needs of conservation-reliant species. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  14. Chesapeake Bay recovery and factors affecting trends: Long-termmonitoring, indicators, and insights (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.


    Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.

  15. Nitrification and microalgae cultivation for two-stage biological nutrient valorization from source separated urine. (United States)

    Coppens, Joeri; Lindeboom, Ralph; Muys, Maarten; Coessens, Wout; Alloul, Abbas; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E


    Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1). The halotolerant inoculum shortened the start-up time with 54%. Nitrite oxidizers showed faster salt adaptation and Nitrobacter spp. became the dominant nitrite oxidizers. Nitrified urine as growth medium for Arthrospira platensis demonstrated superior growth compared to untreated urine and resulted in a high protein content of 62%. This two-stage strategy is therefore a promising approach for biological nutrient recovery.

  16. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  17. Quantum physics meets biology

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko


    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...

  18. [Cell biology and cosmetology]. (United States)

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T


    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  19. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau


    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  20. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;


    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing......As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question......, a limited budget, and challenging sample material. Furthermore, although recent advances in technology offer unprecedented opportunities for research in non-model organisms, they also demand unprecedented awareness from the researcher regarding the assumptions and limitations of each method. In this review...

  1. Quantum physics meets biology. (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko


    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  2. Biological scaling and physics. (United States)

    Rau, A R P


    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  3. Heritability and biological explanation. (United States)

    Turkheimer, E


    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  4. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych


    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  5. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    not support the routine recording of batch information. Expected changes in supply chain standards provide opportunities to systematically record detailed exposure information. Spontaneous reporting systems are the most vulnerable link in ensuring traceability, due to the manual nature of data transfer...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...

  6. Milli-Biology (United States)


    inefficient at low RPM because power is wasted as heat in the coils, requiring gearing at low RPM, and power is required to maintain static position...soldering to join metal parts, epoxy to join the heat -sensitive permanent magnets, and screws to reversibly fasten subassemblies that might require...aerospace, and heliostat pointing for solar power. These are now transitioning to commercial development. The milli-biology workflow for coded

  7. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology



    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  8. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral


    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  9. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis


    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario


    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to tr...

  10. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  11. Quantum Effects in Biology (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.


    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  12. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems


    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D.


    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  13. Biological heart valves. (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel


    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  14. Absolute biological needs. (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen


    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  15. Biologics for tendon repair. (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H


    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  16. Service Recovery Paradox In Indian Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunesh Garg


    Full Text Available The present study examines existence of service recovery paradox in Indian banking industry. The study is taken up in the tri-city of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. The respondents are catego- rized into failure and no-failure groups on the basis of their service experience. Failure group consti- tutes those respondents who have experienced service recovery, and has been further divided into five sub-groups ranging from service recovery++ (service recovery better than expected to service recovery- - (service recovery worse than expected. Service recovery paradox is examined by com- paring service recovery++ group with no-failure group. The study shows evidence for existence of service recovery paradox in relation to satisfaction. It has been concluded that for service recovery paradox to exist, recovery effort has to be exceptionally good and much better than expectation level of the customer. The study suggests that service managers should take service failure as an opportunity to appease customers by providing a much better than expected recovery experience. However, organizations should not plan to create service failure situations because if they falter on imparting the recovery, customer satisfaction may be influenced negatively.

  17. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdy Steve


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  18. Mental health recovery for psychiatric inpatient services: perceived importance of the elements of recovery. (United States)

    Siu, B W M; Ng, B F L; Li, V C K; Yeung, Y M; Lee, M K L; Leung, A Y H


    OBJECTIVES. To develop a questionnaire for measuring the perceived importance of the elements of mental health recovery in psychiatric inpatients in Hong Kong and to test the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. METHODS. Thematic content analysis of identified literature on mental health recovery was performed to identify the elements related to mental health recovery. A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceived importance of the identified elements. An expert panel was set up to evaluate the content validity and patient focus group's face validity of the questionnaire. Participants were recruited from medium-stay and rehabilitation wards of Castle Peak Hospital. RESULTS. A total of 101 psychiatric inpatients completed the questionnaire, the majority of whom suffered from schizophrenia (75%). Having meaning in life was rated by 91% of the participants as an important element of recovery, followed by hope (86%) and general health and wellness (85%). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.91. Explorative factor analysis yielded 7 factors and intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a fair-to-good test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS. The results supported the psychometric properties of the questionnaire for measurement of mental health recovery and serve as a basis for the future development of recovery-oriented services in the psychiatric inpatient settings in this locality.

  19. Drought and Recovery: Independently Regulated Processes Highlighting the Importance of Protein Turnover Dynamics and Translational Regulation in Medicago truncatula. (United States)

    Lyon, David; Castillejo, Maria Angeles; Mehmeti-Tershani, Vlora; Staudinger, Christiana; Kleemaier, Christoph; Wienkoop, Stefanie


    Climate change in conjunction with population growth necessitates a systems biology approach to characterize plant drought acclimation as well as a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress recovery. Plants are exposed to a continuously changing environment. Extremes such as several weeks of drought are followed by rain. This requires a molecular plasticity of the plant enabling drought acclimation and the necessity of deacclimation processes for recovery and continuous growth.During drought stress and subsequent recovery, the metabolome and proteome are regulated through a sequence of molecular processes including synthesis and degradation and molecular interaction networks are part of this regulatory process. In order to study this complex regulatory network, a comprehensive analysis is presented for the first time, investigating protein turnover and regulatory classes of proteins and metabolites during a stress recovery scenario in the model legume Medicago truncatula The data give novel insights into the molecular capacity and differential processes required for acclimation and deacclimation of severe drought stressed plants.Functional cluster and network analyses unraveled independent regulatory mechanisms for stress and recovery with different dynamic phases that during the course of recovery define the plants deacclimation from stress. The combination of relative abundance levels and turnover analysis revealed an early transition phase that seems key for recovery initiation through water resupply and is independent from renutrition. Thus, a first indication for a metabolite and protein-based load capacity was observed necessary for the recovery from drought, an important but thus far ignored possible feature toward tolerance. The data indicate that apart from the plants molecular stress response mechanisms, plasticity may be related to the nutritional status of the plant prior to stress initiation. A new perspective and possible new

  20. Recovery from TBT pollution in English Channel environments: A problem solved? (United States)

    Langston, W J; Pope, N D; Davey, M; Langston, K M; O' Hara, S C M; Gibbs, P E; Pascoe, P L


    Following recognition of effects in the 1980s, tributyltin (TBT) has been monitored at sites in the English Channel to evaluate the prognosis for biota - spanning the introduction of restrictions on TBT use on small boats and the recent phase-out on the global fleet. We describe how persistence and impact of TBT in clams Scrobicularia plana has changed during this period in Southampton Water and Poole Harbour. TBT contamination (and loss) in water, sediment and clams reflects the abundance and type of vessel activity: half-times in sediment (up to 8y in Poole, 33y in Southampton) are longest near commercial shipping. Recovery of clam populations - slowest in TBT-contaminated deposits - provides a useful biological measure of legislative efficacy in estuaries. On rocky shores, recovery from imposex in Nucella lapillus is evident at many sites but, near ports, is prolonged by shipping impacts, including sediment legacy, for example, in the Fal.

  1. Assessed and Emerging Biomarkers in Stroke and Training-Mediated Stroke Recovery: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Gandolfi


    Full Text Available Since the increasing update of the biomolecular scientific literature, biomarkers in stroke have reached an outstanding and remarkable revision in the very recent years. Besides the diagnostic and prognostic role of some inflammatory markers, many further molecules and biological factors have been added to the list, including tissue derived cytokines, growth factor-like molecules, hormones, and microRNAs. The literatures on brain derived growth factor and other neuroimmune mediators, bone-skeletal muscle biomarkers, cellular and immunity biomarkers, and the role of microRNAs in stroke recovery were reviewed. To date, biomarkers represent a possible challenge in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of stroke onset, pathogenesis, and recovery. Many molecules are still under investigation and may become promising and encouraging biomarkers. Experimental and clinical research should increase this list and promote new discoveries in this field, to improve stroke diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Identification of nutritional components in trypticase responsible for recovery of Escherichia coli injured by freezing. (United States)

    Moss, C W; Speck, M L


    Moss, C. Wayne (North Carolina State University, Raleigh), and M. L. Speck. Identification of nutritional components in Trypticase responsible for recovery of Escherichia coli injured by freezing. J. Bacteriol. 91:1098-1104. 1966.-Freezing and storage of Escherichia coli at -20 C resulted in nonlethal or "metabolic" injury to a proportion of the surviving population. The injury was manifested as an increased nutritional requirement after freezing. Injured cells could not grow on a minimal agar medium, but could develop on Trypticase Soy Agar. The percentage of injured survivors varied among strains, but was little affected by altering the freezing menstruum. Trypticase was found to be the component in Trypticase Soy Agar responsible for the recovery of injured cells, and contained five closely related peptides that possessed most of the biological activity. Isolation of the peptides was accomplished by Sephadex gel chromatography, paper chromatography, and high-voltage paper electrophoresis. Hydrolysis of the peptides destroyed the ability to restore injured cells.

  3. Dynamics and recovery of a sediment-exposed Chironomus riparius population: A modelling approach. (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Beltman, Wim H J; Koelmans, Albert A; Van den Brink, Paul J; Baveco, Johannes M


    Models can be used to assess long-term risks of sediment-bound contaminants at the population level. However, these models usually lack the coupling between chemical fate in the sediment, toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic processes in individuals and propagation of individual-level effects to the population. We developed a population model that includes all these processes, and used it to assess the importance of chemical uptake routes on a Chironomus riparius population after pulsed exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos. We show that particle ingestion is an important additional exposure pathway affecting C. riparius population dynamics and recovery. Models ignoring particle ingestion underestimate the impact and the required recovery times, which implies that they underestimate risks of sediment-bound chemicals. Additional scenario studies showed the importance of selecting the biologically relevant sediment layer and showed population effects in the long term.

  4. Phosphorus recovery by one or two-step technology with use of acids and bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Kristina; Hultman, Bengt


    The method of using sludge fractionation is considered to be a sustainable solution where the sludge is seen as the raw material from which products are recovered. This paper will present solutions of advanced technology system for a large wastewater treatment plant. Use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal and fractionation of the sludge in two stages is advantageous both with respect to low necessary chemical and energy demands and recovery efficiency. Phosphorous recovery may be based on one- or two-step technology. Experimental studies have shown that it is possible to recover phosphorus from sludge by the combination of supercritical water oxidation process and alkaline leaching. When the concentration of sodium hydroxide is around 1 M, approximate 50 % of total phosphorus is recovered in room temperature. Meanwhile, over 98 % of the soluble phosphorus is recovered from the liquid phase by adding calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). (author)

  5. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, C.C.


    A study, begun in 1971, continues to document the environmental factors which affect the recovery of damaged tundra landscapes. A measurement technique was developed on Amchitka Island to allow the rapid acquisition of data on species presence and frequency across areas disturbed at various times and in various ways. Samples across all examples of aspect, slope steepness and exposure are taken. Studies now include Adak Island and the Point Barrow area. We have concluded that there was no directional secondary succession on the Aleutian tundra, although there was vigorous recovery on organic soils. Our study led to recommendations which resulted in less intensive reclamation management at a considerable financial saving and without further biological perturbation. Because of the increasing activity on tundra landscapes, for energy extraction, transportation or production, military or other reasons, we have expanded our sampling to other tundra areas where landscape disruption is occurring or is predicted.

  6. Recovery of frog and lizard communities following primary habitat alteration in Mizoram, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Gopal S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community recovery following primary habitat alteration can provide tests for various hypotheses in ecology and conservation biology. Prominent among these are questions related to the manner and rate of community assembly after habitat perturbation. Here we use space-for-time substitution to analyse frog and lizard community assembly along two gradients of habitat recovery following slash and burn agriculture (jhum in Mizoram, Northeast India. One recovery gradient undergoes natural succession to mature tropical rainforest, while the other involves plantation of jhum fallows with teak Tectona grandis monoculture. Results Frog and lizard communities accumulated species steadily during natural succession, attaining characteristics similar to those from mature forest after 30 years of regeneration. Lizards showed higher turnover and lower augmentation of species relative to frogs. Niche based classification identified a number of guilds, some of which contained both frogs and lizards. Successional change in species richness was due to increase in the number of guilds as well as the number of species per guild. Phylogenetic structure increased with succession for some guilds. Communities along the teak plantation gradient on the other hand, did not show any sign of change with chronosere age. Factor analysis revealed sets of habitat variables that independently determined changes in community and guild composition during habitat recovery. Conclusions The timescale of frog and lizard community recovery was comparable with that reported by previous studies on different faunal groups in other tropical regions. Both communities converged on primary habitat attributes during natural vegetation succession, the recovery being driven by deterministic, nonlinear changes in habitat characteristics. On the other hand, very little faunal recovery was seen even in relatively old teak plantation. In general, tree monocultures are unlikely to

  7. Biological surface science (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt


    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  8. What are the costs and benefits of biodiversity recovery in a highly polluted estuary? (United States)

    Pascual, M; Borja, A; Franco, J; Burdon, D; Atkins, J P; Elliott, M


    Biodiversity recovery measures have often been ignored when dealing with the restoration of degraded aquatic systems. Furthermore, biological valuation methods have been applied only spatially in previous studies, and not jointly on a temporal and spatial scale. The intense monitoring efforts carried out in a highly polluted estuary, in northern Spain (Nervión estuary), allowed for the economic valuation of the costs and the biological valuation of the benefits associated with a 21 years sewage scheme application. The analysis show that the total amount of money invested into the sewage scheme has contributed to the estuary's improvement of both environmental and biological features, as well as to an increase in the uses and services provided by the estuary. However, the inner and outer parts of the estuary showed different responses. An understanding of the costs and trajectories of the environmental recovery of degraded aquatic systems is increasingly necessary to allow policy makers and regulators to formulate robust, cost-efficient and feasible management decisions.

  9. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs. (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K


    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  10. Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Draft Recovery Plan: First Revision (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft recovery plan for Indiana bats, a Federally endangered species. First revision. The purpose of this draft recovery plan is to...

  11. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan Second Revision 1993 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recovery plan is the second revision of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan and is based upon information obtained from previous planning efforts...

  12. Structure-independent disaster recovery: Concept, architecture and implementations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG WeiMin; FANG BinXing


    Disaster recovery (DR) techniques ensure the data safety and service continuity under different nat-ural and human-made disasters by constructing a high reliable storage system. Traditional disaster recovery methods are structure-dependent. It is hard to share the DR resources between different DR systems, which made it expensive. We present a structure-independent disaster recovery theory and its implementation methods in this paper. By backup the whole system but not just the data, the goal of device and application-independent disaster recovery has been achieved. We further present a parallel recovery model and an on demand data retrieval method based on the theory. Some implementation details of prototype recovery system are also discussed. With the methods independent from specific devices or applications, the cost of disaster recovery infrastructure can be essentially reduced by re-source sharing. Experiments show that the recovery time has also been greatly shortened with little service degradation.

  13. Unequal Recovery? Federal Resource Distribution after a Midwest Flood Disaster. (United States)

    Muñoz, Cristina E; Tate, Eric


    Following severe flooding in 2008, three Iowa communities acquired over 1000 damaged properties to support disaster recovery and mitigation. This research applies a distributive justice framework to analyze the distribution of disaster recovery funds for property acquisition. Two research questions drive the analysis: (1) how does recovery vary by acquisition funding source; and (2) what is the relationship between recovery and vulnerable populations? Through spatial econometric modeling, relative recovery is compared between two federal programs that funded the acquisitions, and across socially vulnerable populations. The results indicate both distributive and temporal inequalities in the allocation of federal recovery funds. In particular, Latino and elderly populations were associated with lower recovery rates. Recommendations for future research in flood recovery and acquisitions are provided.

  14. Recovery Outline: New Mexico Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this recovery outline is to provide an interim strategy to guide the conservation and recovery of the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (jumping mouse)...

  15. HCI challenges for community-based disaster recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Neef, M.; Meesters, K.; Pieneman, R.; Dongen, K. van


    In disaster recovery, responding professional organizations traditionally assess the needs of communities following a disaster. Recent disasters have shown that volunteer capacities within the community are not yet integrated in recovery activities. To improve the efficiency of responding profession

  16. 40 CFR 246.200 - High-grade paper recovery. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-grade paper recovery. 246.200 Section 246.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE... paper recovery....

  17. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.


    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  18. Is Our Biology to Blame? (United States)

    Schneider, Scott


    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  19. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian


    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  20. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict


    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...